Radon: A naturally radioactive element with atomic symbol Rn, atomic number 86, and atomic weight 222. It is a member of the noble gas family found in soil, and is released during the decay of radium.Radon Daughters: Short-lived radioactive decay products of radon that include 216-Po, 214-Pb, 214-Bi, and 214-Po. They have an effective half-life of about 30 minutes and are solids that can deposit on the bronchial airways during inhalation and exhalation. This results in exposure of the respiratory airways to alpha radiation and can lead to diseases of the respiratory system, including lung cancer. (From Casarett and Doull's Toxicology, 4th ed, p740)Air Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in air, which exhibit radioactivity.Air Pollution, RadioactiveMiningAir Pollution, Indoor: The contamination of indoor air.Uranium: Uranium. A radioactive element of the actinide series of metals. It has an atomic symbol U, atomic number 92, and atomic weight 238.03. U-235 is used as the fissionable fuel in nuclear weapons and as fuel in nuclear power reactors.Neoplasms, Radiation-Induced: Tumors, cancer or other neoplasms produced by exposure to ionizing or non-ionizing radiation.Radioactive Pollutants: Radioactive substances which act as pollutants. They include chemicals whose radiation is released via radioactive waste, nuclear accidents, fallout from nuclear explosions, and the like.Carcinogens, Environmental: Carcinogenic substances that are found in the environment.Radiation Monitoring: The observation, either continuously or at intervals, of the levels of radiation in a given area, generally for the purpose of assuring that they have not exceeded prescribed amounts or, in case of radiation already present in the area, assuring that the levels have returned to those meeting acceptable safety standards.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Environmental Remediation: Removal of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS or contaminants for the general protection of the environment. This is accomplished by various chemical, biological, and bulk movement methods, in conjunction with ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING.Soil Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in soil, which exhibit radioactivity.Background Radiation: Radiation from sources other than the source of interest. It is due to cosmic rays and natural radioactivity in the environment.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Water Pollutants, Radioactive: Pollutants, present in water or bodies of water, which exhibit radioactivity.Monte Carlo Method: In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Carcinoma, Bronchogenic: Malignant neoplasm arising from the epithelium of the BRONCHI. It represents a large group of epithelial lung malignancies which can be divided into two clinical groups: SMALL CELL LUNG CANCER and NON-SMALL-CELL LUNG CARCINOMA.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Physical Processes: The forces and principles of action of matter and energy.Injections, Jet: The injection of solutions into the skin by compressed air devices so that only the solution pierces the skin.Radioactivity: The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Mechanics: The branch of physics which deals with the motions of material bodies, including kinematics, dynamics, and statics. When the laws of mechanics are applied to living structures, as to the locomotor system, it is referred to as BIOMECHANICAL PHENOMENA. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Surgical Mesh: Any woven or knit material of open texture used in surgery for the repair, reconstruction, or substitution of tissue. The mesh is usually a synthetic fabric made of various polymers. It is occasionally made of metal.PubMed: A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.Periodicals as Topic: A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.Bibliography of Medicine: A list of works, documents, and other publications on medical subjects and topics of interest to the field of medicine.BooksPublishing: "The business or profession of the commercial production and issuance of literature" (Webster's 3d). It includes the publisher, publication processes, editing and editors. Production may be by conventional printing methods or by electronic publishing.MEDLINE: The premier bibliographic database of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. MEDLINE® (MEDLARS Online) is the primary subset of PUBMED and can be searched on NLM's Web site in PubMed or the NLM Gateway. MEDLINE references are indexed with MEDICAL SUBJECT HEADINGS (MeSH).Information Storage and Retrieval: Organized activities related to the storage, location, search, and retrieval of information.Health Fairs: Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.Diving: An activity in which the organism plunges into water. It includes scuba and bell diving. Diving as natural behavior of animals goes here, as well as diving in decompression experiments with humans or animals.Barotrauma: Injury following pressure changes; includes injury to the eustachian tube, ear drum, lung and stomach.Inert Gas Narcosis: Progressive mental disturbances and unconsciousness due to breathing mixtures of oxygen and inert gases (argon, helium, xenon, krypton, and atmospheric nitrogen) at high pressure.Noble Gases: Elements that constitute group 18 (formerly the zero group) of the periodic table. They are gases that generally do not react chemically.Decompression Sickness: A condition occurring as a result of exposure to a rapid fall in ambient pressure. Gases, nitrogen in particular, come out of solution and form bubbles in body fluid and blood. These gas bubbles accumulate in joint spaces and the peripheral circulation impairing tissue oxygenation causing disorientation, severe pain, and potentially death.Decompression: Decompression external to the body, most often the slow lessening of external pressure on the whole body (especially in caisson workers, deep sea divers, and persons who ascend to great heights) to prevent DECOMPRESSION SICKNESS. It includes also sudden accidental decompression, but not surgical (local) decompression or decompression applied through body openings.Health Physics: The science concerned with problems of radiation protection relevant to reducing or preventing radiation exposure, and the effects of ionizing radiation on humans and their environment.Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Physics: The study of those aspects of energy and matter in terms of elementary principles and laws. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Xanthine: A purine base found in most body tissues and fluids, certain plants, and some urinary calculi. It is an intermediate in the degradation of adenosine monophosphate to uric acid, being formed by oxidation of hypoxanthine. The methylated xanthine compounds caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline and their derivatives are used in medicine for their bronchodilator effects. (Dorland, 28th ed)Air: The mixture of gases present in the earth's atmosphere consisting of oxygen, nitrogen, carbon dioxide, and small amounts of other gases.Pentosyltransferases: Enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of a pentose group from one compound to another.Leishmania donovani: A parasitic hemoflagellate of the subgenus Leishmania leishmania that infects man and animals and causes visceral leishmaniasis (LEISHMANIASIS, VISCERAL). The sandfly genera Phlebotomus and Lutzomyia are the vectors.Bibliometrics: The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Newspapers: Publications printed and distributed daily, weekly, or at some other regular and usually short interval, containing news, articles of opinion (as editorials and letters), features, advertising, and announcements of current interest. (Webster's 3d ed)
Hurst, G. S., Wright, H. A., & Hopke, P. K. (20 April 1993). System for determining health risk due to radon progeny and uses ... System for determining health risk due to radon progeny and uses thereof, 1993. Instrument simulator system, 1994. Instrument ... Radon monitor and control system based upon alpha particle detection. U.S. Patent No. 5,026,986. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent ... Radon monitor and control system based upon alpha particle detection, 1991. ...
Martell EA (Mar 1983). "alpha-Radiation dose at bronchial bifurcations of smokers from indoor exposure to radon progeny". ... Current research shows that tobacco smokers who are exposed to residential radon are twice as likely to develop lung cancer as ... Lubin JH, Steindorf K (Jan 1995). "Cigarette use and the estimation of lung cancer attributable to radon in the United States ... lead-210 and polonium-210 and radon. The radioactive smoke from tobacco fertilized this way is deposited in lungs and releases ...
If radon progeny are present, they are assumed to be at equilibrium and generating a constant countrate that adds to the ... This "parent-progeny" or decay chain situation is especially relevant to so-called "radon-thoron" (RnTn) or natural airborne ... The particulate radioactive material might be natural, e.g., radon decay products ("progeny", e.g., 212Pb), or manmade, usually ... such as is used for Radon compensation, is required. Radioiodine (especially 131I) monitoring is often done using a particulate ...
"Effective doses in schools based on nanosize radon progeny aerosols", Atmospheric Environment, 2006, 40, 7494-7507 Michael ...
Greenfield, M.B.; A. Iwata; N. Ito; M. Ishigaki; K. Kubo (2006). Intense γ radiation from radon progeny accreted in/on rain ... Radon is related to indoor air quality as it blights many homes. (See "Radon in Houses" below.) The radon (222Rn) released into ... Note that exposure to smoke at the same time as radon and radon daughters will increase the harmful effect of the radon. In ... Radon is a decay product of radium which in turn is a decay product of uranium. It is possible to acquire maps of average radon ...
Extended periods of exposure to 222Rn and its progeny ultimately induce lung cancer.[8] Alternatively, radon may enter the body ... Radon-222 (222Rn, Rn-222, historically radium emanation or radon) is the most stable isotope of radon, with a half-life of ... Radon-222 is generated in the uranium series from the alpha decay of radium-226, which has a half-life of 1600 years. Radon-222 ... In 1957, the name radon, formerly the name of only radon-222, became the name of the element. Owing to its gaseous nature and ...
... radon chamber is in urgent need with the deepening study on Radon and its progeny. According to the requirement of calibrating ... By the reason of radon decay, the radon concentration in the chamber is continuously changing. The radon concentration must ... The structure of radon chamber and the design flow system is presented in detail. The main performance parameter of the radon ... The supply and control of radon in the chamber is a critical problem in the design of Radon chamber. The paper introduced the ...
Radon is a gas that decays from uranium (U-238). Its progeny can attach to aerosol and dust, and tends to get into the lungs [1 ... Radon and its progeny pose environmental risks as a carcinogen, especially to the lungs. Investigating factors affecting indoor ... Indoor radon dosimetry. In this study, indoor radon concentration was collected and analyzed for 3 months during Korean winter ... Accordingly, this means that radon levels in groundwater can be a predictor of the degree of radon content in the surrounding ...
... recommends that worker exposure to radon progeny in underground mines be controlled by compliance with this recommended ... A Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Radon Progeny in Underground Mines pdf icon[PDF - 9,420 KB] ... The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) recommends that worker exposure to radon progeny in ... A Recommended Standard for Occupational Exposure to Radon Progeny in Underground Mines. ...
Commission on Radiological Protection have re-evaluated how they estimate lung cancer risk for exposure to radon progeny and ... You can find the ARPANSA Advisory Note - New dose coefficients for radon progeny: impact on workers and the public on our Radon ... The inhalation of radon and its progeny is recognised as a cause of lung cancer. However tobacco smoking is the main cause of ... How will the new dose coefficients for radon progeny affect your doses?. 5 February 2018 ...
Radon and radon decay products (RDP) also referred to as "radon progeny" emit types of radiation that are hazardous to peoples ... Radon Progeny Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Mortality Study of Newfoundland Fluorspar Miners 1950-2001 (RSP-0193). Related links ... Radon Progeny Exposure and Lung Cancer: A Mortality Study of Newfoundland Fluorspar Miners 1950-2001 (RSP-0193) ... The International Radon Project, an initiative of the World Health Organization. * More questions about radon in uranium mines ...
1. V.I. Beir, Health effects of exposure to radon (National Academic Press. Washington 1999). [ Links ]. ... Because the deposited 222Rn progeny distribution in lung airways, these sources can contribute hardly to critical cells ... most important different target cell layers for the main BB and bb branch generations considering the radioactive 222Rn progeny ...
... a measure of the ratio of progeny to radon gas - of between 0.4 to 0.5. As a result, systems which extract radon progeny from ... Radon exposure to the general public can be reduced by preventing entry of radon gas into buildings using a passive radon-proof ... Estimating the health benefits of progeny extraction units as a means of reducing exposure to radon ... Estimating the health benefits of progeny extraction units as a means of reducing exposure to radon. In: Proceedings of the 3rd ...
In this method, an air sample is drawn through a filter for some time. The activity on the filter is then allowed to decay for at least 40 minutes, but less than 90 minutes. The activity on the filter is then counted in the TM372. The decay and counting times should be chosen so that the time between the end of sampling and the middle of counting is between 40 and 90 minutes. This method is sometimes used by inspectors in underground mines because it is possible to take a series of samples in a short time and then evaluate them on surface. When results are needed quickly, the Rolle method is more practical and is more commonly used. Notes: ...
Evaluation of Exposure to Radon Progeny during Closure of Inactive Uranium Mines. HHE Program investigators evaluated employee ... Investigators found that the potential for exposures to radon was low. In some instances, controls were needed to keep ... exposures to radon while constructing mine closures at abandoned uranium mines. ...
Cellular burdens and biological effects on tissue level caused by inhaled radon progenies. / Madas, B. G.; Balásházy, I.; ... The results are in agreement with the histological finding that the uneven deposition distribution of radon progenies may lead ... The results are in agreement with the histological finding that the uneven deposition distribution of radon progenies may lead ... The results are in agreement with the histological finding that the uneven deposition distribution of radon progenies may lead ...
The Radon Calibration Laboratory for devices determining the exposure to radon and radon progenies is an essential element for ... BfS service: quality assurance of radon measurement devices and devices measuring radon progenies. The BfS Radon Calibration ... Calibration of devices measuring radon-222 progeniesshow / hide. The calibration of measurement devices for radon-222 progenies ... Calibration of active radon-222 measurement devices and its short-lived progeniesshow / hide. The Radon Calibration Laboratory ...
ROOM MODEL WITH THREE MODAL DISTRIBUTIONS OF ATTACHED RADON PROGENY. Nikezic, D; Stevanovic, N ...
Radon progeny.. *What is the main source of indoor radon gas? *UV radiation from the sun. ... Where Is Radon Found? *Describe how you can determine whether you are exposed to increased levels of radon in your home. ... Where Is Radon Found? *Describe how you can determine whether you are exposed to increased levels of radon in your home. ... Who Is at Risk of Exposure to Radon? *Describe those at risk from exposure to radon as an environmental cause of lung cancer ...
Radon progeny. · Odor. · Microscopic allergens. Filters down to less than 0.30 micron particle size ...
It slowly breaks down to other products such as radium, which breaks down to radon. Some of the radon moves to the soil surface ... Uranium, radium, and thus radon, will continue to exist indefinitely at about the same levels as they do now. ... Radon is a naturally occurring colorless, odorless, tasteless radioactive gas that is formed from the normal radioactive decay ... Is there a medical test to determine whether I have been exposed to radon and radon progeny?. Radon progeny in urine and in ...
Hurst, G. S., Wright, H. A., & Hopke, P. K. (20 April 1993). System for determining health risk due to radon progeny and uses ... System for determining health risk due to radon progeny and uses thereof, 1993. Instrument simulator system, 1994. Instrument ... Radon monitor and control system based upon alpha particle detection. U.S. Patent No. 5,026,986. Washington, DC: U.S. Patent ... Radon monitor and control system based upon alpha particle detection, 1991. ...
Radon Toxicity: People are increasingly concerned about potential environmental health hazards and often ask their physicians ... These devices measure radon gas levels, rather than radon progeny; thus, the units reported are in picocuries of radon per ... Radon progeny can be inhaled either as free particles or attached to dust. Free progeny preferentially deposit in the bronchi, ... The smaller dust particles can deposit the radon progeny deep in the lungs. Being ionized, the progeny tend to attach to the ...
Martell EA (Mar 1983). "alpha-Radiation dose at bronchial bifurcations of smokers from indoor exposure to radon progeny". ... Current research shows that tobacco smokers who are exposed to residential radon are twice as likely to develop lung cancer as ... Lubin JH, Steindorf K (Jan 1995). "Cigarette use and the estimation of lung cancer attributable to radon in the United States ... lead-210 and polonium-210 and radon. The radioactive smoke from tobacco fertilized this way is deposited in lungs and releases ...
Age-Dependent Lung Dosimetry of Radon Progeny.. Author. Hofmann, W. ; Martonen, T. B. ; Menache, M. G. ; ... Radon ; Dosimetry ; Lung ; Models ; Risk ; Respiratory diseases ; Carcinogens ; Morphology ; Ionizing radiation ; Dose rate ; ...
In the present work, seasonal variation of indoor radon, thoron and their progeny concentrations has been studied in the ... Radon and thoron are invisible, odorless, heavy and radioactive gases which are ubiquitously present in dwellings and in the ... radon-thoron levels and inhalation dose due to radon and thoron and their progeny in dwellings indicate that the levels were ... Seasonal variation of radon, thoron and their progeny levels in dwellings of Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh ...
Purpose Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide ... GWAS Radon progeny Occupational exposure Gene-environment interaction DNA repair Heike Bickeböller and Maria Gomolka ... Baias PF, Hofmann W, Winkler-Heil R, Cosma C, Duliu OG (2010) Lung dosimetry for inhaled radon progeny in smokers. Radiat Prot ... residential radon, and lung cancer in a radon prone area. J Thorac Oncol Off Publ Int Assoc Study Lung Cancer 9(8):1073-1080. ...
Overview Radon is the last member of the noble gas family. The noble gases are the elements that make up Group 18 (VIIIA) of ... RADON (REVISED) Note: This article, originally published in 1998, was updated in 2006 for the eBook edition. ... Radon continues to break down into products called radon progeny. Radon is measured in units called picocuries per liter (pCi/L ... Radon Encyclopedia of Public Health COPYRIGHT 2002 The Gale Group Inc.. RADON. Radon-222 and radon-220 (thoron) are invisible, ...
... you will be able to identify the most important radon exposure route. ... Exposure to radon by the oral route can occur as a result of radon gas dissolving in water. Radon and its progeny are present ... The layers of dead skin protect the body from exposure to alpha radiation from radon and its progeny. Dermal exposure to radon ... Radon is a gas, but its radon progeny are charged and often attached to dust. ...
Lung cancer risk from radon and progeny and statement on radon.. Tirmarche M, Harrison JD, Laurier D, Paquet F, Blanchardon E, ... Radon in indoor spaces: an underestimated risk factor for lung cancer in environmental medicine. ... Radon Exposure: Using the Spectrum of Prevention Framework to Increase Healthcare Provider Awareness. ... A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. ...
Genomics; Genetic factors; Genes; Lung cancer; Radon; Uranium miners; Author Keywords: GWAS; Radon progeny; Occupational ... Purpose: Radon is a risk factor for lung cancer and uranium miners are more exposed than the general population. A genome-wide ... Genetic modifiers of radon-induced lung cancer risk: a genome-wide interaction study in former uranium miners. ... The well-established association of the genomic region 15q25 to lung cancer might be influenced by exposure to radon among ...
  • Owing to its gaseous nature and high radioactivity, radon-222 is one of the leading causes of lung cancer . (wikipedia.org)
  • German physicist Friedrich Ernst Dorn extensively studied these emanations in the early 1900s and attributed them to a new gaseous element, radon. (wikipedia.org)
  • Radon is a gaseous highly radioactive element discovered by English physicist Ernest Rutherford in 1899. (radon.com)
  • Recovering natural gas not only liberates the gaseous radon contained in the oil, but radium and other radionuclides are also dissolved in the concentrated brine - they precipitate out of solution and contaminate the scale that lines natural gas pipelines and settles out as sludge in the holding tanks. (fas.org)
  • Indoor radon levels can, however, also originate from water usage, outdoor air infiltration, and the presence of building materials containing radium (EPA 2003). (cdc.gov)
  • Radon-222 ( 222 Rn, Rn-222, historically radium emanation or radon) is the most stable isotope of radon , with a half-life of approximately 3.8 days. (wikipedia.org)
  • In particular, he studied the product in the uranium series , radon-222, which he called "radium emanation. (wikipedia.org)
  • This study looks at the relationship between lung cancer (deaths and new cancer cases) in relation to radon progeny exposures in a group of 17,660 Eldorado uranium workers who started working at the Beaverlodge and Port Radium mine sites and the Port Hope radium and uranium facility between 1932 and 1980 and followed up through 1999. (gc.ca)
  • It has been obtained by pumping the gasses off of a solution of a radium salt, sparking the gas mixture to combine the hydrogen and oxygen, removing the water and carbon dioxide by adsorption, and freezing out the radon. (radon.com)
  • But it's the intermediate steps that are important because they include radium and radon - over the eons, the natural gas deposit accumulated radioactivity and if we fast-forward to the present we find that virtually every natural gas deposit on the planet (oil and coal as well) contains radioactivity. (fas.org)
  • This chain includes the longest-lived isotopes of radium and radon: radium-226 and radon-222, respectively. (lbl.gov)
  • Main outcome measures Estimated number of deaths from lung cancer related to indoor radon, lifetime risks of death from lung cancer before and after various potential interventions to control radon, the cost per quality adjusted life year (QALY) gained from different policies for control of radon, and the potential of those policies to reduce lung cancer mortality. (bmj.com)
  • The supply and control of radon in the chamber is a critical problem in the design of Radon chamber. (spie.org)
  • Besides the calibration of measurement devices an extensive program for quality assurance is performed to ensure a national quality standard for the measurement of radon and radon progenies. (bfs.de)
  • A comprehensive program for quality assurance is performed beside the calibration of measurement devices to ensure a quality standard for measurement of radon and radon progenies in all German states. (bfs.de)
  • In this paper, using the Monte Carlo simulation, the possibility of using the CR-39 for direct measurement of Radon and progeny in water is investigated. (ebscohost.com)
  • The results were compared to health benefits expected if the risk was reduced by the standard method of reducing the radon gas concentration below the Action Level, which in the UK is 200 Bq·m-3 for domestic properties. (northampton.ac.uk)
  • Methods for radon exposure measurement in homes are one of the factors that affect the risk estimates in a case-control study. (springer.com)