Hydrocarbon-rich byproducts from the non-fossilized BIOMASS that are combusted to generate energy as opposed to fossilized hydrocarbon deposits (FOSSIL FUELS).
Electric power supply devices which convert biological energy, such as chemical energy of metabolism or mechanical energy of periodic movements, into electrical energy.
Any combustible hydrocarbon deposit formed from the remains of prehistoric organisms. Examples are petroleum, coal, and natural gas.
Complex petroleum hydrocarbons consisting mainly of residues from crude oil distillation. These liquid products include heating oils, stove oils, and furnace oils and are burned to generate energy.
A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE. Members contain jatrophone and other diterpenes.
Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.
A non-taxonomic term for unicellular microscopic algae which are found in both freshwater and marine environments. Some authors consider DIATOMS; CYANOBACTERIA; HAPTOPHYTA; and DINOFLAGELLATES as part of microalgae, even though they are not algae.
Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The seed is one of the EDIBLE GRAINS used in millet cereals and in feed for birds and livestock (ANIMAL FEED). It contains diosgenin (SAPONINS).
A plant genus of the family POACEAE widely cultivated in the tropics for the sweet cane that is processed into sugar.
Cultivated plants or agricultural produce such as grain, vegetables, or fruit. (From American Heritage Dictionary, 1982)
Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.
A four carbon linear hydrocarbon that has a hydroxy group at position 1.
A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of butanol (C4H9OH).
Methods and techniques used to genetically modify cells' biosynthetic product output and develop conditions for growing the cells as BIOREACTORS.
The most abundant natural aromatic organic polymer found in all vascular plants. Lignin together with cellulose and hemicellulose are the major cell wall components of the fibers of all wood and grass species. Lignin is composed of coniferyl, p-coumaryl, and sinapyl alcohols in varying ratios in different plant species. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A family of glycosidases that hydrolyse crystalline CELLULOSE into soluble sugar molecules. Within this family there are a variety of enzyme subtypes with differing substrate specificities that must work together to bring about complete cellulose hydrolysis. They are found in structures called CELLULOSOMES.
Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, used for the industrial production of SOLVENTS.
Forms of energy that are constantly and rapidly renewed by natural processes such as solar, ocean wave, and wind energy. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.
A polysaccharide with glucose units linked as in CELLOBIOSE. It is the chief constituent of plant fibers, cotton being the purest natural form of the substance. As a raw material, it forms the basis for many derivatives used in chromatography, ion exchange materials, explosives manufacturing, and pharmaceutical preparations.
Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.
Complex pharmaceutical substances, preparations, or matter derived from organisms usually obtained by biological methods or assay.
A common name (but used formally) for a group of organisms that are mostly kinds of algae including BACILLARIOPHYTA; OOMYCETES; PHAEOPHYCEAE; and CHRYSOPHYCEAE. They all contain CHLOROPLASTS that are thought to have been derived from the endosymbiosis of ancient RED ALGAE.
The application of heat to raise the temperature of the environment, ambient or local, or the systems for accomplishing this effect. It is distinguished from HEAT, the physical property and principle of physics.
A species of gram-positive bacteria in the family Clostridiaceae, capable of solventogenesis, and isolated from SOIL, infected WOUNDS, fermenting OLIVES, and spoiled CANDY.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A genus of gram-positive, anaerobic bacteria in the family Thermoanaerobacteriaceae. Cultures consist of rods interspersed with coccoid cells.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.
The contamination of indoor air.
Complex sets of enzymatic reactions connected to each other via their product and substrate metabolites.
A refined petroleum fraction used as a fuel as well as a solvent.
A disaccharide consisting of two glucose units in beta (1-4) glycosidic linkage. Obtained from the partial hydrolysis of cellulose.
Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.
An enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of acyl-[acyl-carrier protein] to trans-2,3-dehydroacyl-[acyl-carrier protein] in the fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. It has a preference for acyl derivatives with carbon chain length from 4 to 16.
The art or practice of preparing food. It includes the preparation of special foods for diets in various diseases.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The small pointed seeds are grown for hay in North America and western Europe and important as food in China and other Asian countries.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
A measure of the total greenhouse gas emissions produced by an individual, organization, event, or product. It is measured in units of equivalent kilograms of CARBON DIOXIDE generated in a given time frame.
The application of engineering principles and methods to living organisms or biological systems.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Isomeric forms and derivatives of pentanol (C5H11OH).
An endocellulase with specificity for the hydrolysis of 1,4-beta-glucosidic linkages in CELLULOSE, lichenin, and cereal beta-glucans.
Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.
A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.
A field of biological research combining engineering in the formulation, design, and building (synthesis) of novel biological structures, functions, and systems.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
The effect of GLOBAL WARMING and the resulting increase in world temperatures. The predicted health effects of such long-term climatic change include increased incidence of respiratory, water-borne, and vector-borne diseases.
A large family of narrow-leaved herbaceous grasses of the order Cyperales, subclass Commelinidae, class Liliopsida (monocotyledons). Food grains (EDIBLE GRAIN) come from members of this family. RHINITIS, ALLERGIC, SEASONAL can be induced by POLLEN of many of the grasses.
An enzyme of the oxidoreductase class that catalyzes the conversion of beta-D-glucose and oxygen to D-glucono-1,5-lactone and peroxide. It is a flavoprotein, highly specific for beta-D-glucose. The enzyme is produced by Penicillium notatum and other fungi and has antibacterial activity in the presence of glucose and oxygen. It is used to estimate glucose concentration in blood or urine samples through the formation of colored dyes by the hydrogen peroxide produced in the reaction. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 1.1.3.4.
A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The grain is used for FOOD and for ANIMAL FEED. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KEFIR milk product.
A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain ISOFLAVONES, some of which show molluscicidal and schistosomicidal activity. Some species of Pongamia have been reclassified to this genus and some to DERRIS.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A phylum of photosynthetic EUKARYOTA bearing double membrane-bound plastids containing chlorophyll a and b. They comprise the classical green algae, and represent over 7000 species that live in a variety of primarily aquatic habitats. Only about ten percent are marine species, most live in freshwater.
A plant genus in the family POACEAE. Brachypodium distachyon is a model species for functional genomics studies.
A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).
Polysaccharides consisting of xylose units.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A nonmetallic element with atomic symbol C, atomic number 6, and atomic weight [12.0096; 12.0116]. It may occur as several different allotropes including DIAMOND; CHARCOAL; and GRAPHITE; and as SOOT from incompletely burned fuel.
A species of gram-positive, thermophilic, cellulolytic bacteria in the family Clostridaceae. It degrades and ferments CELLOBIOSE and CELLULOSE to ETHANOL in the CELLULOSOME.
A kingdom of eukaryotic, heterotrophic organisms that live parasitically as saprobes, including MUSHROOMS; YEASTS; smuts, molds, etc. They reproduce either sexually or asexually, and have life cycles that range from simple to complex. Filamentous fungi, commonly known as molds, refer to those that grow as multicellular colonies.
Oils derived from plants or plant products.
A genus of fungi in the family Ganodermataceae, order POLYPORALES, containing a dimitic hyphal system. It causes a white rot, and is a wood decomposer. Ganoderma lucidum (REISHI) is used in traditional Chinese medicine (MEDICINE, CHINESE TRADITIONAL).
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Enzymes which are immobilized on or in a variety of water-soluble or water-insoluble matrices with little or no loss of their catalytic activity. Since they can be reused continuously, immobilized enzymes have found wide application in the industrial, medical and research fields.
Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.
Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
Class of BACTERIA with diverse morphological properties. Strains of Actinobacteria show greater than 80% 16S rDNA/rRNA sequence similarity among each other and also the presence of certain signature nucleotides. (Stackebrandt E. et al, Int. J. Syst. Bacteriol. (1997) 47:479-491)
The first chemical element in the periodic table. It has the atomic symbol H, atomic number 1, and atomic weight [1.00784; 1.00811]. It exists, under normal conditions, as a colorless, odorless, tasteless, diatomic gas. Hydrogen ions are PROTONS. Besides the common H1 isotope, hydrogen exists as the stable isotope DEUTERIUM and the unstable, radioactive isotope TRITIUM.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A mitosporic fungal genus frequently found in soil and on wood. It is sometimes used for controlling pathogenic fungi. Its teleomorph is HYPOCREA.
The physical effects involving the presence of electric charges at rest and in motion.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
A natural fuel formed by partial decomposition of vegetable matter under certain environmental conditions.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in the air. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The synthesis by organisms of organic chemical compounds, especially carbohydrates, from carbon dioxide using energy obtained from light rather than from the oxidation of chemical compounds. Photosynthesis comprises two separate processes: the light reactions and the dark reactions. In higher plants; GREEN ALGAE; and CYANOBACTERIA; NADPH and ATP formed by the light reactions drive the dark reactions which result in the fixation of carbon dioxide. (from Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 2001)
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
Any of a variety of procedures which use biomolecular probes to measure the presence or concentration of biological molecules, biological structures, microorganisms, etc., by translating a biochemical interaction at the probe surface into a quantifiable physical signal.
Air pollutants found in the work area. They are usually produced by the specific nature of the occupation.
Colloids with a gaseous dispersing phase and either liquid (fog) or solid (smoke) dispersed phase; used in fumigation or in inhalation therapy; may contain propellant agents.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Products derived from the nonenzymatic reaction of GLUCOSE and PROTEINS in vivo that exhibit a yellow-brown pigmentation and an ability to participate in protein-protein cross-linking. These substances are involved in biological processes relating to protein turnover and it is believed that their excessive accumulation contributes to the chronic complications of DIABETES MELLITUS.
Devices that control the supply of electric current for running electrical equipment.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The functional hereditary units of PLANTS.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a product or its container or wrapper. It includes purpose, effect, description, directions, hazards, warnings, and other relevant information.
Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The pattern of GENE EXPRESSION at the level of genetic transcription in a specific organism or under specific circumstances in specific cells.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.
Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
The systematic study of the complete DNA sequences (GENOME) of organisms.
The determination of the pattern of genes expressed at the level of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION, under specific circumstances or in a specific cell.
Substances or materials used in the course of housekeeping or personal routine.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in plants.
Gases, fumes, vapors, and odors escaping from the cylinders of a gasoline or diesel internal-combustion engine. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
The genetic complement of a plant (PLANTS) as represented in its DNA.
Energy transmitted from the sun in the form of electromagnetic radiation.
The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.
An amorphous form of carbon prepared from the incomplete combustion of animal or vegetable matter, e.g., wood. The activated form of charcoal is used in the treatment of poisoning. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A combustible, gaseous mixture of low-molecular weight PARAFFIN hydrocarbons, generated below the surface of the earth. It contains mostly METHANE and ETHANE with small amounts of PROPANE; BUTANES; and higher hydrocarbons, and sometimes NITROGEN; CARBON DIOXIDE; HYDROGEN SULFIDE; and HELIUM. (from McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
The discarding or destroying of garbage, sewage, or other waste matter or its transformation into something useful or innocuous.
Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)
Various material objects and items in the home. It includes temporary or permanent machinery and appliances. It does not include furniture or interior furnishings (FURNITURE see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS; INTERIOR FURNISHINGS see INTERIOR DESIGN AND FURNISHINGS).
Units that convert some other form of energy into electrical energy.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Liquid, solid, or gaseous waste resulting from mining of radioactive ore, production of reactor fuel materials, reactor operation, processing of irradiated reactor fuels, and related operations, and from use of radioactive materials in research, industry, and medicine. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.
The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
Deviations from the average values for a specific age and sex in any or all of the following: height, weight, skeletal proportions, osseous development, or maturation of features. Included here are both acceleration and retardation of growth.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
Food products manufactured from poultry.
An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.
A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Design, development, manufacture, and operation of heavier-than-air AIRCRAFT.
A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).
Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
The metabolic substances ACETONE; 3-HYDROXYBUTYRIC ACID; and acetoacetic acid (ACETOACETATES). They are produced in the liver and kidney during FATTY ACIDS oxidation and used as a source of energy by the heart, muscle and brain.
The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.
Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.
Involuntary contraction or twitching of the muscles. It is a physiologic method of heat production in man and other mammals.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.
A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic, metal-reducing bacteria in the family Geobacteraceae. They have the ability to oxidize a variety of organic compounds, including AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS.
Proteins found in any species of virus.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The generic name for the group of aliphatic hydrocarbons Cn-H2n+2. They are denoted by the suffix -ane. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.
A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.
Substances intended to be applied to the human body for cleansing, beautifying, promoting attractiveness, or altering the appearance without affecting the body's structure or functions. Included in this definition are skin creams, lotions, perfumes, lipsticks, fingernail polishes, eye and facial makeup preparations, permanent waves, hair colors, toothpastes, and deodorants, as well as any material intended for use as a component of a cosmetic product. (U.S. Food & Drug Administration Center for Food Safety & Applied Nutrition Office of Cosmetics Fact Sheet (web page) Feb 1995)
A weight-carrying structure for navigation of the air that is supported either by its own buoyancy or by the dynamic action of the air against its surfaces. (Webster, 1973)
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
High temperature destruction of waste by burning with subsequent reduction to ashes or conversion to an inert mass.
Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.
A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
... Clean Fuels (biofuel wholesaling). Enron Pulp and Paper, Packaging, and Lumber (risk management derivatives for forest ... Enron traded in more than 30 different products, including the following: Products traded on EnronOnline Petrochemicals ... making profits off the margins of the products it traded. These products were traded through the Gas Bank concept, now called ... The low cost of natural gas and the cheap supply of labor during the Great Depression helped to fuel the company's early ...
It is also used as a bio fuel. He argues that the loss of rain forest to provide space for palm plantations causes the ... The company's signature product is the edible chocolate box which Barnett created when he was 13 to cut down on packaging ... Despite this, palm oil is widely used in the confectionery industry which he believes devalues the product. ...
Also used in fuel industry as bio-fuel. Cottonseed oil, used as a salad and cooking oil, both domestically and industrially. ... Used in Brazil as a cosmetic product and a major source of biodiesel. Jatropha oil, widely used in India as a fuel oil. Has ... "Bio fuels". Castoroil.in. Archived from the original on 2011-11-13. Retrieved 2011-11-19. Lee, Sunggyu; Shah, Y.T. (2012). ... Other oils are used only as biofuel. Although diesel engines were invented, in part, with vegetable oil in mind, diesel fuel is ...
The bio-fuel credit for black liquor ended on January 1, 2010. Stenius, Per, ed. (2000). "2". Forest Products Chemistry. ... thereby often replacing fossil based fuel with biofuel. A tax credit created by the U.S. Congress in 2005 as part of the 2005 ... this does not result in a net increase in fossil fuel use since companies are merely replacing the existing fossil fuel they ... Used for biofuels production, the black liquor gasification route has been shown to have very high conversion efficiency and ...
Rubber oil is the product of the pyrolysis method for recycling used tires. Biofuels are synthesized from intermediary products ... Biodiesel Hydrodeoxygenation Algae fuel Dry distillation Biofuel Second-generation biofuels Crocker, Mark (2010). ... which produce multiple fuels and products from petroleum. Biodiesel is a diesel fuel derived from animal or plant lipids (oils ... C and the catch fire and fuel product is wood ash. If wood is heated away from air, the moisture is first driven off and until ...
Lastly, deforestation for fuel use is an ongoing issue in Nepal. By-products of flax harvest are used as a biofuel source in ... of the total straw weight and therefore a major by-product of flax straw processing. It is destined for use in bio-fuel, mulch ... There is world market demand for flax straw and fiber in environmentally friendly products, textiles, and biofuel. Farmers ... Environmentally-friendly products are becoming more and more popular around the world. For example, plastic composites using ...
Renewable fuels from plants include firewood, peat and other biofuels. The fossil fuels coal, petroleum and natural gas are ... Nonfood products include essential oils, natural dyes, pigments, waxes, resins, tannins, alkaloids, amber and cork. Products ... "Industrial Crops and Products An International Journal". Elsevier. Archived from the original on 2 October 2017. Retrieved 20 ... Plants grown as industrial crops are the source of a wide range of products used in manufacturing, sometimes so intensively as ...
They also produce alternative charcoal, bio-fuel from waste, and other alternative energy methods. After the 2010 earthquake, ... a multi-sector union which focused on storing and producing agricultural products, finding and building warehouses to store ... they have also established a facility to manufacture solar products. Additionally, MPP promotes the use of natural fertilizer ... marched in the streets of the town of Hinche in order to protest multinational corporations pushing hybrid seeds and biofuels ...
... bio-fuels and other chemicals; the fabrication of steel and steel products; shipping activity; the manufacture of wood, pulp, ... These include such notables as Lucite, Air Products, Vitol, Golden Pass Products, OCI, Exxon Mobil, Golden Pass LNG, and Sempra ... food and feed products; agriculture; and health care services. The county continues to diversify its economic base as evidenced ...
Energy Generation: alternate energy sources such as wind, solar, hydro or marine bio-fuel, geothermal. Energy Storage: fuel ... Agriculture : value-added products, food safety, new product development. Forestry: silviculture, wood composites, engineered ... Energy Infrastructure: expanded natural gas distribution, bio-fuel processing technologies Water and Waste Water: water ... Aquaculture and Fisheries: fish and shellfish, alternative species, value-added fish and seafood products. ...
3 Offices and products *3.1 Rainfall Insurance Scheme for Coffee (RISC). *3.2 Bio-fuel Tree/Plant Insurance Policy ... Bio-fuel Tree/Plant Insurance Policy[edit]. Named-peril insurance covering six different species of plants/trees, available for ... Offices and products[edit]. This article may contain an excessive amount of intricate detail that may interest only a ... "Present Products". Archived from the original on 16 March 2014. Retrieved 17 March 2014.. ...
This system considers economic feasibility (profitability of bio-fuel products and carbon credits) and risk management. Grazing ... Biofuels, not sold and used as renewable fuel, could be sequestered in abandoned oil wells and coal mines. The volume of bio- ... Algae grown in floating farms could be harvested and used for food or fuel. All biological life is made up of lipids, ... The amount of carbon dioxide removed may be offset by the fuel cost of acquiring, transporting, and releasing significant ...
Koehler Instrument Company offers a full line of instruments for testing biofuels, fuels, lubes, greases as well as an ... Some of Koehler's major product lines are viscosity, flash point, tribology, penetration, distillation and biofuels test ... Koehler offers full lines of instruments for testing biofuels, fuels, lubes and greases. "Archived copy". Archived from the ... All Koehler products conform to the latest ASTM, ISO, IP and related international specifications. Koehler Instrument Company ...
... 's products are second-generation biofuels. Pellet fuels, namely biomass pellets, from waste coffee grounds are burned ... bio-bean became part of the Ellen MacArthur Foundation CE100 and their products were exhibited at The Science Museum. The ... "Coffee power: Get up and go with a new kind of biofuel - Business Reporter". Business Reporter. 2016-07-19. Retrieved 2017-03- ... "Waste coffee grounds set to fuel London with biodiesel and biomass pellets". the Guardian. Retrieved 2015-07-30. "Wake up and ...
In 2013, Rentech changed its focus from biofuels to wood pellets production. It closed its product demonstration unit in ... made a memorandum of understanding with 14 airlines pto provide alternative jet fuel and diesel fuel from its planned biofuels ... In 1991, it incensed its Rentech Process to the Fuel Resources Development Company (Fuelco) to produce diesel fuel from ... to convert 1.3 million tons of provincial forests into jet fuel and naphtha. At the same year, it purchased the 55 MW biomass ...
Design and installation of special equipment for the production of peat fuel. Production of solid fuels on the basis of peat: ... Generation and distribution of heat and electricity from peat biofuels. Research and development in the use and processing of ... Production of various types of finished products based on peat for the agricultural sector: soils, agrogrunty, ecological ... Bioenergy Corporation (Russian: Корпорация "Биоэнергия") is industrial holding company in the field of fuel energy, engineering ...
Carbon storage in wood products and in the forest; and Avoided fossil fuel emissions when wood biofuels replace fossil fuels. ... It showed several ways wood product substitution affects greenhouse gas balances, including: Less fossil fuel consumption in ... Avoidance of industrial process carbon emissions from cement manufacturing when wood products replace cement-based products; ... Wood products that have been installed and are used in an appropriate way tend to have a favourable environmental profile ...
... and milk and egg products are becoming increasingly popular in India. Growing cities, expanding industry and biofuels are ... Economic growth fuels changes in diets; for example, per capita meat demand in China has quadrupled over the last 30 years, ... the effects of climate change and the increased use of biofuels would complicate matters, making actions necessary to address ...
The oil products predominately used are liquefied petroleum gas, motor gasoline, gas and diesel, other kerosene, and fuel oil. ... As of 2016, Niger's energy consumption includes 486 ktoe via oil products, 2,217 ktoe via biofuel and waste, and 84 ktoe via ... Niger has three major energy consumption outlets; oil products, biofuel and waste, and electricity. ... This is a chart of trend of gross domestic product of Niger at market prices estimated by the International Monetary Fund with ...
The technique will help if and when global demand for biofuel products increases as an alternative to fossil fuels. McNutt said ... First, the oil is already being transported for example by truck and train, using more fossil fuels than the pipeline would use ... Weber, Harry R. (October 22, 2012). "USGS head to be questioned in oil spill deposition". Fuel Fix. Hearst. Retrieved November ... takes some of the guesswork out of deciding whether it could be feasible to raise a potentially high value crop for biofuels on ...
Traffic consists of grain, ethanol and other bio-fuels related commodities, chemicals, food products, and machinery. After the ... Traffic consists of grain, goods and RV truck products. "Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 103 / Friday, May 27, 2011 / Notices/ ... Traffic consists of repaired freight cars, grain, and chemical products.[citation needed] On May 23, 2011, the railroad ...
As part of the change, the company stated that its previous fuel and industrial oil products and workings would operate under ... 1 Sustainable Biofuels Technology Award at World Biofuels Markets Conference in Amsterdam (NASDAQ:SZYM)". investors.terravia. ... At the event, it presented a Mercedes Benz C320 fueled with its Soladiesel brand of algal fuel. Also in January 2008, the ... Solazyme won the #1 Sustainable Biofuels Technology award at the World Biofuels Markets Conference in 2010. Solazyme was ranked ...
Industrial Crops and Products, 50 (2013) p. 635, table 2. *^ Klass, Donald, "Biomass for Renewable Energy, Fuels,. and ... "Biofuels Digest. 2011-05-16. Retrieved 2012-03-08.. *^ "Jmax Hybrid Seeds". SG Biofuels. 2012-03-08. Archived from the original ... Components within a diesel fuel system interact with the fuel in a way to ensure efficient operation of the fuel system and so ... Fuels with higher lubricity may increase the usable life of high-pressure fuel injection equipment that relies on the fuel for ...
The Karnataka State Road Transport Corporation was the first State Transport Undertaking in India to utilise bio-fuels and ... Manufacture of scooters in India started when Automobile Products of India (API), set up at Mumbai and incorporated in 1949, ... "State to promote biofuel buses". The Hindu. KAR, IND. 6 June 2009. Archived from the original on 10 November 2012. Retrieved 23 ... The color of the autorickshaw is also determined by the fuel that it is powered by, for example Agartala, Ahmedabad, Mumbai, ...
Biofuels also play significant roles in the "food vs fuel" debate, mitigation of oil prices, and energy balance and efficiency ... Biofuel industries are expanding in Europe, Asia and the Americas. Several firms have successfully created petroleum products ... The use of biofuels, which are fuels derived from recently dead biological material, reduces dependence on petroleum and ... Wood and its byproducts can also be converted into biofuels such as woodgas, methanol or ethanol fuel. It is also possible to ...
The new fuel is an ethanol based-product Hiperflo E30 sourced from sugar beet in Europe and produced by Petrochem Carless. The ... It was announced that the Taupo round switch to a 30 per cent biofuel mix. This environmental initiative is the first ... Biofuel confirmed for Taupo a1gp.com (18 December 2007) Indonesia's new engineering squad a1gp.com (20 January 2008) Safety car ...
The new fuel is an ethanol-based product Hiperflo E30 sourced from sugar beet in Europe and produced by Petrochem Carless. The ... Since round 5, in Taupo, a 30 per cent biofuel mix was introduce. This environmental initiative is the first initiative to help ... Biofuel confirmed for Taupo a1gp.com (December 18, 2007) Safety car pit light introduced a1gp.com (January 18, 2008) A1GP ...
Berger, John J. (2016-11-09). "Growing A Bioeconomy -- Flanders To Produce Fossil-Free Fuels, Chemicals, And Products". ... European Biofuels Technology Platform Ghent Bio-Energy Valley Ghent Bio-Energy Valley (Dutch) bio-based economy[permanent dead ... The initiative aims at the development of biofuels and bio-enzymes. It is an initiative of Professor Wim Soetaert of the ...
It is not yet clear whether cyanobacterial biofuels will be a viable future alternative to non-renewable fossil fuels. ... Additionally, further post processing of cyanobacterial products is necessary, which requires additional fossil fuels. ... Cyanobacteria have been used in several ways to produce renewable biofuel. The original method was to grow cyanobacteria for ... the biomass, which could be converted through liquefaction into liquid fuel. Current estimates suggest that biofuel production ...
For 2008, the series has also gone "green". Fuels for all cars racing in the series are now an E85 biofuel blend of 85 per cent ... ethanol made from whey, a dairy industry by-product; and petrol. Reduced emissions, reduced carbon "footprint" and reduced use ... The 2008 New Zealand Grand Prix thus becomes the first ever biofuel grand prix in the world. The short summer series (five ... of fossil fuels are all being showcased in this unique New Zealand programme. ...
Biofuels Co-Products in Animal Feeds - University of Minnesota. Articles. *Alternative Feeds for Ruminants - North Dakota State ... Pros and Cons of Feeding Wet By-Products - University of Kentucky. *Recommendations for Feeding Selected By-Product Feeds to ... Information by Product. Purdue University. Dept. of Animal Sciences. 915 W. State St.. West Lafayette, IN 47907-2054. Phone ( ... Corn Processing Co-Products Manual - University of Nebraska. *Distillers Grains as a Protein and Energy Supplement for Dairy ...
... show the variety of China products related to Fuel Fame Biofuel; You can choose the right product of China Fuel Fame Biofuel on ... Home> Product Directory> Fuel fame biofuel List Of China Fuel Fame Biofuel Products And Quality Supplier Of China Fuel Fame ... Keyword: Plant Oil Material Fuel, Fuel FAME Biofuel, Plant Oil Material Fuel FAME Biofuel ... You May Also Be Interested In aceite Fuel Oil ,acerbis Fuel Tank ,acetone Fuel ,acetone Fuel Additive ,additive Fuel Stanadyne ...
Bio Fuels - Suppliers Manufacturers Wholesalers of Organic & Inorganic Solvents Chemicals, Fertilizers, Dyes & Allied Products ... PRODUCT RANGE. Medicinal Herbs & Plants. Manufacturers & exporters of aloevera products and plants, neem products.. View More ... Vanashree Agro & Bio Fuels. Quality Marketing. Seacoast Trading Company. A.C. Shah And Company. Shanghai Jianying Chemical Co. ... Vanashree Agro & Bio Fuels. 103, Indraprastha Apt., Building- I, S. N. 117/118 Manjari Phata, Hadapsar Pune - , Maharashtra, ...
Biotech Product, Rhizobium Culture, Cotton Seeds & Manufacturer Of Agro Product In India, Sardar Cotton Hybrid, Sardar Eco ... Bio Fertilizer Product, Micro Mix, Ammonium Phosphate Sulphate, Water soluble Fertilizer, Plant Growth Promoter, ... Renewable Bio-fuels have emerged as attractive alternatives to the finite fossil fuels and their spiraling prices. Based on ... Fertilizers l Bio-Fertilizers l Bio-Fuels l Plant Tissue Culture l Seeds. ...
Biotech Product, BIo Fungicide & Manufacturer Of Agro Product In India ...
Evaluating how your products and services meet and exceed quality, safety, sustainability and performance standards.. Learn ... Intertek Fuel Quality Control Supports Etihad Airways Biofuel Powered Demonstration Flight. February 23, 2014. (Dubai) ... Before the flight, Intertek conducted the final quality control testing for the jet biofuel blend, a new fuel which was ... Interteks Sharjah petroleum and fuels laboratory has provided jet fuel quality testing services to Etihad Airways for over two ...
Bio-Fuel Network. Biofuels are fuels which are derived from biomass- renewable energy sources made from biological materials.. ... Confectionery Products As Promotional Items On April 24, 2015 by Admin With 0 Comments - General ... In the online-shop of is the range of confectionery products with over 20,000 articles like many different forms of chocolate, ... In time for the Easter, suesswarenversand.de has a wide range of confectionery products as promotional items on sale. This ...
... and Biofuel Catalysts Products Is $4.6 Billion Anticipated to Reach $8.5 Billion by 2022 ... Product: Refinery, Re-refinery, and Bio Fuel Catalysts: Market Strategies and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2016-2022 ... The study is designed to give a comprehensive overview of the Refinery, Re-refinery, and Bio Fuel Catalysts market segment. ... Refinery, Re-refinery, and Bio Fuel Catalysts: Market Strategies and Forecasts, Worldwide, 2016-2022. * ID: 3633971 ...
Biofuels and Alternative Fuels. Group members study the applications of biofuels and alternative fuels -- how we use them and ... hydrolysis product fuels; and levulinates. They also work with coal to liquid (CTL) and gas to liquid (GTL) fuels. ... These include advanced materials for geothermal energy, applications of biofuels and alternative fuels, efficiency in heating/ ... Work on particulate emissions aims to ensure that the growth of direct use of wood and solid biomass fuel occurs in as ...
"Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews" on ... Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review. Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of ... Besides biomass resources and constituents, the composition and uses of pyrolysis products have been discussed in detail. This ... Bio-fuels from thermochemical conversion of renewable resources: A review. Goyal, H.B.; Seal, Diptendu; Saxena, R.C. ...
... more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel ... more established technologies such as deep-cycle batteries and sensors are being joined by emerging technologies such as fuel ... Other fuels under consideration include bio-fuels such as ethanol, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels such as methanol and non- ... Waste to Fuels and Value Added Products. The electrochemical conversion of waste products such as biomass (agricultural and ...
Today we are joined by Joanne Ivancic with Advanced Biofuels USA, Graham Noyes of the Low Carbon Fuels Coalition, and Jeremy ... The Biofuels Digest newsletter. The most widely-read biofuels daily - 14,000+ organizations subscribe - why not you too?. Your ... Beiersdorf and Evonik agree to jointly develop CO2-based feedstock for care products. May 21, 2020 , Meghan Sapp ... We are joined by the CEO of the Renewable Fuels Association, Geoff Cooper, as we look at Green Recovery. DigestConnect #6 is ...
Harold H Schobert] -- Focusing on todays major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and ... coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ... ... Carbon products from fossil and biofuels -- Carbon dioxide."@en ;. schema:description ""Focusing on todays major fuel ... Chemistry of fossil fuels and biofuels. Author:. Harold H Schobert. Publisher:. Cambridge [England] ; New York : Cambridge ...
Biofuels Hold Promise for Renewable Fuels. Monday, 2 August 2010. Derived from plant material or animal waste, i.e. biomass, ... Biodiesel is one type of biofuel that is made from vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled grease and can be used as fuel for ... CIMA Energy Group specializes in alternative energy technology such as biofuel feedstock. As part of its commitment to a ... biofuels are a form of renewable energy. ...
... forest products and fossil fuels, and on the price of domestic animal feedstocks, forest products, and food grains. ... amounts and prices of biofuel feedstocks, biofuels, and petroleum-based fuels (including finished motor fuels) produced and ... producers of other food products; energy producers (renewable and petroleum-based fuel producers, fuel blenders); forest owners ... Renewable Fuel Standard: Potential Economic and Environmental Effects of U.S. Biofuel Policy (2011) Chapter: Appendix A: ...
Food or Fuel? This resource is suitable for high school students as well as strong middle-school students. Tackle literacy and ... Food or Fuel? This resource is suitable for high school students as well as strong middle-school students. Tackle literacy and ... Product. Description. Biofuels - Food or Fuel? This resource is suitable for high school students as well as strong middle- ... Introduction to conventional fuel. - Interest in green energy - What are biofuels? - Generations of biofuels. - Ethanol. - ...
The invention relates generally to a process and system for continuous removal of water during production of bio-fuels such as ... No polluting by-products are formed.. *The catalysts do not have to be removed since they do not mix with the bio-fuel. ... Bio-fuels such as bio-diesel fuels are becoming more prevalent as an alternative source of fuel. In many aspects, the ... has become quite central to producing the bio-fuels.. The production of bio-fuels is influenced by many factors including cost ...
... to replace petrochemical products, i.e., are of high value and command a market large enough to impact costs of biofuel ... Producing Transportation Fuels via Photosynthetically Derived Ethylene. We are engineering the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp ... Preserving Algal Biofuels Strains. With the increasing importance algae will play in the future of biofuels and food ... Ethylene-forming enzyme and bioethylene production, Biotechnology for Biofuels (2014) View all NREL algal biofuels publications ...
A concise guide to the algae biodiesel industry and algae biofuel market - basics, market potential, costs and returns, and ... Such a wide range of end-uses enable companies to produce both fuels and non-fuel products from the same algae feedstock. ... Oilgae - Algae Fuel Intelligence Series. Algae Fuels Digest for Investors. The Most Concise and Precise Guide to the Algae Fuel ... Algae have been long used for a number of non fuel applications and products. These include its use in animal feed, ...
2. Thermochemical conversion of biomass to fuels and chemicals; catalytic conversion of products (Prof. Resende) ... UW Biofuels and Bioproducts Laboratory*. Home. The Biofuels and bioproducts laboratory (BBL) research group is a key member of ... The Biofuels and Bioproducts Laboratory is interested in all aspects of the bioconversion of lignocellulosic material to ... The video below describes the tremendous progress made on the production of fuels and chemicals from hybrid poplar over the ...
biofuel, *refuse-derived Fuel/Oil (RD, RDO), *thermal processes products. for the production of materials from biomass and ... fuels and other added value and speciality products. Research on resources and feedstock, on characterization of fuels and ... Biomass, residues, waste, clean gas, processes, energy, biofuels, added value products, biorefinery, recycling, life cycle ...
Petroleum products -- Density versus temperature relationships of current fuels, biofuels and biofuel components ... Petroleum products -- Determination of aluminium and silicon in fuel oils -- Inductively coupled plasma emission and atomic ... Petroleum products -- Determination of low concentration of sulfur in automotive fuels -- Energy-dispersive X-ray fluorescence ... Petroleum products -- Low levels of vanadium in liquid fuels -- Determination by flameless atomic absorption spectrometry after ...
It has a high-quality animal feed by-product.. Airbus will support the fuel-approval processes, and assess the effect on ... Camelina-derived synthetic fuel falls into a class of hydroprocessed blended biofuels known as hydrotreated renewable jet fuels ... Biofuel could be an alternative to fossil-based jet fuel. By The Engineer 24th March 2011 4:47 pm 16th December 2015 12:37 am ... an F-22 Raptor was successfully flown at supersonic speed a 50/50 fuel blend of conventional petroleum-based JP-8 and a biofuel ...
The diesel fuel.. L-canes and cyclic hydrocarbons.. The other product will be glycerin. ... What Goes into Making Biofuels?. To view this video please enable JavaScript, and consider upgrading to a web browser that ... After explaining the main things we use energy for - our cars and electronics! - fossil fuels are examined in detail. Want to ... The environmental effects of fossil fuels are taught as well. Global warming, acid rain, and geoengineering all are in this ...
BP to showcase biofuel, offer biomass carbon offsets at Olympics BP is providing advanced fuels to help fuel the Olympic fleet ... several fuel dispensing equipment manufacturers have introduced new products for retailers to modify existing fuel dispensers ... iDiverse discovers yeast gene that increases fuel ethanol product. iDiverse has discovered a yeast gene that when inserted into ... The Renewable Fuels Association, CN Railway and the Iowa Renewable Fuels Association will co-host two Ethanol Safety Seminars. ...
... markets and distributes transportation fuels and other energy products; manufactures and sells petrochemical products; ... including bio-fuels. Chevron is based in San Ramon, Calif. More information about Chevron is available at www.chevron.com. ...
Or we can continue to trade our currency for foreign products. 74 posted on 11/25/2007 11:28:49 AM PST by P-40 (Al Qaeda was ... Whos Fueling Whom? - Why the biofuels movement could run out of gas. Smithsonian ^ , November 2007 , Richard Conniff Posted on ... It seems to me government has distorted the whole bio fuel issue by offering subsidies. Now capital and other resources are ... 1 nuclear plant would would produce enough elect.to extract hydrogen from water to move us away from fossil fuels.Change your ...
... it will fund a demonstration pilot plant of the Vertigro bio-fuel oil/C02 sequestration system developed by Valcent Products ... Global Green will have earned the exclusive world rights to a bio-fuel oil technology from Valcent on completing the pilot ... which is very suitable for blending with diesel to create a bio-diesel fuel. The... ... The only great source of bio fuel is through Valcent Products in Texas. They grow algae in a vertical, plastic, closed system ...
... and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants from Dymocks online BookStore. Find latest reader reviews and much more at Dymocks ... He has published numerous research papers and holds several patents on biofuels, nanotechnology, hydrogen fuel, and ... In addition to the estimated delivery date range, on the product page you will find how long an item will take to be dispatched ... ebook) Gasoline, Diesel, and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants Estimated Delivery:. Between Monday 26th November - ...
  • Dubai) Intertek, the leading quality solutions provider to industries worldwide, provided the bio-jet fuel quality testing for Etihad Airways' historic demonstration flight of a Boeing 777 using the first UAE-produced bio-kerosene, based upon innovative plant biomass-processing technology. (intertek.com)
  • Before the flight, Intertek conducted the final quality control testing for the jet biofuel blend, a new fuel which was partially converted from biomass. (intertek.com)
  • Different thermo-chemical conversion processes that include combustion, gasification, liquefaction, hydrogenation and pyrolysis, have been used to convert the biomass into various energy products. (deepdyve.com)
  • Although pyrolysis is still under developing stage but during current energy scenario, pyrolysis has received special attention as it can convert biomass directly into solid, liquid and gaseous products by thermal decomposition of biomass in absence of oxygen. (deepdyve.com)
  • Besides biomass resources and constituents, the composition and uses of pyrolysis products have been discussed in detail. (deepdyve.com)
  • temperature and particle size of biomass and product yields using various types of biomasses. (deepdyve.com)
  • Biofuels are fuels which are derived from biomass- renewable energy sources made from biological materials. (biofuelnetwork.net)
  • Work on particulate emissions aims to ensure that the growth of direct use of wood and solid biomass fuel occurs in as environmentally positive a manner as possible. (bnl.gov)
  • Derived from plant material or animal waste, i.e. biomass, biofuels are a form of renewable energy. (carbonfund.org)
  • The analysis will consider impacts due to changes in land use, fertilizer use, runoff, water use and quality, greenhouse-gas and local pollutant emissions from vehicles utilizing biofuels, use of forestland biomass, and other factors relevant to the full lifecycle of biofuel production and use. (nap.edu)
  • NREL is developing novel process options to reduce the cost of algal biofuel production through more complete utilization of algal biomass. (nrel.gov)
  • We have developed a low-cost, low-energy method to deconstruct algal biomass to allow for recovery and upgrading of lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins to biofuels and bioproducts. (nrel.gov)
  • By utilizing plant biomass that is either of low value for other products or can be grown on marginal land with minimal energy inputs, we can ensure that the biofuels and bioproducts produced are sustainable both environmentally and economically. (washington.edu)
  • Waste & Biomass Valorization is devoted to the growing field of valorization of waste and biomass to energy, fuels and other added value and speciality products. (springer.com)
  • In a previous report for the Federal Aviation Administration's Partnership for Air Transportation Noise and Emissions Reduction, they calculated the emissions throughout the life cycle of a biofuel, "from well to wake" -- from acquiring the biomass to transporting it to converting it to fuel, as well as its combustion. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rather, Hileman says the challenge is in allocating large swaths of land to cultivate enough biomass, in a sustainable fashion, to feed the growing demand for biofuels. (eurekalert.org)
  • For example, the process of converting jatropha to biofuel also yields solid biomass: For every kilogram of jatropha oil produced, 0.8 kilograms of meal, 1.1 kilograms of shells and 1.7 kilograms of husks are created. (eurekalert.org)
  • The goal of this book is to introduce readers to second-generation biofuels obtained from non-food biomass, such as forest residue, agricultural residue, switch grass, corn stover, waste wood, municipal solid wastes, and so on. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Various technologies are discussed, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass gasification, synthesis of diesel and gasoline, bio-crude by hydrothermal liquefaction, bio-oil by fast pyrolysis, and the upgradation of biofuel. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Biomass-derived jet fuel is an alternative jet fuel (AJF) showing promise of reducing the dependence on fossil fuel and greenhouse gas emissions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Wouldn't it be better if you simply could take waste material, or biomass, and transform it into fuel? (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Cellulosic biomass represents an abundant renewable resource for the production of bio-based products and biofuels. (aiche.org)
  • Unlike 1st Gen biofuels, 2nd Gen biofuels are derived from lignocellulosic sugars, those that come from woody biomass and agricultural sources, such as corn and wheat stover, and purpose-grown energy crops, like miscanthus and fast-growing poplar. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • BP is providing advanced fuels to help fuel the Olympic fleet of vehicles, including cellulosic ethanol, biomass-based diesel and biobutanol. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • In 2020, we celebrate the 10th International Conference on Algal Biomass, Biofuels and Bioproducts (AlgalBBB 2020) , which will take place in Pittsburgh, PA, USA. (elsevier.com)
  • The BeauTi-fueL facility is a mobile biomass to liquid facility, where the key equipment of the biomass to liquid process is placed into a commercial container. (aiche.org)
  • Now, Scientists are aiming to develop an environmentally friendly method to produce hydrogen from biomass by optimizing anaerobic digestion systems.1 Climate change, dwindling fuel resources and energy prices have spearheaded intensive efforts to detect and optimize alternative fuel options. (environmental-expert.com)
  • In its Strategy, the Commission defines the role that biofuels * produced from biomass, a renewable resource, may play in the future as a source of renewable energy serving as an alternative to the fossil fuel energy sources (chiefly oil) used in the transport sector. (europa.eu)
  • The Strategy complements the Biomass Action Plan * adopted at the end of 2005 and responds to a threefold objective: further promotion of biofuels in the EU and in developing countries, preparation for the large-scale use of biofuels, and heightened cooperation with developing countries in the sustainable production of biofuels. (europa.eu)
  • For fuels, processes that can directly use all components of biomass (cellulose, hemi-cellulose, sugars, starches and lignin) may have an advantage of higher yields per ton and lower costs per ton. (greentechmedia.com)
  • These prices will start declining quickly in the U.S. as the ecosystem and cultivation of alternative "fuels grade biomass" (which does not need to meet paper mill feedstock quality metrics) develops within five years. (greentechmedia.com)
  • The non "paper or lumber" quality biomass ecosystem, which will include co-feed of wood slash, bagasse or corn stover, will develop quickly in the next 5 years as the first commercial cellulosic biofuels units become operational. (greentechmedia.com)
  • These living things and their waste products are called biomass. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Biomass is organic matter (which comes from living things), just like fossil fuels ( coal , oil, or natural gas , which are formed in the earth from plant and/or animal remains), but it is much more recently created and is renewable on a time scale that is useful to humans. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Biofuels are made from sources of biomass including wood, plant matter, and other waste products. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Biomass is vegetal or organic material - including dung and plants - and biofuels are the solid or liquid or gaseous fuels that derive from it. (newint.org)
  • Furthermore, under a mandate by the renewable fuels standard (RFS2) of the U.S. Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007, biomass-based diesel production is expected to increase to 36 billion by 2022 [ 3 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • Talks will cover state of the art research on cellulosic ethanol, next generation fermentation of biofuels, algal biofuels, and the development of new biomass feedstocks. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Plant material fuel, or biomass, has enormous energy potential. (smore.com)
  • J. B. Binder and R. T. Raines, "Simple chemical transformation of lignocellulosic biomass into furans for fuels and chemicals," WO2009/155297 A1. (hindawi.com)
  • Towards the conversion of carbohydrate biomass feedstocks to biofuels via hydroxylmethylfurfural," Energy and Environmental Science , vol. 3, no. 12, pp. 1833-1852, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • Using biological material - biomass - to produce energy or materials is considered to be a sustainable alternative to fossil fuels, but is there competition between this and food production? (europa.eu)
  • Typically, it's municipal waste, cereals, by-products from the agri-food industry or forestry biomass. (europa.eu)
  • A biorefinery is a kind of factory that transforms biomass into end products such as bioplastics. (europa.eu)
  • Biorefineries allow us to use biomass that would not be used otherwise - we are extracting value from agricultural by-products which would previously have gone to waste. (europa.eu)
  • For us, biorefineries are the second stage of the value chain: first comes biomass production, then the biorefinery, and finally the use of the end product. (europa.eu)
  • Could you give an example of products that could be made using biomass? (europa.eu)
  • Image credit: Flickr / Martin LaBar 'It is absolutely key that the public realises that second-generation biofuels are based on non-edible biomass - there is no competition with food. (europa.eu)
  • CanmetENERGY's Characterization Laboratory specializes in the analysis of fuels, biofuels, biomass products, fuel-related products and their by-products in solid, liquid or gaseous states. (gc.ca)
  • This spectrometer is used to determine the elemental distribution - from percent to parts per million levels - in a variety of matrices including coal and coke ash, fly ash, biomass, deposits, catalysts, refuse-derived fuels, biofuels and petroleum products. (gc.ca)
  • Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts: From Feedstock Cultivation to End Products compiles contributions from authors from different areas and backgrounds who explore the cultivation and utilization of microalgae biomass for sustainable fuels and chemicals. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Catalytic hydro-pyrolysis is a strong candidate for conversion of biomass into liquid fuels for vehicles and airplanes. (dtu.dk)
  • Technological advances and efficiency gains including higher biomass yields per acre and more gallons of biofuel per ton of biomass could steadily reduce the economic cost and environmental impacts of biofuels production. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Exelus, Inc. (Livingston, NJ) up to $1,200,000: to develop a Biomass-to-Gasoline (BTG) technology that represents a fundamental shift in process chemistry and overall approach to creating biofuels. (manufacturing.net)
  • The technology uses unique, engineered catalysts that facilitate new reaction pathways to liquid motor fuels from biomass. (manufacturing.net)
  • Focusing on today's major fuel resources - ethanol, biodiesel, wood, natural gas, petroleum products and coal - this book discusses the formation, composition and properties of the fuels, and the ways in which they are processed for commercial use. (worldcat.org)
  • Biodiesel is one type of biofuel that is made from vegetable oils, animal fats, and recycled grease and can be used as fuel for vehicles or as an additive to reduce the levels of carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons from diesel-powered vehicles. (carbonfund.org)
  • The first-generation biofuels - ethanol from sugar or corn and biodiesel from vegetable oils - are already on the market. (dymocks.com.au)
  • Biofuel and biodiesel have become common terms during the past 15 years. (perkins.com)
  • For anyone not familiar with biofuels and biodiesel, we have put together a short guide as well as explaining which types of biodiesel you can use in our engines. (perkins.com)
  • According to the U.S. Energy Department's monthly biodiesel report, in June 2014 alone, 70 million gallons of B100 (100 percent biodiesel) was sold and an additional 41 million gallons of biodiesel blended with diesel fuel derived from petroleum. (perkins.com)
  • The names indicate the level of biodiesel in the product relative to petroleum diesel. (perkins.com)
  • Biofuel Research Team (BRTeam) A multi-national research team focused on various aspects of biofuel research initiated extensive research on algal genetic engineering for enhanced biodiesel production in 2010. (wikipedia.org)
  • In June 2008, Tel Aviv-based Seambiotic and Seattle-based Inventure Chemical announced a joint venture to use CO2 emissions-fed algae to make ethanol and biodiesel at a biofuel plant in Ashkelon, Israel. (wikipedia.org)
  • oil from the algae will go into the BioMax biodiesel produced by Smorgon Fuels Aquaflow Bionomic Corporation (ABC) - Boeing and Air New Zealand announced a joint project with Aquaflow Bionomic to develop algae. (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved 2009-01-30.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link) Pond Biofuels Inc. http://www.pondbiofuels.com Working Green "Biodiesel from microalgae. (wikipedia.org)
  • The diverse algal biofuels range from biodiesel, straight vegetable oil (SVO), lipids, ethanol and hydrogen. (intechopen.com)
  • Biodiesel, which is diesel fuel made of vegetable oils and animal fats instead of petroleum. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 2010) Bioethanol and biodiesel: alternative liquid fuels for future generations. (springer.com)
  • Biodiesel has gained a significant amount of attention over the past decade as an environmentally friendly fuel that is capable of being utilized by a conventional diesel engine. (mdpi.com)
  • Biodiesel is a fast growing alternative fuel that can be applied to a conventional diesel engine. (mdpi.com)
  • The European Commission's proposed new Renewable Energy Directive seeks to phase out conventional biofuels - mainly crop-based bioethanol and biodiesel - while raising the contribution of renewable electricity and so-called advanced biofuels in transport to 6.8% by 2030. (euractiv.com)
  • It includes information on microalgae cultivation, harvesting, and conversion processes for the production of liquid and gaseous biofuels, such as biogas, bioethanol, biodiesel and biohydrogen. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Environmental, economic, and energetic costs and benefits of biodiesel and ethanol biofuels. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The Argus Brazil Motor Fuels service, formerly Argus Ethanol Brazil, is a unique daily report published in Portuguese that provides price coverage, commentary, news and analysis about the Brazilian diesel, gasoline, ethanol and biodiesel markets. (argusmedia.com)
  • The feedstock is plentiful in some areas, and in these areas, refinement of biofuels makes economic sense. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Working with its parent company, Caravan Trading, LLC, CIMA Energy Group specializes in alternative energy technology such as biofuel feedstock. (carbonfund.org)
  • An analysis of the pros and cons of achieving legislated RFS levels, including the impacts of potential shortfalls in feedstock production on the prices of animal feed, food grains, and forest products, and including an examination of the impact of the cellulosic biofuel tax credit established by Sec. 15321 of the Food, Conservation, and Energy Act of 2008 on the regional agricultural and silvicultural capabilities of commercially available forest inventories. (nap.edu)
  • Algae, a third-generation biofuel feedstock, present one of the most exciting possibilities as a future solution to our energy problems, especially that of transportation fuel. (oilgae.com)
  • Algae are the only feedstock that have the potential to completely replace world's demand of transportation fuels. (oilgae.com)
  • Such a wide range of end-uses enable companies to produce both fuels and non-fuel products from the same algae feedstock. (oilgae.com)
  • Research on resources and feedstock, on characterization of fuels and materials produced, on the development of characterization techniques, and on the development of novel processes all form part of the journal's focus. (springer.com)
  • Biofuels quality is related to the inherent of feedstock materials (RMs) and operating conditions used in their production. (aiche.org)
  • In addition, it is essential to guarantee that feedstock for biofuels is produced in a sustainable manner, both in the EU and in third countries, particularly with regard to the protection of biodiversity, water pollution, soil degradation and the protection of habitats and species. (europa.eu)
  • These projects will develop innovative technologies to generate novel, marketable products using carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) or coal as a feedstock, potentially offering significant advantages over traditional products and creating new market opportunities for coal. (energy.gov)
  • These projects will advance FE's efforts to 1) improve coal as a feedstock to produce value-added by-products and 2) develop and test technologies that can use CO 2 -from coal-based power systems or other industrial sources-as the primary feedstock to reduce emissions and create valuable products. (energy.gov)
  • The coal feedstock projects will use existing pilot plants to produce an upgraded coal fuel and value-added by-products. (energy.gov)
  • This project will address key uncertainties about expanding feedstock harvests in the northern Lake States, including environmental impacts, economic feasibility and avoided fossil-fuel CO2 emissions. (manufacturing.net)
  • 1 nuclear plant would would produce enough elect.to extract hydrogen from water to move us away from fossil fuels.Change your injectors fill your tank and away you go. (freerepublic.com)
  • He has published numerous research papers and holds several patents on biofuels, nanotechnology, hydrogen fuel, and supercritical fluid technology and is the recipient of several national awards. (dymocks.com.au)
  • For many years, hydrogen has been considered as an alternative to fossil fuels. (environmental-expert.com)
  • As a zero emission fuel, hydrogen is often believed to be the ultimate energy vector but despite this fact, hydrogen production can be harmful. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Scientists are also investigating the possibility of using biofuels to generate hydrogen, which could then be used in fuel cells. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 6. Novel Process for CO 2 Conversion to Fuel - TDA Research (Wheat Ridge, CO) will develop a new sorbent-based process that can convert CO 2 captured from power plants, or other large sources, by reducing it with methane and water into a mixture of carbon monoxide and hydrogen, without generating additional CO 2 or greenhouse gas emissions. (energy.gov)
  • While water is not technically a biofuel, the hydrogen in water is an excellent fuel source. (howstuffworks.com)
  • The analysis will include a review of estimates of potential biofuel production levels using RFS-compliant feedstocks from U.S. forests and farmland, including the per-unit cost of that production. (nap.edu)
  • A review of model results and other estimates of the relative effects of the RFS, biofuel tax and tariff policy, production costs, and other factors, alone and in combination, on biofuel and petroleum refining capacity, and on the types, amounts and prices of biofuel feedstocks, biofuels, and petroleum-based fuels (including finished motor fuels) produced and consumed in the United States. (nap.edu)
  • An analysis of the effects of current and projected levels of biofuel production, and the incremental impact of additional production, on U.S. exports and imports of grain crops, forest products and fossil fuels, and on the price of domestic animal feedstocks, forest products, and food grains. (nap.edu)
  • This analysis will explore policy options to maintain regional agricultural and silvicultural capacity in the long term, given RFS requirements for annual increases in the volume of renewable fuels, and include recommendations for the means by which the federal government could prevent or minimize adverse impacts of the RFS on the price and availability of animal feedstocks, food and forest products, including options available under current law. (nap.edu)
  • The HRJ fuel can be derived from a variety of plant oil and animal fat feedstocks. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • And he concludes his biofuels primer with today's piece on biofuel feedstocks. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Higher alcohols, especially those with 3-8 carbon atoms, are useful as chemical feedstocks and transportation fuels. (greencarcongress.com)
  • If 60 billion gallons of higher alcohols were used each year as chemical feedstocks and fuel (replacing 25% of gasoline), Dr. Liao's technology could eliminate about 500 million tons of CO 2 emissions or about 8.3% of the total US CO 2 emissions, the EPA said. (greencarcongress.com)
  • University of Minnesota (St. Paul, MN) up to, $2,715,007: to assess the environmental sustainability and capacity of forest-based biofuel feedstocks within the Lake States region. (manufacturing.net)
  • and Gasoline, Diesel, and Ethanol Biofuels from Grasses and Plants. (dymocks.com.au)
  • When fossil fuels such as gasoline are burned, the chains of carbon that make them up are broken and carbon dioxide is released into the environment. (scientificamerican.com)
  • The first commercial cellulosic biofuel plant aims to turn Mississippi wood chips into diesel fuel and gasoline that are chemically identical to petroleum products. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • So what that means is that drop-in biofuel must be a hydrocarbon-molecularly indistinguishable from the gasoline, diesel, and jet fuel making the world mobile today. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Producers would need to be able to manufacture large quantities of drop-in biofuels at a cost that's competitive with gasoline and other petroleum products, and without expending excessive amounts of energy in the process. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • If the majority of light-duty vehicles in the United States ran on higher-octane gasoline, the automotive industry as a whole would reduce its carbon dioxide emissions by 35 million tons per year, saving up to $6 billion in fuel costs, according to a new analysis by MIT researchers. (thecuttingedgenews.com)
  • Our intent was to provide a state-of-the-art assessment of progress of advanced biofuels within three market segments: gasoline, middle distillates and aviation fuels (see Table 1). (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • They can be used as direct substitutes for fossil fuels, powering diesel or gasoline engines, heating buildings, and producing electricity. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Ethanol and other alcohol fuels, which are made from corn, grain, and other plant matter and can be mixed with or substituted for gasoline. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This process will repurpose carbon dioxide for use as a liquid fuel that can be readily used as a high octane gasoline substitute. (greencarcongress.com)
  • Bio-fuel-gasoline or fuel produced from refining food products-is being hyped as a solution to the controversial Global Warming problem. (globalresearch.ca)
  • As well, amid rising oil prices at $75 per barrel for Brent marker grades, governments such as Brazil's are frantic to substitute homegrown bio-fuels for imported gasoline. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Gasoline and diesel are "fossil fuels", meaning they're derived from petroleum, fossilised plant and animal matter. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • In all, ethanol currently doesn't provide enough improvement over prevailing fuel sources to really warrant weaning the American public off of gasoline for it. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • A few weeks ago, the company produced and shipped what it says is the world's first commercial volume of cellulosic diesel fuel from its new biorefinery in Columbus, Mississippi. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Renewable Fuels Association (2015) Biorefinery locations. (springer.com)
  • Besides being renewable, many kinds of bioenergy are considered less polluting than fossil fuels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Bioenergy is created by using biofuels. (encyclopedia.com)
  • These include advanced materials for geothermal energy, applications of biofuels and alternative fuels, efficiency in heating/cooling equipment, advanced oil burner development and particulate emissions for wood boilers. (bnl.gov)
  • A comparison of corn ethanol versus other biofuels and renewable energy sources for the transportation sector based on life-cycle analyses, considering cost, energy output, and environmental impacts, including greenhouse-gas emissions. (nap.edu)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass. -- In an effort to combat soaring fuel prices and cut greenhouse gas emissions, the aviation industry is racing toward the use of biofuels. (eurekalert.org)
  • In the current Environmental Science and Technology paper, Hileman considered the entire biofuel life cycle of diesel engine fuel compared with jet fuel, and found that changing key parameters can dramatically change the total greenhouse gas emissions from a given biofuel. (eurekalert.org)
  • In particular, the team found that emissions varied widely depending on the type of land used to grow biofuel components such as soy, palm and rapeseed. (eurekalert.org)
  • Total emissions from biofuel production may also be mitigated by a biofuel's byproducts. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hileman says that this is a great example of how co-products can have a large impact on the carbon dioxide emissions of a fuel. (eurekalert.org)
  • But biofuel believers point out that as long as coal-the most carbon-intensive fuel-generates 40 percent of U.S. electricity, greenhouse gas emissions remain a problem for electric cars. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • Among measures intended for ensuring environmental benefits , the Commission intends to highlight the advantages of biofuels in terms of reducing emissions of greenhouse gases (and in particular to link these advantages to the promotion of biofuels). (europa.eu)
  • Ethanol only releases two-thirds the amount of energy as an equal volume of petroleum product, but it does have a higher octane rating (which increases the engine's compression ratio) and produces far fewer greenhouse emissions. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Developing the processes that convert commodities into finished products, decreasing the use of scarce natural resources and fossil fuels and replacing them with renewable alternatives, turning waste into new products, minimizing emissions and developing the next generation of exhaust after-treatment and renewable fuels. (chalmers.se)
  • This project will explore the unique capabilities of heat and mass transfer inherent in microchannel reactor technology with advanced catalysts to intensify chemical processes, resulting in more efficient conversion of cellulosic residues to liquid transportation fuels. (manufacturing.net)
  • The Project will establish and magnify the potential of Jatropha cultivation as a sustainable crop providing Bio-Diesel a replacement for fast depleting fossil fuels. (gsfclimited.com)
  • The invention relates generally to a process and system for continuous removal of water during production of bio-fuels such as bio-diesel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This new bio-reactors are tailored to grow a species of algae that yields a large volume of high grade vegetable oil, which is very suitable for blending with diesel to create a bio-diesel fuel. (typepad.com)
  • Approximately 50% of the dry weight of the algae is an oil suitable for bio-fuel blending with diesel and for other uses. (typepad.com)
  • Another important element that should be taken into consideration is the compatibility of technical and environmental regulations, particularly with regard to maximum quantities of biofuels in petrol and diesel. (europa.eu)
  • Diesel fuel made from vegetable oil. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Of course, the discovery of massive petroleum reserves at the turn of the 20th century quickly put the brakes on that notion - why bother creating biofuel when petrol and diesel are cents on the litre? (gizmodo.com.au)
  • For the remaining 80 percent, we are still dependent on liquid fuels such as petrol or diesel, or gaseous fuels such as LPG. (wur.nl)
  • Researchers from Nevada think they may be able to produce diesel fuel from gumweed. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
  • The ToughSonic Chem ultrasonic level sensors measure a wide variety of liquids, from diesel fuel to chemical tanks, and possess deterioration resistance. (azocleantech.com)
  • I am happy to sponsor this legislation that will give immediate relief to motorists by capping sales tax on motor fuel and diesel fuel resulting in a significant savings for families annually. (nysenate.gov)
  • Purdue University (West Lafayette, IN) up to $933,883: to develop an analysis of the global impacts of second generation biofuels in the context of other energy technologies and alternative economic and climate change policy options. (manufacturing.net)
  • The study will assess the effects of current and projected levels of biofuel production, and the incremental impact of additional production, on the number of U.S. acres used for crops, forestry, and other uses, and the associated changes in the price of rural and suburban land. (nap.edu)
  • An analysis of the effect of projected biofuel production on federal revenue and spending, through costs or savings to commodity crop payments, biofuel subsidies, and tariff revenue. (nap.edu)
  • An analysis of the impact of current and projected future levels of biofuel production and use, and the incremental impact of additional production, on the environment. (nap.edu)
  • The analysis will summarize and evaluate various estimates of the indirect effects of biofuel production on changes in land use and the environmental implications of those effects. (nap.edu)
  • We are focused on understanding the current cost for algal biofuels production and using that information to identify and develop cost reduction strategies. (nrel.gov)
  • Our work is distributed across the entire value chain from production strain identification to biofuel and bioproducts upgrading. (nrel.gov)
  • By carefully freezing these cultures in liquid nitrogen, we can indefinitely maintain the genetic state of the sample for future research in biofuels production and other useful traits. (nrel.gov)
  • We are evaluating the potential for small RNA-based engineering in algae and other lipogenic microorganisms by conducting whole cell small RNA surveys to identify the regulating RNAs that affect the genes and pathways for biofuels production. (nrel.gov)
  • Once identified, these small RNA species will be used to engineer organisms for increased biofuels production and other useful traits. (nrel.gov)
  • The video below describes the tremendous progress made on the production of fuels and chemicals from hybrid poplar over the course of this 5 year multidisciplinary project. (washington.edu)
  • After a demonstration pilot plant is in operation, several production units that may total 1,000 acres may be built which would have the potential of producing approximately 4,000,000 barrels of oil per year, with significant carbon dioxide green credits and other commercial products. (typepad.com)
  • Hileman says the airline industry needs to account for such scenarios when thinking about how to scale up biofuel production. (eurekalert.org)
  • The problem, he says, is not so much the technology to convert biofuels: Companies like Choren and Rentech have successfully built small-scale biofuel production facilities and are looking to expand in the near future. (eurekalert.org)
  • The results of our compositional analysis indicate that most oils contain mainly C 16 and C 18 fatty acids except pennycress, yellow grease, and mustard, which contain higher values and thus would require hydrocracking to improve jet fuel production. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The promise of cellulosic biofuels-those made from the inedible, structural parts of plants-is that food isn't a necessary ingredient in the production process. (scientificamerican.com)
  • He divided the required tasks of fuel production between two specialist organisms, allowing him to do all the work in a single bioreactor. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Efforts to make isobutanol from bacteria alone have been underway since 2000 when the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) began distributing grants to universities that could demonstrate successful production of liquid biofuels. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In addition the plants that are eventually used to produce biofuel pull carbon from the atmosphere as they grow, contributing to greener overall production process. (scientificamerican.com)
  • To better understand the current state of biochemical-based production pathways, we reviewed recent developments in the production of 2nd Gen biofuels produced under a number of biochemical routes. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • What we found was that in spite of the significant progress made in the genetic engineering of microbes designed for advance biofuel production, titer and yield of these biomolecules are currently too low to allow these products to compete with their petroleum-derived equivalents. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • For example, the highest reported yield for the best available alternative to starch-derived ethanol (iso-butanol derived from engineered E. Coli, is still one-eighth the level of achieved in the production of fuel ethanol from corn using that industrial workhorse, S. cerevisiae (see Figure 1). (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Neither wild-type nor genetically-engineered microorganisms have been isolated or developed with all the necessary traits for the bulk production of advanced biofuels. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Our interest is how demand for these various ecosystem services may be complementary or competitive and how pricing of all new services may affect land use, food prices, and the prospects for biofuels production. (umass.edu)
  • However to be used as fuel in engines biofuels must meet certain specifications regulated by ASTM or EN standards regardless of the manufacturing processes and / or the type of RMs used in the production process. (aiche.org)
  • Upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactors fed on glucose were used to investigate the effects of Ce3+ on soluble microbial products (SMP) production, which is the majority of the residual chemical oxygen demand present in the effluent. (environmental-expert.com)
  • The European Union (EU) sets out seven strategic policy areas for the development of the production and use of biofuels by the Member States and developing countries. (europa.eu)
  • It also proposes measures to promote the production and use of biofuels. (europa.eu)
  • Among the measures intended to stimulate demand for biofuels , the Commission intends to bring forward a report on the implementation of the Biofuels Directive and the possible revision of the Directive, stressing the importance of national targets, biofuel use obligations and ensuring sustainable production of biofuels. (europa.eu)
  • With a view to developing the production and distribution of biofuels , the Member States and regions are invited to consider the opportunities offered by biofuels in terms of economic activity and job creation within the context of the cohesion policy and rural development policy. (europa.eu)
  • He detailed his perspective on biofuels production technologies and his firm's investment thesis here . (greentechmedia.com)
  • Biofuels are the need of today, and researchers around the globe are exploring the options for biological fuel production. (intechopen.com)
  • Sugar molasses, which the European Commission sees as "advanced" biofuel, present many of the same problems as conventional biofuels - including a potential increase in food prices and land competition for food production. (euractiv.com)
  • Since there is no food or feed application for these products, their use in biofuel production should not compete with food production, the thinking goes. (euractiv.com)
  • Even shifting nonfood uses such as animal feed or biofuel production away from prime cropland could make a big difference. (wattsupwiththat.com)
  • Pyrolysis of microalgae for fuel production 12. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Synthetic biology of cyanobacteria for production of biofuels and high-value products 14. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • While current biofuel production rates can't compete with the 75 million-plus barrels of crude oil produced daily around the world, the rate of biofuel production is steadily climbing. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • Through such large-scale production, fossil fuels will no longer be required. (wur.nl)
  • Scientists have discovered a way to boost the production of fuels and other renewable chemicals. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
  • DTU Chemical Engineering's main activities lie within the areas of product design, process design and production in the chemical, biotechnological, pharmaceutical, food technological and energy technological industries. (dtu.dk)
  • On the other side, policy makers were promoting production and consumption of biofuels, through a series of tax credits and incentives. (marketpublishers.com)
  • Even though the production of biofuels is still mainly concentrated in US, Europe and South America, 2010-2011 was marked by the more diversified picture with regions such as Asia, Africa and the Middle East increasing their biofuels production. (marketpublishers.com)
  • The rapidly increasing production of ethanol is generating large amounts of distillers' co-products that are available for swine feeding programs. (pork.org)
  • Using nanotechnology to create solar fuels (i.e., fuels created from sunlight, CO{sub 2}, and water) is an especially intriguing idea, as it impacts not only energy production and storage, but also climate change. (unt.edu)
  • Edeniq Inc., a biomaterials and sustainable fuels innovator, has announced that its proprietary Cellunator milling equipment has been running commercially at Plymouth Energy LLC's corn ethanol facility since the first quarter of the year. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • One of the objectives of the Bio-Based Industries Joint Undertaking is to help Europe embrace the potential of biofuel, biomaterials and other biochemicals which can replace dependence on fossil fuels. (europa.eu)
  • In March Bush met with Brazil's President to sign a bilateral "Ethanol Pact" to cooperate in R&D of "next generation" bio-fuel technologies like cellulosic ethanol from wood, and joint cooperation in "stimulating" expansion of bio-fuels use in developing countries, especially in Central America, and creating a "bio-fuels OPEC-like" cartel market with rules that allows formation of a Western Hemisphere ethanol market. (globalresearch.ca)
  • When fully operational, the system yields a constant supply of algae which is harvested, dried and processed to remove the oil, leaving a residue of some 50% by weight, which can also be sold for a variety of commercial products. (typepad.com)
  • Even so the method, known as consolidated bioprocessing, or CBP, is still too costly to achieve commercially viable product yields. (scientificamerican.com)
  • During this time, ethanol derived from corn and sugar cane or 1st Gen fuels saw considerable commercial success becoming well-established in terms of crop and process yields, process technology, and microbe development and selection. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Biofuel yields from microalgae [ 27 ]. (intechopen.com)
  • Its aim is to develop sustainable raw materials for care products, using carbon dioxide (CO2) as the starting material. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • For example, Hileman and his team calculated that biofuels derived from palm oil emitted 55 times more carbon dioxide if the palm oil came from a plantation located in a converted rainforest rather than a previously cleared area. (eurekalert.org)
  • Depending on the type of land used, biofuels could ultimately emit 10 times more carbon dioxide than conventional fuel. (eurekalert.org)
  • Carbon in the fuel was originally removed from the air by plants so there is no net increase in carbon dioxide levels. (slideserve.com)
  • The idea behind all biofuels is that they suck the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide out of the environment before releasing it again when burned. (scientificamerican.com)
  • Easel is also a member of a consortium including UCLA and UC Davis that was awarded $4 million from ARPA-E to develop microorganisms using synthetic biology and metabolic engineering techniques to use electricity instead of sunlight for biological carbon dioxide fixation and fuel synthesis. (greencarcongress.com)
  • The projects are supported through the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) DE-FOA-0001849, Novel Methods for Making Products from Carbon Dioxide or Coa l. (energy.gov)
  • 4. Novel Modular Electrocatalytic Processing for Simultaneous Conversion of Carbon Dioxide and Wet Shale Gas into Valuable Products - Ohio University (Athens, OH) aims to develop a process that uses solid oxide electrolysis to simultaneously convert CO 2 and ethane contained in wet natural gas into valuable products. (energy.gov)
  • Researchers in Wageningen have now found a method of scavenging carbon dioxide from the air, and combining it with clean water to make biofuel. (wur.nl)
  • Research leader René Klein Lankhorst of Wageningen University and Research says: 'Now that we have demonstrated that we can make biofuel from water and carbon dioxide, we want to scale up the process. (wur.nl)
  • Plants use sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into oxygen and carbonaceous products such as glucose. (wur.nl)
  • During this programme, which expired in 2016, the principle of converting water and carbon dioxide into liquid fuel was successfully demonstrated, and the method was defined in patents. (wur.nl)
  • University of Colorado Boulder researchers have developed nanobio-hybrid organisms capable of using airborne carbon dioxide and nitrogen to produce a variety of plastics and fuels, a promising first step toward low-cost carbon sequestration and eco-friendly manufacturing for chemicals. (greencarcongress.com)
  • A Special Webinar: Opportunities in renewable fuels and chemicals at the Port of Rotterdam. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • We were joined by Stijn Effting, the Port's business manager for renewable fuels and chemicals. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Where are the Gallons in Advanced Fuels & Chemicals - what's working, right now, and where and how and why? (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • 5. Electrochemical Conversion of Coal-Derived CO 2 into Fuels and Chemicals Using a Modified PEM Electrolyzer - Opus 12 (Berkeley, CA) will develop an electrochemical process to convert CO 2 into chemicals and fuels using only CO 2 , water, and electricity as inputs. (energy.gov)
  • As a member of the Algae Testbed Public-Private Partnership led by Arizona State University, we are focusing on establishing a sustainable network of regional testbeds to gather and share information within the algal research and development community, facilitate innovation, and accelerate growth of the algal biofuels and bioproducts industry. (nrel.gov)
  • and inform analyses of the state of technology for producing algal biofuels and bioproducts. (nrel.gov)
  • The Biofuels and bioproducts laboratory (BBL) research group is a key member of the Advanced Hardwood Biofuels Northwest research program. (washington.edu)
  • The Biofuels and Bioproducts Laboratory is interested in all aspects of the bioconversion of lignocellulosic material to biofuels and bioproducts. (washington.edu)
  • Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Bioproducts. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • We know there is an interest in using biofuels with Perkins engines. (perkins.com)
  • However, researchers at MIT say the industry may want to make sure it has examined biofuels' complete carbon footprint before making an all-out push. (eurekalert.org)
  • aims to bring together leading academic scientists, researchers and research scholars to exchange and share their experiences and research results on all aspects of Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Biotechnologies. (waset.org)
  • Yet before researchers at the University of Michigan tried it, no one had paired bacterium with fungus to make cellulosic biofuel. (scientificamerican.com)
  • KiOR's breakthrough is one part of a wide-ranging effort by a number of companies and government-supported researchers to develop and perfect 'drop-in' biofuels-fuels so similar to their petroleum-based counterparts that they could be pumped through the same pipelines and used to power the engines of cars and trucks without any modifications. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • In fact, several years ago, researchers and developers alike recognized these technical challenges and began shifting their focus from lignocellulosic ethanol to "drop-in" fuels, such bio-butanol, in the hope that enhanced compatibility with the existing liquid fuels infrastructure would make these fuels more cost competitive. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Researchers may have found an enzyme that could enable any plant to product fuel. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
  • Cascade Analytical Reagents and Biochemicals is a web-based business intended to serve researchers working on advanced development of biofuels and other products. (djcoregon.com)
  • We are joined by the CEO of the Renewable Fuels Association, Geoff Cooper, as we look at Green Recovery. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The Renewable Fuels Association, CN Railway and the Iowa Renewable Fuels Association will co-host two Ethanol Safety Seminars. (ethanolproducer.com)
  • Also, high quality research contributions describing original and unpublished results of conceptual, constructive, empirical, experimental, or theoretical work in all areas of Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Biotechnologies are cordially invited for presentation at the conference. (waset.org)
  • ICMBBB 2020 has teamed up with the Special Journal Issue on Microalgae-Based Biofuels and Biotechnologies . (waset.org)
  • The Characterization Laboratory's capabilities in the physical and elemental testing of petroleum products and biofuels include ultra-low sulphur and nitrogen analysis determination of viscosity, acid number, as well as chlorine in pyrolysis oils. (gc.ca)
  • The objective is to progressively replace fossil fuels with renewable and more sustainable fuels. (springer.com)
  • Bioconversion of agroindustrial waste products or municipal waste water to industrially useful products like biosurfactants, bioethanol, biogas, and electricity generation by microbial fuel cells is already being exploited as an attractive option. (hindawi.com)
  • Solar panels for generating electricity with sunlight are a good alternative to fossil fuels, but only 20 percent of the global energy supply is provided by electricity. (wur.nl)
  • WPI research team is finding success with their green alternative to fossil fuels. (hydrogenfuelnews.com)
  • The availability and uptake of biofuels varies from country to country. (perkins.com)
  • What can be done to support the development and uptake of biofuels? (europa.eu)
  • This month, an F-22 Raptor was successfully flown at supersonic speed a 50/50 fuel blend of conventional petroleum-based JP-8 and a biofuel that was also derived from camelina. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • They say that when a biofuel's origins are factored in -- for example, taking into account whether the fuel is made from palm oil grown in a clear-cut rainforest -- conventional fossil fuels may sometimes be the "greener" choice. (eurekalert.org)
  • Hileman and his team performed a life-cycle analysis of 14 fuel sources, including conventional petroleum-based jet fuel and "drop-in" biofuels: alternatives that can directly replace conventional fuels with little or no change to existing infrastructure or vehicles. (eurekalert.org)
  • Severe cases of land-use change could make coal-to-liquid fuels look green," says Hileman, noting that by conventional standards, "coal-to-liquid is not a green option. (eurekalert.org)
  • HEFA fuel was approved by the American Society for Testing and Materials in 2011, and can be blended up to 50% with conventional jet fuel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Unfortunately, while progress has been made in the last decade, 2nd Gen fuels, especially those produced from biochemical platforms, have yet to achieve commercial viability due to their inability to be price competitive with either petroleum-derived fuels or conventional (1st Gen) biofuels. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • As such, conventional food and forest products are the products of ecosystems. (umass.edu)
  • Biofuels characterization by conventional analytical methods is slow and very costly and does not allow quality control at the warehouse and in process. (aiche.org)
  • A detailed report on all aspects of the algae fuel value chain, the Comprehensive Oilgae Report will be of immense help to those who are on the threshold of investing in algae biofuels. (oilgae.com)
  • Honeywell's UOP is applying its aviation biofuel refining technology, while CCE is contributing its knowledge on camelina agronomy, including technologies on camelina growth, agricultural monitoring networks and plant science. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • Jim Lane of Biofuels Digest authored what was possibly history's least accurate market forecast, projecting that algal biofuel capacity would reach 1 billion gallons by 2014. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Many algal strains like Chlamydomonas, Chlorella , Scenedesmus , Botryococcus braunii , and so on have been reported to produce biofuels ( Table 1 ). (intechopen.com)
  • Making use of molasses to produce biofuels is therefore unlikely to have an impact on the cultivation of sugar cane and sugar beet. (euractiv.com)
  • Air New Zealand eventually used jatropha biofuel as Aquaflow was unable to supply any fuel. (wikipedia.org)
  • To speed up and increase cellulosic sugar cost reduction, HCL CleanTech has developed a number of front end extraction processes that, while contributing to the purity of the sugars, increase the potential of co-product value: their de-acidified lignin is unadulterated (27 percent of the wood dry basis) and tall oils and resins (5 to 7 percent of the wood) are pre-extracted from the wood. (greentechmedia.com)
  • Gevo, Inc. (Englewood, CO) up to $1,780,862: to develop a yeast fermentation organism that can cost-effectively convert cellulosic-derived sugars into isobutanol, a second generation biofuel/biobased product. (manufacturing.net)
  • Nevertheless, sugars will continue to play a role in advanced fuel development - ethanol or otherwise, Holladay said. (djcoregon.com)
  • The Oilgae Digest was developed to provide background and insights on the key parameters driving the algae fuel business - technical and economic feasibility, real industry status, investments and costs, and business success factors. (oilgae.com)
  • An extensive analysis from the Government Accountability Office (GAO) issued last month and reported here in the Digest stated that "the investments required to make these fuels more cost-competitive with petroleum-based fuels, even in the longer run, are unlikely in the current investment climate. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The Energy Conversion Group offers advanced technical solutions to achieve reduced fossil fuel use in geothermal power and building energy applications. (bnl.gov)
  • They have developed performance maps for many different systems and matched them with building energy-use profiles for different cities to look at the effect of steady-state efficiency and the effect of idle loss, among other things, on annual fuel use. (bnl.gov)
  • A quantitative and qualitative description of biofuels currently produced and projected to be produced and consumed by 2022 in the United States under different policy scenarios, including scenarios with and without current Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS) and biofuel tax and tariff policies, and considering a range of future fossil energy and biofuel prices, the impact of a carbon price, and advances in technology. (nap.edu)
  • Increasingly, expensive oil, coal and global warming are causing an energy revolution by requiring fossil fuels to be supplemented by alternative energy sources and by requiring changes in lifestyle. (typepad.com)
  • It was reorganized in 1979 as the main subsidiary of a holding company, InterNorth, a diversified energy and energy-related products firm. (wikipedia.org)
  • The world is currently faced with two significant problems: fossil fuel depletion and environmental degradation, which are continuously being exacerbated due to increasing global energy consumption. (dymocks.com.au)
  • According to a report from the United States (US) Energy Information Administration (EIA) [ 1 ], about 10% of each barrel (42 gallons per barrel) of crude oil is used to produce jet fuel. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Biofuels, on the other hand, primarily come from plants and are viewed as renewable fuel and energy sources. (perkins.com)
  • Before drop-in biofuels become the transportation energy source of the future, there are still significant technological, economic, and environmental hurdles to overcome. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • they argue that electric cars powered by renewable energy provide a cleaner path to alternative fuel for transportation. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • In retrospect, given the state of technology, the goal of delivering 2nd Gen fuels as outlined in the Energy Policy Act of 2005 was certainly bold in its vision. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • The Commission will also pay particular attention to the tax benefits included in the 2003 Energy Taxation Directive and the possible establishment of a regulatory framework for incentives linked to the environmental performance of individual fuels. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, it will study the possibility of processing cereals from existing intervention stocks into biofuels, finance a campaign to inform farmers and forest operators, bring forward a Forestry Action Plan and examine the possibility of using animal by-products and waste as energy sources. (europa.eu)
  • Solid biofuels are solid pieces of organic matter that release their energy through burning. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gasification of solid biofuels (transforming their energy into natural gas) is also a possibility. (encyclopedia.com)
  • U.S. Energy Information Administration (2014) International energy outlook 2014: world petroleum and other liquid fuels. (springer.com)
  • Talks will also cover economic and environmental considerations of biofuels technologies, as well as integration of biofuels into the existing energy infrastructure. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • As fuel substitutes, higher alcohols have several advantages over ethanol, including higher energy density, lower hygroscopicity, and lower vapor pressure leading to better air quality. (greencarcongress.com)
  • This is true even if there is more energy in the ethanol than is in the fossil fuel used to produce it. (greencarcongress.com)
  • and develops the energy resources of the future, including biofuels. (aol.com)
  • Congress already mandated with the Energy Policy Act of 2005 that corn ethanol for fuel must rise from 4 billion gallons in 2006 to 7.5 billion in 2012. (globalresearch.ca)
  • These energy-dense products contain flammable hydrocarbons which provide the power to internal combustion engines when burned. (gizmodo.com.au)
  • The utilization of challenging solid fuels in the energy industry is urged by environmental requirements. (springer.com)
  • The Senate plan addresses the immediate need to lower gas prices, the looming crisis of high heating fuel costs and would put long term measures in place to encourage the use of alternative sources of energy and to encourage conservation. (nysenate.gov)
  • Provide a sales tax exemption on Energy Star products, home insulation and newly installed alternative energy systems. (nysenate.gov)
  • The Senate also passed a resolution, asking the federal government to increase funding for the low income Home Energy Assistance Program, based on anticipated higher costs for home heating fuel this winter. (nysenate.gov)
  • Rise in diverse needs like food, energy, etc. of growing population and urbanization in the world, an escalating demand for cosmetics with improvement in general economic conditions, besides expanding fuel ethanol market are the chief influences driving the upward market demand for industrial enzymes, all across the globe. (prlog.org)
  • Alternately, 'bio-inspired' nanostructured photocatalytic devices that efficiently harvest sunlight and use that energy to reduce CO{sub 2} into a single useful product or chemical intermediate can be envisioned. (unt.edu)
  • In response to the necessary transition to a sustainable society and heightened global competition, modern chemical processes need to be energy- and material efficient, compact, flexible, less toxic, safe, environmentally benign and conducive to the rapid commercialisation of new products. (chalmers.se)
  • Renewable Bio-fuels have emerged as attractive alternatives to the finite fossil fuels and their spiraling prices. (gsfclimited.com)
  • Table 1 - Major fuel categories and their biofuel alternatives. (biofuelsdigest.com)
  • Food & beverages and household care industries represent the largest application areas of enzymes, followed by animal feed, biofuels, textile, and other technical industries. (prlog.org)
  • and the various processes by which they are converted or refined into the fuel products appearing on today's market. (worldcat.org)
  • Airbus will support the fuel-approval processes, and assess the effect on aircraft systems and engines. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • A set of processes that show your product, service or system meets the requirements of a standard. (iso.org)
  • These are some examples of where Chemical engineers play a central role in developing the processes and products needed for the transition to a sustainable society. (chalmers.se)
  • More in-depth knowledge is obtained through three profile tracks within the programme: Sustainable development, Modelling and Design and Forest Based Products and Related Processes. (chalmers.se)
  • Markets for the biofuel catalysts have the strongest growth throughout the forecast period, the environmental concerns worldwide will provide a thrust for these catalysts. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • The study is designed to give a comprehensive overview of the Refinery, Re-refinery, and Bio Fuel Catalysts market segment. (researchandmarkets.com)
  • Country's dependence on crude import impact on fuel price stability. (slideserve.com)
  • Fuel is the largest operating cost in the aviation industry, and the unstable prices of crude oil hamper long-term planning and expense budgeting. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The term refinery comes from the petrochemical industry where crude oil is processed into a multitude of useful products. (europa.eu)
  • This product profile discusses vapor pressure in crude oil. (azocleantech.com)
  • We are working on a multi-institutional team, led by Johns Hopkins University, to construct symbiotic relationships between microbial phototrophs (cyanobacteria or algae) and heterotrophs (bacteria or yeast), enabling development of a coupled system for light-driven CO2 fixation and high-efficiency synthesis of oils suitable for use as biofuels. (nrel.gov)
  • Bacteria and Fungi Together: A Biofuel Dream Team? (scientificamerican.com)
  • Bacteria and Fungi, the Biofuel-Producing Dream Team? (scientificamerican.com)
  • Conversely when bacteria make fuel, they suck up carbon from the atmosphere. (scientificamerican.com)
  • In February, US Air Force officials certified the entire C-17 Globemaster III fleet for unrestricted flight operations using the HRJ biofuel blend. (theengineer.co.uk)
  • In 2008, Virgin Atlantic became the first commercial airline to fly a plane on a blend of biofuel and petroleum. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since then, Air New Zealand, Qatar Airways and Continental Airlines, among others, have flown biofuel test flights, and Lufthansa is racing to be the first carrier to run daily flights on a biofuel blend. (eurekalert.org)
  • Fuel ethanol (E-75 & E-85) is defined by ASTM as a blend of Ethanol and Hydrocarbon of which the Ethanol portion is nominally 70 -85 volume % Denatured Fuel Alcohol. (intertek.com)
  • It seems to me government has distorted the whole bio fuel issue by offering subsidies. (freerepublic.com)
  • To make certain it will happen, farmers and big agribusiness giants like ADM or David Rockefeller get generous taxpayer subsidies to grow corn for fuel instead of food. (globalresearch.ca)
  • As a result of the beautiful US Government subsidies to produce bio-ethanol fuels, and the new legislative mandate, the US refinery industry is investing big time in building new special ethanol distilleries, similar to oil refineries, except they produce ethanol fuel. (globalresearch.ca)
  • Unfortunately, the efficiency of photosynthesis will need to be improved by an estimated factor of ten before biofuels can fully replace fossil fuels. (unt.edu)
  • They also work with coal to liquid (CTL) and gas to liquid (GTL) fuels. (bnl.gov)
  • The webinar will cover leading candidates for both solid and liquid biofuels. (aiche.org)
  • He chaired the AIChE Project on Metrics for Liquid Bio-fuels and has given. (aiche.org)
  • Biofuels come in all three forms of matter: solid, liquid, and gas. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Liquid biofuel is any kind of liquid derived from matter that has recently been alive and that can be used as fuel. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Whale oil was an important liquid biofuel in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The development prospects of the world markets for petroleum and other liquid fuels are diverse and partly contradictory. (springer.com)
  • Ethanol can be considered as the primary renewable liquid fuel. (springer.com)
  • 2011) Ethanol-the primary renewable liquid fuel. (springer.com)
  • During the transesterification reaction, the glycerol backbone of triacylglycerol is substituted by methanol in the presence of a catalyst at elevated temperature, leaving fatty acid alkyl esters and glycerol as the major liquid products. (mdpi.com)
  • But the latest version of the Commission's proposal included an agricultural product which does not fit this criterion: molasses, a thick and sticky liquid sourced from sugarcane or sugar beets during the sugar refining process. (euractiv.com)
  • The question is: Can algae be economically cultivated and commercially scaled to make a material contribution to humanity's liquid fuel needs? (greentechmedia.com)
  • The activity models how raw materials are refined to process liquid fuels. (climate.gov)
  • The ultimate target is appliances on roofs that produce liquid fuel. (wur.nl)
  • Sustainable fuel has moved a big step closer with a new demonstration plant that can convert biogas into the liquid fuel methanol. (dtu.dk)
  • LiveFuels LiveFuels, a California company, is feeding algae to small fish in hopes that the fish will harvest liquid fuel. (nytimes.com)
  • There are two big problems associated with extracting liquid fuel from algae: getting the algae out of the water, and then getting the oil out of the algae. (nytimes.com)
  • We have a trillion-dollar infrastructure in place to make our liquid fuel and get it to people," Holladay said. (djcoregon.com)
  • However, many concerns have been raised about refining efficiency, effects on climate change, air pollution, and diminishing fossil fuel deposits [ 1 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • As we enter an era of decreasing fossil fuel use we need to understand the opportunities and challenges of building a new biofuels industry. (keystonesymposia.org)
  • Perhaps there will be people who will eventually realize that growing corn to make ethanol puts more CO2 into the air than just growing trees on the land and using a bit more fossil fuel. (greencarcongress.com)
  • This technology will provide fossil fuel-based power plants, oil and gas producers, and midstream gas processors a synergistic solution to carbon capture and ethane oversupply challenges. (energy.gov)
  • A prototype has been developed that demonstrates high selectivity and current density for CO 2 conversion to carbon monoxide that can be used to make high-value products including methanol, acetic acid, polymers, and pharmaceuticals. (energy.gov)
  • A fuel made from organic materials that are constantly being created. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Gas Chromatography is performed on fuels and related products for organic speciation. (gc.ca)
  • Although biofuels made of crops or crop residues are cleaner, this solution has drawbacks. (wur.nl)
  • Land for growing biofuels is scarce, and crop residues are also needed to sustain soil fertility. (wur.nl)
  • Corn distilled into ethanol was touted as a way to reduce civilization's dependence upon fossil fuels, but it required different pipelines-and only a specially equipped car could run on a mix of fuels made mostly of ethanol. (nationalgeographic.com)
  • They are produced from waste products such as animal manure and bio-waste or agricultural by-products that are not fit for human or animal consumption, such as grape stalks, nut shells, and corn cobs. (euractiv.com)
  • Anything true about corn is also applicable about other biofuels. (greencarcongress.com)
  • When finished in the next 2-3 years the demand for corn and other grain to make ethanol for car fuel will double from present levels. (globalresearch.ca)
  • However, little of this maize is consumed directly by humans: most is used for corn ethanol, animal feed and other maize products, such as corn starch and corn syrup.The six major types of maize are dent corn, flint corn, pod corn, popcorn, flour corn, and sweet corn. (alibaba.com)
  • Despite gains in research, ethanol made from grain and corn is still more cost competitive with petroleum-based fuels. (djcoregon.com)