AlloxanNinhydrin: 2,2-Dihydroxy-1H-indene-1,3-(2H)-dione. Reagent toxic to skin and mucus membranes. It is used in chemical assay for peptide bonds, i.e., protein determinations and has radiosensitizing properties.Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental: Diabetes mellitus induced experimentally by administration of various diabetogenic agents or by PANCREATECTOMY.Trigonella: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE.Islets of Langerhans: Irregular microscopic structures consisting of cords of endocrine cells that are scattered throughout the PANCREAS among the exocrine acini. Each islet is surrounded by connective tissue fibers and penetrated by a network of capillaries. There are four major cell types. The most abundant beta cells (50-80%) secrete INSULIN. Alpha cells (5-20%) secrete GLUCAGON. PP cells (10-35%) secrete PANCREATIC POLYPEPTIDE. Delta cells (~5%) secrete SOMATOSTATIN.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Glycosuria: The appearance of an abnormally large amount of GLUCOSE in the urine, such as more than 500 mg/day in adults. It can be due to HYPERGLYCEMIA or genetic defects in renal reabsorption (RENAL GLYCOSURIA).Streptozocin: An antibiotic that is produced by Stretomyces achromogenes. It is used as an antineoplastic agent and to induce diabetes in experimental animals.Sterculiaceae: A plant family of the order Malvales, subclass Dilleniidae, class Magnoliopsida. The leaves of Sterculiaceae are alternate and simple or palmately compound. Flowers have three to five sepals and five or no petals.Saudi ArabiaEncyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)Butterflies: Slender-bodies diurnal insects having large, broad wings often strikingly colored and patterned.Bone Screws: Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.Hymenoptera: An extensive order of highly specialized insects including bees, wasps, and ants.Trees: Woody, usually tall, perennial higher plants (Angiosperms, Gymnosperms, and some Pterophyta) having usually a main stem and numerous branches.Pancreas: A nodular organ in the ABDOMEN that contains a mixture of ENDOCRINE GLANDS and EXOCRINE GLANDS. The small endocrine portion consists of the ISLETS OF LANGERHANS secreting a number of hormones into the blood stream. The large exocrine portion (EXOCRINE PANCREAS) is a compound acinar gland that secretes several digestive enzymes into the pancreatic ductal system that empties into the DUODENUM.Truth Disclosure: Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Deception: The act of deceiving or the fact of being deceived.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Food, Fortified: Any food that has been supplemented with essential nutrients either in quantities that are greater than those present normally, or which are not present in the food normally. Fortified food includes also food to which various nutrients have been added to compensate for those removed by refinement or processing. (From Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Gliclazide: An oral sulfonylurea hypoglycemic agent which stimulates insulin secretion.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Silicon Dioxide: Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Chemistry, Pharmaceutical: Chemistry dealing with the composition and preparation of agents having PHARMACOLOGIC ACTIONS or diagnostic use.Technology, Pharmaceutical: The application of scientific knowledge or technology to pharmacy and the pharmaceutical industry. It includes methods, techniques, and instrumentation in the manufacture, preparation, compounding, dispensing, packaging, and storing of drugs and other preparations used in diagnostic and determinative procedures, and in the treatment of patients.Centella: A plant of the family APIACEAE which is the source of asiatic acid and asiaticoside. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb. = Hydrocotyle asiatica L. is known for effect on peripheral circulation.Pentacyclic Triterpenes: Five-ring derivatives of dammarane having a chair-chair-chair-boat configuration. They include the lupanes, oleananes, amyrins, GLYCYRRHIZIC ACID, and soyasaponins.TriterpenesPlant Extracts: Concentrated pharmaceutical preparations of plants obtained by removing active constituents with a suitable solvent, which is evaporated away, and adjusting the residue to a prescribed standard.Plants, Medicinal: Plants whose roots, leaves, seeds, bark, or other constituent parts possess therapeutic, tonic, purgative, curative or other pharmacologic attributes, when administered to man or animals.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Plants, Genetically Modified: PLANTS, or their progeny, whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING.Glucagon: A 29-amino acid pancreatic peptide derived from proglucagon which is also the precursor of intestinal GLUCAGON-LIKE PEPTIDES. Glucagon is secreted by PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS and plays an important role in regulation of BLOOD GLUCOSE concentration, ketone metabolism, and several other biochemical and physiological processes. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p1511)Tolbutamide: A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Glucagon-Secreting Cells: A type of pancreatic cell representing about 5-20% of the islet cells. Alpha cells secrete GLUCAGON.Zinc: A metallic element of atomic number 30 and atomic weight 65.38. It is a necessary trace element in the diet, forming an essential part of many enzymes, and playing an important role in protein synthesis and in cell division. Zinc deficiency is associated with ANEMIA, short stature, HYPOGONADISM, impaired WOUND HEALING, and geophagia. It is known by the symbol Zn.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Euphorbia: A large plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE, order Euphorbiales, subclass Rosidae. They have a milky sap and a female flower consisting of a single pistil, surrounded by numerous male flowers of one stamen each. Euphorbia hirta is rarely called milkweed but that name is normally used for ASCLEPIAS.Euphorbiaceae: The spurge family of flowering plants, in the order Euphorbiales, contains some 7,500 species in 275 genera. The family consists of annual and perennial herbs and woody shrubs or trees.Aphrodisiacs: Chemical agents or odors that stimulate sexual desires. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Tribulus: A plant genus of the family ZYGOPHYLLACEAE. Members contain steroidal saponins. Ingestion by grazing animals causes PHOTOSENSITIVITY DISORDERS called geeldikkop (yellow thick head) in South Africa.Nootropic Agents: Drugs used to specifically facilitate learning or memory, particularly to prevent the cognitive deficits associated with dementias. These drugs act by a variety of mechanisms. While no potent nootropic drugs have yet been accepted for general use, several are being actively investigated.
  • This study was aimed at investigating the chemical composition (proximate, minerals, fatty acids and phenolic compounds) and the in vitro (antimicrobial, radical scavenging, anti-acetylcholinesterase and protein denaturing activities) and in vivo (anti-diabetic and histo-protective effects in alloxan-induced diabetic mice) biological activities of broad bean pods (BBPs), a food waste by-product material. (rsc.org)
  • 12. Halim EM, Hussain A. Hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic and antioxidant properties of combination of Curcumin from Curcuma Longa, Linn, and partially purified product from Abroma Augusta, Linn. (ayu.nl)
  • Glibenclamide was provided as a generous gift sample by Hoechst Pharmaceuticals, Mumbai, while alloxan (Sigma Chemical Company, USA) was a generous gift sample from Dr. Reddy's Laboratories, Hyderabad. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Alloxan is, however, toxic to the liver and the kidneys in high doses. (wikipedia.org)
  • The purpose of the present work was to investigate the activity of lipid peroxidation processes in the liver of rats with silica-induced granulomatous inflammation, alloxan diabetes and their combination. (scirp.org)
  • LPP activity in liver homogenates was determined by the relative concentration of lipoperoxides in the heptane-isopropanol system and the concentration of products of the reaction with 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS). (scirp.org)
  • We conclude that one of the possible mechanisms of the influence on silica granulomatous inflammation on the course of alloxan diabetes can be 1) a reduced LPO activity in liver cells at the lates stages of granulomagenesis process induced by a single dose of a suspension of silica microparticles and 2) a combined decrease in glucose production in the liver of alloxan diabetics rats. (scirp.org)
  • an oxidation product of uric acid, of a pale reddish color, readily soluble in water or alcohol. (absp.org.uk)
  • This causes an insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (called "alloxan diabetes") in these animals, with characteristics similar to type 1 diabetes in humans. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conclusions: Dietary supplementation with CM fruits effectively prevents the development of diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia and hepatic inflammation in alloxan-induced diabetes. (ac.ir)
  • Onderzoeken en klinische studies wijzen herhaaldelijk uit dat oxidatieve stress een grote rol speelt in de pathogenese van zowel diabetes mellitus type 1 als type 2. (ayu.nl)
  • The dose which has produced hypoglycaemic effect in rats is equivalent to the highest doses of the product recommended for patients of diabetes mellitus. (jprsolutions.info)
  • Umar Muhd Sani* Chemistry Department, Nigeria Police Academy, P.M.B. 3474, Wudil, Kano State Abstract A number of plants products among which the protein-rich Cucurbitaceae seeds are commonly used in traditional medicine with increasing acclaimed efficacy against diabetes mellitus. (pharmaresearchlibrary.com)
  • In addition, alloxan has a high affinity to SH-containing cellular compounds and, as a result, reduces glutathione content. (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration of CCl 4 increased the serum ALT, AST, ALP enzymatic activities and lipid peroxidation products but decreased the cellular antioxidant activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in rats which were brought back to near normal levels by the treatment with Citrus macroptera . (springer.com)
  • A dimeric derivative alloxantin can be prepared by partial reduction of alloxan with hydrogen sulfide. (wikipedia.org)
  • The aldehydes found to be inhibitory against P. falciparum could contribute to both the non-antibody host responses against this parasite and the antimalarial effects of radical-generating compounds such as t-butyl hydroperoxide, hydrogen peroxide, alloxan, isouramil, divicine and primaquine. (nih.gov)
  • The name is derived from allantoin, a product of uric acid excreted by the fetus into the allantois, and oxaluric acid derived from oxalic acid and urea, found in urine. (wikipedia.org)
  • Toxicity of certain products of lipid peroxidation to the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. (nih.gov)
  • The chlorine gas undergoes an oxidizing chemical reaction with some of the proteins in the flour, producing alloxan as an unintended byproduct. (healthiertalk.com)
  • No, they're technically not adding alloxan to the flour - although this is a common misconception. (healthiertalk.com)
  • But, they ARE doing chemical treatments to the grain that result in the formation of alloxan in the flour. (healthiertalk.com)
  • The elastic and sticky properties of wheat and maida (refined white flour) make them a mainstay in making breads, cookies, cakes and countless other products. (blogspot.in)
  • Chlorine also speeds up the maturing process I mentioned above, hence the flour manufacturers can quickly sell their product after milling. (blogspot.in)
  • Derivative products such as white bread, cakes, crackers, pastries and donuts derive their colour from the white flour they are made from. (blogspot.com)
  • People purchasing white rice, or products made from white flour, need to be educated on how these products are made. (blogspot.com)
  • 2. Chlorine dioxide , one of the chemicals used to bleach flour, combines with residual protein in most of these foods to form alloxan. (blogspot.com)
  • Flour it's self a beneficial food substance but during bleaching Alloxan, or C4 H2O4N2, is a product of the decomposition of uric acid which produces or added during the process makes flour unsuitable for our body. (vdcure.com)
  • The coconut whey (CW) (underutilized by-product of virgin coconut oil production, with 2-3% protein) was subjected to ultrafiltration for concentration of protein and sugar removal prior to spray drying. (springer.com)
  • A new study published in the journal Plant Foods for Human Nutrition on August 31, 2018, with the title Beneficial Effect of Virgin Coconut Oil on Alloxan-Induced Diabetes and Microbiota Composition in Rats adds further proof that virgin coconut oil is a powerful remedy for diabetes. (coconutoil.com)
  • Alloxan plus Virgin Coconut Oil (Alx + VCO) group. (coconutoil.com)
  • Because of their high reactivity, free radicals react with unsaturated fatty acids that are components of membrane phospholipids, activate lipid peroxidation processes (LPP), the products of which have a cytotoxic effect. (scirp.org)
  • Scientist's believe that about 5 to 15 grams of protein in 100 gram of wheat may be contaminated by alloxan, although no large scale studies have been done to know its effect on humans. (blogspot.in)
  • Yeast protein product was also used for comparison with fungal protein. (who.int)
  • and the third group were alloxan diabetic rats, in which silica granulomatous inflammation was induced 8 days after the disease onset (DB_SL rats), the fourth group were rats that were injected saline physiological solution into the tail vein (control rats). (scirp.org)
  • These natural products were known for their beneficial effects on health long before flavonoids were isolated as the effective compounds. (scribd.com)