Gamma Rays: Penetrating, high-energy electromagnetic radiation emitted from atomic nuclei during NUCLEAR DECAY. The range of wavelengths of emitted radiation is between 0.1 - 100 pm which overlaps the shorter, more energetic hard X-RAYS wavelengths. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.Radiography: Examination of any part of the body for diagnostic purposes by means of X-RAYS or GAMMA RAYS, recording the image on a sensitized surface (such as photographic film).Electron Probe Microanalysis: Identification and measurement of ELEMENTS and their location based on the fact that X-RAYS emitted by an element excited by an electron beam have a wavelength characteristic of that element and an intensity related to its concentration. It is performed with an electron microscope fitted with an x-ray spectrometer, in scanning or transmission mode.Elasmobranchii: A subclass of cartilaginous fish comprising the SHARKS; rays; skates (SKATES (FISH);), and sawfish. Elasmobranchs are typically predaceous, relying more on smell (the olfactory capsules are relatively large) than sight (the eyes are relatively small) for obtaining their food.Pneumoconiosis: A diffuse parenchymal lung disease caused by inhalation of dust and by tissue reaction to their presence. These inorganic, organic, particulate, or vaporized matters usually are inhaled by workers in their occupational environment, leading to the various forms (ASBESTOSIS; BYSSINOSIS; and others). Similar air pollution can also have deleterious effects on the general population.Skates (Fish): The common name for all members of the Rajidae family. Skates and rays are members of the same order (Rajiformes). Skates have weak electric organs.Fast Neutrons: Neutrons, the energy of which exceeds some arbitrary level, usually around one million electron volts.Radiology Department, Hospital: Hospital department which is responsible for the administration and provision of x-ray diagnostic and therapeutic services.Wrist Joint: The joint that is formed by the distal end of the RADIUS, the articular disc of the distal radioulnar joint, and the proximal row of CARPAL BONES; (SCAPHOID BONE; LUNATE BONE; triquetral bone).Ultraviolet Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum immediately below the visible range and extending into the x-ray frequencies. The longer wavelengths (near-UV or biotic or vital rays) are necessary for the endogenous synthesis of vitamin D and are also called antirachitic rays; the shorter, ionizing wavelengths (far-UV or abiotic or extravital rays) are viricidal, bactericidal, mutagenic, and carcinogenic and are used as disinfectants.Radiation Effects: The effects of ionizing and nonionizing radiation upon living organisms, organs and tissues, and their constituents, and upon physiologic processes. It includes the effect of irradiation on food, drugs, and chemicals.Aluminum Silicates: Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Animal Fins: Membranous appendage of fish and other aquatic organisms used for locomotion or balance.Metacarpus: The region of the HAND between the WRIST and the FINGERS.Radiation Dosage: The amount of radiation energy that is deposited in a unit mass of material, such as tissues of plants or animal. In RADIOTHERAPY, radiation dosage is expressed in gray units (Gy). In RADIOLOGIC HEALTH, the dosage is expressed by the product of absorbed dose (Gy) and quality factor (a function of linear energy transfer), and is called radiation dose equivalent in sievert units (Sv).Metacarpophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metacarpal bone and a phalanx.Dose-Response Relationship, Radiation: The relationship between the dose of administered radiation and the response of the organism or tissue to the radiation.Spectrometry, X-Ray Emission: The spectrometric analysis of fluorescent X-RAYS, i.e. X-rays emitted after bombarding matter with high energy particles such as PROTONS; ELECTRONS; or higher energy X-rays. Identification of ELEMENTS by this technique is based on the specific type of X-rays that are emitted which are characteristic of the specific elements in the material being analyzed. The characteristic X-rays are distinguished and/or quantified by either wavelength dispersive or energy dispersive methods.X Chromosome: The female sex chromosome, being the differential sex chromosome carried by half the male gametes and all female gametes in human and other male-heterogametic species.Teleradiology: The electronic transmission of radiological images from one location to another for the purposes of interpretation and/or consultation. Users in different locations may simultaneously view images with greater access to secondary consultations and improved continuing education. (From American College of Radiology, ACR Standard for Teleradiology, 1994, p3)Cathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.Cadmium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cadmium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cd atoms with atomic weights 103-105, 107, 109, 115, and 117-119 are radioactive cadmium isotopes.Dental Technicians: Individuals responsible for fabrication of dental appliances.Radiation Genetics: A subdiscipline of genetics that studies RADIATION EFFECTS on the components and processes of biological inheritance.Pleura: The thin serous membrane enveloping the lungs (LUNG) and lining the THORACIC CAVITY. Pleura consist of two layers, the inner visceral pleura lying next to the pulmonary parenchyma and the outer parietal pleura. Between the two layers is the PLEURAL CAVITY which contains a thin film of liquid.Cosmic Radiation: High-energy radiation or particles from extraterrestrial space that strike the earth, its atmosphere, or spacecraft and may create secondary radiation as a result of collisions with the atmosphere or spacecraft.Asbestosis: A form of pneumoconiosis caused by inhalation of asbestos fibers which elicit potent inflammatory responses in the parenchyma of the lung. The disease is characterized by interstitial fibrosis of the lung, varying from scattered sites to extensive scarring of the alveolar interstitium.Quartz: Quartz (SiO2). A glassy or crystalline form of silicon dioxide. Many colored varieties are semiprecious stones. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.Occupational Diseases: Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.Calcaneus: The largest of the TARSAL BONES which is situated at the lower and back part of the FOOT, forming the HEEL.Asbestos: Asbestos. Fibrous incombustible mineral composed of magnesium and calcium silicates with or without other elements. It is relatively inert chemically and used in thermal insulation and fireproofing. Inhalation of dust causes asbestosis and later lung and gastrointestinal neoplasms.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Bone Diseases, MetabolicRadiometry: The measurement of radiation by photography, as in x-ray film and film badge, by Geiger-Mueller tube, and by SCINTILLATION COUNTING.Occupational Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.Radiation Tolerance: The ability of some cells or tissues to survive lethal doses of IONIZING RADIATION. Tolerance depends on the species, cell type, and physical and chemical variables, including RADIATION-PROTECTIVE AGENTS and RADIATION-SENSITIZING AGENTS.Arthritis, Rheumatoid: A chronic systemic disease, primarily of the joints, marked by inflammatory changes in the synovial membranes and articular structures, widespread fibrinoid degeneration of the collagen fibers in mesenchymal tissues, and by atrophy and rarefaction of bony structures. Etiology is unknown, but autoimmune mechanisms have been implicated.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Craniocerebral Trauma: Traumatic injuries involving the cranium and intracranial structures (i.e., BRAIN; CRANIAL NERVES; MENINGES; and other structures). Injuries may be classified by whether or not the skull is penetrated (i.e., penetrating vs. nonpenetrating) or whether there is an associated hemorrhage.Foreign Bodies: Inanimate objects that become enclosed in the body.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Lung: Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Metallurgy: The science, art, or technology dealing with processes involved in the separation of metals from their ores, the technique of making or compounding the alloys, the techniques of working or heat-treating metals, and the mining of metals. It includes industrial metallurgy as well as metallurgical techniques employed in the preparation and working of metals used in dentistry, with special reference to orthodontic and prosthodontic appliances. (From Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992, p494)Osteoporosis: Reduction of bone mass without alteration in the composition of bone, leading to fractures. Primary osteoporosis can be of two major types: postmenopausal osteoporosis (OSTEOPOROSIS, POSTMENOPAUSAL) and age-related or senile osteoporosis.Fractures, Bone: Breaks in bones.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Spinal DiseasesHand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Sensilla: Collective name for a group of external MECHANORECEPTORS and chemoreceptors manifesting as sensory structures in ARTHROPODS. They include cuticular projections (setae, hairs, bristles), pores, and slits.Pseudotsuga: A plant genus in the family PINACEAE, order Pinales, class Pinopsida, division Coniferophyta. They are coniferous evergreen trees with long, flat, spirally arranged needles that grow directly from the branch.EnglandDust: Earth or other matter in fine, dry particles. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Factor X: Storage-stable glycoprotein blood coagulation factor that can be activated to factor Xa by both the intrinsic and extrinsic pathways. A deficiency of factor X, sometimes called Stuart-Prower factor deficiency, may lead to a systemic coagulation disorder.Chorioallantoic Membrane: A highly vascularized extra-embryonic membrane, formed by the fusion of the CHORION and the ALLANTOIS. It is mostly found in BIRDS and REPTILES. It serves as a model for studying tumor or cell biology, such as angiogenesis and TISSUE TRANSPLANTATION.Microscopy, Electron, Scanning: Microscopy in which the object is examined directly by an electron beam scanning the specimen point-by-point. The image is constructed by detecting the products of specimen interactions that are projected above the plane of the sample, such as backscattered electrons. Although SCANNING TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY also scans the specimen point by point with the electron beam, the image is constructed by detecting the electrons, or their interaction products that are transmitted through the sample plane, so that is a form of TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Cervical Vertebrae: The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.X-Rays: Penetrating electromagnetic radiation emitted when the inner orbital electrons of an atom are excited and release radiant energy. X-ray wavelengths range from 1 pm to 10 nm. Hard X-rays are the higher energy, shorter wavelength X-rays. Soft x-rays or Grenz rays are less energetic and longer in wavelength. The short wavelength end of the X-ray spectrum overlaps the GAMMA RAYS wavelength range. The distinction between gamma rays and X-rays is based on their radiation source.TailObserver Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vital Capacity: The volume of air that is exhaled by a maximal expiration following a maximal inspiration.Emergencies: Situations or conditions requiring immediate intervention to avoid serious adverse results.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Knee Joint: A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.Infrared Rays: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum usually sensed as heat. Infrared wavelengths are longer than those of visible light, extending into the microwave frequencies. They are used therapeutically as heat, and also to warm food in restaurants.Solar Activity: Any type of variation in the appearance of energy output of the sun. (NASA Thesaurus, 1994)Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Bermuda: A British colony in the western North Atlantic Ocean about 640 miles east southeast of Cape Hatteras, North Carolina. It comprises a group of about 300 islands of which only about 20 are inhabited. It is called also the Bermuda Islands or the Bermudas. It was named for the Spanish explorer Juan Bermudez who visited the islands in 1515. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p140 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p61)Blood Sedimentation: Measurement of rate of settling of erythrocytes in anticoagulated blood.Bone and Bones: A specialized CONNECTIVE TISSUE that is the main constituent of the SKELETON. The principle cellular component of bone is comprised of OSTEOBLASTS; OSTEOCYTES; and OSTEOCLASTS, while FIBRILLAR COLLAGENS and hydroxyapatite crystals form the BONE MATRIX.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Linear Energy Transfer: Rate of energy dissipation along the path of charged particles. In radiobiology and health physics, exposure is measured in kiloelectron volts per micrometer of tissue (keV/micrometer T).Pinus ponderosa: A plant species of the genus PINUS that contains isocupressic acid.Recombination, Genetic: Production of new arrangements of DNA by various mechanisms such as assortment and segregation, CROSSING OVER; GENE CONVERSION; GENETIC TRANSFORMATION; GENETIC CONJUGATION; GENETIC TRANSDUCTION; or mixed infection of viruses.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Cobalt Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cobalt that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Co atoms with atomic weights of 54-64, except 59, are radioactive cobalt isotopes.Hip Joint: The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.Crohn Disease: A chronic transmural inflammation that may involve any part of the DIGESTIVE TRACT from MOUTH to ANUS, mostly found in the ILEUM, the CECUM, and the COLON. In Crohn disease, the inflammation, extending through the intestinal wall from the MUCOSA to the serosa, is characteristically asymmetric and segmental. Epithelioid GRANULOMAS may be seen in some patients.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Tibia: The second longest bone of the skeleton. It is located on the medial side of the lower leg, articulating with the FIBULA laterally, the TALUS distally, and the FEMUR proximally.Body Composition: The relative amounts of various components in the body, such as percentage of body fat.LondonOsteoarthritis, Knee: Noninflammatory degenerative disease of the knee joint consisting of three large categories: conditions that block normal synchronous movement, conditions that produce abnormal pathways of motion, and conditions that cause stress concentration resulting in changes to articular cartilage. (Crenshaw, Campbell's Operative Orthopaedics, 8th ed, p2019)Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Femur: The longest and largest bone of the skeleton, it is situated between the hip and the knee.DNA Damage: Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.DNA Repair: The reconstruction of a continuous two-stranded DNA molecule without mismatch from a molecule which contained damaged regions. The major repair mechanisms are excision repair, in which defective regions in one strand are excised and resynthesized using the complementary base pairing information in the intact strand; photoreactivation repair, in which the lethal and mutagenic effects of ultraviolet light are eliminated; and post-replication repair, in which the primary lesions are not repaired, but the gaps in one daughter duplex are filled in by incorporation of portions of the other (undamaged) daughter duplex. Excision repair and post-replication repair are sometimes referred to as "dark repair" because they do not require light.Environmental Exposure: The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.Cystic Fibrosis: An autosomal recessive genetic disease of the EXOCRINE GLANDS. It is caused by mutations in the gene encoding the CYSTIC FIBROSIS TRANSMEMBRANE CONDUCTANCE REGULATOR expressed in several organs including the LUNG, the PANCREAS, the BILIARY SYSTEM, and the SWEAT GLANDS. Cystic fibrosis is characterized by epithelial secretory dysfunction associated with ductal obstruction resulting in AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION; chronic RESPIRATORY INFECTIONS; PANCREATIC INSUFFICIENCY; maldigestion; salt depletion; and HEAT PROSTRATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Anthropometry: The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.Forced Expiratory Volume: Measure of the maximum amount of air that can be expelled in a given number of seconds during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination . It is usually given as FEV followed by a subscript indicating the number of seconds over which the measurement is made, although it is sometimes given as a percentage of forced vital capacity.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Foot Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the foot occurring at or before birth.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Wood: A product of hard secondary xylem composed of CELLULOSE, hemicellulose, and LIGNANS, that is under the bark of trees and shrubs. It is used in construction and as a source of CHARCOAL and many other products.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Perciformes: The most diversified of all fish orders and the largest vertebrate order. It includes many of the commonly known fish such as porgies, croakers, sunfishes, dolphin fish, mackerels, TUNA, etc.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Relative Biological Effectiveness: The ratio of radiation dosages required to produce identical change based on a formula comparing other types of radiation with that of gamma or roentgen rays.Neutrons: Electrically neutral elementary particles found in all atomic nuclei except light hydrogen; the mass is equal to that of the proton and electron combined and they are unstable when isolated from the nucleus, undergoing beta decay. Slow, thermal, epithermal, and fast neutrons refer to the energy levels with which the neutrons are ejected from heavier nuclei during their decay.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Metatarsophalangeal Joint: The articulation between a metatarsal bone (METATARSAL BONES) and a phalanx.Mice, Inbred C57BLPredictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Animal Structures: Organs and other anatomical structures of non-human vertebrate and invertebrate animals.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Metatarsal Bones: The five long bones of the METATARSUS, articulating with the TARSAL BONES proximally and the PHALANGES OF TOES distally.Fishes: A group of cold-blooded, aquatic vertebrates having gills, fins, a cartilaginous or bony endoskeleton, and elongated bodies covered with scales.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Food Irradiation: Treatment of food with RADIATION.Torpedo: A genus of the Torpedinidae family consisting of several species. Members of this family have powerful electric organs and are commonly called electric rays.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Cambium: A layer of living cells between the bark and hardwood that each year produces additional wood and bark cells, forming concentric growth rings.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Hand Deformities, Congenital: Alterations or deviations from normal shape or size which result in a disfigurement of the hand occurring at or before birth.Cesium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of cesium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cs atoms with atomic weights of 123, 125-132, and 134-145 are radioactive cesium isotopes.Crosses, Genetic: Deliberate breeding of two different individuals that results in offspring that carry part of the genetic material of each parent. The parent organisms must be genetically compatible and may be from different varieties or closely related species.Heavy Ions: Positively-charged atomic nuclei that have been stripped of their electrons. These particles have one or more units of electric charge and a mass exceeding that of the Helium-4 nucleus (alpha particle).Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Cobalt Isotopes: Stable cobalt atoms that have the same atomic number as the element cobalt, but differ in atomic weight. Co-59 is a stable cobalt isotope.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Plant Stems: Parts of plants that usually grow vertically upwards towards the light and support the leaves, buds, and reproductive structures. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990)Caenorhabditis: A genus of small free-living nematodes. Two species, CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS and C. briggsae are much used in studies of genetics, development, aging, muscle chemistry, and neuroanatomy.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Ectromelia: Gross hypo- or aplasia of one or more long bones of one or more limbs. The concept includes amelia, hemimelia, phocomelia, and sirenomelia.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Electric Organ: In about 250 species of electric fishes, modified muscle fibers forming disklike multinucleate plates arranged in stacks like batteries in series and embedded in a gelatinous matrix. A large torpedo ray may have half a million plates. Muscles in different parts of the body may be modified, i.e., the trunk and tail in the electric eel, the hyobranchial apparatus in the electric ray, and extrinsic eye muscles in the stargazers. Powerful electric organs emit pulses in brief bursts several times a second. They serve to stun prey and ward off predators. A large torpedo ray can produce of shock of more than 200 volts, capable of stunning a human. (Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p672)Hallux Valgus: Lateral displacement of the great toe (HALLUX), producing deformity of the first METATARSOPHALANGEAL JOINT with callous, bursa, or bunion formation over the bony prominence.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Retinoid X Receptors: A subtype of RETINOIC ACID RECEPTORS that are specific for 9-cis-retinoic acid which function as nuclear TRANSCRIPTION FACTORS that regulate multiple signaling pathways.Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium: A plant species of the genus CHRYSANTHEMUM, family ASTERACEAE. The flowers contain PYRETHRINS, cinerolones, and chrysanthemines which are powerful contact insecticides. Most in the old Pyrethrum genus are reclassified to TANACETUM; some to other ASTERACEAE genera.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spectrometry, Gamma: Determination of the energy distribution of gamma rays emitted by nuclei. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Thermoluminescent Dosimetry: The use of a device composed of thermoluminescent material for measuring exposure to IONIZING RADIATION. The thermoluminescent material emits light when heated. The amount of light emitted is proportional to the amount of ionizing radiation to which the material has been exposed.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Biomechanical Phenomena: The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.Alleles: Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Absorptiometry, Photon: A noninvasive method for assessing BODY COMPOSITION. It is based on the differential absorption of X-RAYS (or GAMMA RAYS) by different tissues such as bone, fat and other soft tissues. The source of (X-ray or gamma-ray) photon beam is generated either from radioisotopes such as GADOLINIUM 153, IODINE 125, or Americanium 241 which emit GAMMA RAYS in the appropriate range; or from an X-ray tube which produces X-RAYS in the desired range. It is primarily used for quantitating BONE MINERAL CONTENT, especially for the diagnosis of OSTEOPOROSIS, and also in measuring BONE MINERALIZATION.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Alpha Particles: Positively charged particles composed of two protons and two NEUTRONS, i.e. equivalent to HELIUM nuclei, which are emitted during disintegration of heavy ISOTOPES. Alpha rays have very strong ionizing power, but weak penetrability.Tarsal Bones: The seven bones which form the tarsus - namely, CALCANEUS; TALUS; cuboid, navicular, and the internal, middle, and external cuneiforms.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Extremities: The farthest or outermost projections of the body, such as the HAND and FOOT.Xylem: Plant tissue that carries water up the root and stem. Xylem cell walls derive most of their strength from LIGNIN. The vessels are similar to PHLOEM sieve tubes but lack companion cells and do not have perforated sides and pores.Sense Organs: Specialized organs adapted for the reception of stimuli by the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Zebrafish: An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Bacteriophage phi X 174: The type species of the genus MICROVIRUS. A prototype of the small virulent DNA coliphages, it is composed of a single strand of supercoiled circular DNA, which on infection, is converted to a double-stranded replicative form by a host enzyme.Californium: Californium. A man-made radioactive actinide with atomic symbol Cf, atomic number 98, and atomic weight 251. Its valence can be +2 or +3. Californium has medical use as a radiation source for radiotherapy.Data Display: The visual display of data in a man-machine system. An example is when data is called from the computer and transmitted to a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY or LIQUID CRYSTAL display.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Bone Density: The amount of mineral per square centimeter of BONE. This is the definition used in clinical practice. Actual bone density would be expressed in grams per milliliter. It is most frequently measured by X-RAY ABSORPTIOMETRY or TOMOGRAPHY, X RAY COMPUTED. Bone density is an important predictor for OSTEOPOROSIS.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.Swimming: An activity in which the body is propelled through water by specific movement of the arms and/or the legs. Swimming as propulsion through water by the movement of limbs, tail, or fins of animals is often studied as a form of PHYSICAL EXERTION or endurance.Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
  • Since 1998, trading in products derived from manta and devil rays has increased exponentially ( Ward-Paige, Davis & Worm, 2013 ). (peerj.com)
  • The trade in manta ray gill plates has considerably increased over the last two decades. (peerj.com)
  • The aim of this study was to ascertain how yearling and juvenile growth and survival, and adult survival and reproduction affect reef manta ray ( Manta alfredi ) population change, to increase our understanding of manta ray demography and thereby improve conservation research and measures for these fish. (peerj.com)
  • We developed a population projection model for reef manta rays, and used published life history data on yearling and juvenile growth and adult reproduction to parameterise the model. (peerj.com)
  • Because little is known about reef manta ray yearling and juvenile survival, we conducted our analyses using a range of plausible survival rate values for yearlings, juveniles and adults. (peerj.com)
  • The model accurately captured observed variation in population growth rate, lifetime reproductive success and cohort generation time in different reef manta ray populations. (peerj.com)
  • It is important to gain an in-depth understanding of reef manta ray life histories, particularly of yearling and adult survival rates, as these can influence reef manta ray population dynamics in a variety of ways. (peerj.com)
  • 20. A method as in claim 1, wherein a substantial proportion of the X-rays produced are directed to impinge upon a fluorescent target so as to remove inner shell electrons from atoms thereof and thereby create a population inversion. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In general, the shortest pulse duration with minimal frequency chirp produced the highest energy electrons and the most charge. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • Pulses on the positive chirp side sustained electron injection and produced higher charge, but lower peak energy electrons, compared with negatively chirped pulses. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • X-ray spectra showed that ionization injection of electrons into the wakefield generally produced more photons than self-injection for all pulse durations/frequency chirp and had less of a spread in the number of photons around the peak x-ray energy. (lancs.ac.uk)
  • PRE NE ELECTRON ENERGY SENSITIVE PHOSPHORS FOR MU LTI-COLOR CA'I'I-IODE RAY TUBES This invention relates to luminescent materials and more particularly, to methods for preparing phosphor particles containing both luminescent and non-luminescent regions arranged such that the efficiency with which the particles generate light when they are excited by a beam of electrons depends on the energy of those electrons in a controllable manner. (google.ca)
  • Positrons quickly annihilate electrons, generating gamma rays. (livescience.com)
  • These numbers refer to the product's ability to screen or block out the sun's burning rays. (medicinenet.com)
  • For instance, the XM-1 x-ray microscope at the Advanced Light Source, located at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, uses bright beams of 'soft' x-rays to produce images that not only reveal structures but can identify their chemical elements and measure their electromagnetic and other properties as well. (azooptics.com)
  • The death ray or death beam was a theoretical particle beam or electromagnetic weapon of the 1920s and 1930s that was claimed to have been invented independently by Guglielmo Marconi, Nikola Tesla, Harry Grindell Matthews, Edwin R. Scott, and Graichen, as well as others. (wikipedia.org)
  • We have studied theoretically and experimentally the x-ray production above 1 keV from femtosecond laser plasmas generated on periodically modulated surface targets. (spie.org)
  • The electron beam ion trap (EBIT) facility at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is being used to absolutely calibrate the transmission efficiency of X-ray filters employed by diodes and spectrometers used to diagnose laser-produced plasmas. (unt.edu)
  • X-rays from about 0.12 to 12 keV are classified as soft X-rays, and from about 12 to 120 keV as hard X-rays, due to their penetrating abilities. (phys.org)
  • Since x-rays cannot be focused by glass lenses, the XM-1 uses lenses made of zone plates, disks of concentric rings of metal from which soft x-rays are diffracted to a focus. (azooptics.com)
  • Results show a distinct x-ray emission maximum for the first order diffraction angle and are in good qualitative agreement with our theoretical predictions. (spie.org)
  • This includes all types of x-ray diffraction and spectrographic equipment. (tufts.edu)
  • In a demonstration of the technique, the researchers produced grating structures in bulk crystal comprising a series of 0.14-mm-wide grooves separated by 0.2 mm. (photonics.com)
  • Researchers: using any device which utilizes x-ray for the purpose of examining microstructure of materials. (tufts.edu)
  • What had happened, the researchers said, was that at about 1,200 degrees centigrade - almost 2,000 degrees Fahrenheit - this otherwise innocuous manganese oxide turned into a vivid blue compound that could be used to make a pigment able to resist heat and acid, be environmentally benign and cheap to produce from a readily available mineral. (innovations-report.com)
  • The mystery of the origin of the strongest cosmic rays has deepened as new clues into key suspects, the most powerful explosions in the universe, suggest they are likely not potential culprits, researchers say. (csmonitor.com)
  • Instead of gamma-ray bursts, researchers note that black holes at the centers or nuclei of active galaxies may be responsible for these ultra-high-energy cosmic rays, sucking in matter and spitting out enormous particle jets as they gorge. (csmonitor.com)
  • Still, not all reactors have underground spaces where such detectors might be housed, so researchers are also developing devices that can work above ground and take the extra noise from cosmic rays into consideration. (livescience.com)
  • Researchers at the Berkeley Lab's Center for X-Ray Optics (CXRO), over the past decade, were able to build and operate the XM-1 to achieve an extraordinary resolution of better than 15 nanometers, with the goal of generating an even higher resolution in the future. (azooptics.com)
  • They then target and highlight the cracks formed in bones, allowing researchers to produce a complete 3D image of the damaged regions. (idaireland.com)
  • On Aug. 17, 2017, Fermi detected a gamma-ray burst from a powerful explosion in the constellation Hydra. (nasa.gov)
  • Images are created by the way different tissues react to x-rays, radioactive particles, sound waves or magnetic fields. (cancer.ca)
  • A method of producing X-rays by directing radiant energy from a laser onto a target. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 18. A method as in claim 1, wherein the radiant energy is focused onto a spot on the target having a diameter of about 10 to 100 microns, generating a plasma of about the same diameter, to form substantially a point source of X-rays and thus to provide substantially the advantages of stimulated emission of X-rays. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • This class is the result of a reclassification of the X-ray art which was extracted from several classes, principally Class 250, Radiant Energy. (uspto.gov)
  • Ultraviolet ray absorbent colored glass for buildings and vehicles, which consists essentially of from 65 to 75 wt % of SiO2, from 0.1 to 5.0 wt % of Al2 O3 , from 10 to 18 wt % of Na2 O, from 0 to 5 wt % of K2 O, from 5 to 15 wt % of CaO, from 1 to 6 wt % of MgO, from 0.05 to 1.0 wt % of SO3, from 0.08. (google.com)
  • The present invention relates to a glass composition which has a high ultraviolet ray absorbing ability and a relatively high luminous transmittance and which has the same brown color as current colored plate and float glass for buildings and vehicles. (google.com)
  • Further, glass having fine semiconductor crystals precipitated therein, so that it is capable of efficiently absorbing ultraviolet rays, is also known. (google.com)
  • Further, brown-colored glass has had a problem that it is likely to be discolored by ultraviolet rays. (google.com)
  • It is an object of the present invention to obtain glass which is capable of absorbing ultraviolet rays and at the same time has a sufficient transmittance of visible lights and which will not be discolored by ultraviolet rays and has a color tone equivalent to conventional glass for buildings or vehicles. (google.com)
  • Vanadium is present in the most stable condition usually in the form of V 5+ in the glass and has an absorption band in a near ultraviolet region (350 nm), and thus it is a component which provides ultraviolet ray-absorbing effects. (google.com)
  • However, if the amount is less than 0.08 wt %, the effects tend to be low, and if it exceeds 0.20 wt %, its influence over absorption of near ultraviolet rays and visible lights tends to be substantial. (google.com)
  • If the total iron amount is less than 0.06 wt %, the effects for absorbing ultraviolet rays tend to be inadequate, or the glass tends to undergo a color change to an amber color. (google.com)
  • We wear sunglasses and sunblock to prevent damage to our eyes and skin by ultraviolet rays. (factmonster.com)
  • EBIT emits strong, discrete monoenergetic lines at appropriately chosen X-ray energies. (unt.edu)
  • A few rare cosmic rays are extraordinarily powerful, with energies up to 100 million times greater than any attained by human-made particle colliders, such as CERN's Large Hadron Collider . (csmonitor.com)
  • Fermi detects gamma rays, the most powerful form of light, with energies thousands to billions of times greater than the visible spectrum. (nasa.gov)
  • Some gamma-ray bursts are thought to be collapses of supermassive stars - hypernovas - while others are thought to be collisions of black holes with other black holes or neutron stars," said study co-author Spencer Klein of the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory . (csmonitor.com)
  • On June 11, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope celebrates a decade of using gamma rays, the highest-energy form of light in the cosmos, to study black holes, neutron stars, and other extreme cosmic objects and events. (nasa.gov)
  • Gamma-ray bursts occur when massive stars collapse or neutron stars or black holes merge and drive jets of particles at nearly the speed of light. (nasa.gov)
  • Neutron star mergers produce a wide variety of light because the objects form a maelstrom of hot debris when they collide. (nasa.gov)
  • The cells produced less than one neutron per second. (newscientist.com)
  • There are basically only two ideas on how she does this - in gravitationally driven particle flows near the supermassive black holes at the centers of active galaxies, and in the collapse of stars to a black hole, seen by astronomers as gamma-ray bursts. (csmonitor.com)
  • NASA's NuSTAR satellite, designed to detect cosmic X-rays, detected a flare of high-energy emission coming from the Milky Way galaxy's central supermassive black hole . (slashdot.org)
  • These two "bubbles" span 50,000 light-years and were probably produced by the supermassive black hole at the center of the galaxy only a few million years ago. (nasa.gov)
  • 3. The device of claim 1 wherein the control apparatus controls the average current by controlling a duration of the voltage pulses to allow a predetermined amount of charge to pass through the x-ray emitter during each pulse. (google.es)
  • The only gamma-rays found were due to artefacts of the apparatus. (newscientist.com)
  • My apparatus projects particles which may be relatively large or of microscopic dimensions, enabling us to convey to a small area at a great distance trillions of times more energy than is possible with rays of any kind. (wikipedia.org)
  • Medical imaging, such as X-ray or computerised tomography (CT), may soon be cheaper and safer, thanks to a recent discovery made by chemists from the National University of Singapore (NUS). (phys.org)
  • Computed tomography or CT scan works on the same principles as fixed plate x rays, only with a CT scan , an x ray tube rotates around the individual, taking hundreds of images that are then compiled by a computer to produce a two-dimensional cross section of the body. (encyclopedia.com)
  • computed tomography, which produces more detailed still images. (iaea.org)
  • Fluoroscopy is a special x-ray technique that produces real-time images on a television monitor. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A special x-ray (fluoroscopy imaging) captures moving images of the food and liquid as they pass through the mouth. (cancer.ca)
  • In 1949, Enrico Fermi - an Italian-American pioneer in high-energy physics and Nobel laureate for whom the mission was named - suggested that cosmic rays, particles traveling at nearly the speed of light, could be propelled by supernova shock waves. (nasa.gov)
  • Universal X-ray Intrument (UXI) All-purpose Meter The model 890 x-ray dose meter can measure from 2Rad/minute up to 630Rad/minute. (eccxray.com)
  • Hence, they will need a high dose of X-rays for effective imaging. (phys.org)
  • Billy Ray Irick was executed by lethal injection Thursday, Aug. 9, 2018. (tennessean.com)
  • please correct spelling to DYER: Kathy Jeffers, mother of victim Paula Dyer, leaves following the execution of Billy Ray Irick at Riverbend Maximum Security Institution in Nashville on Thursday, August 9, 2018. (tennessean.com)
  • Humongous space explosions known as gamma ray bursts have been ruled out as a source of the universe's most intense cosmic rays, a new study has found. (csmonitor.com)
  • An illustration of a gamma-ray burst, the most powerful explosion type yet seen in the universe. (csmonitor.com)
  • Gamma-ray bursts are the most powerful explosions in the universe . (csmonitor.com)
  • New evidence may now rule out gamma-ray bursts as sources of these ultra-high-energy cosmic rays. (csmonitor.com)
  • This is a coming-of-age for neutrino astronomy - the first time we're able to use neutrino data as a new way of looking at astrophysical objects and say something substantive about them," said study co-author Nathan Whitehorn, a physicist at the University of Wisconsin-Madison, who led the recent gamma-ray burst research with Peter Redl of the University of Maryland. (csmonitor.com)
  • This suggests gamma-ray bursts are probably not the sources of the most powerful cosmic rays. (csmonitor.com)
  • Our understanding of gamma-ray bursts is not complete - there's a lot of theoretical uncertainty. (csmonitor.com)
  • Using NASA's Chandra X-ray observatory, astronomers have spotted X-ray-emitting clumps being ejected with high velocities from the gamma-ray binary PSR B1259-63/LS 2883. (phys.org)
  • NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope has completed its primary mission, and it will continue to explore the high-energy cosmos in unprecedented detail. (nasa.gov)
  • Fermi's main instrument, the Large Area Telescope (LAT), has observed more than 5,000 individual gamma-ray sources. (nasa.gov)
  • The Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM), Fermi's secondary instrument, can see the entire sky at any instant, except the portion blocked by Earth. (nasa.gov)
  • The satellite has observed over 2,300 gamma-ray bursts, the most luminous events in the universe. (nasa.gov)
  • Scientists also used another gamma-ray burst detected by Fermi to confirm Einstein's theory that space-time is smooth and continuous. (nasa.gov)
  • EDT on Aug. 17, NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope picked up a pulse of high-energy light from a powerful explosion, which was immediately reported to astronomers around the globe as a short gamma-ray burst. (nasa.gov)
  • The scientists at the National Science Foundation's Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) detected gravitational waves dubbed GW170817 from a pair of smashing stars tied to the gamma-ray burst, encouraging astronomers to look for the aftermath of the explosion. (nasa.gov)
  • As they drew closer and orbited faster, the stars eventually broke apart and merged, producing both a gamma-ray burst and a rarely seen flare-up called a "kilonova. (nasa.gov)
  • X rays were accidentally discovered in 1895 by German physicist Wilhem Roentgen (1845-1923), who was later awarded the first Nobel Prize in physics for his discovery. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 1895 - First X-ray performed, in Germany. (envirolink.org)
  • Plain film x rays normally take only a few minutes to perform and can be done in a hospital, radiological center, clinic, doctor's or dentist's office, or at bedside with a portable x-ray machine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Machines record the transmission and absorption of x-rays as they criss-cross through the human body, allowing observers to detect tumors or other masses. (technologyreview.com)
  • The lens system is designed to be used with a cathode ray tube having a face glass with an aspheric surface having phosphor elements mounted thereto. (google.de)
  • wherein a surface of said face glass of said cathode ray tube to which phosphor elements are mounted is aspheric and wherein the radius of curvature of said surface is greatest at the optical axis and is less radially outward thereof to reduce the amount of light from said phosphor elements which undergoes total internal reflection from a central portion of said concave face of said fourth lens. (google.de)
  • By bombarding a thick iron target with a high-power laser, a broad-band source of X-rays has been produced. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • X-rays are detected using the high-resolution EBIT calorimeter spectrometer (ECS), developed for LLNL at the NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center. (unt.edu)
  • ECC produces high quality X-ray calibration/measurement devices. (eccxray.com)
  • We are a company dedicated to producing high quality x-ray calibration and measurement instrumentation at an affordable cost and are used in over 50 countries. (eccxray.com)
  • A crucial part of X-ray imaging technology is scintillation, which is the conversion of high-energy X-ray photons to visible luminescence. (phys.org)
  • Conventional scintillators are also usually produced using a solid-growth method at a high temperature, making it difficult to fabricate thin, large and uniform scintillator films. (phys.org)
  • We hope that this new class of high performance X-ray scintillator can better meet tomorrow's increasingly diversified needs. (phys.org)
  • Guangdong Zhengye Technology Co., Ltd.,(Stock code:300410) located in Science and Technology Park, Songshan Lake, Dongguan City, Guangdong province, is a high and new-tech enterprise and is engaged in researching & developing, producing, selling and after-sale services of the precision inspection equipments and electronic materials. (zhengyekeji.com)
  • X-rays are high-energy waves that pass through flesh but not bone. (factmonster.com)
  • In high doses, X-rays can harm people. (factmonster.com)
  • Dental Handheld Portable X-Ray Unit is a high quality, photo real 3d model that will enhance detail and realism to any of your rendering projects. (turbosquid.com)
  • A team led by Prof Liu Xiaogang developed perovskite nanocrystals (in the bottles) that are highly sensitive to X-ray irradiation. (phys.org)
  • Professor Liu Xiaogang and his team from the Department of Chemistry under the NUS Faculty of Science had developed novel lead halide perovskite nanocrystals that are highly sensitive to X-ray irradiation. (phys.org)
  • The present invention also includes an x-ray emitter device with rectangular voltage pulses added to a base direct current voltage. (google.es)
  • controlling the average current through the x-ray emitter by adjusting the duty cycle of the pulses. (google.es)
  • The image producing method of claim 3, wherein said data extracting processing extracts data from a (Roundup{Lj* tan .theta. (patentgenius.com)
  • 5. The image producing method of claim 2, wherein said data transforming processing is interpolation processing. (patentgenius.com)
  • 6. The image producing method of claim 2, wherein said dummy data are air data. (patentgenius.com)
  • Scientists at the National Synchrotron Light Source II (NSLS-II)--a U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Science User Facility at DOE's Brookhaven National Laboratory--have used ultrabright x-rays to image single bacteria with higher spatial resolution than ever before. (newswise.com)
  • As a result, the term X-ray is metonymically used to refer to a radiographic image produced using this method, in addition to the method itself. (phys.org)
  • The Chandra X-ray Observatory image is of DEM L50, a so-called superbubble found in the Large Magellanic Cloud. (utsa.edu)
  • The Helium is produced with very low kinetic energy and the wave lengths are very long and goes into Infrared. (drboblog.com)
  • RTI's new technology works toward that goal by helping to bend the overall cost curve for energy produced at coal fired power plants with CO 2 capture and ultimately conserving our nation's fossil fuel resources. (newswise.com)
  • We'll also be able to conduct research on potential peer-to-peer energy transactions that could result from this use - that is, the energy trading between consumers and 'prosumers,' those who both produce and consume the energy," Ferdowsi says. (newswise.com)
  • While based in fiction, research into energy-based weapons inspired by past speculation has contributed to real-life weapons in use by modern militaries sometimes called a sort of "death ray", such as the United States Navy and its Laser Weapon System (LaWS) deployed in mid-2014. (wikipedia.org)
  • All the energy of New York City (approximately two million horsepower) transformed into rays and projected twenty miles, could not kill a human being, because, according to a well known law of physics, it would disperse to such an extent as to be ineffectual. (wikipedia.org)
  • From their experiments, the team found that their nanocrystals can detect small doses of X-ray photons and convert them into visible light. (phys.org)