Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Amylose: An unbranched glucan in starch.Hydroxyethyl Starch Derivatives: Starches that have been chemically modified so that a percentage of OH groups are substituted with 2-hydroxyethyl ether groups.Starch Phosphorylase: An enzyme of the PHOSPHORYLASES family that catalyzes the degradation of starch, a mixture of unbranched AMYLOSE and branched AMYLOPECTIN compounds. This phosphorylase from plants is the counterpart of GLYCOGEN PHOSPHORYLASE in animals that catalyzes the reaction of inorganic phosphate on the terminal alpha-1,4-glycosidic bond at the non-reducing end of glucans resulting in the release of glucose-1-phosphate.1,4-alpha-Glucan Branching Enzyme: In glycogen or amylopectin synthesis, the enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of a segment of a 1,4-alpha-glucan chain to a primary hydroxy group in a similar glucan chain. EC 2.4.1.18.alpha-Amylases: Enzymes that catalyze the endohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in STARCH; GLYCOGEN; and related POLYSACCHARIDES and OLIGOSACCHARIDES containing 3 or more 1,4-alpha-linked D-glucose units.Dietary Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates present in food comprising digestible sugars and starches and indigestible cellulose and other dietary fibers. The former are the major source of energy. The sugars are in beet and cane sugar, fruits, honey, sweet corn, corn syrup, milk and milk products, etc.; the starches are in cereal grains, legumes (FABACEAE), tubers, etc. (From Claudio & Lagua, Nutrition and Diet Therapy Dictionary, 3d ed, p32, p277)Digestion: The process of breakdown of food for metabolism and use by the body.Solanum tuberosum: A plant species of the genus SOLANUM, family SOLANACEAE. The starchy roots are used as food. SOLANINE is found in green parts.Zea mays: A plant species of the family POACEAE. It is a tall grass grown for its EDIBLE GRAIN, corn, used as food and animal FODDER.Glucose-1-Phosphate Adenylyltransferase: An ATP-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the addition of ADP to alpha-D-glucose 1-phosphate to form ADP-glucose and diphosphate. The reaction is the rate-limiting reaction in prokaryotic GLYCOGEN and plant STARCH biosynthesis.Isoamylase: An enzyme that hydrolyzes 1,6-alpha-glucosidic branch linkages in glycogen, amylopectin, and their beta-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from pullulanase (EC 3.2.1.41) by its inability to attack pullulan and by the feeble action of alpha-limit dextrins. It is distinguished from amylopectin 6-glucanohydrolase (EC 3.2.1.69) by its action on glycogen. With EC 3.2.1.69, it produces the activity called "debranching enzyme". EC 3.2.1.68.Plasma Substitutes: Any liquid used to replace blood plasma, usually a saline solution, often with serum albumins, dextrans or other preparations. These substances do not enhance the oxygen- carrying capacity of blood, but merely replace the volume. They are also used to treat dehydration.Glucan 1,4-alpha-Glucosidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues successively from non-reducing ends of polysaccharide chains with the release of beta-glucose. It is also able to hydrolyze 1,6-alpha-glucosidic bonds when the next bond in sequence is 1,4.Electrophoresis, Starch Gel: Electrophoresis in which a starch gel (a mixture of amylose and amylopectin) is used as the diffusion medium.Plant Tubers: An enlarged underground root or stem of some plants. It is usually rich in carbohydrates. Some, such as POTATOES, are important human FOOD. They may reproduce vegetatively from buds.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Adenosine Diphosphate Glucose: Serves as the glycosyl donor for formation of bacterial glycogen, amylose in green algae, and amylopectin in higher plants.Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Maltose: A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Endosperm: Nutritive tissue of the seeds of flowering plants that surrounds the EMBRYOS. It is produced by a parallel process of fertilization in which a second male gamete from the pollen grain fuses with two female nuclei within the embryo sac. The endosperm varies in ploidy and contains reserves of starch, oils, and proteins, making it an important source of human nutrition.Sucrose: A nonreducing disaccharide composed of GLUCOSE and FRUCTOSE linked via their anomeric carbons. It is obtained commercially from SUGARCANE, sugar beet (BETA VULGARIS), and other plants and used extensively as a food and a sweetener.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.DextrinsFatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Plastids: Self-replicating cytoplasmic organelles of plant and algal cells that contain pigments and may synthesize and accumulate various substances. PLASTID GENOMES are used in phylogenetic studies.Phosphotransferases (Paired Acceptors): A group of enzymes that transfers two phosphate groups from a donor such as ATP to two different acceptors. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.9.beta-Amylase: An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glycosidic linkages in starch, glycogen, and related polysaccharides and oligosaccharides so as to remove successive beta-maltose units from the non-reducing ends of the chains. EC 3.2.1.2.Plant Leaves: Expanded structures, usually green, of vascular plants, characteristically consisting of a bladelike expansion attached to a stem, and functioning as the principal organ of photosynthesis and transpiration. (American Heritage Dictionary, 2d ed)Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Seeds: The encapsulated embryos of flowering plants. They are used as is or for animal feed because of the high content of concentrated nutrients like starches, proteins, and fats. Rapeseed, cottonseed, and sunflower seed are also produced for the oils (fats) they yield.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)Glucosyltransferases: Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of glucose from a nucleoside diphosphate glucose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.Oryza sativa: Annual cereal grass of the family POACEAE and its edible starchy grain, rice, which is the staple food of roughly one-half of the world's population.Amylases: A group of amylolytic enzymes that cleave starch, glycogen, and related alpha-1,4-glucans. (Stedman, 25th ed) EC 3.2.1.-.Glucans: Polysaccharides composed of repeating glucose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Dietary Fiber: The remnants of plant cell walls that are resistant to digestion by the alimentary enzymes of man. It comprises various polysaccharides and lignins.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Hordeum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE. The EDIBLE GRAIN, barley, is widely used as food.Glycogen Debranching Enzyme System: 1,4-alpha-D-Glucan-1,4-alpha-D-glucan 4-alpha-D-glucosyltransferase/dextrin 6 alpha-D-glucanohydrolase. An enzyme system having both 4-alpha-glucanotransferase (EC 2.4.1.25) and amylo-1,6-glucosidase (EC 3.2.1.33) activities. As a transferase it transfers a segment of a 1,4-alpha-D-glucan to a new 4-position in an acceptor, which may be glucose or another 1,4-alpha-D-glucan. As a glucosidase it catalyzes the endohydrolysis of 1,6-alpha-D-glucoside linkages at points of branching in chains of 1,4-linked alpha-D-glucose residues. Amylo-1,6-glucosidase activity is deficient in glycogen storage disease type III.Intestine, Large: A segment of the LOWER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT that includes the CECUM; the COLON; and the RECTUM.Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.alpha-Glucosidases: Enzymes that catalyze the exohydrolysis of 1,4-alpha-glucosidic linkages with release of alpha-glucose. Deficiency of alpha-1,4-glucosidase may cause GLYCOGEN STORAGE DISEASE TYPE II.Kluyveromyces: An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Agave: A genus known for fibers obtained from their leaves: sisal from A. sisalana, henequen from A. fourcroyoides and A. cantala, or Manila-Maguey fiber from A. cantala. Some species provide a sap that is fermented to an intoxicating drink, called pulque in Mexico. Some contain agavesides.Asparagus Plant: A plant genus in the family LILIACEAE (sometimes placed in Asparagaceae) that contains ECDYSTEROIDS and is an ingredient of Siotone. The shoots are used as a vegetable and the roots are used in FOLK MEDICINE.
  • The proteins, produced on the insect larvae of Culex pipiens, were thereafter tested, and mortality rates after 24h and 48h were evaluated and compared with those of control samples. (ac.ir)
  • Sour cassava starch is a product obtained from cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) processing to overcome raw material toxicity and low nutritional value (lipids and proteins). (cetjournal.it)
  • Wet milling process - corn kernel is soaked in warm water - proteins broken down - starch present in the corn is released (thus, softening the kernel for the milling process) - microorganisms, fibre and starch products are produced. (slideshare.net)
  • 9. The method as set forth in claim 1, wherein the step of treating the slurry of starch includes adding the agent and agitating the slurry of the starch for a period of time of from about 10 minutes to about two hours. (sumobrain.com)
  • With the exception of the control and cookies made with 10% waxy starch which were rated with lower scores, the rest of the treatments were not significantly different in terms of sensory attributes. (hindawi.com)
  • There are disclosed cationic crosslinked waxy starch products having a Brookfield viscosity of about 700 cps to about 2500 cps and a method for preparing the starch products. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • Also disclosed is the use of the cationic crosslinked waxy starch products having a Brookfield viscosity of about 700 cps to about 2500 cps in the production of paper products. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 3. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 2 wherein the waxy starch is waxy corn starch. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 4. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 1 wherein the product has a Brookfield viscosity ranging from about 800 cps to about 2000 cps. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 6. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 1 wherein the waxy starch is cationized by reaction with a component selected from the group consisting of an amino ion, imino ion, sulfonium ion, phosphonium ion, ammonium ion and mixtures thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 7. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 6 wherein the waxy starch is cationized by reaction with an ammonium ion wherein the ammonium ion is a quaternary ammonium ion. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 8. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 7 wherein the waxy starch is cationized by reaction with (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 9. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 1 wherein the waxy starch is crosslinked by reaction with a component selected from the group consisting of a multi-functional etherifying agent, a multi-functional esterifying agent and mixtures thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 10. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 1 wherein the waxy starch is crosslinked by reaction with a component selected from the group consisting of epichlorohydrin, a dicarboxylic anhydride, phosphorous oxychloride, an alkali earth metal salt of trimetaphosphate, a linear mixed anhydride, a polyamine polyepoxide resin and mixtures thereof. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 11. The cationic crosslinked waxy starch product according to claim 1 wherein the waxy starch is cationized by reaction with (3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl)trimethyl-ammonium chloride, and the waxy starch is crosslinked by reaction with at least one alkali earth metal salt of trimetaphosphate. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • 14. The paper product according to claim 13 wherein the waxy starch is waxy corn starch. (patentsencyclopedia.com)
  • The aim of this study was to access the potential of Trichoderma harzianum to produce fungal biomass protein from rice polishings. (hindawi.com)
  • The results presented in this study have practical implications in that the fungus T. harzianum could be used successfully to produce fungal biomass protein using rice polishings. (hindawi.com)
  • Rice is the only starch that does not cause gas. (clevelandclinic.org)
  • Rice starch as surface treatment of paper has been used in paper production in China since 700 CE. (wikipedia.org)
  • Iodine test is used to detection of the presence of starch. (dnatube.com)
  • Lugol's iodine is used to identify the presence of starch, and Sudan III is used to identify the presence of fat. (reference.com)
  • The results also showed that an increase in the concentration of starch in the crystallization medium resulted in a reduction in the hardness of ibuprofen tablets, but this was not the case for ibuprofen samples engineered in the presence of sodium starch glycolate. (hud.ac.uk)
  • It is interesting to note that although engineered ibuprofen showed superior dissolution as compared to untreated ibuprofen, the highest concentration of starch (10%) or sodium starch glycolate (7%) slowed down the release remarkably due to an increase in the viscosity of the dissolution medium around drug particles. (hud.ac.uk)
  • When riboflavin is produced industrially for use as a food colouring, or for use in vitamin supplements, it is synthesised from glucose using micro-organisms, such as yeast without the use of milk or eggs. (vegsoc.org)
  • One of our sources in the regulatory affairs department of her company that produces I + G from yeast stated that since they are flavor products of a natural process, "they can be labeled [on a food package] as 'natural flavors. (vrg.org)
  • Some of the benefits include maintaining intestinal microflora and overall intestinal health and being a good source of calcium, especially for those who are lactose intolerant, since the live and active cultures produce lactase which breaks down some of the lactose in milk. (ift.org)
  • A sugar alcohol produced from lactose, which is the sugar in milk and is obtained from whey in cow's milk. (vegsoc.org)
  • To perform the test, the tester needs two test tubes, a test tube rack, an eyedropper, distilled water, Lugol's iodine, starch powder and a piece of bread. (reference.com)
  • The tester puts a few drops of distilled water and starch powder into one of the test tubes and a few drops of distilled water and a small piece of bread into the other. (reference.com)
  • Pure starch is a white, tasteless and odorless powder that is insoluble in cold water or alcohol. (wikipedia.org)
  • The novel alpha-amylases are useful in hydrolyzing and/or liquefying starch and due to their stability at low pH values they can be used in conjunction with other acid stable amylases such as gluco-amylase in either a soluble or an immobilized form. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. A process for producing the improved water-absorbent polymer as claimed in claim 1, wherein the aqueous liquid (I) is obtained by beforehand adding with mixing the water-soluble salt of the polyvalent metal (A) and the water-soluble salt of the oxyacid (B) to an aqueous medium. (google.com)
  • 3. A process for producing the improved water-absorbent polymer as claimed in claim 1, wherein the aqueous liquid (I) is obtained by beforehand separately preparing an aqueous solution of the water-soluble salt of the polyvalent metal (A) and an aqueous solution of the water-soluble salt of the oxyacid (B) respectively, and then, mixing such with one another. (google.com)
  • 5. A process for producing the quality-improved water-absorbent polymer as claimed in claim 1, wherein the water-soluble salt of the polyvalent metal (A) is a water-soluble salt of aluminum. (google.com)
  • glucose in the form of starch, on the other hand, is not soluble, therefore osmotically inactive and can be stored much more compactly. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biotechnological treatments to food processing wastes which are found in large quantities can produce useful end products including microbial biomass protein (MBP) while the wastes are also purified during the process. (hindawi.com)
  • Therefore, the aim of the present research was to engineer ibuprofen crystals in the presence of two disintegrants (starch and sodium starch glycolate) in order to improve its flow, compactibility and dissolution behaviour simultaneously. (hud.ac.uk)
  • The Directive requires the Member States to introduce legislation and take the necessary measures to ensure that biofuels (liquid or gaseous fuels used for transport and produced from biomass, i.e. biodegradable waste and residue from, for example, agriculture and forestry) account for a minimum proportion of the fuel sold on their territory. (europa.eu)
  • bio-oil: an oil fuel produced by pyrolysis (molecular decomposition of biomass through the application of heat and in the absence of air). (europa.eu)
  • Studies from the U.S. Department of Energy suggest the United States has enough non-edible biomass to produce approximately 30 percent of our total transportation fuel requirements by 2030. (wired.com)
  • Nixtamalized corn flour (NCF) has a good dietary fiber profile that makes it an alternative to produce gluten-free cookies because upon hydration and mixing it yields a cohesive and machinable dough. (hindawi.com)
  • The slurry of the purified starch is dried, resulting in the purified starch, and the purified starch is tested to confirm that the purified starch meets the standard for being gluten free. (sumobrain.com)
  • In this project you will study to see if starch is being produced in the leaves and if light is necessary for the production of starch. (scienceproject.com)
  • High costs to produce CDs in the pharmaceutical and food industries might be reduced by using AS because of its higher α-, β- and γ-CDs production (12.81, 17.94, and 9.92%, respectively) in a shorter time than that needed for CS. (frontiersin.org)
  • An apparatus, process and product by process for producing a non-woven polymeric fabric web, such as a spunbond web, having filaments of 0.1 to 3.0 denier with equivalent production rates. (google.com)
  • Fungi have more advantages for MBP production as their pellet or filamentous morphology allows low cost to isolate and recover MBP from culture media that builds a substantial fraction of capital and operating costs to produce MBP. (hindawi.com)
  • The U.S. Department of Energy has announced the selection of three projects to receive up to $8 million, aimed at reducing the costs of producing algal biofuels and bioproducts. (oilgae.com)
  • In one study, a starch blocker was found to inhibit more than 96% of amylase, yet it only prevented 7% of carbs from being absorbed ( 7 ). (healthline.com)