An aldohexose that occurs naturally in the D-form in lactose, cerebrosides, gangliosides, and mucoproteins. Deficiency of galactosyl-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALACTOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYL-TRANSFERASE DEFICIENCY DISEASE) causes an error in galactose metabolism called GALACTOSEMIA, resulting in elevations of galactose in the blood.
An enzyme that oxidizes galactose in the presence of molecular oxygen to D-galacto-hexodialdose. It is a copper protein. EC 1.1.3.9.
D-Galactose:NAD(P)+ 1-oxidoreductases. Catalyzes the oxidation of D-galactose in the presence of NAD+ or NADP+ to D-galactono-gamma-lactone and NADH or NADPH. Includes EC 1.1.1.48 and EC 1.1.1.120.
Phosphoric acid esters of galactose.
A group of inherited enzyme deficiencies which feature elevations of GALACTOSE in the blood. This condition may be associated with deficiencies of GALACTOKINASE; UDPGLUCOSE-HEXOSE-1-PHOSPHATE URIDYLYLTRANSFERASE; or UDPGLUCOSE 4-EPIMERASE. The classic form is caused by UDPglucose-Hexose-1-Phosphate Uridylyltransferase deficiency, and presents in infancy with FAILURE TO THRIVE; VOMITING; and INTRACRANIAL HYPERTENSION. Affected individuals also may develop MENTAL RETARDATION; JAUNDICE; hepatosplenomegaly; ovarian failure (PRIMARY OVARIAN INSUFFICIENCY); and cataracts. (From Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, pp61-3)
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which can be epimerized into UDPglucose for entry into the mainstream of carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a source of galactose in the synthesis of lipopolysaccharides, cerebrosides, and lactose.
A necessary enzyme in the metabolism of galactose. It reversibly catalyzes the conversion of UDPglucose to UDPgalactose. NAD+ is an essential component for enzymatic activity. EC 5.1.3.2.
An enzyme that catalyzes reversibly the formation of galactose 1-phosphate and ADP from ATP and D-galactose. Galactosamine can also act as the acceptor. A deficiency of this enzyme results in GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.1.6.
An enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of UDPgalactose from UTP and galactose-1-phosphate. It is present in low levels in fetal and infant liver, but increases with age, thereby enabling galactosemic infants who survive to develop the capacity to metabolize galactose. EC 2.7.7.10.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A naturally occurring product of plants obtained following reduction of GALACTOSE. It appears as a white crystalline powder with a slight sweet taste. It may form in excess in the lens of the eye in GALACTOSEMIAS, a deficiency of GALACTOKINASE.
A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.
Simple sugars, carbohydrates which cannot be decomposed by hydrolysis. They are colorless crystalline substances with a sweet taste and have the same general formula CnH2nOn. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Enzymes that catalyze the transfer of galactose from a nucleoside diphosphate galactose to an acceptor molecule which is frequently another carbohydrate. EC 2.4.1.-.
The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.
Proteins that share the common characteristic of binding to carbohydrates. Some ANTIBODIES and carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. PLANT LECTINS are carbohydrate-binding proteins that have been primarily identified by their hemagglutinating activity (HEMAGGLUTININS). However, a variety of lectins occur in animal species where they serve diverse array of functions through specific carbohydrate recognition.
The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
A hexose or fermentable monosaccharide and isomer of glucose from manna, the ash Fraxinus ornus and related plants. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.
An enzyme that catalyzes the transfer of UMP from UDPglucose to galactose 1-phosphate, forming UDPgalactose and glucose 1-phosphate. Deficiency in this enzyme is the major cause of GALACTOSEMIA. EC 2.7.7.12.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.
Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.
A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.
Enzymes that catalyze the epimerization of chiral centers within carbohydrates or their derivatives. EC 5.1.3.
Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.
An analytical technique for resolution of a chemical mixture into its component compounds. Compounds are separated on an adsorbent paper (stationary phase) by their varied degree of solubility/mobility in the eluting solvent (mobile phase).
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of alpha D-glucose 1-phosphate to alpha D-glucose 6-phosphate. EC 5.4.2.2.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.
Proteins which contain carbohydrate groups attached covalently to the polypeptide chain. The protein moiety is the predominant group with the carbohydrate making up only a small percentage of the total weight.
Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)
SUGARS containing an amino group. GLYCOSYLATION of other compounds with these amino sugars results in AMINOGLYCOSIDES.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A group of naturally occurring N-and O-acyl derivatives of the deoxyamino sugar neuraminic acid. They are ubiquitously distributed in many tissues.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Glycosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of galactose with an alcohol to form an acetal. They include both alpha- and beta-galactosides.
A class of inorganic or organic compounds that contain the borohydride (BH4-) anion.
The N-acetyl derivative of glucosamine.
Protein or glycoprotein substances of plant origin that bind to sugar moieties in cell walls or membranes. Some carbohydrate-metabolizing proteins (ENZYMES) from PLANTS also bind to carbohydrates, however they are not considered lectins. Many plant lectins change the physiology of the membrane of BLOOD CELLS to cause agglutination, mitosis, or other biochemical changes. They may play a role in plant defense mechanisms.
Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)
Endogenous glycoproteins from which SIALIC ACID has been removed by the action of sialidases. They bind tightly to the ASIALOGLYCOPROTEIN RECEPTOR which is located on hepatocyte plasma membranes. After internalization by adsorptive ENDOCYTOSIS they are delivered to LYSOSOMES for degradation. Therefore receptor-mediated clearance of asialoglycoproteins is an important aspect of the turnover of plasma glycoproteins. They are elevated in serum of patients with HEPATIC CIRRHOSIS or HEPATITIS.
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Lipids containing at least one monosaccharide residue and either a sphingoid or a ceramide (CERAMIDES). They are subdivided into NEUTRAL GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS comprising monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylsphingoids and monoglycosyl- and oligoglycosylceramides; and ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS which comprises sialosylglycosylsphingolipids (GANGLIOSIDES); SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS (formerly known as sulfatides), glycuronoglycosphingolipids, and phospho- and phosphonoglycosphingolipids. (From IUPAC's webpage)
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
A family of calcium-binding alpha-globulins that are synthesized in the LIVER and play an essential role in maintaining the solubility of CALCIUM in the BLOOD. In addition the fetuins contain aminoterminal cystatin domains and are classified as type 3 cystatins.
A strong oxidizing agent.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
A disaccharide consisting of one galactose and one glucose moiety in an alpha (1-6) glycosidic linkage.
An order of gram-positive, primarily aerobic BACTERIA that tend to form branching filaments.
Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.
An N-acyl derivative of neuraminic acid. N-acetylneuraminic acid occurs in many polysaccharides, glycoproteins, and glycolipids in animals and bacteria. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p1518)
A group of enzymes that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing beta-D-galactose residues in beta-galactosides. Deficiency of beta-Galactosidase A1 may cause GANGLIOSIDOSIS, GM1.
Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)
A protein phytotoxin from the seeds of Ricinus communis, the castor oil plant. It agglutinates cells, is proteolytic, and causes lethal inflammation and hemorrhage if taken internally.
The outermost layer of a cell in most PLANTS; BACTERIA; FUNGI; and ALGAE. The cell wall is usually a rigid structure that lies external to the CELL MEMBRANE, and provides a protective barrier against physical or chemical agents.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of terminal, non-reducing alpha-D-galactose residues in alpha-galactosides including galactose oligosaccharides, galactomannans, and galactolipids.
A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of alpha-2,3, alpha-2,6-, and alpha-2,8-glycosidic linkages (at a decreasing rate, respectively) of terminal sialic residues in oligosaccharides, glycoproteins, glycolipids, colominic acid, and synthetic substrate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
A key intermediate in carbohydrate metabolism. Serves as a precursor of glycogen, can be metabolized into UDPgalactose and UDPglucuronic acid which can then be incorporated into polysaccharides as galactose and glucuronic acid. Also serves as a precursor of sucrose lipopolysaccharides, and glycosphingolipids.
An enzyme that catalyzes the formation of UDPglucose from UTP plus glucose 1-phosphate. EC 2.7.7.9.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A large group of membrane transport proteins that shuttle MONOSACCHARIDES across CELL MEMBRANES.
A pentose active in biological systems usually in its D-form.
A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.
Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.
Proteins found in any species of bacterium.
The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.
Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
Glycosphingolipids containing N-acetylglucosamine (paragloboside) or N-acetylgalactosamine (globoside). Globoside is the P antigen on erythrocytes and paragloboside is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of erythrocyte blood group ABH and P 1 glycosphingolipid antigens. The accumulation of globoside in tissue, due to a defect in hexosaminidases A and B, is the cause of Sandhoff disease.
A C-type lectin that is a cell surface receptor for ASIALOGLYCOPROTEINS. It is found primarily in the LIVER where it mediates the endocytosis of serum glycoproteins.
A rather large group of enzymes comprising not only those transferring phosphate but also diphosphate, nucleotidyl residues, and others. These have also been subdivided according to the acceptor group. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
Polysaccharides composed of repeating galactose units. They can consist of branched or unbranched chains in any linkages.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
An ascomycetous yeast of the fungal family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
Monosaccharide transport proteins that function as active symporters. They utilize SODIUM or HYDROGEN IONS to transport GLUCOSE across CELL MEMBRANES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A genus of leguminous shrubs or trees, mainly tropical, yielding useful compounds such as ALKALOIDS and PLANT LECTINS.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Carbohydrates covalently linked to a nonsugar moiety (lipids or proteins). The major glycoconjugates are glycoproteins, glycopeptides, peptidoglycans, glycolipids, and lipopolysaccharides. (From Biochemical Nomenclature and Related Documents, 2d ed; From Principles of Biochemistry, 2d ed)
In bacteria, a group of metabolically related genes, with a common promoter, whose transcription into a single polycistronic MESSENGER RNA is under the control of an OPERATOR REGION.
Oligosaccharides containing three monosaccharide units linked by glycosidic bonds.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.
A subclass of ACIDIC GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS. They contain one or more sialic acid (N-ACETYLNEURAMINIC ACID) residues. Using the Svennerholm system of abbrevations, gangliosides are designated G for ganglioside, plus subscript M, D, or T for mono-, di-, or trisialo, respectively, the subscript letter being followed by a subscript arabic numeral to indicated sequence of migration in thin-layer chromatograms. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1997)
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The A protein of the lactose synthase complex. In the presence of the B protein (LACTALBUMIN) specificity is changed from N-acetylglucosamine to glucose. EC 2.4.1.90.
The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.
Neutral glycosphingolipids that contain a monosaccharide, normally glucose or galactose, in 1-ortho-beta-glycosidic linkage with the primary alcohol of an N-acyl sphingoid (ceramide). In plants the monosaccharide is normally glucose and the sphingoid usually phytosphingosine. In animals, the monosaccharide is usually galactose, though this may vary with the tissue and the sphingoid is usually sphingosine or dihydrosphingosine. (From Oxford Dictionary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1st ed)
A group of enzymes with the general formula CMP-N-acetylneuraminate:acceptor N-acetylneuraminyl transferase. They catalyze the transfer of N-acetylneuraminic acid from CMP-N-acetylneuraminic acid to an acceptor, which is usually the terminal sugar residue of an oligosaccharide, a glycoprotein, or a glycolipid. EC 2.4.99.-.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.
The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.
A dextrodisaccharide from malt and starch. It is used as a sweetening agent and fermentable intermediate in brewing. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase.[131] to produce ascorbic acid.[122] l-Ascorbic acid has a negative feedback on l-galactose ... l-galactose. l-Galactose reacts with the enzyme l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but ... Vitamin C is produced from glucose by two main routes. The Reichstein process, developed in the 1930s, uses a single pre- ... Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and in 1933 was the first vitamin to be chemically produced.[11] It is on ...
l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase.[131] to produce ascorbic acid.[122] l-Ascorbic acid has a negative feedback on l-galactose ... l-galactose. l-Galactose reacts with the enzyme l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but ... Vitamin C is produced from glucose by two main routes. The Reichstein process, developed in the 1930s, uses a single pre- ... In 2017, China produced about 95% of the world supply of ascorbic acid (vitamin C),[149] which is China's most exported vitamin ...
The IB enzyme adds a galactose. The i allele produces no modification. Thus the IA and IB alleles are each dominant to i (IAIA ... For example, if pigment color is produced by CC or Cc but not cc, and by DD or Dd but not dd, then pigment is not produced in ... This produces a characteristic 9:7 ratio of pigmented to unpigmented plants. Complementary epistasis in contrast produces an ... The single functional allele in the heterozygote produces 50% of the standard amount of enzyme, which is sufficient to produce ...
These lectins bind either glucose, mannose or galactose. The exact function of legume lectins is not known but they may be ... Some legume lectins are proteolytically processed to produce two chains, beta (which corresponds to the N-terminal) and alpha ( ...
H. noricense produces a high concentration of menaquinones (fat soluble vitamin K2) that can be used as a micelle to deliver ... According to Gruber et al., Halobacterium noricense cannot ferment glucose, galactose, sucrose, xylose or maltose. It is ... This organism does not produce the enzymes gelatinase or amylase, so it cannot break down starch or gelatin. H. noricense is a ... Not only does it produce enzymes to protect itself against ROS, but it contains a pigment, bacterioruberin, that allows H. ...
Glucose and galactose can be absorbed by the small intestine. Approximately 65 percent of the adult population produce only ... They also produce normal droppings, which are not eaten. Young elephants, pandas, koalas, and hippos eat the faeces of their ... Microbes produced in the reticulo-rumen are also digested in the small intestine. Regurgitation has been mentioned above under ... Some vitamins, such as biotin and vitamin K (K2MK7) produced by bacteria in the colon are also absorbed into the blood in the ...
... is produced from galactose in a reaction catalyzed by aldose reductase. The other common galactose metabolism defect ... which also causes a buildup of galactitol as a result of increased concentrations of galactose-1-phosphate and galactose. This ... Galactitol (dulcitol) is a sugar alcohol, the reduction product of galactose. It has a slightly sweet taste. In people with ... is a defect in galactose-1-phosphate uridylyltransferase, an autosomal recessive disorder, ...
Galactose or glucose sugars can be attached to a hydroxyl group of ceramide lipids in a different form of O-glycosylation, as ... These modifications produce 8 core structures known to date. Different cells have different enzymes that can add further sugars ... O-galactose is commonly found on lysine residues in collagen, which often have a hydroxyl group added to form hydroxylysine. ... Addition of a galactose to the hydroxyl group is initiated in the endoplasmic reticulum, but occurs predominantly in the Golgi ...
L. brevis produces more organic acids, specifically acetic acid and ethanol. This means that this bacterium produces an ... L. brevis has been shown to actively transport glucose and galactose. When fructose was used as a carbon source there was only ... Strains of L. brevis and L. hilgardii have been found to produce the biogenic amines tyramine and phenylethylamine. E.B.Fred, W ... Strains of L. brevis and L. hilgardii have been found to produce the biogenic amines tyramine, which is found by the ...
Its primary action is to produce lactose from glucose and UDP-galactose. This occurs via the following pathway: UDP-β-D- ... Galactosemia results from an inability to process galactose, a simple sugar. This deficiency occurs when the gene for galactose ... This in turn would pave the way for the possibility that similar transfers were a primary means of producing most amino acids ... The full name of B transferase is alpha 1-3-galactosyltransferase, and its function in the cell is to add a galactose molecule ...
Bacteria that do produce sphingolipids are found in family Sphingomonadaceae, the FCB group (some members), and some parts of ... Cerebrosides have a single glucose or galactose at the 1-hydroxy position. Sulfatides are sulfated cerebrosides. Gangliosides ... Phytoceramide is produced in yeast by hydroxylation of dihydroceramide at C-4. Complex sphingolipids may be formed by addition ... Dihydroceramide is produced by N-acylation of dihydrosphingosine. Dihydroceramide is found in both yeast and mammalian systems ...
Together, these proteins enable LS to produce lactose by transferring galactose moieties to glucose. As a multimer, alpha- ... and inhibits the ability to polymerise multiple galactose units. This gives rise to a pathway for forming lactose by converting ...
The hydrolysis of X-gal by B-galactosidase produces galactose, a blue colored compound. Therefore, when the bacteria is ... it is only when both parts of the gene are being expressed that both the omega and alpha fragments are produced. When both ... When the target gene is present, the alpha-fragment gene would be inactive and the alpha fragment won't be produced. In that ... When the target gene is not found in the vector, the alpha fragment gene would be active, producing the alpha fragment and ...
... cubes were produced in the nineteenth century. The first inventor of a process to produce sugar in cube form was Moravian ... Galactose generally does not occur in the free state but is a constituent with glucose of the disaccharide lactose or milk ... Maltose may be produced by malting grain. Lactose is the only sugar that cannot be extracted from plants. It can only be found ... Sugar has been produced in the Indian subcontinent since ancient times and its cultivation spread from there into modern-day ...
By adapting their metabolism to the availability of varying amounts of carbon and nitrogen in the environment, fungi produce a ... In addition to cellulose, β-glucosidases can cleave xylose, mannose and galactose. In white-rot fungi such as Phanerochaete ... To detect the presence of complex polymers, some exoenzymes are produced constitutively at low levels, and expression is ... Most white-rot species also produce laccase, a copper-containing enzyme that degrades polymeric lignin and humic substances. ...
Strains that do not have access to sodium ions produce acid as a product of the metabolism of their growth-promoting carbon ... A. salinestris can use melibiose, galactose, mannitol, sucrose, glucose, and fructose as primary carbon sources. They prefer to ... A. salinestris colonies appear to be brown-black in color because they produce water-soluble catechol melanin. The bacteria ... were determined to be microaerophilic and very sensitive to the presence of hydrogen peroxide since they do not produce a ...
Acid and gas are produced from D-(+)-galactose, D-(+)-mannose, D-(+)-mannitol, maltose, and lactose. Caseinolytic and ... It normally produces slime but not capsules. This ability is lost upon subculture. Its cell wall peptidoglycan is similar to ... It is highly active biochemically, producing acid from a wide variety of carbohydrates. ...
Galactokinase uses one molecule of ATP to phosphorylate galactose. The phosphorylated galactose is then converted to glucose-1- ... It produces products that are used in other cell processes, while reducing NADP to NADPH. This pathway is regulated through ... A molecule of NADH can produce 1.5-2.5 molecules of ATP, whereas a molecule of FADH2 yields 1.5 molecules of ATP. Typically, ... Most of the fructose and galactose travel to the liver, where they can be converted to glucose and fat. Some simple ...
H. somni has the ability to produce a branching, mannose-galactose biofilm made primarily of polysaccharide. As previously ... and characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Histophilus somni during biofilm formation". BMC Microbiology. 11 (1 ... and characterization of an exopolysaccharide produced by Histophilus somniduring biofilm formation". BMC Microbiology. 11 (1): ... mentioned, the bacteria is capable of producing biofilm in the heart of affected animals with clinical bovine myocarditis. ...
Some strains were also able to produce acid from turanose, lactose, galactose, melezitose, mannitol, and mannose. Most strains ... It occurs very commonly as a harmless commensal on human and animal skin and is known for producing thioalcohol compounds that ... S. hominis, as well as most other staphylococcal species common on the human skin, is able to produce acid aerobically from ... This strain was named so because of its unique resistance to novobiocin and its failure to produce acid aerobically from ...
Acid is produced from glucose, fructose, galactose, and lactose, but not from maltose, xylose, and mannitol. Sucrose is ... It can also produce H2S (gas), which is a unique characteristic for a Gram-positive bacillus. ... Hydrogen sulfide H2S is produced by 95% of strains of Erysipelothrix species as demonstrated on triple sugar iron (TSI) agar. E ... which are hemolytic on blood agar and do not produce hydrogen sulfide in TSI agar slants, and from Listeria monocytogenes, ...
... or gum sterculia, also known as Indian gum tragacanth, is a vegetable gum produced as an exudate by trees of the ... Chemically, gum karaya is an acid polysaccharide composed of the sugars galactose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. It is used ...
ONPG is cleaved to produce the intensely yellow compound, orthonitrophenol and galactose, and is commonly used as a substrate ... Lactose is galactose-(β1->4)-glucose, whereas allolactose is galactose-(β1->6)-glucose. Lactose is converted to allolactose by ... which is an artificial substrate for B-galactosidase whose cleavage results in galactose and 4-Cl,3-Br indigo thus producing a ... Phenyl-β-D-galactose (phenyl-Gal) is a substrate for β-galactosidase, but does not inactivate repressor and so is not an ...
S. brasiliensis produces neomycin. S. brasiliensis sporulates when it is cultured with galactose and glutamic acid as carbon ...
Lastly, galM catalyzes the conversion of β-D-galactose to α-D-galactose as the first step in galactose metabolism. The gal ... allowing basal levels of GalE to be produced. In this state, the PG1 promoter is inactivated through interactions with the ... GalE encodes for an epimerase that converts UDP-glucose into UDP-galactose. This is required for the formation of UDP-galactose ... GalK encodes for a kinase that phosphorylates α-D-galactose to galactose 1-phosphate. ...
A potential exists for electrolyte problems as a result of the diarrhea it produces. No evidence of harm to the baby has been ... Lactulose is made from the milk sugar lactose, which is composed of two simple sugars, galactose and glucose. In 1957 Peitele ... It has a secondary laxative effect in the colon, where it is fermented by the gut flora, producing metabolites which have ... It is a disaccharide formed from one molecule each of the simple sugars (monosaccharides) fructose and galactose. Lactulose is ...
The two are readily distinguished because B. pseudomallei produces large wrinkled colonies, whereas C. violaceum produces a ... C. violaceum ferments glucose, trehalose, N-acetylglucosamine and gluconate but not L-arabinose, D-galactose, or D-maltose. It ... It produces a natural antibiotic called violacein, which may be useful for the treatment of colon and other cancers. It grows ... C. violaceum produces a number of natural antibiotics: Aztreonam is a monobactam antibiotic that is active against gram- ...
... the enzyme galactose 1-phosphate uridylyltransferase transfers a phosphate from UDP-glucose to galactose 1-phosphate to produce ... Similar to other mamallian species, there two different isoforms in humans that are produced by alternative splicing of the ... Its significance is derived from the many uses of UDP-glucose including galactose metabolism, glycogen synthesis, glycoprotein ... Therefore, the shorter protein isoform can no longer be produced in patients harboring the homozygous mutation. Functional ...
The enzyme is liberated from the α-galactosyl moiety upon equatorial nucleophilic attack by water, which produces D-galactose. ... Technology to produce lactose-free milk, ice cream and yogurt was developed by the USDA Agricultural Research Service in 1985. ... Lactase is an enzyme produced by many organisms. It is located in the brush border of the small intestine of humans and other ... Lactase is an enzyme that some people are unable to produce in their small intestine. Without it they cannot break down the ...
The blue disulfonated triphenylmethane dyes were first produced in 1913 by Max Weiler who was based in Elberfeld, Germany.[3] ... The formation of the complex stabilises the negatively charged anionic form of the dye producing the blue colour, even under ... the acid conditions the dye is normally a brownish colour but on binding to the protein the blue form of the dye is produced. ...
... so candy produced with high-maltose syrup will not become sticky as easily as candy produced with a standard glucose syrup.[1]p ... Currently, glucose syrup is mainly produced by first adding the enzyme α-amylase to a mixture of corn starch and water. α- ... Glucose syrup can be produced by acid hydrolysis, enzyme hydrolysis, or a combination of the two. Currently, however, a variety ... Formerly, glucose syrup was only produced by combining corn starch with dilute hydrochloric acid, and then heating the mixture ...
... which also produce (1→3)β-D-glucan.[25] This test can aid in the detection of Aspergillus, Candida, and Pneumocystis jirovecii. ... increasing fecal bulk and producing short-chain fatty acids as byproducts with wide-ranging physiological activities.[14] This ... as they do not produce (1,3)-beta-D-glucan.[29] ... Galactose / Galactan. *Glucose / Glucan *Glycogen. * ...
Lactase enzymes similar to those produced in the small intestines of humans are produced industrially by fungi of the genus ... intolerance is due to the lack of the enzyme lactase in the small intestines to break lactose down into glucose and galactose.[ ... If the lactose cannot be digested, enteric bacteria metabolize it and produce hydrogen, which, along with methane, if produced ... direct treatment of milk employs a different variety of industrially produced lactase. This enzyme, produced by yeast from the ...
அதேபோல் B கிளைக்கோ புரதத்திலுள்ள α-D-galactose ஐ ஒத்த epitope களையுடைய கிராம்-நெகட்டிவ் பாக்டீரீயாக்களான, E.coli போன்றவற்றுக்கு ... குறிப்பாக, எச்.ஐ.வி உருவாக்கும் உயிரணு வரிசைகளில் (HIV-producing cell lines) வெளிப்படுத்தப்படும் குருதிவகை ... "Antibody to histo-blood group A antigen neutralizes HIV produced by lymphocytes from blood group A donors but not from blood ...
Produced by the acacia trees of Trarza and Brakna, and used in textile pattern printing, this acacia gum was considered ... Arabinogalactan is a biopolymer consisting of arabinose and galactose monosaccharides. It is a major component of many plant ... Today, the main populations of gum-producing Acacia species are harvested in Mauritania, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Niger, ... While gum arabic is now produced throughout the African Sahel, it is still harvested and used in the Middle East. For example, ...
Prevailing evidence suggests that both galactose-deficient o-glycans in the hinge region of IgA1 and synthesis and binding of ... which hardly produce statistically significant evidence regarding the heterogeneity of IgA nephropathy patients, the diversity ...
... recognition of high mannose-type N-glycans produced by plants and yeast."Glycoconj J. 2005 Nov;22(7-9):453-61. ... 3-Linked to Penultimate Galactose Residues of Trisialyl N-Glycans. Comparison with other sialic acid-specific lectins.J Biol ...
... , also called confectioners' sugar or icing sugar, is a finely ground sugar produced by milling granulated sugar ... Although most often produced in a factory, powdered sugar can also be made by processing ordinary granulated sugar in a coffee ...
Cells fractionated by SBA do not produce graft vs host disease and can be used in bone marrow transplantation across ... Binding can be blocked by substitutions on penultimate sugars, such as fucose attached to the penultimate galactose in blood ...
After only two years, Leloir received recognition from the medical department at UBA for having produced the best doctoral ... Chemical structure of galactose. Leloir and his team discovered that in galactosemia, patients lacked the necessary enzyme ( ... "Lipid-bond Saccharides containing glucose and galactose in agrobacterium tumefaciens", (1984). *. Zorreguieta, A.; Ugalde, R.A ... he produced an active cell-free system, a first in scientific research. It had initially been assumed that in order to study a ...
It can produce up to 50 seeds at a time. The flowers can be purple, blue, yellow or white ... It also contains 10 percent mucilage consisting of glucose, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose, as well as tannins, salicylic ... For pity on the diet of herbs to which he submitted the beloved, he caused the earth to produce beautiful flowers that he ...
It is composed of beta-1-3-linked galactan main chains, with frequent members of arabinose (pentose) and galactose (hexose) ... The two most economically important varieties of coffee plant are the Arabica and the Robusta; ~60% of the coffee produced ... Mature brown to yellow coffee beans contain fewer residues of galactose and arabinose at the side chain of the polysaccharides ... Redgwell RJ, Curti D, Rogers J, Nicolas P, Fischer M (June 2003). "Changes to the galactose/mannose ratio in galactomannans ...
In Middle Eastern cuisine, molasses is produced from carob, grapes, dates, pomegranates, and mulberries. In Nepal it is called ... It is sometimes used in baking or for producing ethanol, as an ingredient in cattle feed, and as fertilizer. ... A stock for ethanol fermentation to produce an alternative fuel for motor vehicles ... where it is chiefly produced. Molasses is a defining component of fine commercial brown sugar.[1] ...
He also isolated a flavonoid glycoside, and named it galactobuxin based on the fact that it contains a galactose ring. ... and free of grain produced by growth rings, making it ideal for cabinet-making, the crafting of flutes and oboes, engraving, ...
Thus the progeny of a single B cell can produce antibodies, all specific for the same antigen, but with the ability to produce ... Many natural antibodies are directed against the disaccharide galactose α(1,3)-galactose (α-Gal), which is found as a terminal ... Traditionally, most antibodies are produced by hybridoma cell lines through immortalization of antibody-producing cells by ... An antibody (Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig),[1] is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is ...
ABCE consists of only one member, OABP or ABCE1, which is known to recognize certain oligodendrocytes produced in response to ... The chvE-gguAB gene in Agrobacterium tumefaciens encodes glucose and galactose importers that are also associated with ... here Many structures of water-soluble domains of ABC proteins have been produced in recent years. ATP-binding domain of ABC ...
For all animals, some amino acids are essential (an animal cannot produce them internally) and some are non-essential (the ... Carbohydrates range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to complex polysaccharides (starch). Fats are ... Produced by Health Canada, the guide advises food quantities, provides education on balanced nutrition, and promotes physical ... Soluble fiber, found in oats, peas, beans, and many fruits, dissolves in water in the intestinal tract to produce a gel that ...
Baschetti, R (2004). "Evolutionary legacy: form of ingestion, not quantity, is the key factor in producing the effects of sugar ...
The epitope XNAs target is an α-linked galactose moiety, Gal-α-1,3Gal (also called the α-Gal epitope), produced by the enzyme α ... XNAs are first produced and begin circulating in the blood in neonates, after colonization of the bowel by bacteria with ... some may be able to produce infectious viruses so every proviral genome must be sequenced to identify which ones pose a threat ... depletion of anti-galactose antibodies (XNAs) by techniques such as immunoadsorption, to prevent endothelial cell activation, ...
Soy protein is essentially identical to the protein of other legume seeds and pulses.[25][26] Moreover, soybeans can produce at ... composed of one sucrose connected to two molecules of galactose.[40] While the oligosaccharides raffinose and stachyose protect ... High-fat soy flour can also be produced by adding back soybean oil to defatted flour, usually at the level of 15%.[140] ... In 1931, Ford hired chemists Robert Boyer and Frank Calvert to produce artificial silk. They succeeded in making a textile ...
Many cells produce specific carbohydrate-binding proteins known as lectins, which mediate cell adhesion with oligosaccharides.[ ... Galactooligosaccharides (GOS), which also occur naturally, consist of short chains of galactose molecules. These compounds ...
FDA Approves First Human Biologic Produced by GE Animals [online]. US Food and Drug Administration. Dostupné online. (anglicky) ... Circular SV40 DNA Molecules Containing Lambda Phage Genes and the Galactose Operon of Escherichia coli. Proceedings of the ... Genetically Modified Bacteria Produce Living Photographs [online]. National Geographic News, December 6, 2005. Dostupné online ...
... the sugar galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (αGal) has been implicated as a major factor in hyperacute rejection in ... The most important factors are that the recipient not have produced isohemagglutinins, and that they have low levels of T cell- ... The memory helper T cell subsequently produces clones that, as effector cells, secrete immune signalling molecules (cytokines) ...
The Gal4 transcription factor gene produces a two-domain protein (BD and AD) essential for transcription of the reporter gene ( ... The Gal4 protein activated transcription of a gene involved in galactose utilization, which formed the basis of selection.[4] ... A number of yeast strains have been created specifically for Y2H screens, e.g. Y187[18] and AH109,[19] both produced by ... When both fusion proteins are produced and the Bait part of the first fusion protein interacts with the Prey part of the second ...
To produce highly pure barium sulfate, the sulfide or chloride is treated with sulfuric acid or sulfate salts:. BaS + H2SO4 → ... Barium sulfate produced in this way is often called blanc fixe, which is French for "permanent white." Blanc fixe is the form ...
... glucose and galactose; older cultures are reported to also metabolize maltose and starch). Bacteria produce both exo- and ...
The second FDA-approved microbubble, Levovist, made by Schering, has a lipid/galactose shell and an air core.[4] ... Ultrasound produces more heat as the frequency increases, so the ultrasonic frequency must be carefully monitored. ... Currently, these ligands are monoclonal antibodies produced from animal cell cultures that bind specifically to receptors and ... to produce a sonogram with increased contrast due to the high echogenicity difference. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound can be used ...
... two new D-Galactose products have been launched. ... As part of Pfanstiehls continual commitment to producing the ... Pfanstiehls new D-Galactose (Plant Derived) High Purity / Low Endotoxin - Low Metal (G-126-3) product and D-Galactose (Plant ... Pfanstiehl Launched New cGMP-Produced Galactose for Cell Culture Media Optimization & Production of Therapeutic Recombinant ... protein integrity and glycosylation can be effectively addressed by using Galactose that is GMP produced, high purity/low ...
Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Can Produce Galactose-alpha-1,3-Galactose Antigens on Proteins. The studies, led by scientists at ... cells contain the active biosynthetic machinery to produce alpha-Gal antigens and that a therapeutic protein manufactured in ... "Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Can Produce Galactose-alpha-1,3-Galactose Antigens on Proteins." The studies, led by scientists at ... Momenta Pharmaceuticals Announces Nature Biotechnology Publication Demonstrating CHO Cells Can Produce Galactose-Alpha-1,3- ...
... and less known for their secretion of galactose oxidase, a well-studied and useful enzyme. Three galactose oxidase-producing ... and less known for their secretion of galactose oxidase, a well-studied and useful enzyme. Three galactose oxidase-producing ... Identification of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and zearalenone in galactose oxidase-producing isolates of Fusarium ... and zearalenone in galactose oxidase-producing isolates of Fusarium graminearum.}, author={Fabricie Marcele Wilbert and Carlos ...
Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG (Bos taurus) Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG (Canis ... Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG (Danio rerio) Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG ( ... Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG (Gallus gallus) Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG ( ... Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG (Sus scrofa) Further sulfation on galactose residues produces KSPG ( ...
... galactose (CHEBI:28260). D-galactose (CHEBI:12936) is a galactose (CHEBI:28260). L-galactose (CHEBI:37618) is a galactose ( ... Any metabolite produced by all living cells.. View more via ChEBI Ontology ChEBI Ontology ... galactose (CHEBI:28260) has role fundamental metabolite (CHEBI:78675) galactose (CHEBI:28260) is a aldohexose (CHEBI:33917) ... CHEBI:28260 - galactose. Main. ChEBI Ontology. Automatic Xrefs. Reactions. Pathways. Models. .gridLayoutCellStructure { min- ...
sucrose, glucose, and lactose fructose, glucose, and galactose galactose, .... Nutrition. (¦ Indicates a review question, which ... The Romans used calcium oxide, CaO, to produce a strong mortar to build stone structures. Calcium oxide was mixed with water to ... Describe the potential for using renewable energy from the wind (wind power) to produce most of the electricity.... ...
the microbiome produces proteins to influence how full the brain perceives us to be !. body acidity problems are a classic sign ... Positive: Glucose; Maltose; Galactose; Trehalose (delayed).. Variable: Sucrose.. Negative: Lactose.. Assimilation Tests: ... so biofilm is really part of the gut and u can see how a skewed immune system say over producing sIgA woudl lead to excessive ... these tubular glands produce seminal fluid, are located in an environment that is temperature controlled and is rich in ...
In a batch process, this system enables ~ 50% conversion in 4 h starting with 300 mM galactose (an average productivity of 37 ... Production of tagatose, a sugar substitute, by isomerization of galactose suffers from unfavorable enzymatic kinetics, low ... for d-galactose to d-tagatose isomerization-that is limited by all three reaction parameters. The enzyme demonstrates low ... b Comparing the amount of tagatose produced from 200 mM galactose in 2 h (hashed) with the positive percentage of the ...
l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase.[131] to produce ascorbic acid.[122] l-Ascorbic acid has a negative feedback on l-galactose ... l-galactose. l-Galactose reacts with the enzyme l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but ... Vitamin C is produced from glucose by two main routes. The Reichstein process, developed in the 1930s, uses a single pre- ... Vitamin C was discovered in 1912, isolated in 1928, and in 1933 was the first vitamin to be chemically produced.[11] It is on ...
l-galactonolactone dehydrogenase.[131] to produce ascorbic acid.[122] l-Ascorbic acid has a negative feedback on l-galactose ... l-galactose. l-Galactose reacts with the enzyme l-galactose dehydrogenase, whereby the lactone ring opens and forms again but ... Vitamin C is produced from glucose by two main routes. The Reichstein process, developed in the 1930s, uses a single pre- ... In 2017, China produced about 95% of the world supply of ascorbic acid (vitamin C),[149] which is Chinas most exported vitamin ...
Erdmann noted that hydrolysis of lactose produced a substance besides glucose. Galactose was first isolated and studied by ... A disaccharide composed of two units of galactose, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), has been recognized as a ... phosphorylates α-D-galactose to galactose-1-phosphate, or Gal-1-P; Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) transfers a ... A galactose molecule linked with a glucose molecule forms a lactose molecule. Galactan is a polymeric form of galactose found ...
4. The condensation of galactose and glucose produces the disaccharide:. a) sucrose ... c) It is produced from the oxidation of pyruvate to acetic acid and forms an ester linkage with. coenzyme A. ... a) produces the majority of the ATP in the entire cellular respiration process. ... d) bile is continuously produced by the liver and stored in the pancreas.. Answer: d ...
These HSA glycoconjugates were produced by coupling a galactose α(1,3)-galactose α(1, 4)-N-acetyl glucosamine trisaccharide ... Anti-galactose-α(1,3)galactose antibody production in α1,3-galactosyltransferase gene knockout mice after xeno and allo ... A murine model of antibody-mediated hyperacute rejection by galactose-α(1,3)galactose antibodies in Gal o/o mice. ... Naturally occurring anti-Gal Abs in human and Old World monkeys bind to galactose α-(1,3)-galactose terminal carbohydrate ...
Hydrogen peroxide which can be produced by yeasts in this way is possibly a bacteriostatic agent. Galactose oxidase contains ... Galactose oxidase (D-galactose:oxygen 6-oxidoreductase, D-galactose oxidase, beta-galactose oxidase; abbreviated GAO, GAOX, ... Galactose oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. Copper ion is required as a cofactor for galactose oxidase. A ... Ögel Z (April 1994). "Cellulose-triggered sporulation in the galactose oxidase-producing fungus Cladobotryum (Dactylium) ...
The molecular size of mtDNA from the GAO-producing mold, as judged by summation of fragment sizes produced by digestion with ... Restriction enzyme fragment patterns of mtDNA from a galactose oxidase-producing mold ... Restriction enzyme fragment patterns of mtDNA from a galactose oxidase-producing mold ... Fusarium tricinctum strains and a galactose oxidase (GAO)-producing mold (original strain) presented distinctive restriction ...
... the sugars glucose and galactose, which primarily results in severe diarrhea. Explore symptoms, inheritance, genetics of this ... Glucose-galactose malabsorption is a condition in which the body cannot take in (absorb) ... Mutations in the SLC5A1 gene cause glucose-galactose malabsorption. The SLC5A1 gene provides instructions for producing a ... Glucose-galactose malabsorption is a condition in which the body cannot take in (absorb) the sugars glucose and galactose, ...
α-Galactosidase (E.C 1.2.1.22) is an enzyme able to hydrolyse melibiose to galactose and glucose. Some yeast species ( ... 4,376,167) produces almost as much enzyme as M12E-2 but much more slowly. M12E-2 produces 5=103 U of α-galactosidase in 8h when ... The original strain ATCC9080 produces only 103 U of α-galactosidase M12E-2 produces 8×103 U. ... which produce levels of α-galactosidase 2 to 8-fold greater than those produced by naturally occurring strains. α-Galactosidase ...
UDP-galactose UDP-glucose (to be used to produce glu-1-P) ... What enzyme catalyzes the reaction of Galactose Galactose 1 ... Galactose Galactose 1-phosphate. *Galactose 1-phosphate + UDP-Glucose UDP-Gal + Glu 1-Phosphate. *Glucose 1-phosphate ... What enzyme catalyzes the placement of uridine phosphate on Galactose 1-phosphate and the production of Glucose-1-phosphate ... What enzyme catalyzes reaction of Glucose 1-phosphate to Glucose 6-phosphate in the galactose metabolism ...
Arabidopsis thaliana, transformed with an antisense l-GalDH construct, produced lines with 30% of wild-type activity. These had ... l-Galactose dehydrogenase (l-GalDH), a novel enzyme that oxidizes l-Gal to l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-GalL), has been purified ... Antisense suppression of l-galactose dehydrogenase in Arabidopsis thaliana provides evidence for its role in ascorbate ... synthesis and reveals light modulated l-galactose synthesis.. Gatzek S1, Wheeler GL, Smirnoff N. ...
A method of producing cellulose pulp from a starting material containing lignin and cellulose, particularly from wood, wherein ... galactose is used hardly at all. ... A method of producing cellulose pulp from a starting material ... The nature of the wood remaining with Examples 1 - 6 was essentially the same as that of semi-chemical pulp produced from wood ... These fungi and micro-organisms can be influenced to produce the aforesaid result by genetically changing the same so as to ...
In 1855, E. O. Erdmann noted that hydrolysis of lactose produced a substance besides glucose.[25] Galactose was first isolated ... A disaccharide composed of two units of galactose, galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal), has been recognized as a ... For the EP by The Sweet Science, see Galactose (EP).. Galactose (/ɡəˈlæktoʊs/, galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar"), sometimes ... phosphorylates α-D-galactose to galactose-1-phosphate, or Gal-1-P; Galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT) transfers a ...
GALACTOSE. To be further metabolized, galactose must be. phosphorylated first by galactokinase to produce. galactose-1- ... UDP-galactose. UDP-galactose can be converted to glucose-1phosphate by UDP-galactose-4-epimerase followed. by UDP-glucose ... Clears lactate produced by muscle and. erythrocytes and glycerol produced by adipose. tissue. IMPORTANT CYCLES BETWEEN TISSUES ... Galactose-1-phosphate, through the action of. galactose-1-uridyltransferase, can be converted to. ...
Producing EPS (exopolysaccharide) as a shunt pathway for toxic metabolites from galactose. (A to C) Characterization of galE ... Galactose toxicity-induced cell lysis in the galE mutant by galactose metabolites. (A) Leloir pathway for galactose metabolism ... The resulting product, galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-P), is then converted to UDP-galactose by the galactose-1-phosphate ... galK encodes a galactose kinase, galT encodes a galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase, and galE encodes a UDP-galactose ...
Bonding one glucose molecule with a galactose molecule produces lactose. Lactose is commonly found in milk. ... After producing high levels of insulin for many years, the beta cells in the pancreas can wear out. Insulin production drops. ... Examples include glucose, galactose, or fructose. Glucose is a major source of energy for a cell. "Blood sugar" means "glucose ... They also consumed more natural produce and less junk food, were more physically active, and slept longer each night. ...
53 sec) The lactase enzyme is produced in the small intestine of infants. It digests lactose by breaking it into glucose and ...
2001) Galactose-extended glycans of antibodies produced by transgenic plants. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 98, 2899-2904.PubMed ... Chargelegue, D., Vine, N., van Dolleweerd, C., Drake, P. M., and Ma, J. (2000) A murine monoclonal antibody produced in ...
A team from a Danish food ingredients company has manipulated the metabolic properties of yogurt-producing bacteria to sweeten ... They consume the glucose and secrete the galactose.. "We wanted to change them so that they would eat the galactose and spit ... This prevented them from consuming the glucose produced by S. thermophilus.. Now they made yogurt with the modified bacteria. ... thermophilus on a medium where galactose was the sole food source. Thus, individual bacteria had to consume galactose in order ...
produced by S-cells in respnse to duodenal acidity and fatty acids. Increases pancreatic and biliary bicarb secretion and ... produced by pancreatc islet cells and neurons in GI mucosa. Relaxes smooth m, inhibits H+ secretion, stimulates pancreatic ... Produced by I-cells of proximal small bowel mucosa in response to fatty acids and monoglycerides ... produced in adipocytes; decreases food intake by decreasing production of neuropeptide Y (an appetite stimulant in arcuate ...
Stored in Produced by Simple Carbohydrates. MONOSACCHARIDES (Glucose,Fructose,Galactose). Double Carbohydrates. DISACCHARIDES ( ...
  • Galactose (/ɡəˈlæktoʊs/, galacto- + -ose, "milk sugar") sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose, and about 65% as sweet as sucrose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galactose ( / ɡ ə ˈ l æ k t oʊ s / , galacto- + -ose , "milk sugar"), sometimes abbreviated Gal , is a monosaccharide sugar that is about as sweet as glucose , and about 30% as sweet as sucrose . (wikipedia.org)
  • d) the glycosidic linkages have condensed producing a mixture of dextrin, maltose and glucose. (scribd.com)
  • Maltose (malt sugar) is produced during fermentation. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Fusarium graminearum strains are well known for their role as plant pathogens and for their production of mycotoxins, and less known for their secretion of galactose oxidase, a well-studied and useful enzyme. (semanticscholar.org)
  • LAI has thus been the enzyme of choice to produce tagatose, although, to date, few commercial bioprocesses exist. (nature.com)
  • Some of the limitations of tagatose biosynthesis using LAI that may be hindering commercial viability are, (1) unfavorable enzymatic kinetics since galactose is not the native substrate of LAI, (2) low enzyme stability, particularly in the absence of divalent metal ions, and (3) low equilibrium constant for galactose to tagatose isomerization. (nature.com)
  • 1. Mitochondrial DNAs from Dactylium dendroides, Hypomyces rosellus, Fusarium graminearum, Gibberella fujikuroi, Fusarium tricinctum strains and a galactose oxidase (GAO)-producing mold (original strain) presented distinctive restriction enzyme fragment patterns with the endonucleases Hind III and EcoRI. (bvsalud.org)
  • The initial stage is the conversion of β-D-galactose to α-D-galactose by the enzyme, mutarotase (GALM). (wikipedia.org)
  • What enzyme catalyzes reaction of UDP-galactose to UDP-glucose? (brainscape.com)
  • EC 1.1.3.9) is an enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of D-galactose in some species of fungi. (wikipedia.org)
  • A remarkable feature of galactose oxidase is that it is a free radical enzyme. (wikipedia.org)
  • 53 sec) The lactase enzyme is produced in the small intestine of infants. (hhmi.org)
  • Mutations in the GALT gene cause classic galactosemia (type I). Most of these genetic changes almost completely eliminate the activity of the enzyme produced from the GALT gene, preventing the normal processing of galactose and resulting in the life-threatening signs and symptoms of this disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like the enzyme produced from the GALT gene, the enzymes made from the GALK1 and GALE genes play important roles in processing galactose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • l-Galactose dehydrogenase (l-GalDH), a novel enzyme that oxidizes l-Gal to l-galactono-1,4-lactone (l-GalL), has been purified from pea seedlings and cloned from Arabidopsis thaliana. (nih.gov)
  • A lactose intolerance test will establish whether you carry a certain gene mutation which makes you unable to produce the enzyme which helps digest lactose. (easydna.co.uk)
  • Lactose is digested in the small intestine, this organ produces the enzyme required to digest lactose. (easydna.co.uk)
  • The enzyme produced small partially acetylated chitooligosaccharides, which have enormous biotechnological potential in medicine and food. (springer.com)
  • The systematic name of this enzyme class is dTDP-D-galactose:NADP+ 6-oxidoreductase. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • This enzyme is also called thymidine-diphosphate-galactose dehydrogenase. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • A person who has Galactosemia does NOT have the enzyme in their body to breakdown the galactose. (gofundme.com)
  • glucose and galactose by enzyme ß-galactosidase. (fnbnews.com)
  • The enzyme transfers a galactose from UDPgalactose to 1,2-diacylglycerol in chloroplast envelope ( 4 ). (pnas.org)
  • Your body may not produce enough lactase, an enzyme that helps digest lactose. (livestrong.com)
  • The enzyme can be used to degrade lactose into galactose and glucose, and also has a galactoside transfer effect. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The enzyme sources used to produce oligosaccharides are Aspergillus oryzae, Kluyveromyces lactis, Kluyveromyces fragilis, and Bacillus circulans. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Escherichia coli ( E. coli ) can produce the enzyme β-galactosidase which breaks lactose into galactose and glucose. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • ONPG (ortho-nitrophenyl-β-D-galactoside) is used as a substrate for the enzyme action which produces galactose and a compound which is yellow in alkaline conditions. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • The word galactose was coined by Charles Weissman in the mid 19th century and is derived from Greek galaktos (milk)[citation needed] and the generic chemical suffix for sugars -ose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thus, deletion of the genes involved in the metabolic pathways for these nucleotide sugars often leads to the inability to produce exopolysaccharides ( 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Lactose is sugar composed of two simple sugars - glucose and galactose. (runnersworld.com)
  • This breaks down lactose into 2 sugars called glucose and galactose, which can be easily absorbed into the bloodstream. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Glucose, when ingested or produced by the digestive hydrolysis of double sugars and starches, is absorbed into the blood from the intestines by a facilitated transport mechanism using carrier proteins. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Hydrolyzing lactose into glucose and galactose does not reduce total "sugars. (newsfood.com)
  • Acetone, butanol, and ethanol (ABE) were produced from corn fiber arabinoxylan (CFAX) and CFAX sugars (glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose) using Clostridium acetobutylicum P260. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Common monosaccharides (carbohydrates composed of single sugar units) include glucose , fructose, and galactose. (faqs.org)
  • The monosaccharides produced are glucose, fructose and galactose. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • In this work, we study Lactobacillus sakei l -arabinose isomerase (LsLAI) for d -galactose to d -tagatose isomerization-that is limited by all three reaction parameters. (nature.com)
  • Pulse carbohydrates were rich in glucose, arabinose, galactose and uronic acids. (mdpi.com)
  • Gum arabic consists mainly of high-molecular weight polysaccharides and their calcium, magnesium, and potassium salts, which on hydrolysis yield arabinose, galactose, rhamnose, and glucuronic acid. (fao.org)
  • Place 1 to 10 m l spots of the hydrolysate on the starting line of two chromatoplates and spots containing 1 to 10 m g of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid, expected to be present in the hydrolysate. (fao.org)
  • Compare sample spots with those for the solutions of arabinose, galactose, rhamnose and glucuronic acid. (fao.org)
  • In mixed sugar (glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose) fermentation, the culture preferred glucose and arabinose over galactose and xylose. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • Both fructose and galactose are metabolized to glucose for use by the body. (faqs.org)
  • Lactose is a disaccharide of galactose plus glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • 1. A process for producing a galactosyl.beta.1,3glycal disaccharide that comprises admixing (i) a galactoside donor molecule, (ii) glucal, 6-O--C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 acyl glucal or6-O--C.sub.1 -C.sub.6 acyl galactal as acceptor and (iii) a catalytic amount of .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • Normally, a N -acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) residue is attached to a serine or threonine in the IgA1 hinge region of the heavy chain and the structure is extended by the addition of galactose (Gal) to form a Galβ1,3GalNAc disaccharide. (asnjournals.org)
  • In addition, we studied the association between adolescent galactose consumption and testicular cancer because galactose, which is one component of the disaccharide lactose, may be toxic on the gonades and galactose metabolism may affect the structure of gonadotropins ( 11 ), which are suspected to be involved in the etiology of testicular cancer ( 12 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • Galactose is viewed as a cell metabolism modulator to improve performance of the cells and is more recognized as a critical component of cell culture media and feeds for production of protein therapeutics. (drug-dev.com)
  • Galactose metabolism, which converts galactose into glucose, is carried out by the three principal enzymes in a mechanism known as the Leloir pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Other studies show no correlation, even in the presence of defective galactose metabolism. (wikipedia.org)
  • Additionally, we demonstrated that galactose metabolism genes play an essential role in B. subtilis biofilm formation and that the expressions of both the gal and eps genes are interrelated. (asm.org)
  • This allowed us to demonstrate that galactose metabolism is essential for the synthesis of the extracellular matrix. (asm.org)
  • One of the major sugar metabolism pathways is the Leloir pathway, which allows the catabolism of galactose via conversion to UDP-galactose ( Fig. 1A ) ( 7 ). (asm.org)
  • They are burned during metabolism to produce energy, liberating carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O). (jonbarron.org)
  • The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzymes lactase and β-galactosidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • A mutation on this gene makes the individual unable to produce enough lactase to break down any lactose ingested. (easydna.co.uk)
  • New born babies produce high amounts of lactase in order to digest maternal milk. (easydna.co.uk)
  • People with lactose intolerance do not produce enough lactase, so lactose stays in the digestive system, where it's fermented by bacteria. (www.nhs.uk)
  • Depending on the underlying reason why the body's not producing enough lactase, lactose intolerance may be temporary or permanent. (www.nhs.uk)
  • People who stop producing lactase will stop breaking down lactose, meaning that lactose is left behind in the gut. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • Lactase can produce oligosaccharides, such as galactooligosaccharides and isolactose. (selfgrowth.com)
  • Lactase is used to produce oligosaccharide products in dairy products, and many products have been marketed abroad, such as lactose hydrolyzed milk, low lactose milk, cheese ice cream and so on. (selfgrowth.com)
  • At the same time, live lactic acid bacteria can produce lactase, thereby reducing the symptoms of lactose intolerance. (selfgrowth.com)
  • The reason why some people are lactose intolerant is because they don't produce enough lactase. (express.co.uk)
  • However, if not enough lactase is produced, lactose stays in the digestive system where it's fermented by bacteria. (express.co.uk)
  • Identification of deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, and zearalenone in galactose oxidase-producing isolates of Fusarium graminearum. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Galactose oxidase belongs to the family of oxidoreductases. (wikipedia.org)
  • Copper ion is required as a cofactor for galactose oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Found in several fungal species such as Fusarium graminearum NRRL 2903 (formerly misidentified as Dactylium dendroides), and other species of Fusarium and Aspergillus genera, galactose oxidase was first isolated in 1959. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although the oxidation reaction of D-galactose gives galactose oxidase its name, the coupled reduction of dioxygen to hydrogen peroxide is believed to have greater physiological significance in yeasts. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galactose oxidase contains 639 amino acids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Galactose oxidase is a type II copper protein. (wikipedia.org)
  • The copper in the active site of galactose oxidase is described as having a "distorted square pyramidal" coordination geometry. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the fully oxidized form of galactose oxidase, the free radical couples to the copper(II) center antiferromagnetically, supported by EPR spectroscopic studies. (wikipedia.org)
  • The free radical in galactose oxidase is unusually stable compared to many other protein free radicals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Supporting evidence comes from that mutation of this tryptophan residue leads to a lower stability of the active form of galactose oxidase. (wikipedia.org)
  • In yeasts, galactose oxidase catalyzes the following reaction: D-galactose + O2 ⇌ {\displaystyle \rightleftharpoons } D-galacto-hexodialdose + H2O2 This reaction is essentially the oxidation of primary alcohol using dioxygen to form the corresponding aldehyde and hydrogen peroxide. (wikipedia.org)
  • It has been shown that galactose oxidase is also able to catalyze various primary alcohols other than galactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Strains were analysed for some relevant technological properties, i.e. exopolysaccharide (EPS) production, growth kinetic in skim milk medium, urease activity and galactose fermentation. (nih.gov)
  • Fermentation produces toxins as well as symptoms of wind, gas, bloating and gurgling. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • Anaerobic fermentation in yeast produces (include all of the final products). (jiskha.com)
  • is produced from glucose or corn syrup by fermentation with the bacterium Xanthomonas campestris . (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • Biosaccharide Gum-1 is a fermentation gum produced from sorbitol. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • In the integrated hydrolysis, fermentation, and recovery process, 60 g/L CFAX and 5 g/L xylose produced 24.67 g/L ABE and resulted in a higher yield (0.44) and a higher productivity (0.47 g/L·h). (ingentaconnect.com)
  • The enzymes are listed in the order of the metabolic pathway: galactokinase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase (GALT), and UDP-galactose-4'-epimerase (GALE). (wikipedia.org)
  • Galactosemia type II (also called galactokinase deficiency) and type III (also called galactose epimerase deficiency) cause different patterns of signs and symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • In the first step of the pathway, galactose is phosphorylated by the galactokinase GalK. (asm.org)
  • Galactosemia is an inability to properly break down galactose due to a genetically inherited mutation in one of the enzymes in the Leloir pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • A method of producing cellulose pulp from a starting material containing lignin and cellulose, particularly from wood, wherein the starting material is treated with an organism capable of forming lignin-decomposing enzymes under conditions such that the lignin is substantially decomposed without appreciably affecting the cellulose. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1. A method of producing cellulose pulp from a starting material containing lignin and cellulose, comprising, treating the starting material with an artificially produced mutant of an organism capable of naturally forming lignin-decomposing and cellulose-decomposing enzymes, wherein the ability of the mutant to form cellulose-decomposing enzymes is reduced. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 3. A method of producing cellulose pulp from a starting material containing lignin and cellulose, comprising, treating the starting material with an organism capable of forming lignin-decomposing and cellulose-decomposing enzymes, and adding substances which control the decomposition process so that primarily only the lignin is decomposed. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 5. A method of producing cellulose pulp from a starting material containing lignin and cellulose, comprising, treating the starting material with an organism capable of forming lignin-decomposing and cellulose-decomposing enzymes, and adding substances which inhibit the cellulose-decomposing enzymes. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The present invention relates to a method for producing cellulose pulp from a starting material containing lignin and cellulose and in particular from wood, in accordance with a new principle which utilizes the ability of certain micro-organisms to form lignin-decomposing enzymes to at least partially delignify said starting material. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • These conditions are each caused by mutations in a particular gene and affect different enzymes involved in breaking down galactose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These genes provide instructions for making enzymes that are essential for processing galactose obtained from the diet. (medlineplus.gov)
  • These enzymes break down galactose into another simple sugar, glucose, and other molecules that the body can store or use for energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A shortage of any of these critical enzymes allows galactose and related compounds to build up to toxic levels in the body. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Galactose is a common monosaccharide that can be utilized by all living organisms via the activities of three main enzymes that make up the Leloir pathway: GalK, GalT, and GalE. (asm.org)
  • Results showed that bacterial cultures produced high enzymes activities at the 4th day of SSF, whereas their abilities to produce enzymes tended to be decreased to reach zero at the 8th day of SSF. (hindawi.com)
  • It was thought that digestion of foods is entirely done by enzymes produced by the stomach and pancreas. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • Now it seems that most of the digestion is done here, but the last little bit of carbohydrate/sugar digestion is done by enzymes produced by the lining of the small intestine (the brush border), where the absorption of foods take place. (drmyhill.co.uk)
  • The enzymes have very low activity with D-galactose 1-phosphate (cf. (creative-enzymes.com)
  • The first of these enzymes was available commercially, the second was cloned at the Cytel labs in 1991, and the last was produced there in 1992. (newscientist.com)
  • Whereas glycosylation is a normal, genetically controlled process that requires enzymes to produce the end products, glycation is a nonenzymatic process that is not programmed by genes and is not a physiological process that benefits the body. (cosmeticsandtoiletries.com)
  • By speeding things up, enzymes help to produce many more new molecules, usually in the order of thousands or millions of times more, than what would normally happen at random. (arn.org)
  • In a screen for suppressor mutants restoring viability to a galE null mutant in the presence of galactose, we identified mutations in sinR , which is the major biofilm repressor gene. (asm.org)
  • A total of 11 strains were able to produce acid in presence of galactose. (nih.gov)
  • Galactan is a polymeric form of galactose found in hemicellulose, and forming the core of the galactans, a class of natural polymeric carbohydrates. (wikipedia.org)
  • Analogously, the subsequent transfer of galactose from UDP-Gal to GlcCer, via the activity of a galactosyltransferase, produces lactosylceramide (LacCer). (nature.com)
  • Moreover, both bacteria secrete heteropolysaccharides (HePS) composed of rhamnose, galactose and glucose. (csic.es)
  • Use of high pressure during hydrolysis of milk proteins may also be an efficient strategy for producing hypoallergenic whey hydrolysates. (fnbnews.com)
  • Finally, terminal galactose residues in biantennary glycans may affect the CDC activity [ 15 ]. (mdpi.com)
  • consisting of fucose, galactose and galacturonic acid residues. (cosmeticsinfo.org)
  • In this system, C. acetobutylicum produced 9.60 g/L ABE from CFAX and xylose. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • However, most lactose in breast milk is synthesized from galactose taken up from the blood, and only 35±6% is made from galactose from de novo synthesis. (wikipedia.org)
  • Two studies have suggested a possible link between galactose in milk and ovarian cancer. (wikipedia.org)
  • The path that transforms healthy milk products into allergens and carcinogens begins with modern feeding methods that substitute high-protein, soy-based feeds for fresh green grass and breeding methods to produce cows with abnormally large pituitary glands so that they produce three times more milk than the old fashioned scrub cow. (dreddyclinic.com)
  • We examined the association between consumption of dairy products, especially milk, milk fat, and galactose, and testicular cancer in a population-based case-control study including 269 case and 797 controls (response proportions of 76% and 46%, respectively). (aacrjournals.org)
  • The RR for seminoma was 1.30 (95% CI, 1.15-1.48) for each additional 200 g milk fat per month and was 2.01 (95% CI, 1.41-2.86) for each additional 200 g galactose per month during adolescence. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Our results suggest that milk fat and/or galactose may explain the association between milk and dairy product consumption and seminomatous testicular cancer. (aacrjournals.org)
  • It affects the bodies ability to break down a sugar called galactose that is found in milk, all dairy items, many other foods and even medication. (gofundme.com)
  • This produces large quantities of gas, and explains why people with lactose intolerance find that they become rather windy after a glass of milk. (thenakedscientists.com)
  • This sugar, which consists of galactose and glucose , is present naturally in milk and its derivatives. (livestrong.com)
  • We propose that UDP-galactose is the toxic galactose metabolite and that it is used in the synthesis of EPS. (asm.org)
  • In studying the synthesis of the biofilm matrix of Bacillus subtilis , we provide further understanding of a long-standing microbiological observation that certain mutants defective in the utilization of galactose became sensitive to it. (asm.org)
  • Lack of GalM activity indicates that the two anomers of d -galactose are used for different purposes, α- d -galactose as a carbon source and β- d -galactose for induction of UDP-galactose synthesis for biosynthetic glycosylation. (asm.org)
  • Benzene is often produced as a by-product during the synthesis of phenylmagnesium bromide. (jiskha.com)
  • Cloning and expression of the histo-blood group Pk UDP-galactose:Galbeta1-4Glcbeta1-Cer alpha1,4-galactosyltransferase. (uniprot.org)
  • In other tissues, galactosyltransferase transfers galactose onto the N-acetylglucosamine of the oligosaccharide chains in glycoproteins. (genecards.org)
  • Galactose for example can be converted to glucose via Galactose-1-phosphate uridyl transferase. (biology-online.org)
  • Washington, DC - April 22, 2016 - A team from a Danish food ingredients company has manipulated the metabolic properties of yogurt-producing bacteria to sweeten the yogurt naturally, while reducing sugar in the final product. (eurekalert.org)
  • Thus, individual bacteria had to consume galactose in order to grow. (eurekalert.org)
  • We reasoned that since glucose is considerably sweeter than lactose or galactose, bacteria that release glucose into the product could allow for a reduction in of added sugar while maintaining the desired sweetness in the yogurt. (eurekalert.org)
  • IMPORTANCE Bacteria switch from unicellular to multicellular states by producing extracellular matrices that contain exopolysaccharides. (asm.org)
  • Galactose is important for the survival and virulence of bacteria. (asm.org)
  • Gd-IgA1 was detected by binding to Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) and expressed as total Gd-IgA1 or as degree of galactose deficiency relative to a standard Gd-IgA1 myeloma protein (%HAA). (asnjournals.org)
  • The resulting product, galactose-1-phosphate (Gal-P), is then converted to UDP-galactose by the galactose-1-phosphate uridyltransferase GalT, which exchanges the glucose-1-phosphate (Glu-P) moiety of UDP-glucose with Gal-P, thereby producing UDP-galactose (UDP-Gal) and releasing glucose-1-phosphate. (asm.org)
  • Record the volume of carbon dioxide produced at 5 or 10 minute increments until no more gas can be measured. (csun.edu)
  • It starts with the carbohydrate and oxygen and produces carbon dioxide, water, and energy. (faqs.org)
  • Galactosemia is a disorder that affects how the body processes a simple sugar called galactose. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The signs and symptoms of galactosemia result from an inability to use galactose to produce energy. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If infants with classic galactosemia are not treated promptly with a low-galactose diet, life-threatening complications appear within a few days after birth. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although those with galactosemia eliminate galactose from their diet, every human body produces galactose. (gofundme.com)
  • Lactose intolerance is caused due to inability of the body to produce ß-galactosidase. (fnbnews.com)
  • Many speculate that it is for this reason that a pathway for rapid conversion from galactose to glucose has been highly conserved among many species. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Leloir pathway consists of the latter stage of a two-part process that converts β-D-galactose to UDP-glucose. (wikipedia.org)
  • and finally, UDP galactose-4'-epimerase (GALE) interconverts UDP-galactose and UDP-glucose, thereby completing the pathway. (wikipedia.org)
  • Background and objectives We assessed the activation of the oxidative stress pathway in patients with IgA nephropathy (IgAN), while evaluating the classic marker of the disease (galactose-deficient serum IgA1). (asnjournals.org)
  • In Escherichia coli , galactose is utilized by the Leloir pathway, which is controlled by a complex network. (asm.org)
  • citation needed] In human lactation, glucose is changed into galactose via hexoneogenesis to enable the mammary glands to secrete lactose. (wikipedia.org)
  • The new yeast strains prepared by using recombinant DNA methods produce more α-galactosidase than naturally occurring α-galactosidase producing yeast strains. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Also methods for marking yeast strains and for producing stable transformants of yeasts are presented. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Thirty percent of all Moraxella strains were able to produce acid from glucose. (oregonstate.edu)
  • Moraxella strains produced PEA in concentrations ranging from undetectable to 3.25 mmoles per liter. (oregonstate.edu)
  • To produce such a product, it would be necessary to remove not only the conventional added sweeteners, as in no-sugar-added (NSA) products, but the lactose contributed by conventional dairy ingredients as well. (newsfood.com)
  • LACTOSENS ® for NOLA ™ Fit - concentration range 0.01-0.2%, for batch release of NOLA™ Fit produced lactose-free dairy products. (chr-hansen.com)
  • Enzymatic process for producing a galactosyl.beta.1,3glycal disaccaride using .beta. (patentgenius.com)
  • The latter is produced by the lac operon in Escherichia coli. (wikipedia.org)
  • Any metabolite produced by all living cells. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Carbohydrate sulfotransferase 1 (CHST1, keratan sulfate Gal-6 sulfotransferase) mediates the sulfation of galactose (Gal) on position 6 in keratan sulfate proteoglycans (KSPGs) (Fukuta et al. (reactome.org)
  • Naturally occurring anti-Gal Abs in human and Old World monkeys bind to galactose α-(1,3)-galactose terminal carbohydrate epitopes (α-Gal) 4 expressed on pig cells, where they initiate a rapid, complement-driven, hyperacute rejection of pig organs when transplanted into primates ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Use of Galactose in upstream cell culture has been documented and demonstrated to reduce accumulation of lactic acid and ammonia, both of which can interfere in the bioprocessing efficiency of the recombinant cells in culture producing therapeutic proteins. (drug-dev.com)
  • CAMBRIDGE, Mass., Nov. 8, 2010 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Momenta Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Nasdaq:MNTA), a biotechnology company specializing in the characterization and engineering of complex mixture drugs, today announced that the scientific journal Nature Biotechnology has published a correspondence entitled "Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells Can Produce Galactose-alpha-1,3-Galactose Antigens on Proteins. (nbcnews.com)
  • CHO cells are widely used for the manufacture of biotherapeutics, in part because of their ability to produce proteins with desirable properties, including "human like" glycosylation profiles. (nbcnews.com)
  • Recombinantly produced proteins are indispensable tools for medical applications. (frontiersin.org)
  • Transgenic animals modified to produce proteins for extraction, purification, and therapeutic use. (nap.edu)
  • Together, these proteins enable LS to produce lactose by transfering galactose moieties to glucose. (genecards.org)
  • Changes in nephritogenic serum galactose-deficient IgA1 in IgA nephropathy following tonsillectomy and steroid therapy. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Recent studies have shown that galactose-deficient IgA1 (GdIgA1) has an important role in the pathogenesis of IgA nephropathy (IgAN). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Design, setting, participants, & measurements Sera from 292 patients and 69 healthy controls from Italy and the United States were assayed for advanced oxidation protein products (AOPPs), free sulfhydryl groups on albumin (SH-Alb), and IgA1 with galactose-deficient hinge-region O -glycans (Gd-IgA1). (asnjournals.org)
  • This aberrant IgA1 has galactose-deficient O -glycans ( 1 , 2 ). (asnjournals.org)
  • Concerns around impurities being introduced through addition of Galactose into cell culture that would have an impact on the product yield, protein integrity and glycosylation can be effectively addressed by using Galactose that is GMP produced, high purity/low endotoxin and contains lower levels of metals that are controlled and quantitatively characterized. (drug-dev.com)
  • however, in Yersinia pestis , the galactose mutarotase ( galM ) gene is inactivated by a single-base-pair deletion. (asm.org)
  • The only exception is the galactose mutarotase ( galM ) gene of Yersinia pestis , which is converted to a pseudogene by a single-base-pair deletion. (asm.org)
  • 2001) Galactose-extended glycans of antibodies produced by transgenic plants. (springer.com)
  • We show that both crystal allomorph and relative crystallinity of cellulose impact the slate of primary products produced by fast pyrolysis. (osti.gov)
  • Cellulose-III, on the other hand, produces largely the same slate of products regardless of its relative crystallinity and produced as much or more levoglucosan at all crystallinity levels compared to cellulose-I or II. (osti.gov)
  • In this study we performed bioinformatical analysis of 34 reference genome sequences belonging to the Enterobacteriaceae family to gain insight into the natural diversity of the d -galactose utilization network. (asm.org)
  • How does Galactose enter glycolysis? (brainscape.com)
  • Upon oxidation of glucose in the muscle under anaerobic glycolysis, lactate is produced. (scribd.com)
  • We have previously produced a series of antigalactose (anti-Gal) hybridomas and characterized their heavy chain gene usage. (jimmunol.org)
  • The procedure indicates that the gene which produces β-galactosidase in E. coli is induced or 'switched on' by the presence of lactose. (nuffieldfoundation.org)
  • Baker's and distiller's yeasts producing α-galactosidase, are utilizable in the corresponding industry, because they are able to utilize the raffinose present in molasses, which results in greater yield of yeast (or ethanol) and reduction or elimination of the costs associated with biological oxygen demand (B.O.D.) in the effluent from factories. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The improved ability of brewer's yeasts to produce α-galactosidase provides a sensitive method for monitoring pasteurization of beer. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Hydrogen peroxide which can be produced by yeasts in this way is possibly a bacteriostatic agent. (wikipedia.org)
  • Finally, we propose that B. subtilis and other members of the Bacillus genus may have evolved to utilize naturally occurring polymers of galactose, such as galactan, as carbon sources. (asm.org)
  • Glycerol also contributes some to the mammary galactose production. (wikipedia.org)
  • Metallic ions, organic acids, inorganic acids, and glycerol produce negative responses, but it is not clear whether these molecules act via receptors or via an alternative mechanism. (britannica.com)
  • These "antinutrients" are not completely deactivated during ordinary cooking and can produce serious gastric distress, reduced protein digestion and chronic deficiencies in amino acid uptake. (westonaprice.org)
  • For a new serving size, enter the value in the box below and press 'rescale' for a different amount of Soy protein concentrate, produced by acid wash. (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • This serving of Soy protein concentrate, produced by acid wash is a good source of Protein , Dietary Fiber , Calcium , Iron , Magnesium , Phosphorus , Zinc , Copper and Manganese . (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • This serving of Soy protein concentrate, produced by acid wash has high Sodium . (dietandfitnesstoday.com)
  • Lactate (lactic acid) is produced by exercising muscles as glycogen is utilized. (runnersworld.com)
  • citation needed] Galactose exists in both open-chain and cyclic form. (wikipedia.org)
  • A galactose molecule linked with a glucose molecule forms a lactose molecule. (wikipedia.org)
  • Bonding one glucose molecule with a galactose molecule produces lactose. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The sugar molecule attaches itself to a protein called E-selectin, which is produced on the surface of blood vessels near damaged tissue. (newscientist.com)
  • Here we have applied this approach and used Capillary Electrophoresis with Laser-Induced Fluorescence detection (CE-LIF) to analyze a recombinant mAb produced in murine myeloma (NS0) cells. (mdpi.com)
  • Glucose is more stable than galactose and is less susceptible to the formation of nonspecific glycoconjugates, molecules with at least one sugar attached to a protein or lipid. (wikipedia.org)
  • In many bacterial species, sugar nucleotides, such as UDP-glucose and UDP-galactose, are essential for exopolysaccharide biosynthesis. (asm.org)
  • If I'm not mistaken, no , galactose cannot be transformed/converted to fructose (a sugar found in fruits). (biology-online.org)
  • We found that several genomes have reduced numbers of components compared to the E. coli galactose system, suggesting that the network can be optimized for different environments. (asm.org)
  • In E. coli a difference in concentration producing a change in the occupancy of only a single receptor site is sufficient to produce a change in behaviour. (britannica.com)
  • Although emerging data suggest that serum GdIgA1 can be a useful non-invasive IgAN biomarker, the localization of nephritogenic GdIgA1-producing B cells remains unclear. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • This breaks down lactose (which we can't absorb) into galactose and glucose (which we can). (thenakedscientists.com)