Oogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the female from the primordial germ cells through OOGONIA to the mature haploid ova (OVUM).Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Drosophila Proteins: Proteins that originate from insect species belonging to the genus DROSOPHILA. The proteins from the most intensely studied species of Drosophila, DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER, are the subject of much interest in the area of MORPHOGENESIS and development.Ovary: The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.Drosophila: A genus of small, two-winged flies containing approximately 900 described species. These organisms are the most extensively studied of all genera from the standpoint of genetics and cytology.Vitellogenesis: The active production and accumulation of VITELLINS (egg yolk proteins) in the non-mammalian OOCYTES from circulating precursors, VITELLOGENINS. Vitellogenesis usually begins after the first MEIOSIS and is regulated by estrogenic hormones.Drosophila melanogaster: A species of fruit fly much used in genetics because of the large size of its chromosomes.Genes, Insect: The functional hereditary units of INSECTS.Egg Proteins: Proteins which are found in eggs (OVA) from any species.Ovum: A mature haploid female germ cell extruded from the OVARY at OVULATION.Germ Cells: The reproductive cells in multicellular organisms at various stages during GAMETOGENESIS.Insect Proteins: Proteins found in any species of insect.Ovarian Follicle: An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Meiosis: A type of CELL NUCLEUS division, occurring during maturation of the GERM CELLS. Two successive cell nucleus divisions following a single chromosome duplication (S PHASE) result in daughter cells with half the number of CHROMOSOMES as the parent cells.Embryo, Nonmammalian: The developmental entity of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE) in animal species other than MAMMALS. For chickens, use CHICK EMBRYO.Egg Shell: A hard or leathery calciferous exterior covering of an egg.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Transforming Growth Factor alpha: An EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR related protein that is found in a variety of tissues including EPITHELIUM, and maternal DECIDUA. It is synthesized as a transmembrane protein which can be cleaved to release a soluble active form which binds to the EGF RECEPTOR.Animals, Genetically Modified: ANIMALS whose GENOME has been altered by GENETIC ENGINEERING, or their offspring.RNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins that bind to RNA molecules. Included here are RIBONUCLEOPROTEINS and other proteins whose function is to bind specifically to RNA.Spermatogenesis: The process of germ cell development in the male from the primordial germ cells, through SPERMATOGONIA; SPERMATOCYTES; SPERMATIDS; to the mature haploid SPERMATOZOA.RNA, Messenger, Stored: Messenger RNA that is stored in a masked state for translation at a later time. Distinguish from RNA, UNTRANSLATED which refers to non-messenger RNA, i.e. RNA that does not code for protein.Transforming Growth Factors: Hormonally active polypeptides that can induce the transformed phenotype when added to normal, non-transformed cells. They have been found in culture fluids from retrovirally transformed cells and in tumor-derived cells as well as in non-neoplastic sources. Their transforming activities are due to the simultaneous action of two otherwise unrelated factors, TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR ALPHA and TRANSFORMING GROWTH FACTOR BETA.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Meiotic Prophase I: The prophase of the first division of MEIOSIS (in which homologous CHROMOSOME SEGREGATION occurs). It is divided into five stages: leptonema, zygonema, PACHYNEMA, diplonema, and diakinesis.Body Patterning: The processes occurring in early development that direct morphogenesis. They specify the body plan ensuring that cells will proceed to differentiate, grow, and diversify in size and shape at the correct relative positions. Included are axial patterning, segmentation, compartment specification, limb position, organ boundary patterning, blood vessel patterning, etc.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Pleurodeles: A genus of aquatic newts belonging to the family Salamandridae and sometimes referred to as "spiny" tritons. There are two species P. waltlii and P. poireti. P. waltlii is commonly used in the laboratory. Since this genus adapts to aquarium living, it is easy to maintain in laboratories.Zygote: The fertilized OVUM resulting from the fusion of a male and a female gamete.Cell Polarity: Orientation of intracellular structures especially with respect to the apical and basolateral domains of the plasma membrane. Polarized cells must direct proteins from the Golgi apparatus to the appropriate domain since tight junctions prevent proteins from diffusing between the two domains.Oogonia: Euploid female germ cells of an early stage of OOGENESIS, derived from primordial germ cells during ovarian differentiation. Oogonia undergo MEIOSIS and give rise to haploid OOCYTESEmbryonic Development: Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Fertility: The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.Fertilization: The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.Caenorhabditis elegans Proteins: Proteins from the nematode species CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS. The proteins from this species are the subject of scientific interest in the area of multicellular organism MORPHOGENESIS.Cytoplasmic Streaming: The movement of CYTOPLASM within a CELL. It serves as an internal transport system for moving essential substances throughout the cell, and in single-celled organisms, such as the AMOEBA, it is responsible for the movement (CELL MOVEMENT) of the entire cell.Disorders of Sex Development: In gonochoristic organisms, congenital conditions in which development of chromosomal, gonadal, or anatomical sex is atypical. Effects from exposure to abnormal levels of GONADAL HORMONES in the maternal environment, or disruption of the function of those hormones by ENDOCRINE DISRUPTORS are included.Morphogenesis: The development of anatomical structures to create the form of a single- or multi-cell organism. Morphogenesis provides form changes of a part, parts, or the whole organism.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Vitellogenins: Phospholipoglycoproteins produced in the fat body of egg-laying animals such as non-mammalian VERTEBRATES; ARTHROPODS; and others. Vitellogenins are secreted into the HEMOLYMPH, and taken into the OOCYTES by receptor-mediated ENDOCYTOSIS to form the major yolk proteins, VITELLINS. Vitellogenin production is under the regulation of steroid hormones, such as ESTRADIOL and JUVENILE HORMONES in insects.Receptors, Invertebrate Peptide: Cell surface receptors for invertebrate peptide hormones or neuropeptides.Cytoplasm: The part of a cell that contains the CYTOSOL and small structures excluding the CELL NUCLEUS; MITOCHONDRIA; and large VACUOLES. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)Sex Determination Analysis: Validation of the SEX of an individual by inspection of the GONADS and/or by genetic tests.Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.
Rarely, viable birds result from this process, and the rate at which this occurs in turkeys can be increased by selective ... Parthenogenesis can occur without meiosis through mitotic oogenesis. This is called apomictic parthenogenesis. Mature egg cells ... When endomitosis occurs before meiosis or when central fusion occurs (restitutional meiosis of anaphase I or the fusion of its ... In plants parthenogenesis is a component process of apomixis. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, some ...
Oogenesis is the process of female gamete formation in animals. This process involves meiosis (including meiotic recombination ... This process also involves meiosis (including meiotic recombination) occurring in the diploid primary spermatocyte to produce ... occurring in the diploid primary oocyte to produce the haploid ovum (gamete). Spermatogenesis is the process of male gamete ... that embryos derived from artificial gametes could be used to derive new gametes and this process could be repeated to create ...
Particular functions demand various deviations from the process of symmetrical cytokinesis; for example in oogenesis in animals ... Another form of mitosis occurs in tissues such as liver and skeletal muscle; it omits cytokinesis, thereby yielding ... Cytokinesis is the part of the cell division process during which the cytoplasm of a single eukaryotic cell divides into two ... The process can be divided to the following distinct steps: anaphase spindle reorganization, division plane specification, ...
Maturation occurs in the epididymis. The location [Testes/Scrotum] is specifically important as the process of spermatogenesis ... Thus, spermatogenesis is the male version of gametogenesis, of which the female equivalent is oogenesis. In mammals it occurs ... Spermatogenesis is highly dependent upon optimal conditions for the process to occur correctly, and is essential for sexual ... The initial stages occur within the testes and progress to the epididymis where the developing gametes mature and are stored ...
In females, gametogenesis is known as oogenesis which occurs in the ovarian follicles of the ovaries. This process does not ... The production of gametes takes place within the gonads through a process known as gametogenesis. Gametogenesis occurs when ... this process is known as pregnancy in humans. Gestation ends with birth, the process of birth is known as labor. Labor consists ... In males, this process is known as spermatogenesis and takes place only after puberty in the seminiferous tubules of the testes ...
In males, only spermatogenesis occurs; hermaphrodites can produce spermatozoa until adulthood, when oogenesis takes over. All ... by the process of oogenesis during an organism's reproductive life. The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans (C. elegans) are ... In mammals, oogenesis is believed to be primarily prenatal. The existence of oogonial stem cells in mammals is controversial, ... During this cycle, the cells complete meiotic prophase before passing into the zone of oogenesis (or spermatogenesis, depending ...
In females, gametogenesis is known as oogenesis; this occurs in the ovarian follicles of the ovaries. This process does not ... Gametes are produced within the gonads through a process known as gametogenesis. This occurs when certain types of germ cells ... In this process, the male inserts his penis into the female's vagina and ejaculates semen, which contains sperm. A small ... In males, this process is known as spermatogenesis, and takes place only after puberty in the seminiferous tubules of the ...
In the process, he made fundamental discoveries about the cellular regulation and control of meosis. Building on his ... Ascospore genesis, a form of sexual reproduction common to many fungi, has parallels with oogenesis and spermatogenesis in ... that occur in recombination. He trained many scientists to work with Neurospora crassa, and wrote several papers on working ... with the rearrangement of genes on paired chromosomes that occurs during reproduction, a phenomenon known as crossing over. ...
It is also unique among model organisms in that cleavage occurs in a syncytium. During oogenesis, cytoplasmic bridges called " ... comprehending processes such as transcription and replication in fruit flies helps in understanding these processes in other ... Determination of sex in Drosophila occurs by the X:A ratio of X chromosomes to autosomes, not because of the presence of a Y ... Once this process is completed, gastrulation starts. Nuclear division in the early Drosophila embryo happens so quickly, no ...
A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but ... and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilisation processes. Changes in the ... While the shark is moving, water passes through the mouth and over the gills in a process known as "ram ventilation". While at ... The food moves from the mouth to a J-shaped stomach, where it is stored and initial digestion occurs. Unwanted items may never ...
... a process more energetically demanding than spermatogenesis in males. Oogenesis occurs in the ovary, a female specific organ ... The latter situation occurs in some algae and plants. In the red alga Polysiphonia, non-motile eggs are fertilized by non- ... This process is also true for females selecting males, and assuming that males and females are selecting for different traits ... Since this process is very energy-demanding and time consuming for the female, mate choice is often integrated into the ...
Definitions differ in where this shift occurs in the staging given above, with some stating that it occurs when entering the ... This process of follicle death is known as atresia, and it is characterized by radical apoptosis of all constituent cells and ... folliculogenesis and oogenesis at nlm.nih.gov Folliculogenesis Graphic Depicting Hormones Involved at anshlabs.com ... It seems likely that early menopause occurs for women with low populations at birth, and late menopause occurs for women with ...
The process of meiosis in females occurs during oogenesis, and differs from the typical meiosis in that it features a long ... Meiosis does not occur in archaea or bacteria, which generally reproduce via asexual processes such as binary fission. However ... This process occurs in all sexually reproducing single-celled and multicellular eukaryotes, including animals, plants, and ... This same pattern, but not the same number of chromosomes, occurs in all organisms that utilize meiosis. Although the process ...
... oogonium divides unequally to produce one daughter cell that will eventually become an oocyte through the process of oogenesis ... This occurs during the 15th week to the 7th month of embryonic development. Most oogonia have either degenerated or ... Many other factors are under scrutiny and this process is still being evaluated. Because it is theorized that oogonia either ... Primary oocytes will undergo oogenesis in which they enter meiosis. However, primary oocytes are arrested in prophase 1 of the ...
For example, both processes are proposed to be regulated by the nucleocytoplasmic ratio. MBT strictly refers to changes in the ... In the early cleavage stages of embryogenesis, rapid divisions occur synchronously and there are no "gap" stages in the cell ... proteins and mRNAs contributed to the egg during oogenesis. To begin transcription of zygotic genes, the embryo must first ... MZT is often thought to be synonymous with midblastula transition (MBT), but these processes are, in fact, distinct. However, ...
... starts with the process of developing oogonia, which occurs via the transformation of primordial follicles into ... Oogenesis consists of several sub-processes: oocytogenesis, ootidogenesis, and finally maturation to form an ovum (oogenesis ... Oogenesis occurs within the embryo sac and leads to the formation of a single egg cell per ovule. In ascaris, the oocyte does ... However, this process is also halted at the metaphase II stage until fertilization, if such should ever occur. When meiosis II ...
Oogenesis takes place during fetal life, in which primordial germ cells undergo mitosis until a few weeks prior to birth, ... Priming is the process by which the oocytes are primed with follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or human chorionic gonadotrophin ... They showed maturation occurs in isolation from normal follicular environment. In 1965 Edwards then continued IVM studies in ... Maturation' of an oocyte is the process by which an 'oocyte attains the competence to be fertilised and undergo embryogenesis ...
DSBs occur during V(D)J recombination during early B and T cell development. This is at the point when the cells of the immune ... It also has a role in regulation of N/M/R (MRN) protein complex activity which includes end-processing of both physiological ... NBS1 mutant mice display cellular radiation sensitivity and female mice are sterile due to oogenesis failure. Studies of NBS1 ... DSBs also occur in immunoglobulin class switch in mature B cells. More frequently, however, DSBs are caused by mutagenic agents ...
A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but ... and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilization processes. Changes in the ... At the front are the olfactory lobes, a pair of structures that receive and process signals from the nostrils via the two ... Introduction of non-native species has occurred in many habitats. One of the best studied examples is the introduction of Nile ...
A degenerative process called follicular atresia reabsorbs vitellogenic oocytes not spawned. This process can also occur, but ... and the determination of oogenesis dynamics allows the understanding of maturation and fertilisation processes. Changes in the ... Group spawning and pair spawning occur within mating systems. The type of spawning that occurs depends on male body size. ... Hermaphroditism occurs when a given individual in a species possesses both male and female reproductive organs, or can ...
Oogenesis: the process which produces haploid egg cells.. *Hermaphrodite: an organism with male and female sex organs. Examples ... To give an example, suppose a deadly infection occurs in the population. Greater variety increases the chance that some of the ... This process was Mendel's 'first law', the law of segregation. Crossing over[change , change source]. Because crossing over ... They have undergone a process of cell division called meiosis. Two things happen during meiosis, each of which makes the ...
Sperm are produced by the process of spermatogenesis and eggs are produced by oogenesis. These processes are outlined in the ... The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. The zygote then implants itself in the ... Over a regular interval, in response to hormonal signals, a process of oogenesis matures one ovum which is released and sent ... Once the fetus is sufficiently developing, chemical signals start the process of birth, which begins with contractions of the ...
This shedding event occurs four times throughout development in a process called ecdysis. The larvae experience a fifth skin ... oogenesis, and male and female reproductive gland development. Juvenile hormone (JH) is involved in the regulation of oogenesis ... This process is advantageous for the butterflies because they are able to immediately start mating in the spring, rather than ... The next stage in the mourning cloak's life cycle is to morph into a pupa and then cocoon in a process that encases the ...
Oogenesis is the formation of a cell who will produce one ovum and three polar bodies. Oogenesis begins in the female embryo ... Animal reproduction occurs by two modes of action, including both sexual and asexual reproduction. In asexual reproduction the ... Starting at puberty the process of meiosis can complete resulting in the secondary oocyte and the first polar body. The ...
In contrast to oogenesis, the production of sperm cells is a lifelong process. Each year after puberty, spermatogonia ( ... Improper genomic imprinting and other errors sometimes occur during this process, which can affect the expression of genes ... In younger males, this process is corrected and regulated by the growth factor receptor-RAS signal transduction pathway. A 2014 ... The most significant effect concerns achondroplasia (a form of dwarfism), which might occur in about 1 in 1,875 children ...
When this occurs, complexes like SWI/SNF and other transcriptional factors can bind to the DNA and allow transcription to occur ... A large amount of RNA and protein is contributed to the zygote by the mother during oogenesis or via nurse cells, resulting in ... One example of an epigenetic change in eukaryotic biology is the process of cellular differentiation. During morphogenesis, ... Most of the downregulation of mRNAs occurs by causing the decay of the targeted mRNA, while some downregulation occurs at the ...
Study this process in your textbook. A similar process occurs in Drosophila. Yolk is synthesized in the fat body and ovaries. ... Oogenesis:A Collaborative Effort. How many cells does it take to make an oocyte?. The task of oogenesis is to construct a large ... Review the timing of oogenesis and compare to that of the male. Remember: most of the events of oocyte differentiation occur ... Drosophila oocyte volume increases 90,000 fold in just 3 days (Xue and Cooley, 1993)! At the end of oogenesis, residual nurse ...
Rarely, viable birds result from this process, and the rate at which this occurs in turkeys can be increased by selective ... Parthenogenesis can occur without meiosis through mitotic oogenesis. This is called apomictic parthenogenesis. Mature egg cells ... When endomitosis occurs before meiosis or when central fusion occurs (restitutional meiosis of anaphase I or the fusion of its ... In plants parthenogenesis is a component process of apomixis. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some plants, some ...
Oogenesis starts with the process of developing oogonia, which occurs via the transformation of primordial follicles into ... Oogenesis consists of several sub-processes: oocytogenesis, ootidogenesis, and finally maturation to form an ovum (oogenesis ... Oogenesis occurs within the embryo sac and leads to the formation of a single egg cell per ovule. In ascaris, the oocyte does ... However, this process is also halted at the metaphase II stage until fertilization, if such should ever occur. When meiosis II ...
In mammals, oogenesis occurs in the ovarian follicle of the ovary. It is interesting to note that such an important process in ... Folliculogenesis is a separate process during ootidogenesis. Cell type ploidy/chromosomes chromatids Process Process completion ... Oogenesis or rarely oögenesis is the creation of an ovum (egg cell). It is the female process of gametogenesis. It involves the ... In plants, oogenesis occurs inside the female gametophyte via mitosis. In many plants such as bryophytes, ferns, and ...
The process of meiosis in females is called oogenesis." In males, meiosis occurs in precursor cells known as spermatogonia, ... Process. Because meiosis is a "one-way" process, it cannot be said to engage in a cell cycle like mitosis does. However, ... This cyclical process in eukaryotes, called the "biological life cycle," occurs by means of sexual reproduction, which is ... The process ends with telophase II, which is similar to telophase I. A nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes, ...
Oogenesis (will not be discussed). egg production. Occurs in ovary. This process is summarized as follows: Oogonium (2n, in ... This process occurs in the testis. It begins at puberty and continues unabated throughout a males lifetime. The process is ... Crossing over occurs during meiosis. Chiasmata are the observable result of this process (not during mitosis). ... Approximately 2-3 crossover occur per chromosome pair in humans.. VI. Spermatogenesis (will not be discussed). ...
In females, gametogenesis is known as oogenesis; this occurs in the ovarian follicles of the ovaries. This process does not ... Gametes are produced within the gonads through a process known as gametogenesis. This occurs when certain types of germ cells ... In this process, the male inserts his penis into the females vagina and ejaculates semen, which contains sperm. A small ... In males, this process is known as spermatogenesis, and takes place only after puberty in the seminiferous tubules of the ...
The ovary produces the egg by a process called oogenesis. In contrast to spermatogenesis in the bull which is continuous, ... The discussion of events occurring during the previous cycle was based on a full cycle in which pregnancy does not occur. If ... The hypothalamus controls several body processes and behaviors along with reproductive processes. Body temperature, ... This cyclic process continues every 20 to 21 days in a normal-cycling cow, but changes if conception occurs. Following ...
In mammals gametogenesis in the female is known as oogenesis and occurs in the ovaries; in the male it is known as ... the process in which cells undergo meiosis to form gametes. DERIVATIVES: ga·me·to·gen·ic / -ˈjenik/ adj. gam·e·tog·e·ny / ... gametogenesis The processes involved in the formation of gametes. Gametes are normally formed by meiosis but sometimes by ... gametogenesis (gam-i-toh-jen-i-sis) n. the process by which spermatozoa and ova are formed. In both sexes the precursor cells ...
As in oogenesis, spermatogonia undergo proliferation, growth and maturation and division. However, unlike oogenesis, the growth ... Spawning occurred in June. Annual maximum GSI value peaked in May. A decrease of CI was observed during gametogenesis. When ... The bivalves were washed in the lake water, were transported over ice in a cooler box and were processed within 24 hours. In ... Oogenesis was intense in January, February and March. In March, the ovarian follicles were well-ordered, situated radially ...
olisthesis - Slippage that occurs with spondylolisthesis. oogenesis - Process of forming female gametes (ova). ... process - Prominence or projection, as of bone, such as the spinous process, designed to produce desired changes in the ... Arising from the vertebral arch are also four articular processes/facets and two transverse processes. The space enclosed by ... slender cytoplasmic processes that make contact with processes of other osteocytes. ...
... allowing treadmilling to occur at an accelerated rate3,4. Cofilin/ADF is an actin-binding protein that is required for actin- ... One protein involved in this process is cofilin/actin-depolymerizing factor (ADF), which can depolymerize actin filaments, ... It is also required for the migration of border cells during oogenesis. These results show that cofilin/ADF is an important ... promotes cell movements during ovary development and oogenesis. During larval development, cofilin/ADF is required for the cell ...
In females, the process is called oogenesis because it produces egg cells, also known as ova. In spermatogenesis, four fully ... In some cases, errors occur during the process of meiosis. When the chromosomes do not segregate properly during meiosis, the ... although in some cases errors occur simply as a result of natural inefficiencies in the process of cell division. ... Meiosis only occurs in primordial germ cells in the reproductive organs and not in somatic cells, which make up the majority of ...
This process is accompanied by a significant amount of cell death. However, when c-Myb was made TPA-inducible in these cells, ... The Drosophila LIN54 homolog Mip120 controls two aspects of oogenesis. Biology open Cheng, M. H., Andrejka, L., Vorster, P. J ... The reverse reaction, formation of FMN from FAD, occurs only with reduced FAD, giving rise to FMNH2, and is dependent on the ... During this differentiation process, the levels of c-myb expression decline, suggesting that the RA receptor (RAR) may act in ...
Oogenesis is the process by which ovarian germ cells undertake meiosis and differentiate to become eggs. In mice, Stra8 is ... These events occur without premeiotic chromosomal replication, sister chromatid cohesion, synapsis or recombination. Thus, ... required for the chromosomal events of meiosis to occur, but its role in differentiation remains unknown. Here we report Stra8- ...
An Error Occurred. Approval was partially successful, following selected items could not be processed due to error ... Keyword(s) : Culex theileri, Mosquitoes and Oogenesis * Accreditation : Science Citation Index (Web of Science (WoS) Core ... oa African Zoology - The ultrastructure of oogenesis in Culex theileri * Navigate this Journal ...
process is involved, mitosis or meiosis? *7) What is a tetrad? Which phase of Meiosis does crossing over occur? ... 5) What is a polar body? How is oogenesis different from spematogenesis? ... The mitotic phase, when cell division occurs. Figure 8.5 21. Interphase 22. Interphase *Cells spend most of its time in this ... This process pinches the cell apart. Cleavagefurrow. Cleavagefurrow. Contracting ring ofmicrofilaments. Figure 8.7A. Daughter ...
The differential effects of Ant4 depletion within the processes of male and female gametogenesis may be explained by meiosis- ... we demonstrate that the Ant4 gene is expressed during embryonic ovarian development during which meiotic prophase I occurs. We ... Adenine nucleotide translocase 4 is expressed within embryonic ovaries and dispensable during oogenesis.. [Chae Ho Lim, Jeffrey ... Further investigation into the process of spermatogenesis revealed that Ant4 was particularly highly expressed during meiotic ...
Cytoplasmic mRNA regulation is very important during oogenesis, early embryogenesis, and during stem cell divisions that occur ... In the C. elegans adult gonad, germline stem cells generate oocytes by a carefully orchestrated process. Oocytes then become ... Regulation of gene transcription has long been considered central to this process. However, recent work argues that many ...
3). These egg-activation processes occur minutes after an egg is laid and are independent of fertilization, transcriptional ... 2007). Spatiotemporal localization of germ plasm RNAs during zebrafish oogenesis. Mech. Dev. 124, 279-289. doi:10.1016/j.mod. ... 1990). Ultrastructural aspects of oogenesis and oocyte growth in fish and amphibians. J. Electron Microsc. Tech. 16, 175-201. ... dchs1b oogenesis is largely unaffected. (A) γ-tubulin immunostaining reveals a perinuclear MTOC (pink arrowhead) in the stage ...
... oogenesis begins with the formation of primary oocytes in a process known as oocytogenesis. This occurs before birth. The ... However, the first meiotic block will be met here and this process will arrest in the prophase of meiosis I, until puberty ... Reproductive: Spermatogenesis is the process of the production of sperms from the immature germ cells in males. It takes place ... The first meiotic division of these cells also occurs before birth, while the foetus is still developing. ...
It occurs in the male testes and epididymis in a stepwise fashion. The entire process can take approximately 64 days. ... The spermatogenesis is the male counterpart of oogenesis in females. The spermatogenesis and oogenesis are the two forms of ... The process occurring in the male gonad of sexually reproducing organism wherein the undifferentiated male germ cells develop ...
These findings are invaluable resource for dissecting the molecular pathways and processes into oogenesis and will be wider ... with the highest occurring in FGSCs. ... The regulation of biological process and pathway analysis ... Several modules were functionally aggregated and mapped to each stage with different biological processes. The most strongly ... High-throughput stage-specific transcriptomics provides an unbiased approach for understanding the process of cell development ...
OvaryOocytesFertilizationEmbryoReproductiveOvariesEmbryogenesisMeiotic divisionMitosisEmbryonic developmentGerm cellMaternalStages of oogenesisProphaseGametesMammalsProducesCytoplasmMitoticGenesDefectsCellOrganismsOotidogenesisMammalianDiploidPrimordialPolarPubertyMutationsAsexualRecombinationDevelopmentBiologicalFemaleFetalDifferences and similaritiesOrganismBiologyGeneticProteinSpermatogenesis occurs
- In some organisms, all stages of oogenesis can co-exist in the ovary (e.g. frogs). (ucalgary.ca)
- In mammals, the first part of oogenesis starts in the germinal epithelium, which gives rise to the development of ovarian follicles, the functional unit of the ovary. (wikipedia.org)
- In mammals , oogenesis occurs in the ovarian follicle of the ovary . (wikidoc.org)
- Oogenesis occurs in the female gonad (ovary) which are located in the abdomen. (mrcroce.com)
- In the multiplication phase, during foetal development, some cells in the ovary are significantly larger than the others Thus, cells start to divide by a process known as mitosis. (result.vg)
- Oogenesis starts with the process of developing oogonia, which occurs via the transformation of primordial follicles into primary oocytes, a process called oocytogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- It is commonly believed that, when oocytogenesis is complete, no additional primary oocytes are created, in contrast to the male process of spermatogenesis, where gametocytes are continuously created. (wikipedia.org)
- However, although this process begins at prenatal age, it stops at prophase I. In late fetal life, all oocytes, still primary oocytes, have halted at this stage of development, called the dictyate. (wikipedia.org)
- For those primary oocytes that continue to develop in each menstrual cycle, however, synapsis occurs and tetrads form, enabling chromosomal crossover to occur. (wikipedia.org)
- Oogenesis starts with oogonial transformation into primary oocytes , called oocytogenesis . (wikidoc.org)
- In the C. elegans adult gonad, germline stem cells generate oocytes by a carefully orchestrated process. (ucdenver.edu)
- Following sex determination, oogenesis begins with the formation of primary oocytes in a process known as oocytogenesis. (smore.com)
- Meiotic progression seems to be an integral part of oogenesis, since a number of proteins are required meiotic progression and for the development of functional oocytes. (syr.edu)
- Yet, despite decades of studies providing descriptions of the gametogenic processes, we know very little about what drives and controls the development of sperm and oocytes. (genetics.org)
- General opinion changed at the beginning of the 20th century when the prevailing belief was in favor of neo -oogenesis in adulthood [ 6 ] until an influential article by Zuckerman [ 7 ] in 1951 reported no evidence that new oocytes are formed once a female is born, and the idea of a fixed ovarian reserve in mammals has been a central dogma in the field since. (biomedcentral.com)
- Primary vitellogenesis occurred in oocytes 180-185 μm, containing acidophilic globules and surrounded by a layer of thick follicle cells (20-40 μm). (conicyt.cl)
- This development of oocytes, known as oogenesis, begins with the migration of primordial germ cells to the genital ridge of the early embryo, where multiple rounds of mitotic division occur without complete cytokinesis. (syr.edu)
- Cyst breakdown is a crucial process in the next developmental stage, resulting in formation of the single oocytes which will grow in follicles surrounded by granulosa cells and eventually develop into eggs. (syr.edu)
- We would like to present here the current stage of knowledge regarding molecular mechanism of AV axis formation in mammalian oocytes and developmental significance of this process. (springer.com)
- from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is a natural form of asexual reproduction in which growth and development of embryos occur without fertilization. (wikipedia.org)
- However, this process is also halted at the metaphase II stage until fertilization, if such should ever occur. (wikipedia.org)
- However, this only lasts until fertilization , if such occurs. (wikidoc.org)
- Fertilization occurs when a male haploid cell and female haploid cell fuse together to form a diploid cell, which has two copies of chromosomes (one from each parent). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Evidently, in the case of these Komodos, the doubling of the egg genes occurred when, in essence, another egg, rather than sperm, did the job of fertilization. (scientificamerican.com)
- It does this because egg cells must contain enough supplies to synthesize all the products needed by the developing embryo implants into the uterine wall, which does not occur until 7-10 days after fertilization. (smore.com)
- Fertilization-the fusion of gametes to produce a new organism-is the culmination of a multitude of intricately regulated cellular processes. (springer.com)
- The highly specialized gametes begin their interactions by signaling to one another to ensure that fertilization occurs when they meet. (springer.com)
- Because each germ cell normally has 46 chromosomes, the process of "fertilization" can not take place until the total number of chromosomes in each are cut in half. (consciencelaws.org)
- The fertilization usually occurs in the oviducts, but can happen in the uterus itself. (bionity.com)
- When these cells fuse in a process called fertilization , the resulting cell (zygote) contains a mix of inherited genes from the father and mother. (thoughtco.com)
- This page is a overview of events that occur in human development up to week 3 post-fertilization. (edu.au)
- In this tube fertilization occurs. (ilmusiana.com)
- If fertilization does not occur during the monthly cycle, the wall sloughs off and is discharged in the process known as menstruation. (ilmusiana.com)
- However, egg activation can also occur without fertilization, which compromises the later embryonic development. (marquette.edu)
- However, this process is inhibited at the second stage of metaphase until fertilization occurs. (result.vg)
- The majority of scientists interested in fertilization and early developmental processes will undoubtably have encountered the works of Alberto Monroy at some time in their careers. (springer.com)
- The task of oogenesis is to construct a large cell containing a large and complex dowry of resources for construction of the embryo before it can either make them on its own or obtain them from its environment. (ucalgary.ca)
- Oogenesis occurs within the embryo sac and leads to the formation of a single egg cell per ovule. (wikidoc.org)
- During the first cleavages, the embryo depends mainly on maternal transcripts and proteins that were accumulated and stored during oogenesis until embryonic genome activation (EGA) occurs. (publish.csiro.au)
- Genes that have lower transcript abundance in nutritionally limited mothers are those involved in translation, which is likely one of the most energetically costly processes occurring in the early embryo. (g3journal.org)
- The male reproductive system is a series of organs located outside the body and around the pelvis region of a male that contribute towards the reproduction process. (wikipedia.org)
- Research has led to the development of numerous techniques for manipulating the reproductive processes of animals. (missouri.edu)
- The hypothalamus controls several body processes and behaviors along with reproductive processes. (missouri.edu)
- they are formed from reproductive cells (called primordial germ cells) in a process called oogenesis. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Female reproductive potential plays a significant role in the survival and stability of species, and sexual maturation and mating processes are crucial. (biomedcentral.com)
- Extensive remodeling of the Varroa transcriptome was observed, with an upregulation of energetic and chitin metabolic processes during the initial and final phases of the life cycle (e.g. phoretic and post-oviposition stages), whereas during reproductive stages in brood cells genes showing functions related to transcriptional regulation were overexpressed. (biomedcentral.com)
- No difference was detected between artificially-reared phoretic females and their counterparts in colonies, or between females who failed to reproduce and females who successfully reproduced, indicating that phoretic individuals can be reared outside host colonies without impacting their physiology and that mechanisms underlying reproductive failure occur before oogenesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, this process occurs in the female reproductive system, rather than the male reproductive system. (thenextgalaxy.com)
- To study oogenesis, Allen dissected female mice during the different stages of their reproductive estrous cycles. (asu.edu)
- His research showed that oogenesis occurs throughout the reproductive cycle of sexually mature female mice, settling debate in the early twentieth century about whether or not all eggs are fully formed and mature at birth. (asu.edu)
- His dissertation and research documented the tissue changes that occur in the sex organs of female mice during their reproductive estrous cycles. (asu.edu)
- REPRODUCTIVE PHYSIOLOGY Sexual reproduction is a process in which two organism produce offspring through gamets. (biologynoteshelp.com)
- Although female GSCs (fGSCs) appear to have a role in oogenesis throughout reproductive life in some non-mammalian species, these examples appear to be relatively rare across the phyla of the animal kingdom [ 4 ], and the presence of fGSCs in mammals has been greatly debated. (biomedcentral.com)
- This study allows establishing gonadic changes that occur during a reproductive cycle of female L. santolla and help to strengthen aquaculture initiatives and management in the Magellan and Chilean Antarctic Region. (conicyt.cl)
- The crab fishery uses the strategy known as "SSS" (size, sex, season), with size regulation, the prohibition of landing females and a closed season to protect the reproductive process. (conicyt.cl)
- The historic technical sustenance of this prohibition, which was developed during the 1980-1990 decade, is based on the knowledge of the reproductive process. (conicyt.cl)
- Considerable information on gonadic development is still necessary to understand the reproductive process of the species. (conicyt.cl)
- Adenine nucleotide translocase 4 is expressed within embryonic ovaries and dispensable during oogenesis. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Oogenesis starts when germ cells migrate to the ovaries and the follicular cells begin to surround the germ cells and becomes an oogonium. (weebly.com)
- two parallel gametogenic cycles in the ovaries occur. (conicyt.cl)
- Cytoplasmic mRNA regulation is very important during oogenesis, early embryogenesis, and during stem cell divisions that occur throughout development. (ucdenver.edu)
- We discuss the role of CPEB in mediating the translational timing and in some cases spindle-localized translation of critical regulators of Xenopus oogenesis and early embryogenesis. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Early embryogenesis is a highly complex developmental process, accompanied by a plethora of changes at the morphological and molecular level. (publish.csiro.au)
- The zygote then implants itself in the wall of the uterus, where it begins the processes of embryogenesis and morphogenesis . (bionity.com)
- Alberto's contribution to this field spans oogenesis to embryogenesis, where he used physiological, biochemical and morphological tools to answer a number of basic problems in cell biology. (springer.com)
- The basic mechanics of the meiotic division process is similar in many ways to mitosis. (csbsju.edu)
- The first meiotic division of these cells also occurs before birth, while the foetus is still developing. (smore.com)
- In oogenesis in animals only one of the four cells formed by meiotic division is functional. (thefreedictionary.com)
- Maturation also occurs in the formation of sperm (spermatogenesis), but in spermatogenesis, in contrast to oogenesis, all four of the cells formed by meiotic division are functional. (thefreedictionary.com)
- During oogenesis, the cytoplasm is unevenly divided during each meiotic division. (smore.com)
- In plants, oogenesis occurs inside the female gametophyte via mitosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Chiasmata are the observable result of this process (not during mitosis). (csbsju.edu)
- Mitosis occurs in most cells (somatic cells), at least those capable of division (such as meristems in plants). (csbsju.edu)
- The basic cellular process that makes asexual reproduction possible is mitosis, the type of cell division that produces exact copies of parent cells (see Chapter 6 for details). (schoolbag.info)
- Regulation of translation occurs both temporarlly (e.g. in oogenesis, in early embryonic development, as well as in cell cycle), and spatially (e.g. synaptic long term potentiation, cell polarity and cell fate determination) as well as during signal transduction in response to mitogens and nutrients. (yu.edu)
- The first stage occurs during embryonic development, with the remaining part happening periodically following puberty. (hee.nhs.uk)
- This is likely due to the larger number of germ cell divisions in spermatogenesis than in oogenesis. (sciencemag.org)
- We found that over 6000 genes exhibit spatiotemporally dynamic expression patterns throughout the hermaphrodite germline, with two dominant groups of genes exhibiting reciprocal shifts in expression at late pachytene during meiotic prophase I. We found a strong correlation between restricted spatiotemporal expression and known developmental and cellular processes, indicating that these gene expression changes may be an important driver of germ cell progression. (genetics.org)
- Lublin, A.L. and Evans, T.C. (2007) The RNA-binding proteins PUF-5 and PUF-6/7 reveal multiple systems for maternal mRNA regulation during C. elegans oogenesis Developmental Biology 303, 635-649. (ucdenver.edu)
- Even though these maternal RNAs are exclusively processed in the female mode, they do not appear to be translated as no protein is detected in early cleavage stage embryos of both sexes. (sdbonline.org)
- Many fundamental developmental processes are initiated by maternal factors, making the maternal contribution to early development highly critical, and therefore they have been the subject of considerable study. (g3journal.org)
- Migration of the spindle to the cortex ensures that both meiotic divisions occur in an asymmetric manner giving rise to small polar bodies and the big egg cell containing most of the maternal factors stored during oogenesis. (springer.com)
- Later Sxl protein increases and most of it is localized to the cytoplasm of the nurse cells during the previtellogenic stages of oogenesis. (sdbonline.org)
- The egg chambers within an ovariole reflect the different stages of oogenesis, and allow investigators to follow the whole spectrum of epithelial development in a spatially ordered sequence ( Horne-Badovinac and Bilder, 2005 ). (biologists.org)
- 2 Explain the different stages of Oogenesis in humans starting from foetal life till its completion. (studiestoday.com)
- 6) Give three specific events that occur during prophase. (powershow.com)
- Further investigation into the process of spermatogenesis revealed that Ant4 was particularly highly expressed during meiotic prophase I and indispensable for normal progression of leptotene spermatocytes to the stages thereafter. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- Here, we demonstrate that the Ant4 gene is expressed during embryonic ovarian development during which meiotic prophase I occurs. (sigmaaldrich.com)
- The process of Ootidogenesis stops at prophase 1. (weebly.com)
- Gametes are highly specialized cell types produced by a complex differentiation process. (frontiersin.org)
- Robert Sparrow wrote, in de Journaw of Medicaw Edics , dat embryos derived from artificiaw gametes couwd be used to derive new gametes and dis process couwd be repeated to create muwtipwe human generations in de waboratory. (appspot.com)
- Sperm are the male gametes, and spermatogenesis is the metabolic process that produces them. (schoolbag.info)
- Oogenesis is the process of egg cell formation. (hubpages.com)
- High-throughput stage-specific transcriptomics provides an unbiased approach for understanding the process of cell development. (nih.gov)
- These findings are invaluable resource for dissecting the molecular pathways and processes into oogenesis and will be wider applications for other types of stem cell research. (nih.gov)
- Post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression plays an essential role in numerous biological processes in a variety of cell types. (biomedcentral.com)
- However, 99% of cell divisions occur outside of the niche and it is unclear how these divisions are controlled. (biologists.org)
- In conclusion, my work focused on investigating the multifaceted process of actin polymerization, allowing us to better understand how actin structures form in the cell and how several proteins collaborate in vivo to form these actin structures. (cmu.edu)
- Microsporogenesis is a formation process of male sex cell, white macrosporogenesis (megasporogenesis) is a formation process of female sex cell. (blogspot.com)
- Folliculogenesis is a separate process during ootidogenesis. (wikidoc.org)
- The growing follicle passes through the following distinct stages that are defined by certain structural characteristics: In a larger perspective, the whole folliculogenesis, from primordial to preovulatory follicle, belongs to the stage of ootidogenesis of oogenesis. (wikipedia.org)
- The organism phase of the life cycle can occur between the haploid-to-diploid transition or the diploid-to-haploid transition. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The organism phase of the life cycle can occur either during the diploid state ( gametic or diploid life cycle), during the haploid state ( zygotic or haploid life cycle), or both ( sporic or haplodiploid life cycle, in which there two distinct organism phases, one during the haploid state and the other during the diploid state). (wikidoc.org)
- Folliculogenesis describes the progression of a number of small primordial follicles into large preovulatory follicles that occurs in part during the menstrual cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Strikingly, BOLL is downregulated, and DAZL re-expressed, as primordial follicles form, revealing BOLL expression to be restricted to a narrow window during fetal oogenesis. (jove.com)
- The process of oogenesis occurs once every month, and it commences at puberty and ceases at menopause. (thenextgalaxy.com)
- Puberty refers to the process of physical changes by which a child 's body becomes an adult body capable of reproduction . (statemaster.com)
- Although there is a wide range of normal ages, on average, girls begin the process of puberty about 1-2 years earlier than boys (with average ages of nine to fourteen for girls and ten to seventeen for boys), and reach completion in a shorter time. (statemaster.com)
- Oogenesis begins in the embryonic stages, but spermatogenesis starts at the onset of puberty. (aplustopper.com)
- The process of making sperm, spermatogenesis , kickstarts at puberty. (thealevelbiologist.co.uk)
- The origin and frequency of spontaneous mutations that occur with age in humans have been a topic of intense discussion. (sciencemag.org)
- The mechanisms by which spontaneous mutations arise depend on the parental germ line in which a mutation occurs. (sciencemag.org)
- Additionally, we found that processes that depend on piRNA function, including Aubergine localization, Dynein motor movement, and retrotransposon silencing, were severely disrupted in alleles with DExH box domain mutations. (g3journal.org)
- The phenotype of many of these alleles is as severe as the strongest spindle-E phenotype, whereas alleles with mutations in other regions of Spindle-E did not affect these processes as much. (g3journal.org)
- These events occur without premeiotic chromosomal replication, sister chromatid cohesion, synapsis or recombination. (mit.edu)
- There is serious concern that recombination with human influenza viruses may already have occurred raising the danger of human to human infection. (thefreedictionary.com)
- This can occur quickly as DNA recombination does not occur. (weebly.com)
- Remarkably, we note alternative splicing patterns change dramatically during female germline development, with the highest occurring in FGSCs. (nih.gov)
- this allows one to combine genetic or pharmacologic perturbations with in vitro development to define the effects of such manipulations on the processes occurring during specific periods of development. (jove.com)
- In this process, the male inserts his penis into the female 's vagina and ejaculates semen , which contains sperm . (wikipedia.org)
- 20 years ago, yet the place of this female-specific RNA binding protein in the genetic circuitry controlling oogenesis has remained elusive. (sdbonline.org)
- The process by which the female gamete (ova) is produced is called oogenesis. (mrcroce.com)
- Oogenesis is also regulated by the hormones of female menstrual cycle, occurring approximately once a month (28 days). (mrcroce.com)
- High school biology texts tend to gloss over parthenogenesis, typically mentioning the process as rare and restricted to mostly small invertebrates. (scientificamerican.com)
- Although its impact on bees has been extensively studied, less is known about its biology and the functional processes governing its adult life cycle and adaptation to its host. (biomedcentral.com)
- The conserved carboxy-terminal DNA-binding and protein-protein interaction domains of Mip120 are necessary but are not sufficient for this process. (stanford.edu)
- In most translation regulatory processes studied thus far, there is compelling evidence that regulation is exerted at the level of initiation of protein synthesis. (yu.edu)
- This is a very complex process that occurs by a sequence of partial reactions and requires GTP, and a large number of protein factors, called e ukaryotic translation i nitiation f actors (eIFs). (yu.edu)