Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.
A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.
Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.
A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.
Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.
Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.
A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)
A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.
Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures and regulations implemented to ensure household items, toys, and other consumer products are designed, manufactured, and distributed in a manner that minimizes risks of harm, injury, or death to consumers during normal use or foreseeable misuse.
The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.
Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.
ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.
Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.
A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.
A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.
A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.
A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.
An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.
Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.
Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.
Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.
The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.
The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.
Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.
A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.
Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).
A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.
Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.
Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.
A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.
A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.
A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.
An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.
Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.
The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.
Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.
Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.
A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.
Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).
A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.
A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.
The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.
One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.
A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.
A membrane-bound mucin subtype that is primarily found in INTESTINAL MUCOSA. Two closely-related subtypes of this protein have been identified in humans.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
A system of safety management (abbreviated HACCP) applied mainly to the food industry. It involves the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of finished products.
Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).
Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.

Inhibition of vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish. (1/1690)

To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1, 000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont.  (+info)

Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. (2/1690)

Probiotic agents, live microorganisms with beneficial effects for the host, may offer an alternative to conventional antimicrobials in the treatment and prevention of enteric infections. The probiotic agents Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG quantitatively inhibited the adherence of an attaching and effacing pathogenic Escherichia coli to HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells but did not inhibit adherence to nonintestinal HEp-2 cells. HT-29 cells were grown under conditions that induced high levels of either MUC2 or MUC3 mRNA, but HEp-2 cells expressed only minimal levels of MUC2 and no MUC3 mRNA. Media enriched for MUC2 and MUC3 mucin were added exogenously to binding assays and were shown to be capable of inhibiting enteropathogen adherence to HEp-2 cells. Incubation of L. plantarum 299v with HT-29 cells increased MUC2 and MUC3 mRNA expression levels. From these in vitro studies, we propose the hypothesis that the ability of probiotic agents to inhibit adherence of attaching and effacing organisms to intestinal epithelial cells is mediated through their ability to increase expression of MUC2 and MUC3 intestinal mucins.  (+info)

Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. (3/1690)

The microbiota of the human large intestine influences health and well-being. Whereas it has long been accepted that gut bacteria play a role in host pathogenesis, current opinion is that certain microflora components can have beneficial effects on gastroenteritis resistance, blood lipids, antitumor properties, lactose tolerance, and gastrointestinal immunity. It is postulated that in the infant gut an elevated bifidobacterial count may be associated with health advantages that breast-fed infants may have over formula-fed infants. Whereas beneficial aspects of the human gut flora still need definitive confirmation and mechanistic explanations, there is now interest in modulating the composition of gut flora such that a potentially more remedial community exists. This may be achieved through the targeted use of dietary supplementation. This article provides an overview of how probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics may contribute toward nutritional modulation of the gut microecology, with emphasis on the neonatal intestine where appropriate. The use of modern molecular methods, as an essential step forward for assessing the validity and accuracy of the modulatory approach, is also discussed.  (+info)

Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using the prebiotics oligofructose and inulin. (4/1690)

Although largely unproven in humans, better resistance to pathogens, reduction in blood lipids, antitumor properties, hormonal regulation and immune stimulation may all be possible through gut microflora manipulation. One approach advocates the oral intake of live microorganisms (probiotics). Although the probiotic approach has been extensively used and advocated, survivability/viability after ingestion is difficult to guarantee and almost impossible to prove. The prebiotic concept dictates that non viable dietary components fortify certain components of the intestinal flora (e.g., bifidobacteria, lactobacilli). This concept has the advantage that survival of the ingested ingredient through the upper gastrointestinal tract is not a prerequisite because it is indigenous bacterial genera that are targeted. The feeding of oligofructose and inulin to human volunteers alters the gut flora composition in favor of bifidobacteria, a purportedly beneficial genus. Future human studies that exploit the use of modern molecular-based detection methods for bacteria will determine the efficacy of prebiotics. It may be possible to address prophylactically certain gastrointestinal complaints through the selective targeting of gut bacteria.  (+info)

Possible mechanisms by which pro- and prebiotics influence colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth. (5/1690)

Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon. Studies were designed to evaluate inulin (Raftiline) and oligofructose (Raftilose) for their potential inhibitory properties against the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. ACF are putative preneoplastic lesions from which adenomas and carcinomas may develop in the colon. The results of this study indicate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the development of ACF in the colon, suggesting the potential colon tumor inhibitory properties of chicory fructans. The degree of ACF inhibition was more pronounced in animals given inulin than in those fed oligofructose. Because these prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities, ras-p21 ontoprotein expressions and tumor inhibitory activity of lyophilized cultures of Bifidobacterium longum against chemically induced colon and mammary carcinogenesis and against colonic tumor cell proliferation were examined. Dietary administration of lyophilized cultures of B. longum strongly suppressed colon and mammary tumor development and tumor burden. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis was associated with a decrease in colonic mucosal cell proliferation and activities of colonic mucosal and tumor ornithine decarboxylase and ras-p21. Human clinical trials are likely to broaden our insight into the importance of the pre- and probiotics in health and disease.  (+info)

The effect of synbiotics on colon carcinogenesis in rats. (6/1690)

Evidence indicates that consumption of probiotic microorganisms such as bifidobacteria reduces the risk of colon cancer in animal models. Feeding certain fructans such as oligofructose and inulin, which are thought to selectively increase the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria (i.e., a prebiotic effect), also has been shown to reduce colon cancer risk. The objective of our study was twofold, i. e., to determine whether the combination of bifidobacteria and oligofructose would have an additive effect (i.e., synbiotic) in reducing colon cancer risk in rats, and to determine whether other oligosaccharides would also be effective as part of a synbiotic combination. The development of colonic preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypts) was used as an index of colon cancer risk. In one series of experiments, rats were given the carcinogen 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and administered one of the following treatments: skim milk (control), bifidobacteria (bifido), oligofructose (OF) or bifido + OF. Neither bifido nor OF alone significantly reduced aberrant crypt number. Bifido + OF reduced aberrant crypt number in five of six experiments, although the reduction was significant in only one. However, a paired comparison of the six experiments indicated a significant overall reduction in aberrant crypts by bifido + OF (P = 0.039). Soybean oligosaccharide (SBO) and wheat bran oligosaccharide (WBO) were also fed in combination with bifidobacteria. In two other experiments, SBO did not alter the number of aberrant crypts compared with the control, whereas WBO reduced aberrant crypt number in one experiment but not in another. Of OF, SBO and WBO, only SBO reduced the colonic mucosa proliferation compared with the control. These results suggest that the combination of bifidobacteria and oligofructose reduces colon cancer risk in carcinogen-treated rats, but the effect of other oligosaccharides is uncertain.  (+info)

Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. (7/1690)

BACKGROUND: Although 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) oral compounds are the standard maintenance treatment for ulcerative colitis in remission, some patients cannot use them because of side-effects. Clinical and experimental observations have suggested the potential role of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease therapy. AIM: To evaluate the effects on intestinal microflora and the clinical efficacy of a new probiotic preparation in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with ulcerative colitis, intolerant or allergic to 5-ASA, have been treated with a new probiotic preparation (VSL#3, CSL, Milan, Italy) containing 5x10(11) cells/g of 3 strains of bifidobacteria, 4 strains of lactobacilli and 1 strain of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. Two doses of 3 g were administered o.d. for 12 months. Faecal samples for stool culture were obtained from the patients at the beginning of the trial and after 10, 20, 40, 60, 75, 90 days, 12 months and at 15 days after the end of the treatment. The following bacterial groups have been evaluated in the faeces: total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, enterococci, Streptococcus thermophilus, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, clostridia, coliforms. Patients were assessed clinically every two months, and assessed endoscopically at 6 and 12 months or in relapse. RESULTS: Faecal concentrations of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increased significantly in all patients, compared to their basal level, from the 20th day of treatment (P<0.05) and remained stable throughout the study. Concentrations of Bacteroides, clostridia, coliforms, total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria did not change significantly during treatment (P = N.S.). Fifteen of 20 treated patients remained in remission during the study, one patient was lost to follow up, while the remaining relapsed. No significant side-effects have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that this probiotic preparation is able to colonize the intestine, and suggest that it may be useful in maintaining the remission in ulcerative colitis patients intolerant or allergic to 5-ASA. Controlled trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary results.  (+info)

Characterization of two Bacillus probiotics. (8/1690)

Bacillus subtilis is currently used as an oral probiotic. We examined two commercial B. subtilis probiotic preparations, Enterogermina and Biosubtyl. Surprisingly, physiological and genetic characterization of the bacteria contained in each of these preparations has shown that neither contains B. subtilis.  (+info)

Probiotics are defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host." They are often referred to as "good" or "friendly" bacteria because they help keep your gut healthy. Probiotics are naturally found in certain foods such as fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and some cheeses, or they can be taken as dietary supplements.

The most common groups of probiotics are lactic acid bacteria (like Lactobacillus) and bifidobacteria. They can help restore the balance of bacteria in your gut when it's been disrupted by things like illness, medication (such as antibiotics), or poor diet. Probiotics have been studied for their potential benefits in a variety of health conditions, including digestive issues, skin conditions, and even mental health disorders, although more research is needed to fully understand their effects and optimal uses.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the genus Lactobacillus. It is a rod-shaped bacterium that is commonly found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is also present in some fermented foods like yogurt and cheese.

L. rhamnosus is known for its ability to produce lactic acid, which helps maintain a healthy balance of microflora in the gut and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits, including improving digestive health, enhancing immune function, and alleviating symptoms of certain gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

L. rhamnosus is also known to adhere well to the intestinal epithelium, which allows it to persist in the gut for longer periods compared to other lactobacilli species. This property has made it a popular strain for use in various probiotic supplements and functional foods. However, it is important to note that while L. rhamnosus has shown promise in several clinical studies, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and safety profile.

Bifidobacterium is a genus of Gram-positive, non-motile, often branching anaerobic bacteria that are commonly found in the gastrointestinal tracts of humans and other animals, as well as in fermented foods. These bacteria play an important role in maintaining the health and balance of the gut microbiota by aiding in digestion, producing vitamins, and preventing the growth of harmful bacteria.

Bifidobacteria are also known for their probiotic properties and are often used as dietary supplements to improve digestive health, boost the immune system, and alleviate symptoms of various gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease.

There are over 50 species of Bifidobacterium, with some of the most common ones found in the human gut being B. bifidum, B. longum, B. breve, and B. adolescentis. These bacteria are characterized by their ability to ferment a variety of carbohydrates, including dietary fibers, oligosaccharides, and sugars, producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) such as acetate, lactate, and formate as end products.

Bifidobacteria have a complex cell wall structure that contains unique polysaccharides called exopolysaccharides (EPS), which have been shown to have prebiotic properties and can stimulate the growth of other beneficial bacteria in the gut. Additionally, some strains of Bifidobacterium produce antimicrobial compounds that inhibit the growth of pathogenic bacteria, further contributing to their probiotic effects.

Overall, Bifidobacterium is an important genus of beneficial bacteria that play a crucial role in maintaining gut health and promoting overall well-being.

Prebiotics are non-digestible dietary components that selectively stimulate the growth and/or activity of beneficial bacteria in the colon, thereby improving host health. They are typically carbohydrate-based food ingredients, such as fructooligosaccharides (FOS), galactooligosaccharides (GOS), inulin, and other oligosaccharides, that resist digestion in the upper gastrointestinal tract and are fermented by gut microbiota in the large intestine. Prebiotics promote the proliferation of probiotic bacteria, enhance the gut barrier function, modulate the immune system, and contribute to overall health maintenance and disease prevention.

Lactobacillus is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, non-spore-forming bacteria. They are part of the normal flora found in the intestinal, urinary, and genital tracts of humans and other animals. Lactobacilli are also commonly found in some fermented foods, such as yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

Lactobacilli are known for their ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of sugars, which contributes to their role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and lowering the pH in various environments. Some species of Lactobacillus have been shown to provide health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing infections, particularly in the urogenital and intestinal tracts. They are often used as probiotics, either in food or supplement form, to promote a balanced microbiome and support overall health.

Synbiotics are a combination of probiotics and prebiotics that work together to improve the survival, engraftment, and metabolic activity of the probiotic microorganisms in the gut. Probiotics are live beneficial bacteria or yeasts that are introduced into the body, often through food or supplements, with the aim of improving health. Prebiotics are non-digestible food ingredients that stimulate the growth and/or activity of these probiotic microorganisms.

The synergistic effect of combining both probiotics and prebiotics in a single product is believed to provide greater health benefits compared to using either one alone. The prebiotics serve as a food source for the probiotics, helping them to grow and multiply in the gut. This can lead to improved gut microbiota composition, enhanced immune function, and better overall health.

Examples of synbiotic products include yogurts with added prebiotic fibers or supplements containing specific strains of probiotic bacteria along with a prebiotic ingredient such as inulin or fructooligosaccharides (FOS). It is important to note that not all combinations of probiotics and prebiotics are considered synbiotics, as they must be shown to have a synergistic effect on the host's health.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that naturally occurs in the human body, particularly in the mouth, intestines, and vagina. It is a type of lactic acid bacterium (LAB) that converts sugars into lactic acid as part of its metabolic process.

In the intestines, Lactobacillus acidophilus helps maintain a healthy balance of gut flora by producing bacteriocins, which are natural antibiotics that inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also helps in the digestion and absorption of food, produces vitamins (such as vitamin K and some B vitamins), and supports the immune system.

Lactobacillus acidophilus is commonly used as a probiotic supplement to help restore or maintain a healthy balance of gut bacteria, particularly after taking antibiotics or in cases of gastrointestinal disturbances. It can be found in fermented foods such as yogurt, kefir, sauerkraut, and some cheeses.

It's important to note that while Lactobacillus acidophilus has many potential health benefits, it should not be used as a substitute for medical treatment or advice from a healthcare professional.

The gastrointestinal (GI) tract, also known as the digestive tract, is a continuous tube that starts at the mouth and ends at the anus. It is responsible for ingesting, digesting, absorbing, and excreting food and waste materials. The GI tract includes the mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine (duodenum, jejunum, ileum), large intestine (cecum, colon, rectum, anus), and accessory organs such as the liver, gallbladder, and pancreas. The primary function of this system is to process and extract nutrients from food while also protecting the body from harmful substances, pathogens, and toxins.

Lactobacillus reuteri is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals, as well as in some fermented foods.

Lactobacillus reuteri has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits, including its ability to inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria, stimulate the immune system, and promote digestive health. It produces several antimicrobial compounds, such as lactic acid, reuterin, and bacteriocins, which help maintain a healthy balance of microorganisms in the gut.

Lactobacillus reuteri has also been shown to have anti-inflammatory effects, which may be beneficial in treating conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease, irritable bowel syndrome, and eczema. Additionally, it may help prevent dental cavities by inhibiting the growth of harmful oral bacteria.

It's worth noting that while Lactobacillus reuteri has shown promise in various studies, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and safety.

There is no standard medical definition for "health food" as it can be subjective and may vary. However, health food generally refers to foods that are considered beneficial to one's health due to their high nutritional value or low levels of unhealthy components such as added sugars, saturated fats, and artificial ingredients.

These foods often include fruits, vegetables, whole grains, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Some people may also consider certain fortified or functional foods, such as those with added vitamins, minerals, or other nutrients, to be health foods. However, it's important to note that the term "health food" is not strictly regulated, so claims about the health benefits of certain foods should be evaluated critically and supported by scientific evidence.

Lactobacillus helveticus is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in various environments such as dairy products, plants, and the gastrointestinal tracts of animals, including humans.

L. helveticus has been widely used in the food industry for the production of fermented dairy products like cheese and yogurt due to its ability to produce lactic acid, break down proteins, and contribute to flavor development. It is also known for its potential health benefits when consumed as a probiotic, including improving gut health, boosting the immune system, and reducing symptoms of lactose intolerance.

In addition, L. helveticus has been studied for its potential role in mental health, with some research suggesting that it may help reduce anxiety and improve cognitive function. However, more research is needed to fully understand the mechanisms behind these effects and their clinical relevance.

Consumer Product Safety refers to the measures taken to ensure that products intended for consumer use are free from unreasonable risks of injury or illness. This is typically overseen by regulatory bodies, such as the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) in the United States, which establishes safety standards, tests products, and recalls dangerous ones.

The definition of 'Consumer Product' can vary but generally refers to any article, or component part thereof, produced or distributed (i) for sale to a consumer for use in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (ii) for the personal use, consumption or enjoyment of a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise; (iii) for sensory evaluation and direct physical contact by a consumer in or around a permanent or temporary household or residence, a school, in recreation, or otherwise.

The safety measures can include various aspects such as design, manufacturing, packaging, and labeling of the product to ensure that it is safe for its intended use. This includes ensuring that the product does not contain any harmful substances, that it functions as intended, and that it comes with clear instructions for use and any necessary warnings.

It's important to note that even with these safety measures in place, it is still possible for products to cause injury or illness if they are used improperly or if they malfunction. Therefore, it is also important for consumers to be aware of the risks associated with the products they use and to take appropriate precautions.

The intestines, also known as the bowel, are a part of the digestive system that extends from the stomach to the anus. They are responsible for the further breakdown and absorption of nutrients from food, as well as the elimination of waste products. The intestines can be divided into two main sections: the small intestine and the large intestine.

The small intestine is a long, coiled tube that measures about 20 feet in length and is lined with tiny finger-like projections called villi, which increase its surface area and enhance nutrient absorption. The small intestine is where most of the digestion and absorption of nutrients takes place.

The large intestine, also known as the colon, is a wider tube that measures about 5 feet in length and is responsible for absorbing water and electrolytes from digested food, forming stool, and eliminating waste products from the body. The large intestine includes several regions, including the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus.

Together, the intestines play a critical role in maintaining overall health and well-being by ensuring that the body receives the nutrients it needs to function properly.

"Food Legislation" refers to laws, regulations, and policies related to food production, distribution, labeling, safety, and marketing. These rules are designed to protect consumers from fraudulent or unsafe food practices, promote fair trade in the food industry, and ensure that food is produced and distributed in a sustainable and environmentally friendly manner. Food legislation can cover a wide range of issues, including foodborne illness outbreaks, pesticide residues, organic farming, genetically modified foods, and nutrition labeling. Compliance with food legislation is typically enforced by government agencies, such as the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and the Federal Trade Commission (FTC) in the United States.

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) is a serious gastrointestinal condition that primarily affects premature infants. It is characterized by the inflammation and death of intestinal tissue, which can lead to perforations (holes) in the bowel wall. Here's a brief medical definition:

Necrotizing enterocolitis (NEK-roh-tiz-ing en-ter-koh-li-TIE-tis): A gastrointestinal emergency in which the inner lining of the intestinal wall undergoes necrosis (tissue death) due to inflammation, often affecting premature infants. The condition may result in bowel perforations, sepsis, and other systemic complications, requiring surgical intervention and intensive care management.

The exact cause of NEC is not fully understood, but it's thought to be associated with factors such as prematurity, formula feeding, intestinal immaturity or injury, and disturbed blood flow in the intestines. Symptoms may include abdominal distention, bloody stools, feeding intolerance, lethargy, and temperature instability. Early recognition and prompt treatment are crucial for improving outcomes in affected infants.

Gastrointestinal diseases refer to a group of conditions that affect the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, which includes the organs from the mouth to the anus, responsible for food digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste. These diseases can affect any part of the GI tract, causing various symptoms such as abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss.

Common gastrointestinal diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) - a condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing heartburn and other symptoms.
2. Peptic ulcers - sores that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) - a group of chronic inflammatory conditions of the intestine, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) - a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits.
5. Celiac disease - an autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine.
6. Diverticular disease - a condition that affects the colon, causing diverticula (small pouches) to form and potentially become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by infrequent bowel movements, hard stools, and difficulty passing stools.
8. Diarrhea - a common gastrointestinal symptom characterized by loose, watery stools and frequent bowel movements.
9. Food intolerances and allergies - adverse reactions to specific foods or food components that can cause various gastrointestinal symptoms.
10. Gastrointestinal infections - caused by bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can lead to a range of symptoms, including diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal pain.

Lactobacillus casei is a species of Gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the genus Lactobacillus. These bacteria are commonly found in various environments, including the human gastrointestinal tract, and are often used in food production, such as in the fermentation of dairy products like cheese and yogurt.

Lactobacillus casei is known for its ability to produce lactic acid, which gives it the name "lactic acid bacterium." This characteristic makes it an important player in maintaining a healthy gut microbiome, as it helps to lower the pH of the gut and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria.

In addition to its role in food production and gut health, Lactobacillus casei has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are beneficial to human health, particularly the digestive system. Some research suggests that Lactobacillus casei may help support the immune system, improve digestion, and alleviate symptoms of certain gastrointestinal disorders like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, more research is needed to fully understand its potential health benefits and applications.

Lactobacillus plantarum is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is a facultative anaerobe, meaning it can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. Lactobacillus plantarum is commonly found in a variety of environments, including fermented foods such as sauerkraut, kimchi, and sourdough bread, as well as in the gastrointestinal tract of humans and other animals.

Lactobacillus plantarum is known for its ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of carbohydrates, which can help to preserve food and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also produces various antimicrobial compounds that can help to protect against pathogens in the gut.

In addition to its use in food preservation and fermentation, Lactobacillus plantarum has been studied for its potential probiotic benefits. Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that are believed to provide health benefits when consumed, including improving digestive health, enhancing the immune system, and reducing the risk of certain diseases.

Research has suggested that Lactobacillus plantarum may have a range of potential health benefits, including:

* Improving gut barrier function and reducing inflammation in the gut
* Enhancing the immune system and reducing the risk of infections
* Alleviating symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal disorders
* Reducing the risk of allergies and asthma
* Improving oral health by reducing plaque and preventing tooth decay

However, more research is needed to fully understand the potential health benefits of Lactobacillus plantarum and to determine its safety and effectiveness as a probiotic supplement.

According to the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), yogurt is defined as a food produced by bacterial fermentation of milk. The bacteria used must belong to the species Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Other bacteria may be added for flavor or other purposes, but these two are essential for the product to be called yogurt. Additionally, yogurt must contain a certain amount of live and active cultures at the time of manufacture, and it must not contain more than specific amounts of whey, non-milk fat, and stabilizers.

It's important to note that this definition is specific to the United States and may vary in other countries.

A metagenome is the collective genetic material contained within a sample taken from a specific environment, such as soil or water, or within a community of organisms, like the microbiota found in the human gut. It includes the genomes of all the microorganisms present in that environment or community, including bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses, and other microbes, whether they can be cultured in the lab or not. By analyzing the metagenome, scientists can gain insights into the diversity, abundance, and functional potential of the microbial communities present in that environment.

Diarrhea is a condition in which an individual experiences loose, watery stools frequently, often exceeding three times a day. It can be acute, lasting for several days, or chronic, persisting for weeks or even months. Diarrhea can result from various factors, including viral, bacterial, or parasitic infections, food intolerances, medications, and underlying medical conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease or irritable bowel syndrome. Dehydration is a potential complication of diarrhea, particularly in severe cases or in vulnerable populations like young children and the elderly.

Lactobacillus fermentum is a species of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria that belongs to the lactic acid bacteria group. It is commonly found in various environments such as plant material, dairy products, and the human gastrointestinal tract.

Lactobacillus fermentum is known for its ability to produce lactic acid through the fermentation of carbohydrates, which can help lower the pH of the environment and inhibit the growth of harmful bacteria. It also produces various antimicrobial compounds such as bacteriocins, which can further contribute to its probiotic properties.

Lactobacillus fermentum has been studied for its potential health benefits, including its ability to enhance immune function, improve gut health, and reduce symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also being investigated for its potential role in preventing urogenital infections and reducing the risk of certain types of cancer.

However, it's important to note that while some studies suggest potential health benefits of Lactobacillus fermentum, more research is needed to fully understand its effects and safety profile. As with any probiotic supplement, it's recommended to consult with a healthcare provider before taking Lactobacillus fermentum or any other probiotics.

Food labeling is the practice of providing written information about the characteristics and contents of food products, typically on the packaging or container in which they are sold. In a medical context, accurate and clear food labeling is essential for individuals with dietary restrictions due to medical conditions such as food allergies, intolerances, or chronic diseases (e.g., diabetes).

Standardized food labeling guidelines help consumers make informed decisions about the foods they consume, allowing them to avoid potential health risks and maintain a balanced diet. Components of food labels often include:

1. Product identity: The name of the food product and its intended use.
2. Net quantity declaration: The amount of the food product contained in the package, expressed in both metric and customary units (e.g., grams or ounces).
3. Ingredient list: A comprehensive list of all ingredients included in the food product, arranged in descending order by weight. This is particularly important for individuals with food allergies or intolerances, as it allows them to identify and avoid specific allergens (e.g., milk, eggs, peanuts).
4. Nutrition facts panel: A standardized format presenting the nutritional content of the food product per serving, including information on calories, total fat, saturated and trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, total carbohydrates, dietary fiber, sugars, protein, and various vitamins and minerals.
5. Nutrient content claims: Voluntary statements made by manufacturers regarding the level of a nutrient in a food product (e.g., "low fat," "high fiber"). These claims must adhere to strict guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure accuracy and consistency.
6. Health claims: Statements linking a specific food or food component to a reduced risk of a particular disease or health-related condition (e.g., "a diet rich in whole grains may reduce the risk of heart disease"). Like nutrient content claims, health claims are subject to strict regulatory oversight.
7. Special dietary statements: Labeling statements indicating that a food product is suitable for specific dietary uses or restrictions (e.g., "gluten-free," "kosher," "vegan"). These statements help consumers with special dietary needs quickly identify appropriate food options.
8. Allergen labeling: Mandatory identification of the presence of any of the eight major food allergens (milk, eggs, fish, crustacean shellfish, tree nuts, peanuts, wheat, and soybeans) in a food product. This information must be clearly displayed in the ingredient list or as a separate "contains" statement.
9. Warning statements: Required labeling of specific health risks associated with the consumption of certain food products (e.g., "consuming raw or undercooked meats, poultry, seafood, shellfish, or eggs may increase your risk of foodborne illness").
10. Country of origin labeling: Identification of the country where a food product was produced, grown, or packaged. This information helps consumers make informed decisions about their food purchases based on factors such as quality, safety, and environmental concerns.

The intestinal mucosa is the innermost layer of the intestines, which comes into direct contact with digested food and microbes. It is a specialized epithelial tissue that plays crucial roles in nutrient absorption, barrier function, and immune defense. The intestinal mucosa is composed of several cell types, including absorptive enterocytes, mucus-secreting goblet cells, hormone-producing enteroendocrine cells, and immune cells such as lymphocytes and macrophages.

The surface of the intestinal mucosa is covered by a single layer of epithelial cells, which are joined together by tight junctions to form a protective barrier against harmful substances and microorganisms. This barrier also allows for the selective absorption of nutrients into the bloodstream. The intestinal mucosa also contains numerous lymphoid follicles, known as Peyer's patches, which are involved in immune surveillance and defense against pathogens.

In addition to its role in absorption and immunity, the intestinal mucosa is also capable of producing hormones that regulate digestion and metabolism. Dysfunction of the intestinal mucosa can lead to various gastrointestinal disorders, such as inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and food allergies.

Bifidobacteriales are a group of Gram-positive, non-spore forming bacteria that are commonly found in the human gut microbiota. They are often considered to be beneficial or probiotic organisms due to their ability to produce short-chain fatty acids and other compounds that may have health benefits.

Bifidobacteriales infections are relatively rare, but they can occur in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. These infections can cause a variety of symptoms depending on the site of infection, including fever, chills, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and sepsis.

Bifidobacteriales infections are typically treated with antibiotics that are effective against Gram-positive bacteria, such as vancomycin or linezolid. However, the treatment of these infections can be complicated by the fact that many Bifidobacteriales species are resistant to multiple antibiotics.

It is important to note that while Bifidobacteriales are generally considered to be beneficial organisms, they can cause infections in certain individuals. Therefore, it is important to consult with a healthcare provider if you suspect that you may have a Bifidobacteriales infection.

Medical Definition of Microbiota:

The community of microorganisms, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and other microscopic life forms, that inhabit a specific environment or body part. In the human body, microbiota can be found on the skin, in the mouth, gut, and other areas. The largest concentration of microbiota is located in the intestines, where it plays an essential role in digestion, immune function, and overall health.

The composition of the microbiota can vary depending on factors such as age, diet, lifestyle, genetics, and environmental exposures. Dysbiosis, or imbalance of the microbiota, has been linked to various health conditions, including gastrointestinal disorders, allergies, autoimmune diseases, and neurological disorders.

Therefore, maintaining a healthy and diverse microbiota is crucial for overall health and well-being. This can be achieved through a balanced diet, regular exercise, adequate sleep, stress management, and other lifestyle practices that support the growth and maintenance of beneficial microorganisms in the body.

Bacterial translocation is a medical condition that refers to the migration and establishment of bacteria from the gastrointestinal tract to normally sterile sites inside the body, such as the mesenteric lymph nodes, bloodstream, or other organs. This phenomenon is most commonly associated with impaired intestinal barrier function, which can occur in various clinical settings, including severe trauma, burns, sepsis, major surgery, and certain gastrointestinal diseases like inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and liver cirrhosis.

The translocation of bacteria from the gut to other sites can lead to systemic inflammation, sepsis, and multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), which can be life-threatening in severe cases. The underlying mechanisms of bacterial translocation are complex and involve several factors, such as changes in gut microbiota, increased intestinal permeability, impaired immune function, and altered intestinal motility.

Preventing bacterial translocation is an important goal in the management of patients at risk for this condition, and strategies may include optimizing nutritional support, maintaining adequate fluid and electrolyte balance, using probiotics or antibiotics to modulate gut microbiota, and promoting intestinal barrier function through various pharmacological interventions.

Cultured milk products are fermented dairy foods that contain live or active cultures of beneficial bacteria. The fermentation process involves the addition of specific strains of bacteria, such as lactic acid bacteria, to milk. This causes the milk to thicken and develop a tangy flavor.

Common cultured milk products include:

1. Yogurt: A fermented dairy product made from milk and bacterial cultures, including Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus. Yogurt is often consumed for its taste, nutritional value, and potential health benefits associated with probiotics.
2. Buttermilk: Traditionally, buttermilk was the thin, liquid byproduct of churning butter from cultured cream. Nowadays, most commercial buttermilk is made by adding bacterial cultures to low-fat or skim milk and allowing it to ferment. The result is a tangy, slightly thickened beverage.
3. Kefir: A fermented milk drink that originated in the Caucasus Mountains. It's made using kefir grains, which are symbiotic colonies of bacteria and yeast, to ferment milk. The final product is a carbonated, tangy beverage with a consistency similar to thin yogurt.
4. Cheese: While not all cheeses are cultured milk products, many types undergo a fermentation process using specific bacterial cultures. This helps develop the cheese's flavor, texture, and aroma during the aging process. Examples of cultured cheeses include cheddar, gouda, brie, and feta.
5. Sour cream: A dairy product made by fermenting cream with lactic acid bacteria, resulting in a thick, tangy condiment or topping.
6. Crème fraîche: Similar to sour cream but made from heavy cream instead of milk, crème fraîche has a richer texture and milder flavor. It's produced by allowing pasteurized cream to ferment naturally with bacterial cultures.
7. Cultured butter: This type of butter is made from cultured cream that has been allowed to ferment before churning. The fermentation process imparts a tangy, slightly cheesy flavor to the butter.
8. Viili and Fil Mjölk: These are traditional Nordic fermented milk products with a ropy texture due to specific bacterial cultures used in their production.

Antibiosis is a type of interaction between different organisms in which one organism, known as the antibiotic producer, produces a chemical substance (known as an antibiotic) that inhibits or kills another organism, called the susceptible organism. This phenomenon was first discovered in bacteria and fungi, where certain species produce antibiotics to inhibit the growth of competing species in their environment.

The term "antibiosis" is derived from Greek words "anti" meaning against, and "biosis" meaning living together. It is a natural form of competition that helps maintain the balance of microbial communities in various environments, such as soil, water, and the human body.

In medical contexts, antibiosis refers to the use of antibiotics to treat or prevent bacterial infections in humans and animals. Antibiotics are chemical substances produced by microorganisms or synthesized artificially that can inhibit or kill other microorganisms. The discovery and development of antibiotics have revolutionized modern medicine, saving countless lives from bacterial infections that were once fatal.

However, the overuse and misuse of antibiotics have led to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria, which can no longer be killed or inhibited by conventional antibiotics. Antibiotic resistance is a significant global health concern that requires urgent attention and action from healthcare providers, policymakers, and the public.

Pouchitis is a condition characterized by inflammation of the ileal pouch, a surgically created reservoir that is connected to the patient's anus in individuals who have undergone proctocolectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis (IPAA). This procedure is often performed in patients with ulcerative colitis or familial adenomatous polyposis.

Pouchitis can present with symptoms such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, urgency, and fecal incontinence. The exact cause of pouchitis remains unclear, but it is thought to be related to changes in the microbiota or an overactive immune response in the ileal pouch.

The diagnosis of pouchitis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, endoscopic findings, and histopathological examination of biopsies taken during endoscopy. Treatment options for pouchitis include antibiotics, anti-inflammatory medications, and probiotics, depending on the severity and frequency of the condition.

"Lactobacillus delbrueckii" is a species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found in various environments, including the human gastrointestinal tract and fermented foods. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, which means they can grow in both the presence and absence of oxygen.

"Lactobacillus delbrueckii" is named after the German microbiologist Werner Delbrück, who made significant contributions to the study of lactic acid bacteria. This species includes several subspecies that have different characteristics and are associated with different ecological niches.

One subspecies, "Lactobacillus delbrueckii bulgaricus," is commonly used in the production of yogurt and other fermented dairy products. It produces lactic acid as a byproduct of metabolism, which gives yogurt its tangy flavor and helps to preserve it.

Another subspecies, "Lactobacillus delbrueckii delbrueckii," has been isolated from various sources, including human saliva, feces, and fermented foods. It is known for its ability to produce bacteriocins, which are protein molecules that can inhibit the growth of other bacteria.

Overall, "Lactobacillus delbrueckii" is an important species of lactic acid bacteria that has a wide range of applications in industry and human health.

Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are a group of chronic inflammatory conditions primarily affecting the gastrointestinal tract. The two main types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

Crohn's disease can cause inflammation in any part of the digestive system, from the mouth to the anus, but it most commonly affects the lower part of the small intestine (the ileum) and/or the colon. The inflammation caused by Crohn's disease often spreads deep into the layers of affected bowel tissue.

Ulcerative colitis, on the other hand, is limited to the colon, specifically the innermost lining of the colon. It causes long-lasting inflammation and sores (ulcers) in the lining of the large intestine (colon) and rectum.

Symptoms can vary depending on the severity and location of inflammation but often include abdominal pain, diarrhea, fatigue, weight loss, and reduced appetite. IBD is not the same as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), which is a functional gastrointestinal disorder.

The exact cause of IBD remains unknown, but it's thought to be a combination of genetic factors, an abnormal immune response, and environmental triggers. There is no cure for IBD, but treatments can help manage symptoms and reduce inflammation, potentially leading to long-term remission.

Intestinal diseases refer to a wide range of conditions that affect the function or structure of the small intestine, large intestine (colon), or both. These diseases can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, constipation, bloating, nausea, vomiting, and weight loss. They can be caused by infections, inflammation, genetic disorders, or other factors. Some examples of intestinal diseases include inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), celiac disease, Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and intestinal infections. The specific medical definition may vary depending on the context and the specific condition being referred to.

Lactobacillaceae is a family of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic or microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria. They are non-spore forming and often occur in pairs or chains. Lactobacillaceae are commonly found in various environments such as the oral cavity, gastrointestinal tract, and vagina of humans and animals, as well as in fermented foods like yogurt, sauerkraut, and sourdough bread.

These bacteria are known for their ability to produce lactic acid as a major end product of carbohydrate metabolism, which gives them the name "lactic acid bacteria." They play an essential role in maintaining a healthy microbiota and have been associated with various health benefits, such as improving digestion, enhancing immune function, and preventing harmful bacterial overgrowth.

Some well-known genera within the family Lactobacillaceae include Lactobacillus, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Weissella. It is important to note that recent taxonomic revisions have led to some changes in the classification of these bacteria, and some genera previously classified within Lactobacillaceae are now placed in other families within the order Lactobacillales.

Glycodeoxycholic acid (GDCA) is not a widely recognized or established medical term. However, it appears to be a chemical compound that can be formed as a result of the metabolic process in the body. It is a glycine-conjugated bile acid, which means that it is a combination of the bile acid deoxycholic acid and the amino acid glycine.

Bile acids are produced by the liver to help with the digestion and absorption of fats in the small intestine. They are conjugated, or combined, with amino acids like glycine or taurine before being released into the bile. These conjugated bile acids help to keep the bile acid salts in their soluble form and prevent them from being reabsorbed back into the bloodstream.

Glycodeoxycholic acid may be involved in various physiological processes, but there is limited research on its specific functions or medical significance. If you have any concerns about this compound or its potential impact on your health, it would be best to consult with a healthcare professional for more information.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by recurrent abdominal pain, bloating, and altered bowel habits in the absence of any structural or biochemical abnormalities. The symptoms can vary from person to person, ranging from mild to severe.

The exact cause of IBS is not known, but it's thought to involve a combination of factors such as muscle contractions in the intestine, abnormalities in the nervous system, inflammation in the intestines, severe infection, or changes in bacteria in the gut.

It's important to note that while IBS can cause great discomfort and distress, it does not lead to serious complications such as changes in bowel tissue or increased risk of colorectal cancer. However, it can significantly affect a person's quality of life and daily activities.

Lactobacillales is an order of predominantly gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic or aerotolerant, rod-shaped bacteria. They are non-spore forming and often occur in pairs or chains. Lactobacillales are commonly found in various environments such as plants, sewage, dairy products, and the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of humans and animals.

They are known for their ability to produce lactic acid as a major metabolic end product, hence the name "lactic acid bacteria." This characteristic makes them essential in food fermentation processes, including the production of yogurt, cheese, sauerkraut, and other fermented foods.

Within Lactobacillales, there are several families, including Aerococcaceae, Carnobacteriaceae, Enterococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae, and Streptococcaceae. Many species within these families have significant roles in human health and disease, either as beneficial probiotics or as pathogenic agents causing various types of infections.

Infant formula is a manufactured food designed and marketed for feeding to babies and infants under 12 months of age, but may also be used as a supplementary feedings for older children. It is usually derived from cow's milk, but can also be made from soy or other proteins. Infant formulas are designed to provide a well-balanced diet with appropriate amounts of protein, fat, carbohydrate, vitamins, and minerals to support growth and development in infants who are not breastfed. They come in various forms such as powder, concentrate, or ready-to-feed liquid and must meet strict nutritional and safety standards set by regulatory agencies like the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the European Commission (EC).

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

"Saccharomyces" is a genus of fungi that are commonly known as baker's yeast or brewer's yeast. These organisms are single-celled and oval-shaped, and they reproduce through budding. They are widely used in the food industry for fermentation processes, such as making bread, beer, and wine.

In a medical context, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the species within this genus, has been studied for its potential health benefits when taken orally. Some research suggests that it may help to support gut health and immune function, although more studies are needed to confirm these effects and establish appropriate dosages and safety guidelines.

It's worth noting that while Saccharomyces is generally considered safe for most people, there have been rare cases of infection in individuals with weakened immune systems or underlying medical conditions. As with any supplement, it's important to talk to your healthcare provider before starting to take Saccharomyces cerevisiae or any other probiotic strain.

Food microbiology is the study of the microorganisms that are present in food, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites. This field examines how these microbes interact with food, how they affect its safety and quality, and how they can be controlled during food production, processing, storage, and preparation. Food microbiology also involves the development of methods for detecting and identifying pathogenic microorganisms in food, as well as studying the mechanisms of foodborne illnesses and developing strategies to prevent them. Additionally, it includes research on the beneficial microbes found in certain fermented foods and their potential applications in improving food quality and safety.

Food safety is the scientific discipline describing handling, preparation, and storage of food in ways that prevent foodborne illness. This includes a number of routines that should be followed to avoid potentially severe health hazards. Food safety often involves keeping food at low temperatures to prevent bacterial growth and toxin production. It can also include practices such as washing hands and surfaces well and avoiding cross-contamination between raw and cooked foods. Additionally, proper cooking and pasteurization can kill bacteria that may be present in food.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines food safety as "the assurance that food will not cause harm to the consumer when it is prepared or eaten according to its intended use." Food safety is important for everyone, but particularly for vulnerable populations such as pregnant women, young children, older adults, and people with weakened immune systems.

In summary, food safety refers to the proper handling, preparation, and storage of food in order to prevent foodborne illness and ensure that it is safe for consumption.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Industry" is not a term that has a medical definition. The food industry is a broad category that includes businesses involved in the production, processing, packaging, distribution, and sale of food products. This can include farms, fisheries, manufacturers of food products, grocery stores, restaurants, and more.

If you have any questions related to nutrition or dietary habits and their impact on health, I would be happy to help provide information based on medical knowledge.

Nutrition therapy is a medical treatment that focuses on providing adequate and balanced nutrition to help patients manage various medical conditions, promote recovery, improve overall health, and enhance quality of life. It involves the use of a personalized dietary plan, supplements, and enteral or parenteral nutrition support, as needed, under the guidance of healthcare professionals such as registered dietitians or nutritionists.

The goals of nutrition therapy may include:

1. Meeting nutritional needs and optimizing growth and development in children and adolescents.
2. Preventing or treating malnutrition due to illness, injury, or surgery.
3. Managing chronic diseases such as diabetes, heart disease, kidney disease, liver disease, or gastrointestinal disorders by controlling risk factors, reducing symptoms, and slowing the progression of the condition.
4. Supporting patients during cancer treatment to maintain strength, promote healing, and improve their response to therapy.
5. Providing nutrition support for individuals with eating disorders, food allergies, or intolerances.
6. Enhancing overall health and well-being through education on healthy eating habits and lifestyle modifications.

Nutrition therapy is an essential component of comprehensive healthcare and should be tailored to each individual's unique needs, preferences, and medical history.

A "colony count" is a method used to estimate the number of viable microorganisms, such as bacteria or fungi, in a sample. In this technique, a known volume of the sample is spread onto the surface of a solid nutrient medium in a petri dish and then incubated under conditions that allow the microorganisms to grow and form visible colonies. Each colony that grows on the plate represents an individual cell (or small cluster of cells) from the original sample that was able to divide and grow under the given conditions. By counting the number of colonies that form, researchers can make a rough estimate of the concentration of microorganisms in the original sample.

The term "microbial" simply refers to microscopic organisms, such as bacteria, fungi, or viruses. Therefore, a "colony count, microbial" is a general term that encompasses the use of colony counting techniques to estimate the number of any type of microorganism in a sample.

Colony counts are used in various fields, including medical research, food safety testing, and environmental monitoring, to assess the levels of contamination or the effectiveness of disinfection procedures. However, it is important to note that colony counts may not always provide an accurate measure of the total number of microorganisms present in a sample, as some cells may be injured or unable to grow under the conditions used for counting. Additionally, some microorganisms may form clusters or chains that can appear as single colonies, leading to an overestimation of the true cell count.

Inulin is a soluble fiber that is not digestible by human enzymes. It is a fructan, a type of carbohydrate made up of chains of fructose molecules, and is found in various plants such as chicory root, Jerusalem artichokes, and onions.

Inulin has a number of potential health benefits, including promoting the growth of beneficial bacteria in the gut (prebiotic effect), slowing down the absorption of sugar to help regulate blood glucose levels, and increasing feelings of fullness to aid in weight management. It is often used as a functional food ingredient or dietary supplement for these purposes.

Inulin can also be used as a diagnostic tool in medical testing to measure kidney function, as it is excreted unchanged in the urine.

The digestive system, also known as the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, is a series of organs that process food and liquids into nutrients and waste. Digestive system diseases refer to any conditions that affect the normal functioning of this system, leading to impaired digestion, absorption, or elimination of food and fluids.

Some common examples of digestive system diseases include:

1. Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD): A condition where stomach acid flows back into the esophagus, causing symptoms such as heartburn, chest pain, and difficulty swallowing.
2. Peptic Ulcer Disease: Sores or ulcers that develop in the lining of the stomach or duodenum, often caused by bacterial infection or long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
3. Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): A group of chronic inflammatory conditions that affect the intestines, including Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.
4. Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS): A functional gastrointestinal disorder characterized by abdominal pain, bloating, and changes in bowel habits.
5. Celiac Disease: An autoimmune disorder where the ingestion of gluten leads to damage in the small intestine, impairing nutrient absorption.
6. Diverticular Disease: A condition that affects the colon, characterized by the formation of small pouches or sacs (diverticula) that can become inflamed or infected.
7. Constipation: A common digestive system issue where bowel movements occur less frequently than usual or are difficult to pass.
8. Diarrhea: Loose, watery stools that occur more frequently than normal, often accompanied by cramps and bloating.
9. Gallstones: Small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, causing pain, inflammation, and potential blockages of the bile ducts.
10. Hepatitis: Inflammation of the liver, often caused by viral infections or toxins, leading to symptoms such as jaundice, fatigue, and abdominal pain.

These are just a few examples of digestive system disorders that can affect overall health and quality of life. If you experience any persistent or severe digestive symptoms, it is important to seek medical attention from a healthcare professional.

Citrobacter rodentium is a gram-negative, facultative anaerobic, rod-shaped bacterium that belongs to the family Enterobacteriaceae. It is a natural pathogen in mice and has been used as a model organism to study enteropathogenic and enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EPEC and EHEC) infections in humans, due to its similar virulence mechanisms. C. rodentium primarily colonizes the large intestine, causing inflammation, diarrhea, and weight loss in mice. It is not considered a significant human pathogen, but there have been rare reports of Citrobacter species causing opportunistic infections in immunocompromised individuals.

Propionibacterium is a genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria that are commonly found on the skin and in the mouth, intestines, and genitourinary tract of humans and animals. They are named after their ability to produce propionic acid as a major metabolic end product. Some species of Propionibacterium, such as P. acnes, are associated with skin conditions like acne vulgaris, where they contribute to the inflammatory response that leads to the formation of pimples and lesions. Other species, such as P. freudenreichii, are used in the food industry for the production of dairy products like Swiss cheese and yogurt. Propionibacterium species are generally considered to be non-pathogenic or opportunistic pathogens, meaning that they can cause infection under certain circumstances, such as when the immune system is compromised.

Microbial interactions refer to the various ways in which different microorganisms, such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, and parasites, influence each other's growth, survival, and behavior in a shared environment. These interactions can be categorized into several types:

1. Commensalism: One organism benefits from the interaction while the other is neither harmed nor benefited (e.g., certain gut bacteria that feed on host-derived nutrients without affecting the host's health).
2. Mutualism: Both organisms benefit from the interaction (e.g., the partnership between rhizobia bacteria and leguminous plants, where the bacteria fix nitrogen for the plant, and the plant provides carbohydrates for the bacteria).
3. Parasitism: One organism benefits at the expense of the other, causing harm or disease to the host (e.g., the malaria parasite infecting human red blood cells).
4. Competition: Both organisms struggle for limited resources, like nutrients or space, leading to a negative impact on one or both parties (e.g., different bacterial species competing for limited iron sources in the environment).
5. Amensalism: One organism is harmed or inhibited while the other remains unaffected (e.g., antibiotic-producing bacteria inhibiting the growth of nearby susceptible bacteria).
6. Synergism: Multiple organisms work together to produce a combined effect greater than the sum of their individual effects (e.g., certain bacterial and fungal communities in soil that enhance plant growth and nutrient uptake).
7. Antagonism: One organism inhibits or kills another through various mechanisms, such as the production of antibiotics or enzymes (e.g., some bacteria producing bacteriocins to inhibit the growth of closely related species).

Understanding microbial interactions is crucial for developing strategies in areas like infectious disease control, probiotic applications, and managing microbial communities in various ecosystems, including the human body.

Bacteria are single-celled microorganisms that are among the earliest known life forms on Earth. They are typically characterized as having a cell wall and no membrane-bound organelles. The majority of bacteria have a prokaryotic organization, meaning they lack a nucleus and other membrane-bound organelles.

Bacteria exist in diverse environments and can be found in every habitat on Earth, including soil, water, and the bodies of plants and animals. Some bacteria are beneficial to their hosts, while others can cause disease. Beneficial bacteria play important roles in processes such as digestion, nitrogen fixation, and biogeochemical cycling.

Bacteria reproduce asexually through binary fission or budding, and some species can also exchange genetic material through conjugation. They have a wide range of metabolic capabilities, with many using organic compounds as their source of energy, while others are capable of photosynthesis or chemosynthesis.

Bacteria are highly adaptable and can evolve rapidly in response to environmental changes. This has led to the development of antibiotic resistance in some species, which poses a significant public health challenge. Understanding the biology and behavior of bacteria is essential for developing strategies to prevent and treat bacterial infections and diseases.

Streptococcus thermophilus is a gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic, non-motile, non-spore forming bacterium that belongs to the Streptococcaceae family. It is a species of streptococcus that is mesophilic, meaning it grows best at moderate temperatures, typically between 30-45°C. S. thermophilus is commonly found in milk and dairy products and is one of the starter cultures used in the production of yogurt and other fermented dairy products. It is also used as a probiotic due to its potential health benefits, such as improving lactose intolerance and enhancing the immune system. S. thermophilus is not considered pathogenic and does not normally cause infections in humans.

Mucin-3, also known as MUC3A or CA15-3, is a type of mucin protein that is heavily glycosylated and found on the apical surface of epithelial cells in the gastrointestinal tract. It is a transmembrane protein that plays a role in protecting the epithelial surface from damage, infection, and inflammation. Mucin-3 has been identified as a tumor antigen and its expression is often upregulated in various types of cancer, including colon, pancreatic, and ovarian cancers. The soluble form of Mucin-3 can be measured in the blood and used as a tumor marker to monitor the progression of certain cancers.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) is a systematic, preventive approach to identifying, evaluating, and controlling food safety hazards based on the Codex Alimentarius Commission's principles. HACCP is not a medical definition per se, but it is widely used in the medical field, particularly in relation to food safety and public health.

The seven principles of HACCP are:

1. Conduct a hazard analysis: Identify potential hazards that could cause harm to consumers and evaluate their severity and likelihood of occurrence.
2. Determine critical control points (CCPs): Identify the steps in the food production process where control can be applied to prevent, eliminate, or reduce the identified hazards to an acceptable level.
3. Establish critical limits: Define the maximum or minimum values that must be met at each CCP to ensure the hazard is under control.
4. Monitor critical control points: Implement a system for monitoring and recording the critical limits at each CCP to ensure they are consistently met.
5. Establish corrective actions: Develop procedures for taking corrective action when deviations from critical limits occur, including identifying the cause of the deviation and preventing its recurrence.
6. Verify the HACCP system: Conduct regular audits and inspections to ensure that the HACCP system is working effectively and making any necessary adjustments.
7. Record-keeping: Maintain records of all HACCP activities, including hazard analysis, CCP identification, monitoring results, corrective actions, and verification activities.

HACCP is a proactive approach to food safety that focuses on preventing contamination rather than relying solely on end-product testing. It is widely used in various industries, including healthcare facilities, to ensure the safety of food served to patients, staff, and visitors.

The colon, also known as the large intestine, is a part of the digestive system in humans and other vertebrates. It is an organ that eliminates waste from the body and is located between the small intestine and the rectum. The main function of the colon is to absorb water and electrolytes from digested food, forming and storing feces until they are eliminated through the anus.

The colon is divided into several regions, including the cecum, ascending colon, transverse colon, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus. The walls of the colon contain a layer of muscle that helps to move waste material through the organ by a process called peristalsis.

The inner surface of the colon is lined with mucous membrane, which secretes mucus to lubricate the passage of feces. The colon also contains a large population of bacteria, known as the gut microbiota, which play an important role in digestion and immunity.

Female urogenital diseases refer to a range of medical conditions that affect the female urinary and genital systems. These systems include the kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra, vulva, vagina, and reproductive organs such as the ovaries and uterus.

Some common female urogenital diseases include:

1. Urinary tract infections (UTIs): These are infections that occur in any part of the urinary system, including the kidneys, ureters, bladder, or urethra.
2. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): This is an infection of the reproductive organs, including the uterus, fallopian tubes, and ovaries.
3. Endometriosis: This is a condition in which tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of the uterus, often on the ovaries, fallopian tubes, or other pelvic structures.
4. Ovarian cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries.
5. Uterine fibroids: These are noncancerous growths that develop in the muscular wall of the uterus.
6. Interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome (IC/BPS): This is a chronic bladder condition characterized by pain, pressure, and discomfort in the bladder and pelvic area.
7. Sexually transmitted infections (STIs): These are infections that are passed from person to person during sexual contact. Common STIs include chlamydia, gonorrhea, syphilis, and HIV.
8. Vulvodynia: This is chronic pain or discomfort of the vulva, the external female genital area.
9. Cancers of the reproductive system, such as ovarian cancer, cervical cancer, and uterine cancer.

These are just a few examples of female urogenital diseases. It's important for women to receive regular medical care and screenings to detect and treat these conditions early, when they are often easier to manage and have better outcomes.

Immunomodulation is the process of modifying or regulating the immune system's response. It can involve either stimulating or suppressing various components of the immune system, such as white blood cells, antibodies, or cytokines. This can be achieved through various means, including medications (such as immunosuppressive drugs used in organ transplantation), vaccines, and other therapies.

The goal of immunomodulation is to restore balance to an overactive or underactive immune system, depending on the specific medical condition being treated. It can help to prevent or treat diseases that result from abnormal immune responses, such as autoimmune disorders, allergies, and infections.

"Probiotics". National Health Service. 27 November 2018. "Probiotics: What You Need To Know". National Center for Complementary ... ISBN 92-5-105513-0. Probiotics for Kids: How are they useful? FAQs on Probiotics for Children (All articles with dead external ... Probiotics are commonly given to breast-feeding mothers and their young children to prevent eczema, but some doubt exists over ... Probiotics were found to be effective in treating acute, infectious diarrhea in children when a review was completed in 2001, ...
Probiotics do not appear to change the risk of infection in older people. The use of oral probiotic supplements to modify the ... The term "probiotic" originally referred to microorganisms that have effects on other microorganisms. The concept of probiotics ... The potential efficacy of probiotics to treat AAD depends on the probiotic strains and dosage. One review recommended for ... Currently, the success of probiotic treatment has been mixed, since the use of probiotics to restore healthy populations of ...
The consensus article on Probiotics was written by ISAPP in 2014. ISAPP also maintains an informational blog on the ISAPP ... ISAPP is a member based organization, composed of companies and organizations with an interest in probiotics and prebiotics ( ... The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics (ISAPP) is a non-profit organization dedicated to ... The companies participating in ISAPP's IAC include the most scientifically committed and advanced probiotic and prebiotic ...
The potential efficacy of probiotic AAD prevention is dependent on the probiotic strain(s) used and on the dosage. A 2015 meta- ... boulardii - Probiotic Yeast". In Rigobelo EC (ed.). Probiotics. pp. 385-98. ISBN 978-953-51-0776-7. Rajkowska K, Kunicka- ... June 2018). "Experience with Saccharomyces boulardii Probiotic in Oncohaematological Patients". Probiotics and Antimicrobial ... Note on source: The authors assign strain names based on the supplier of the probiotic. Of these suppliers, Biocodex and EDRL ...
The use of L. rhamnosus GG for probiotic therapy has been linked with rare cases of sepsis in certain risk groups, primarily ... Szajewska H, Guarino A, Hojsak I, Indrio F, Kolacek S, Shamir R, Vandenplas Y, Weizman Z (April 2014). "Use of probiotics for ... Some strains of L. rhamnosus bacteria are being used as probiotics, and are particularly useful in treating infections of the ... No studies to date have identified illnesses for which a probiotic organism is an appropriate first- or second-line treatment. ...
"Probiotics". PDRhealth, Thomson Healthcare. Archived from the original on 2007-08-21. Retrieved 2007-08-25. "Filmjölk: Cultura ... "What is Proviva: The probiotic bacteria LP 299v" (in Swedish). Skånemejerier. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. ... as well as filmjölk with probiotic bacteria that is claimed to be extra healthful, such as Onaka fil which contains ...
ISBN 978-1-351-44251-0. Everlon Rigobelo (3 October 2012). Probiotics. BoD - Books on Demand. pp. 176-. ISBN 978-953-51-0776-7 ...
These products include, but are not limited to, food & drinks based on milk whey; probiotics; an anti-fungal drug; biological ...
Probiotics contain anti-inflammatory properties that assist in the prevention and treatment of intestinal diseases due to ... FMTs use the same line of reasoning as probiotics; to recreate a healthy balance of microbiota in the microbiome by inserting ... Probiotics can be utilized in aiding existing conditions and preventing such diseases by instituting anti-inflammatory ... Lactobacillus is the most researched single strain of probiotic bacteria. It is sold to consumers for gut health either as a ...
This concept of probiotics, which he termed "orthobiosis," was influential in his lifetime, but became ignored until the mid- ... This became the concept of probiotics in medicine. Mechnikov is also credited with coining the term gerontology in 1903, for ... Lewis, Danny (7 May 2015). "Probiotics Exist Thanks to a Man Who Drank Cholera". Smithsonian Magazine. Retrieved 21 June 2022. ... Brown, AC; Valiere, A (2004). "Probiotics and medical nutrition therapy". Nutrition in Clinical Care. 7 (2): 56-68. PMC 1482314 ...
Although probiotics in general are considered safe, concerns exist about their use in certain cases. Some people, such as those ... A screen of several probiotic bacteria found L. reuteri was the only tested species able to block S. mutans. Before testing in ... Rarely, consumption of probiotics may cause bacteremia, fungemia and sepsis, potentially fatal infections, in children with ... Boyle RJ, Robins-Browne RM, Tang ML (2006). "Probiotic use in clinical practice: what are the risks?". Am J Clin Nutr (Review ...
A clinical study investigating the impact of probiotics in relieving the signs and symptoms of dry eye revealed promising ... Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. doi:10.1007/s12602-023-10079-1. PMID 37256485. Aasen, I. M.; Møretrø, T.; Katla, T.; Axelsson, ... results for the ophthalmic formulation of Latilactobacillus sakei, while the oral probiotic demonstrated no discernible ...
Live biotherapeutics (probiotics). Some medical devices, specifically test kits for HIV, tests used to screen blood donations, ... probiotics), blood products, and cell, tissue, and gene therapies). Not all biologics are regulated by CBER. Monoclonal ...
Holland MA (April 2016). "Probiotics for Plants? What the PPFMs told us and some ideas about how to use them". Journal of the ... There is a global application to this research, implying that PPFMs would be appropriate probiotic for some species of plants. ...
There is evidence that long‐chain omega‐3 supplementation may be helpful, however, probiotics, fish- flax- and hemp-oil (omega- ... Probiotics Antimicrob Proteins. doi:10.1007/s12602-023-10079-1. PMID 37256485. Guo Y, Peng R, Feng K, Hong J (2016). " ...
... use of probiotics; helminthic therapy; a drug to suppress toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9); and mepolizumab to treat eosinophilic ...
"Pioneers of Probiotics". European Probiotic Association. February 2012. Archived from the original on 2013-07-22. Retrieved ... "Potential of probiotics as biotherapeutic agents targeting the innate immune system" (PDF). African Journal of Biotechnology. ... "Probiotics: 100 years (1907-2007) after Elie Metchnikoff's Observation" (PDF). Communicating Current Research and Educational ... Adding Bifidobacterium as a probiotic to conventional treatment of ulcerative colitis has been shown to be associated with ...
Taylor, John R.; Deborah Mitchell (2007). The Wonder of Probiotics. Macmillan Publishers. p. 174. ISBN 978-0-312-37632-1. " ...
... which are purported to enhance the growth and health benefits of existing probiotics. Probiotics are live bacteria which are ... Using prebiotics and probiotics in combination may be described as synbiotic, but the United Nations Food & Agriculture ... Rijkers GT, de Vos WM, Brummer RJ, Morelli L, Corthier G, Marteau P (2011). "Health benefits and health claims of probiotics: ... Johnson-Henry, K. C; Abrahamsson, T. R; Wu, R. Y; Sherman, P. M (2016). "Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Synbiotics for the ...
Shira Doron; Sherwood L Gorbach (1 April 2006). "Probiotics: their role in the treatment and prevention of disease". Expert ... Sherwood Gorbach (1 January 2000). "Probiotics and gastrointestinal health". The American Journal of Gastroenterology. 95 (1 ...
Armbrecht J (2 August 2000). "Of Probiotics and Possibilities". Department of Bacteriology, University of Wisconsin-Madison. ...
The Skinny on Probiotics. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016-03-20. Is there a dark side of the moon?. HowStuffWorks. Retrieved 2016 ...
Hansen to develop probiotics. Vietnam's State Capital Investment Corporation (SCIC) holds 36% of the shares as of late 2017. ... Hansen to help Vinamilk develop probiotics". Retrieved 2017-10-11. "VNM - Major Shareholders". Stockbiz Vietnam ...
Not only are microorganisms a source of antibiotics but some may also act as probiotics to provide health benefits to the host ... Williams NT (2010) Probiotics. American Journal of Health-System Pharmacy 67:449-458. Medical Microbiology (CS1 maint: multiple ...
Several probiotics seem to have a positive effect, with a roughly 20% reduction in the rate of AD. Probiotics containing ... Makrgeorgou A, Leonardi-Bee J, Bath-Hextall FJ, Murrell DF, Tang ML, Roberts A, Boyle RJ (November 2018). "Probiotics for ... August 2019). "Prebiotics and probiotics in atopic dermatitis". Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine. 18 (2): 926-931. doi: ... "The role of probiotics in the treatment of adult atopic dermatitis: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Journal ...
Probiotics and Immunity », Immunol. Today, 20,1999, p. 387-390 S.Méance, et al., « Effect of a milk fermented by ...
"PreForPro: the Science". Deerland Probiotics and Enzymes. Girard M, Steele D, Chaignat C, Kieny M (2006). "A review of vaccine ...
Fedorak RN (September 2008). "Understanding why probiotic therapies can be effective in treating IBD". J. Clin. Gastroenterol. ... Vanderhoof JA (November 2008). "Probiotics in allergy management". J. Pediatr. Gastroenterol. Nutr. 47 (Suppl 2): S38-40. doi: ... "Treating irritable bowel syndrome with a food elimination diet followed by food challenge and probiotics". J Am Coll Nutr. 25 ( ...
"The Evolution of Human Probiotics: Challenges and Prospects". Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins. 12 (4): 1291-1299. doi: ... Warman DJ, Jia H, Kato H (February 2022). "The Potential Roles of Probiotics, Resistant Starch, and Resistant Proteins in ... probiotics and synbiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation are being investigated for life extension, mainly for ... "Legumes and Legume-Based Beverages Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria as a Potential Carrier of Probiotics and Prebiotics". ...
Although probiotics, in general, are considered safe, there are concerns about their use in certain cases. Some people, such as ... The Wonder of Probiotics. New York, NY: St. Martin's Press, 2007. Leboffe, Michael (1 January 2012). Microbiology: Laboratory ... Rarely, the use of probiotics has caused sepsis in children with lowered immune systems or in those who are already critically ... 2005). Probiotics And Prebiotics: Scientific Aspects. Caister Academic Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-904455-01-1. Retrieved 31 March ...
"Probiotics". National Health Service. 27 November 2018. "Probiotics: What You Need To Know". National Center for Complementary ... ISBN 92-5-105513-0. Probiotics for Kids: How are they useful? FAQs on Probiotics for Children (All articles with dead external ... Probiotics are commonly given to breast-feeding mothers and their young children to prevent eczema, but some doubt exists over ... Probiotics were found to be effective in treating acute, infectious diarrhea in children when a review was completed in 2001, ...
A four-strain probiotic helped patients with Parkinsons disease and constipation reduce the delay in levodopa treatment effect ... Probiotics Hot Topic Among Patients Claudia Trenkwalder, MD, full professor of neurology at University Medical Center ... Participants taking the probiotic also saw a reduced delay in "time to on" of treatment with levodopa, thus reducing the delay ... The probiotic used was a liquid formulation (Symprove) and contained four strains: Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus, Enterococcus ...
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This article reviews the most common side effects of probiotics and how to reduce them. ... While there are many health benefits linked to taking probiotics, there can also be side effects. ... Similarly, yeast-based probiotics should not be taken by those with yeast allergies. Instead, a bacteria-based probiotic should ... Probiotics are microorganisms that provide a health benefit when consumed. Heres everything you need to know about probiotics. ...
Within this market the probiotics have been incorporated in various products, mainly fermented dairy foods. In light of this ... Probiotic bacteria have become increasingly popular during the last two decades as a result of the continuously expanding ... purpose of this paper is to review the current documentation on the concept and the possible beneficial properties of probiotic ... R. Fuller, "Probiotics for farm animals," in Probiotics a Critical Review, pp. 15-22, Horizon Scientific, Wymondham, UK, 1999. ...
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Probiotics are an alternative to longstanding farming practice, and could help us build a better food system ... Custom-designed probiotic bacteria would eliminate the need to run trial-and-error studies to determine which probiotics work ... Probiotics, not antibiotics, might be the future of livestock farming. Probiotics are an alternative to longstanding farming ... The number and type of bacteria in a probiotic can vary enormously, and each probiotic likely impacts the animals in different ...
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This means that probiotics may help, but they are not likely effective on their own for improving mental health. Probiotic ... Psychobiotics are the same as probiotics. Probiotics are living microorganisms that help with digestion and normal bowel ... Probiotics are also known as gut microbiota - the "good" or "friendly" bacteria that live in your digestive system. They can be ... Psychobiotics: Probiotics for Mental Health and Wellbeing. Published on September 19, 2023 . 2 ...
Probiotic Balancing Gel Moisturizer at Sephora. This lightweight gel moisturizer rescues skin from redness and congestion. ...
Probiotics can help improve your health ! Always ask your healthcare professional regarding the best probiotics for your body. ... Probiotics are live microorganisms promoted with claims that they provide health benefits when consumed, generally by improving ... Probiotics can help improve your health ! Always ask your healthcare professional regarding the best probiotics for your body. ... Probiotics can help improve your health ! Always ask your healthcare professional regarding the best probiotics for your body. ...
9. Raw Probiotics Ultimate Care. What are probiotics?. Probiotics are live microorganisms (aka, "good" bacteria) that are ... How do I store probiotics?. Its important to store probiotics properly to ensure that they remain effective. Probiotics should ... How many probiotics should a woman take?. The amount of probiotics you should take depends on the reason youre taking them. ... What foods have probiotics in them?. There are many different foods that contain probiotics. Some of the best sources include ...
  • Some bacterial strains used in probiotic supplements can produce histamine inside the digestive tract of humans ( 19 , 20 , 21 ). (
  • Some histamine-producing probiotic strains include Lactobacillus buchneri, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus hilgardii and Streptococcus thermophilus ( 29 , 30 , 31 ). (
  • The reported beneficial effects of probiotic consumption include improvement of intestinal health, amelioration of symptoms of lactose intolerance, and reduction of the risk of various other diseases, and several well-characterized strains of Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are available for human use [ 3 , 4 ]. (
  • A combination of four probiotic strains may shorten the duration of an infection with Clostridium difficile, says a new study that supports the role of probiotics to counter the most common cause of hospital-acquired infections. (
  • The Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products Available in the US is the only comprehensive summary of probiotic brands that reviews, rates, and summarizes the scientific evidence available for specific probiotic strains and related brands. (
  • They arrived at a rough list of probiotic strains that may help prevent infection, and enhance immune function to reduce the impact of viral infections, especially COVID-19. (
  • Probiotics are healthy bacteria strains found naturally in some foods and in nutritional supplements. (
  • Robust studies are needed, the authors say, to evaluate efficacy and safety in special populations or compare probiotic strains head-to-head. (
  • Which probiotic strains do I need? (
  • Every probiotic contains a variety of bacteria strains that each serve a specific purpose. (
  • The specific bacterial strains beneficial for mental health are still being studied, and the quality and composition of probiotic supplements can vary significantly. (
  • The type of probiotic strains it contains. (
  • According to their proponents, probiotics are live strains of yeast and bacteria that can help balance the good and bad bacteria in the gut, giving a slew of health benefits. (
  • UltraFlora probiotics contain strains with research-demonstrated benefits to health. (
  • A recent randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigated the impact of the probiotic strains L. acidophilus DDS-1 ® and Bifidobacterium, UABla-12 ™ individually against placebo over six weeks. (
  • Both probiotic strains, DDS-1 ® and UABla-12 ™ , individually achieved the primary objective showing significant reduction in digestive related abdominal discomfort vs placebo after six weeks of intervention. (
  • As probiotic manufacturers are increasingly seeking to use new strains, novel species, and next-generation probiotics, justification based on a significant history of use may be challenged. (
  • Evaluation of the effect of probiotics in humans is complex due to differences in strains, patient populations and dosing. (
  • In addition, many clinical trials report conflicting findings, and results of meta-analyses have been published that compare non-identical probiotic strains, making the evidence difficult to interpret. (
  • It is essential to know that not everyone needs to be taking a probiotic supplement. (
  • If you're taking a probiotic supplement , it's also possible that you may be sensitive to one of the other inactive ingredients in the supplement. (
  • The same trend was observed in other studies employing Lactobacillus as probiotics in mice infected with influenza viruses. (
  • Some probiotics, like ​ Lactobacillus ​and bifidobacterium, also create a byproduct called D-lactic acid, which can build up in those with SIBO and cause the characteristic brain fog. (
  • You may have heard that probiotics can be beneficial for gut health, but recent scientific evidence suggests that multiple different species of bacteria - such as Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium - can also impact brain health. (
  • In this study, participants received milk containing a mixture of probiotics ( Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium ) or plain milk for 12 weeks. (
  • "Consumption of Lactobacillus amylovorus or Lactobacillus fermentum bacteria as probiotics may assist in reducing the development of obesity, since these bacteria may confer modifications to energy handling within the host," ​ wrote researchers from the University of Manitoba, McGill University, and Micropharma Limited in Canada. (
  • Our Nature's Bounty® Probiotic GX contains probi-digestis® Lactobacillus plantarum 299v (Lp299v®), a specific strain that has been studied by gastroenterologists. (
  • Lactobacillus spp, Bifidobacterium spp, Saccharomyces boulardii, and Bacillus coagulans are the most common beneficial bacteria used in probiotic nutritional supplement products. (
  • Gerasimov et al determined that the administration of a probiotic mixture containing Lactobacillus acidophilus DDS-1, Bifidobacterium lactis UABLA-12, and fructo-oligosaccharide was associated with significant clinical improvement in children with atopic dermatitis. (
  • Daily probiotic yogurt consumption may improve energy metabolism and reduce body fat levels by up to 4%, say results of a placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over clinical trial in Canada. (
  • Stonyfield Organic is introducing the market's first organic daily probiotic yogurt drink called Daily Probiotics, which is made with real fruit and supports both immune and digestive health. (
  • Some people take a daily probiotic supplement to maintain their general wellness. (
  • The new products, Regul8 Daily Probiotic and ProBio-Chew Dental Cookie, support digestive and immune health. (
  • Regul8 Daily Probiotic is a chicken-flavored chewable tablet, while ProBio-Chew Dental Cookie is a large, 4-oz cookie enhanced with parsley, chlorophyll, peppermint oil, and mint. (
  • Probiotics are live microorganisms promoted with claims that they provide health benefits when consumed, generally by improving or restoring the gut flora. (
  • The definition used at present was given by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations World Health Organization, according to which probiotics are redefined as "live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. (
  • Growth in the probiotic supplements market has not returned to pre-pandemic levels, and interest in the beneficial microorganisms continues to gather pace, says the executive director of the International Probiotics Association. (
  • Probiotics are "nonpathogenic living microorganisms providing various health benefits to the human host. (
  • Often described as good bacteria , probiotics are live microorganisms that, when consumed, benefit the host. (
  • Probiotics are live microorganisms, usually bacteria and yeast, that are often called 'good bacteria' because they provide health benefits to your entire body, according to Cleveland Clinic . (
  • The World Health Organization defines probiotics as "live microorganisms, which when administered in adequate amounts confer a health benefit on the host. (
  • Probiotics are living microorganisms that help with digestion and normal bowel function. (
  • Probiotics are live microorganisms (aka, "good" bacteria) that are similar to the ones already found in your body. (
  • Probiotics are living microorganisms, mainly bacteria, and research studies have shown that these microorganisms have different contributions to host health according to current diseases, metabolic and microbiome status, and treatment duration. (
  • Probiotics are live microorganisms that are beneficial to health. (
  • Probiotics are live microorganisms (microbes) that can have beneficial effects on or inside your body. (
  • The proposed mechanisms of action for the beneficial effects of probiotics include competitive exclusion of pathogenic microorganisms, inhibition of pathogen adhesion, production of anti-microbial substances and modulation of the immune system. (
  • There is plenty of activity in probiotic topical formulations targeting the skin microbiome, but could 'beauty from within' using supplements be a strong alternative? (
  • The health benefits of probiotic supplements and foods have been well documented, including a lower risk of infections, improved digestion and even a reduced risk for some chronic diseases ( 5 , 6 , 7 , 8 ). (
  • Some people may experience headaches after eating these foods, and should instead opt for probiotic supplements. (
  • Theoretically, they may want to select probiotic supplements that do not contain histamine-producing bacteria, but to date, there has been no research on this specific area. (
  • Etymologically the term probiotic is derived from the Greek language meaning "for life" but the definition of probiotics has evolved over time simultaneously with the increasing interest in the use of viable bacterial supplements and in relation to the progress made in understanding their mechanisms of action. (
  • Until recently the most widely used definition which contributed to the development of the probiotic concept in several ways was that of Fuller: "probiotics are live microbial feed supplements which beneficially affect the host animal by improving microbial balance" [ 6 ]. (
  • Gut-brain axis (GBX)-focused probiotic supplements have tripled to 200+ offerings since 2019, as promising science and self-medicating consumers seek solutions to a global mental health crisis afflicting a billion people, according to Lumina Intelligence. (
  • Recent finding reveals a soaring demand for health-related products including Probiotics, Proteins, Zero Carb related supplements. (
  • Probiotics and other supplements may help treat bacterial vaginosis (BV) without antibiotics. (
  • People may wish to take probiotic supplements. (
  • Ellen Kamhi talks with James B. LaValle, clinical pharmacist, board certified clinical nutritionist, who works with the NFL, NBA, MLB and the Pro Football Hall of Fame Village to offer personalized health, wellness, diet and performance strategies says don't just take probiotics because they are popular, that you need to take them with intention since unlike other vitamins and supplements they are live bacteria. (
  • While there are many probiotic -based supplements on the market, purchasing the right one for you can be particularly perplexing. (
  • Probiotics are beneficial microbes, chiefly bacteria, that have become popular health supplements. (
  • however, the first reference to probiotics as dietary supplements to improve health (in 1974! (
  • Probiotics can be found in supplements, fermented foods, and yogurts. (
  • Probiotics contain live organisms, including bacteria or yeast, and are commonly marketed as foods and in dietary supplements. (
  • Probiotic supplements add to your existing supply of friendly microbes. (
  • Many probiotics are oral supplements designed to be ingested into your gastrointestinal tract . (
  • Ganeden Biotech (Cleveland) has launched a line of chewable dog supplements containing the company's Ganeden BC30 Bacillus coagulans probiotic strain. (
  • You can receive probiotic benefits from the foods you eat - such as yogurt or sauerkraut - or from probiotic supplements. (
  • In general, most healthy adults can safely add to their diet foods or nutritional supplements that contain probiotics. (
  • Probiotics were defined by Fuller in 1989, as "live microbial feed supplements that beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. (
  • A history of safe use is a backbone of safety assessments for many current probiotic species, however, there is no global harmonization regarding requirements for establishing probiotic safety for use in foods and supplements. (
  • As many prevention methods for diarrhea have adverse effects (e.g. intestinal intussusception in the usage of rotavirus vaccine), scientists are now turning to probiotics in hope of using it as a supplement to treat acute diarrhea. (
  • If probiotic-rich foods trigger your symptoms, a probiotic supplement may be a better choice. (
  • It's also possible that you're taking contaminated probiotics, since there's very little regulation on the supplement industry. (
  • As a result, many livestock farmers turned to probiotics to supplement their animals' diets , but they still use antibiotics in large amounts. (
  • Consult a healthcare provider before starting a probiotic supplement. (
  • You can take probiotics in supplement form or by eating fermented foods and yogurts that contain live and active cultures. (
  • When it comes to choosing a probiotic supplement, there are many factors to consider. (
  • If you're in search of an everyday supplement, Nature's Bounty® Probiotic 10 can be taken daily to provide advanced support for optimal digestive balance and healthy immune function. (
  • With 10 different organisms and 20 billion live cultures at the time of manufacture, these capsules contain a wide array of probiotic organisms to supplement your body's natural diversity. (
  • In addition to taking a supplement, there are a variety of foods you can incorporate into your diet that supply probiotics. (
  • Although these natural sources are a great addition to your diet, incorporating a probiotic supplement into your daily routine is a great way to increase your intake while creating a favorable environment for the absorption of nutrients. (
  • highlight a recent, large randomized controlled trial demonstrating the ability of a probiotic and prebiotic supplement to prevent neonatal sepsis among children in India. (
  • COPENHAGEN - Giving patients with Parkinson's disease and constipation a probiotic for 3 months improved not only their gut microbiome but also nonmotor symptoms such as sleep, fatigue, and constipation, results of a new randomized trial show. (
  • Probiotics offer health benefits through several mechanisms: modulation of composition or activity of the microbiome, modulation of the immune system, effect on systemic metabolic responses, improving barrier function in the gut, and increasing colonization resistance against pathogens. (
  • The strain is particularly important because it not only reflects the physical characteristics of the probiotic, but how it will act, interact, and react with your individual microbiome. (
  • However, probiotics affect people differently depending on their genetics , gut microbiome and overall metabolism, says Rakotonirina. (
  • By chewing one of their probiotics before bed, after your nightly brush/floss/rinse routine, you can truly change the microbiome of your mouth, leaving less opportunities for foul-smelling bacteria to take hold and regenerate in the micro crevasses on your teeth and gums. (
  • The newest addition to the HeiQ portfolio harnesses the power of active probiotics and selected prebiotics to enhance the skin microbiome, turning the human's largest organ into the best-looking one. (
  • Unlike conventional products, HeiQ Skin Care utilizes slow-release prebiotics and probiotics seamlessly integrated into a biobased textile matrix, enriching the skin's microbiome diversity, and offering long-lasting cosmetic benefits. (
  • HeiQ Skin Care represents a leap forward in textile innovation, combining the power of probiotics and prebiotics to enhance skin microbiome and overall skin appearance. (
  • Intensive wear trials conducted during the development stage have proven the consistent release of synbiotics (prebiotics and probiotics) onto the skin, creating conditions to foster a well-balanced microbiome. (
  • Balance your gut microbiome with probiotics that survive the acidic challenge. (
  • Via effects on the microbiome and on the human body itself, probiotics may impact every facet of health. (
  • If you have symptoms of dysbiosis, in your digestive system or elsewhere, your healthcare provider might recommend probiotics to help bring your microbiome back to balance. (
  • If you've recently had an illness or treatment that weakened your microbiome, your provider might suggest probiotics to help rebuild it. (
  • Everyday things like stress and food choices can diminish your gut microbiome, and probiotics are one way to help restore it. (
  • Probiotics help achieve healthy intestinal flora to restore balance in your gut microbiome. (
  • The synergistic combination of prebiotics and probiotics, known as synbiotics, delivers a soothing cosmetic skin treatment while we relax, work, or sleep. (
  • What are probiotics versus prebiotics? (
  • Probiotics and Prebiotics: Where Are We Going? (
  • Probiotics and prebiotics have become part of the lexicon of food technologists," writes Gerald W. Tannock, editor of the provocative new book, Probiotics and Prebiotics: Where Are We Going? (
  • The concept of probiotics has been developing over recent decades, and the use of prebiotics extends this idea. (
  • Improved methods hold the promise of better defining which bacteria are present, distinguishing how much the biota varies from person to person, and measuring how well persons respond to probiotics and prebiotics. (
  • Use of probiotics and prebiotics has been advanced as one solution to that problem. (
  • In summary, Probiotics and Prebiotics is an important book, from which I have learned much. (
  • As a result, it is seen that probiotics can alter and prevent changes in the intestinal microflora caused by antibiotics. (
  • C ) Probiotic bacteria releases antimicrobial substances (such as bacteriocins, biosurfactants, lactic acid, hydrogen peroxide, nitric oxide, organic acids) and intestinal mucins from mucosal cells, which can effectively inhibit virus proliferation. (
  • It could be small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO) that's making those probiotics work against you. (
  • After reading many papers on the subject, Tournut noticed that probiotics seemed to prevent some deadly intestinal diseases. (
  • Probiotics are effective in the prevention of intestinal infections, cardiovascular disease, cancer, and allergies. (
  • Another therapeutic approach is represented by the administration of probiotics to modify the composition of colonic flora and thus the production of intestinal gas. (
  • Previously, in vitro ​ studies have reported that cranberry juice or probiotics can inhibit the adhesion of many pathogenic bacteria in the mouth, urinary tract, and gastro-intestinal tract. (
  • Flora's Probiotic Blends are unique in that they've been developed to survive the stomach acids so that they can be as effective as possible when they reach the intestinal tract. (
  • In parallel with the intestinal changes, combined probiotic and DSS treatment increased microglial, neutrophil elastase , and 5hmC immunoreactivity while decreasing c-Fos staining compared to DSS treatment alone in the brains of WT mice . (
  • Probiotic bacteria (Probiotics) are healthy intestinal bacteria. (
  • Some probiotic-rich foods , like yogurt, sauerkraut and kimchi, contain biogenic amines ( 11 , 12 ). (
  • Probiotics are added to a range of products, such as yogurt, tea and even chocolate. (
  • In an 'elegant' study, the St Louis-based scientists reported that probiotics in a yogurt did not colonize the gut microflora when studied in identical twins, but additional study in mice revealed that ingestion of probiotic bacteria produced a change in many metabolic pathways, particularly those related to carbohydrate metabolism ( Science Translational Medicine ​, Vol. 3, 106ra106). (
  • The FDA said that one infant developed sepsis and later died after the infant was given a probiotic while in hospital care. (
  • Take our Probiotic Quiz to find the right probiotic formula for you. (
  • There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question - it depends on the specific probiotic and the woman's individual needs. (
  • There was also a significant improvement in the Non-Motor Symptoms Scale (NMSS) score between baseline and the post-intervention assessment in patients given the probiotic, from 70.71 to 61.34 ( P = .005). (
  • however, the current data cannot prove whether the probiotic influenced the symptoms of Parkinson's disease because the improvement in NMSS scores "is driven by the improvement in constipation. (
  • Researchers found that kids who took the probiotic showed no difference in the length of illness or the severity of symptoms. (
  • Just as taking medication for pain won't prevent pregnancy, taking a probiotic to prevent traveler's diarrhea won't relieve a baby's colic symptoms. (
  • Selecting the proper probiotic and taking it appropriately for the symptoms or condition you wish to relieve is imperative. (
  • So, if you take probiotics, nausea or other uncomfortable symptoms may follow. (
  • Sometimes, temporary symptoms are one of the signs the probiotics are working, but if you don't start feeling better after a week or so, you may have an underlying digestive issue. (
  • Do Probiotics Worsen Bowel Symptoms? (
  • After hearing reports of brain fog, gas and bloating associated with probiotic use, researchers set out to determine whether these were normal probiotics detox symptoms or if there was another underlying digestive issue going on. (
  • Keep in mind that even if you're healthy and you don't have any underlying digestive issues, you may still go through some probiotics detox symptoms when you first start supplementing with the good bacteria. (
  • However, most probiotics for vaginal health will help balance the good and bad bacteria in your vagina and may reduce the symptoms of vaginal infections and other vaginal issues. (
  • While these benefits vary widely, there is evidence that probiotics can help relieve diarrhea and even reduce the symptoms of some psychiatric conditions, such as depression. (
  • The right type and amount of probiotics, meaning the healthy bacteria and yeasts they contain, support your body in several ways - from promoting healthy immune function and successful weight management, to minimizing symptoms like occasional diarrhea, uncomfortable bloating, and constipation. (
  • Of 15 studies that examined global IBS symptoms as a primary endpoint, 8 reported significant benefits of probiotics vs placebo. (
  • Specific probiotics can relieve lower GI symptoms in IBS, prevent diarrhoea associated with antibiotics and H. pylori eradication therapy, and show favourable safety. (
  • This study will help clinicians recommend/prescribe probiotics for specific symptoms. (
  • In 2013, the European Society for Primary Care Gastroenterology (ESPCG) published an evidence-based international guide for the use of probiotics in the management of specific lower gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms. (
  • Since the publication of these statements, numerous relevant clinical studies of probiotics in the management of lower GI symptoms have been published. (
  • However, it appears that at least one strain of probiotic, L. acidophilus , could help prevent and treat vaginal imbalance issues like bacterial vaginosis (BV). (
  • Acidophilus ( L. acidophilus ) may be the most well-known probiotic on the market today, possibly because it has so many different applications. (
  • Fermented foods are a rich source of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), which are potentially probiotic. (
  • Consumers are increasingly aware of CFU on probiotic labels, but we may see more products using AFUs, a measure obtained using flow cytometry that is a fast, more accurate, and potentially cost-effective to traditional plate counts. (
  • Preterm infants who are administered a probiotic product are at risk of invasive, potentially fatal disease, or infection, caused by the bacteria or yeast contained in the probiotics," the FDA added. (
  • Probiotics can potentially hinder the growth of H. pylori bacteria by releasing certain substances like short-chain fatty acids and antibacterial compounds. (
  • But beneficial microbes, like probiotics, help to control the potentially harmful types. (
  • There is little evidence that probiotics bring the health benefits claimed for them. (
  • The probiotic was associated with a "statistically significant increase of the abundance of bacteria which are known to have beneficial health related properties, such as Odoribacteraceae ," Leta said. (
  • UK skin health specialist SkinBioTherapeutics has developed a probiotic powder targeting psoriasis - a product that centres on exciting advances in the gut-skin axis and holds wider promise for industry, its CEO says. (
  • While probiotics may provide health benefits, they can also cause side effects, including bloating. (
  • Probiotics are living bacteria and yeasts that provide health benefits when consumed in large amounts. (
  • While there are many health benefits linked to taking probiotics, there can also be side effects. (
  • Probiotic bacteria have become increasingly popular during the last two decades as a result of the continuously expanding scientific evidence pointing to their beneficial effects on human health. (
  • By time, they have successfully evolved with the more recent ones accumulating more substantial evidence that probiotic bacteria can contribute to human health. (
  • Nevertheless, despite the promising evidence, the role of probiotics in human health as well as the safety of their application should be further investigated as the current knowledge of the characteristics that are necessary for their functionality in the gut is not complete. (
  • Researchers now want to study how the combination of breast milk and probiotics affects the gut health of premature babies. (
  • Dragana Skokovic-Sunjic, BScPhm, NCMP, is a Clinical Pharmacist with Hamilton Family Health Team, Hamilton, ON as well as a leader in the knowledge of probiotics both in the United States and Canada. (
  • Probiotics are tiny but powerful organisms that, when taken appropriately, can offer substantial health benefits. (
  • While many people believe probiotics are for the gastrointestinal tract only, scientific evidence asserts far-reaching and diverse benefits of probiotics which extend far beyond the gut to include: respiratory ailments, mental health, colic in babies, weight management, vaginal health, and more. (
  • Probiotics for Vaginal Health: Do They Work? (
  • Consuming probiotics has become a popular way to improve digestive health. (
  • More recently, health experts have begun to consider the potential benefits of probiotics on vaginal health. (
  • There has been promising research in the past few years indicating that probiotics may be effective in treating some conditions precipitated by changes in vaginal pH balance," says Mindy Haar, PhD, RDN, CSN, of the New York Institute of Technology's Department of Interdisciplinary Health Sciences. (
  • The National Center for Complementary and Integrative Health also notes that probiotics can cause an infection in people who have a compromised immune system or high-risk individuals, such as people who are hospitalized or just had surgery and premature infants. (
  • LaValle will show us how to become proficient in their probiotic use by sharing three things probiotics can do for your health now that science supports and two things they can't do, just yet. (
  • Probiotics may benefit health because they improve the balance of bacteria in the gut, research suggests. (
  • In recent years, we've all heard a lot about probiotics, from health reports on the news to marketing blurbs on our favorite yogurts. (
  • Many studies have evaluated the potential health benefits of probiotic use, and the results have been quite promising. (
  • For a probiotic to be useful in pig farming, it must be able to survive in the pigs' guts, continue to work even in an intensive farming environment and with widespread use, and not endanger the long-term health of the animals or consumers. (
  • Many of the articles they reviewed showed probiotics improving the health of pregnant sows and piglets , and making juvenile pigs grow faster and fatter . (
  • Psychobiotics is a term researchers use to describe regular probiotics when studying their potential effects on mental health. (
  • While probiotics are commonly associated with digestive health, some research suggests they may also benefit mental health. (
  • Psychobiotics is a word used by researchers referring to probiotics and their potential effects on mental health. (
  • Probiotics may help in conjunction with prescribed therapy but are likely ineffective on their own for treating mental health conditions. (
  • The difference is that researchers use the term "psychobiotics" when studying mental health or psychological outcomes in connection with probiotics. (
  • In this blog post, we'll discuss the 9 best probiotics for vaginal health and how they can help maintain good reproductive health. (
  • When it comes to vaginal health, probiotics can help balance the good and bad bacteria in your vagina. (
  • Why take probiotics for vaginal health? (
  • When to consider taking probiotics for vaginal health? (
  • Probiotics can help prevent and treat these problems, as well as maintain good vaginal health in general. (
  • Will any probiotic help with vaginal health? (
  • What are the side effects of probiotics on vaginal health? (
  • Probiotics influence more than just gut health. (
  • Probiotics are food and health products that contribute live, beneficial microbes to the populations within your gut and elsewhere, in order to strengthen those communities. (
  • Check out our Health Center for several delicious recipes that support digestion, including one for this Probiotic Rich Breakfast Bowl! (
  • Give your gut health a boost, bolstering natural microflora and laying the foundation for optimal digestion and regular bowel movements with Flora's Adult's Probiotic. (
  • As probiotic bacteria compete with bacteria that cause injury to health, probiotics have been considered as a new therapeutic modality in the treatment of periodontal disease. (
  • The importance of gut microbiota in health and disease is becoming increasingly evident, and there is a growing body of literature on the therapeutic potential of probiotics in GI disorders [ 2 , 3 ] like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and many other conditions. (
  • For example, capsules are designed to protect the probiotics from stomach acid so they can make it to where they're needed most. (
  • This article reviews the most common side effects of probiotics and how to reduce them. (
  • There are hundreds of studies showing the effects of probiotics on gastrointestinal system diseases. (
  • The most common amines found in probiotic-rich foods include histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and phenylethylamine ( 14 ). (
  • Fermented foods rich in probiotics naturally contain amines. (
  • Within this market the probiotics have been incorporated in various products, mainly fermented dairy foods. (
  • Learn more about probiotic foods here. (
  • If you are eating a balanced diet , including fermented foods often, not taking antibiotics, and are generally healthy, you do not need to take a probiotic all the time. (
  • Because probiotics are becoming increasingly popular, they have been included as an ingredient in some foods. (
  • Fermented foods and drinks are one way to get more probiotics into your GI tract. (
  • Other researchers agree that proving probiotics' efficacy is something of a moving target, particularly in treating IBS. (
  • In a small study that was published in ​ Clinical and Translational Gastroenterology ​ in June 2018, researchers reported that people who have SIBO, which is characterized by an overgrowth of bacteria in the small intestine , may get sick after taking probiotics. (
  • In support of this, the researchers found that the participants who took the probiotic had substantially lower blood sugar levels than those in the placebo group, reducing their risk of developing type 2 diabetes. (
  • But, some of the dozens of research papers that the researchers examined didn't show any clear benefits of probiotic application to the pigs, muddying the waters on their utility to farmers. (
  • Researchers found that when probiotics were added to the treatment, the success rate in getting rid of the infection was higher compared to treatments without probiotics. (
  • Thanks to a recent breakthrough made at the University of Helsinki, Finland, with researchers from the National Institute for Biotechnology and Genetic Engineering, Pakistan, features have now been successfully added to the LGG probiotic without gene editing, making it thrive and grow in milk. (
  • While the combined approach (CB/La1) did produce higher levels of eradication, the researchers stated that this was not statistically significant from administration of only cranberry or the active probiotic. (
  • Raw sauerkraut is an amazing source of probiotics. (
  • In her book "Beauty Detox Solution," (Harlequin, 2011) nutritionist Kimberly Snyder shares a recipe for what she calls Probiotic Enzyme Salad, which is a type of sauerkraut. (
  • Further long-term studies are required to examine the effects of probiotic supplementation on various measures on body weight. (
  • A 2019 review concluded that probiotic therapy might have both short- and long-term benefits in treating BV. (
  • However, natural probiotics can also support the bacterial colony that keeps the vagina healthy. (
  • Probiotics are live bacteria that are similar to the "good" bacterial colonies that live in the digestive tract. (
  • Since probiotics vary so much in terms of the bacterial species they contain as well how they are used (for example, at what age pigs are initially given probiotics), scientists struggle to draw firm conclusions about their benefits. (
  • The probiotic drink works by targeting small DNA molecules inside bacterial cells. (
  • Cranberry juice or probiotics clear the stomach of children of a bacterial strain known to cause ulcers and cancer, new research reports. (
  • Probiotics have two main mechanisms of action: one related to bacterial colonization and another related to the modulation of host response. (
  • Since then a series of studies have supported this association but they were originally poorly designed and controlled and faced practical challenges such as strain specificity of properties and the slow growth of probiotics in substrates other than human milk. (
  • The new strain can be used as a starting point in the development of new dairy products where the probiotic concentration increases already in the production stage. (
  • Probiotics are the good bacteria found in your body that support healthy digestion. (
  • One of the proposed mechanisms of how probiotics protect from AAD is by regulating the composition of organisms in the intestines. (
  • As living organisms, probiotics also have adhesion ability, and they can compete with harmful bacteria like H. pylori , which leads to a decreased rate of infection potential. (
  • Probiotics are helpful organisms to boost our immunity. (
  • If the gas, bloating or any other side effects continue for more than a few weeks, stop taking the probiotic and consult a medical professional. (
  • Some people experience an increase in gas, bloating, constipation or thirst when they start taking probiotics. (
  • The study also yielded powerful secondary outcomes that reinforce the primary outcome including abdominal discomfort, abdominal distension/bloating, bowel habits and quality of life - both probiotic groups showed significant improvements versus placebo. (
  • In a review that covered 34 masked, randomized, placebo-controlled trials related to diarrhea and probiotics, it was concluded that there was an overall reduction of 52% in antibiotic associated diarrhea, an 8% reduction in traveller's diarrhea, and a 34% reduction in other types of acute diarrhea. (
  • Moreover, there has been evidence showing that probiotics can prevent children and infants from gastroenteritis (also known as stomach flu), which may also cause diarrhea to occur. (
  • In a review of six trials related to antibiotic-associated diarrhea in 766 children aged one month to six years, there was an overall reduction in AAD when children were fed probiotics. (
  • A meta-analysis of nine previously conducted studies (those studies were conducted in Canada, Thailand, and Finland) has shown that certain types of probiotics are also effective in treating viral diarrhea in hospital-admitted children. (
  • medical citation needed] A 2013 review suggested probiotics are effective in treating persistent diarrhea in children, though more research is needed. (
  • According to Jessica L. Johnson, PharmD, BCPS, et al in this issue's cover story, probiotics show potential value in smaller research studies in treating and preventing ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), antibiotic-associated diarrhea, hepatic encephalopathy, and portal hypertension. (
  • As reported in an April feature by Erin Dorval, PharmD, the limited and oftentimes inconclusive evidence of probiotics' effectiveness in treating antibiotic-associated diarrhea, vulvovaginal candidiasis, and the common cold ties the hands of pharmacists making recommendations. (
  • Other work revealed that probiotics may enhance the effects of the vaccine against rotavirus vaccine - the most common cause of severely dehydrating diarrhea in infants and children, according to a 2008 study in the journal Vaccine. (
  • For instance, piglets and calves fed probiotics were less likely to die from diarrhea. (
  • A third and related issue is defining conditions that might be ameliorated by probiotic or prebiotic therapies. (
  • Those taking yeast-based probiotics may experience constipation and increased thirst ( 10 ). (
  • Shopping for the best deal on Vitamins & Nutrition, Probiotics, Constipation, 501milligrams & More Vitamins & Nutrition - Read product reviews, compare prices and store ratings. (
  • Probiotic drinks could be a new weapon in battling antibiotic-resistant bacteria. (
  • PCure plasmids are contained in bacteria in the form of a drink (similar to probiotic drinks such as Yakult) and work in two ways: they prevent the resistance plasmids from replicating and they block "addiction systems" which the plasmids use to kill bacteria. (
  • Explore our wide range of products and learn why Culturelle® is the #1 selling probiotic brand in the world. (
  • φ Culturelle ® brand voted Most Trusted Probiotic brand by American shoppers based on the 2022 BrandSpark American Trust Study. (
  • in fact, when patients were fed probiotics along with their dose of antibiotics, one fewer patient would develop AAD out of every seven. (
  • Some doctors may also recommend a probiotic in addition to - but not in lieu of - antibiotics. (
  • As such, when farmers' economic livelihoods are on the line, it is understandable that some may be wary of making radical changes to their farming practice, such as by replacing antibiotics with probiotics wholesale. (
  • By preventing the target plasmids from replicating, the probiotics can displace the resistance genes available to the bacteria, making them sensitive to the antibiotics. (
  • For example, they might suggest taking or using probiotics after finishing a course of antibiotics . (
  • In this study, we investigated the combination of a dietary probiotic and an IBD-like condition for effects on the brains of mice . (
  • Male C57BL/6 wild type (WT) and AppNL-G-F mice were randomly divided into four groups vehicle control, oral probiotic , dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), and DSS given with probiotics . (
  • As anticipated, probiotic treatment attenuated the DSS-induced colitis disease activity index in WT and AppNL-G-F mice . (
  • Both probiotic and DSS treatment also altered the levels of several cytokines in WT and AppNL-G-F brains, with a unique increase in the levels of TNFα and IL-2 being observed in only AppNL-G-F mice following combined DSS and probiotic treatment . (
  • Documented correlations between systemic infections and probiotic consumption are few and all occurred in patients with underlying medical conditions. (
  • The current paper, which appeared online in the Nutrition Research journal, reviewed the evidence for use of probiotics in preventing viral infections. (
  • If you're experiencing any vaginal infections or other vaginal issues, it's a good idea to consider taking probiotics. (
  • Probiotics are shown to support mucosal barrier integrity, which prevents H. pylori and other kinds of infections. (
  • A meta-analysis study involving 33 different clinical trials with a total of 4,459 patients showed us how adding probiotics to treatments for eradicating H. pylori infections affected the success rates and side effects. (
  • UltraFlora offers a line of 12 distinct formulas, including innovative probiotic blends for daily support and targeted relief from occasional discomforts. (
  • Background In 2013, a systematic review and Delphi consensus reported that specific probiotics can benefit adult patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other gastrointestinal (GI) problems. (
  • The new study supports this and strengthens the science by showing that cranberry and probiotics produced meaningful benefits in children. (
  • Probiotic products contain select, beneficial types of microbes to add to the populations already living in your body. (
  • Probiotics are beneficial microbes that enhance the body's digestive processes, support immune function, and promote healthy weight management. (
  • Based on a 2022 survey among pediatricians recommending a probiotic brand. (
  • Based on a 2022 IQVIA survey among pharmacists recommending a brand in the probiotics category. (
  • 2022). Considerations for determining safety of probiotics: A USP perspective. (
  • Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG, or LGG, is the most studied probiotic bacterium in the world. (
  • This is why the bacterium grows poorly in milk and why it has to be separately added to probiotic dairy products. (
  • Ultimately, we would need a personalised approach to prescribe probiotics to minimise any side effects," she says. (
  • The sweet spot for probiotics' demonstrable efficacy, at least initially, might be in treating gastrointestinal (GI) diseases. (
  • [ 15 ] However, the efficacy of probiotic therapy in adults requires further study. (
  • What are the benefits of probiotics? (
  • There are other benefits to taking a probiotic. (
  • Could probiotics provide some of these same benefits without contributing to the coming antibiotic resistance crisis? (
  • Research into the risks and benefits of probiotics is still in its early stages , but it seems that it may be medically useful as well . (
  • Even the most finicky pets will enjoy the benefits of Probiora Probiotics for Dogs because this probiotic blend has no taste and no odor and it will not change the taste or texture of your pets' favorite food. (
  • Conclusions This updated review indicates that specific probiotics are beneficial in certain lower GI problems, although many of the new publications did not report benefits of probiotics, possibly due to inclusion of new, less efficacious preparations. (
  • Through the consolidation of selected scientific evidence," Johnson et al conclude, "healthcare professionals can assist with selecting specific regimens for patients seeking to use probiotics as adjunct therapy for gastrointestinal diseases. (
  • But Smile Brilliant's cariPRO Dental Probiotics contain the concentrated amount of healthy bacteria your mouth needs, helping you to fill your mouth with the good stuff first. (
  • The role of probiotics in the treatment of atopic dermatitis remains controversial. (
  • Probiotics are live bacteria and yeasts that have beneficial effects on your body. (
  • There are over 1,600 human clinical trials on probiotics listed in and the WHO's trial database, according to a new analysis that seeks to address the misconception that there is no human data around probiotics. (
  • In addition, Skokovic-Sunjic is the author of Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products Available in Canada and Clinical Guide to Probiotic Products Available in the US , both of which are updated annually. (
  • A new study explores the role of common probiotics in managing the disease, which could prove to be of great value, given the emergence of new variants and the broad spectrum of clinical disease in COVID-19. (
  • If probiotics make you sick, it's possible that you have an underlying issue, like SIBO, going on in your digestive system. (
  • Probiotics are also known as gut microbiota - the "good" or "friendly" bacteria that live in your digestive system. (
  • Among those who took the probiotic, 55 per cent lost at least 3 per cent of their body weight, compared with 41 per cent of the people taking the placebo. (
  • Monthly surveys also revealed that the people who took the probiotic felt substantially more satiated in general at two and three months into the experiment, compared with those on the placebo. (
  • [ 1 ] This guide was based on the results of a systematic review of evidence regarding the use of probiotics vs placebo in randomised controlled trials (RCTs). (
  • Our data indicate that, while dietary probiotic intervention provides protection against the colitis -like condition, it also influences numerous glial, cytokine , and neuronal changes in the brain that may regulate brain function and the progression of AD. (
  • The probiotics category continues to soar, with e-commerce fiercely fuelling growth and presenting plentiful opportunities for cosmetics, particularly products targeting mood, stress and overall wellbeing, says Lumina Intelligence. (
  • The functional food market is expanding, especially in Japan-its birthplace-with further growth prospects in Europe and the United States and in most countries the largest share of its products is held by probiotics [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • Unfortunately, this means there are many probiotic products on the shelves that make claims that are not substantiated by scientific evidence. (
  • Research studies have proved that probiotics and their metabolic products support the immune system, and therefore, they are helpful for many different diseases. (
  • Products are manufactured, stored, and transported under refrigeration to ensure live and healthy probiotics. (
  • Probiotics also aren't regulated by the FDA, so manufacturers don't have to prove the quality or even the contents of their products. (
  • If you are lactose intolerant, then you can experience stomach discomfort when getting your probiotics from dairy products. (
  • These short-chain fatty acids, including acetic, propionic, and lactic acids, are created when probiotics break down carbohydrates. (
  • Probiotics have been shown to reduce the frequency of abdominal discomfort. (