Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Lactobacillus rhamnosus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Prebiotics: Non-digestible food ingredients mostly of a carbohydrate base that improve human health by selectively stimulating the growth and/or activity of existing BACTERIA in the COLON.Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Synbiotics: Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Lactobacillus reuteri: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.Health Food: A non-medical term defined by the lay public as a food that has little or no preservatives, which has not undergone major processing, enrichment or refinement and which may be grown without pesticides. (from Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Lactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Consumer Product SafetyIntestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.Legislation, Food: Laws and regulations concerned with industrial processing and marketing of foods.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Gastrointestinal Diseases: Diseases in any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT from ESOPHAGUS to RECTUM.Lactobacillus casei: A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Metagenome: A collective genome representative of the many organisms, primarily microorganisms, existing in a community.Diarrhea: An increased liquidity or decreased consistency of FECES, such as running stool. Fecal consistency is related to the ratio of water-holding capacity of insoluble solids to total water, rather than the amount of water present. Diarrhea is not hyperdefecation or increased fecal weight.Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Food Labeling: Use of written, printed, or graphic materials upon or accompanying a food or its container or wrapper. The concept includes ingredients, NUTRITIONAL VALUE, directions, warnings, and other relevant information.Intestinal Mucosa: Lining of the INTESTINES, consisting of an inner EPITHELIUM, a middle LAMINA PROPRIA, and an outer MUSCULARIS MUCOSAE. In the SMALL INTESTINE, the mucosa is characterized by a series of folds and abundance of absorptive cells (ENTEROCYTES) with MICROVILLI.Bifidobacteriales Infections: Infections with BACTERIA of the order Bifidobacteriales. This includes infections in the genera BIFIDOBACTERIUM and GARDNERELLA, in the family Bifidobacteriaceae.Microbiota: The full collection of microbes (bacteria, fungi, virus, etc.) that naturally exist within a particular biological niche such as an organism, soil, a body of water, etc.Bacterial Translocation: The passage of viable bacteria from the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT to extra-intestinal sites, such as the mesenteric lymph node complex, liver, spleen, kidney, and blood. Factors that promote bacterial translocation include overgrowth with gram-negative enteric bacilli, impaired host immune defenses, and injury to the INTESTINAL MUCOSA resulting in increased intestinal permeability. Bacterial translocation from the lung to the circulation is also possible and sometimes accompanies MECHANICAL VENTILATION.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Pouchitis: Acute INFLAMMATION in the INTESTINAL MUCOSA of the continent ileal reservoir (or pouch) in patients who have undergone ILEOSTOMY and restorative proctocolectomy (PROCTOCOLECTOMY, RESTORATIVE).Lactobacillus delbrueckii: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.Inflammatory Bowel Diseases: Chronic, non-specific inflammation of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT. Etiology may be genetic or environmental. This term includes CROHN DISEASE and ULCERATIVE COLITIS.Intestinal Diseases: Pathological processes in any segment of the INTESTINE from DUODENUM to RECTUM.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Glycodeoxycholic Acid: A bile salt formed in the liver by conjugation of deoxycholate with glycine, usually as the sodium salt. It acts as a detergent to solubilize fats for absorption and is itself absorbed. It is used as a cholagogue and choleretic.Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A disorder with chronic or recurrent colonic symptoms without a clearcut etiology. This condition is characterized by chronic or recurrent ABDOMINAL PAIN, bloating, MUCUS in FECES, and an erratic disturbance of DEFECATION.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Saccharomyces: A genus of ascomycetous fungi of the family Saccharomycetaceae, order SACCHAROMYCETALES.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Food Safety: Activities involved in ensuring the safety of FOOD including avoidance of bacterial and other contamination.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Nutrition Therapy: Improving health status of an individual by adjusting the quantities, qualities, and methods of nutrient intake.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Inulin: A starch found in the tubers and roots of many plants. Since it is hydrolyzable to FRUCTOSE, it is classified as a fructosan. It has been used in physiologic investigation for determination of the rate of glomerular function.Digestive System Diseases: Diseases in any part of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT or the accessory organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Citrobacter rodentium: A species of gram-negative bacteria in the genus CITROBACTER, family ENTEROBACTERIACEAE. As an important pathogen of laboratory mice, it serves as a model for investigating epithelial hyperproliferation and tumor promotion. It was previously considered a strain of CITROBACTER FREUNDII.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Streptococcus thermophilus: A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.Mucin-3: A membrane-bound mucin subtype that is primarily found in INTESTINAL MUCOSA. Two closely-related subtypes of this protein have been identified in humans.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points: A system of safety management (abbreviated HACCP) applied mainly to the food industry. It involves the analysis and control of biological, chemical, and physical hazards, from raw material production, procurement and handling, to manufacturing, distribution and consumption of finished products.Colon: The segment of LARGE INTESTINE between the CECUM and the RECTUM. It includes the ASCENDING COLON; the TRANSVERSE COLON; the DESCENDING COLON; and the SIGMOID COLON.Female Urogenital Diseases: Pathological processes of the female URINARY TRACT and the reproductive system (GENITALIA, FEMALE).Immunomodulation: Alteration of the immune system or of an immune response by agents that activate or suppress its function. This can include IMMUNIZATION or administration of immunomodulatory drugs. Immunomodulation can also encompass non-therapeutic alteration of the immune system effected by endogenous or exogenous substances.

Inhibition of vibrio anguillarum by Pseudomonas fluorescens AH2, a possible probiotic treatment of fish. (1/1690)

To study the possible use of probiotics in fish farming, we evaluated the in vitro and in vivo antagonism of antibacterial strain Pseudomonas fluorescens strain AH2 against the fish-pathogenic bacterium Vibrio anguillarum. As iron is important in virulence and bacterial interactions, the effect of P. fluorescens AH2 was studied under iron-rich and iron-limited conditions. Sterile-filtered culture supernatants from iron-limited P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum, whereas sterile-filtered supernatants from iron-replete cultures of P. fluorescens AH2 did not. P. fluorescens AH2 inhibited the growth of V. anguillarum during coculture, independently of the iron concentration, when the initial count of the antagonist was 100 to 1, 000 times greater that of the fish pathogen. These in vitro results were successfully repeated in vivo. A probiotic effect in vivo was tested by exposing rainbow trout (Oncorynchus mykiss Walbaum) to P. fluorescens AH2 at a density of 10(5) CFU/ml for 5 days before a challenge with V. anguillarum at 10(4) to 10(5) CFU/ml for 1 h. Some fish were also exposed to P. fluorescens AH2 at 10(7) CFU/ml during the 1-h infection. The combined probiotic treatment resulted in a 46% reduction of calculated accumulated mortality; accumulated mortality was 25% after 7 days at 12 degrees C in the probiotic-treated fish, whereas mortality was 47% in fish not treated with the probiont.  (+info)

Probiotics inhibit enteropathogenic E. coli adherence in vitro by inducing intestinal mucin gene expression. (2/1690)

Probiotic agents, live microorganisms with beneficial effects for the host, may offer an alternative to conventional antimicrobials in the treatment and prevention of enteric infections. The probiotic agents Lactobacillus plantarum 299v and Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG quantitatively inhibited the adherence of an attaching and effacing pathogenic Escherichia coli to HT-29 intestinal epithelial cells but did not inhibit adherence to nonintestinal HEp-2 cells. HT-29 cells were grown under conditions that induced high levels of either MUC2 or MUC3 mRNA, but HEp-2 cells expressed only minimal levels of MUC2 and no MUC3 mRNA. Media enriched for MUC2 and MUC3 mucin were added exogenously to binding assays and were shown to be capable of inhibiting enteropathogen adherence to HEp-2 cells. Incubation of L. plantarum 299v with HT-29 cells increased MUC2 and MUC3 mRNA expression levels. From these in vitro studies, we propose the hypothesis that the ability of probiotic agents to inhibit adherence of attaching and effacing organisms to intestinal epithelial cells is mediated through their ability to increase expression of MUC2 and MUC3 intestinal mucins.  (+info)

Probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics: approaches for modulating the microbial ecology of the gut. (3/1690)

The microbiota of the human large intestine influences health and well-being. Whereas it has long been accepted that gut bacteria play a role in host pathogenesis, current opinion is that certain microflora components can have beneficial effects on gastroenteritis resistance, blood lipids, antitumor properties, lactose tolerance, and gastrointestinal immunity. It is postulated that in the infant gut an elevated bifidobacterial count may be associated with health advantages that breast-fed infants may have over formula-fed infants. Whereas beneficial aspects of the human gut flora still need definitive confirmation and mechanistic explanations, there is now interest in modulating the composition of gut flora such that a potentially more remedial community exists. This may be achieved through the targeted use of dietary supplementation. This article provides an overview of how probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics may contribute toward nutritional modulation of the gut microecology, with emphasis on the neonatal intestine where appropriate. The use of modern molecular methods, as an essential step forward for assessing the validity and accuracy of the modulatory approach, is also discussed.  (+info)

Dietary modulation of the human gut microflora using the prebiotics oligofructose and inulin. (4/1690)

Although largely unproven in humans, better resistance to pathogens, reduction in blood lipids, antitumor properties, hormonal regulation and immune stimulation may all be possible through gut microflora manipulation. One approach advocates the oral intake of live microorganisms (probiotics). Although the probiotic approach has been extensively used and advocated, survivability/viability after ingestion is difficult to guarantee and almost impossible to prove. The prebiotic concept dictates that non viable dietary components fortify certain components of the intestinal flora (e.g., bifidobacteria, lactobacilli). This concept has the advantage that survival of the ingested ingredient through the upper gastrointestinal tract is not a prerequisite because it is indigenous bacterial genera that are targeted. The feeding of oligofructose and inulin to human volunteers alters the gut flora composition in favor of bifidobacteria, a purportedly beneficial genus. Future human studies that exploit the use of modern molecular-based detection methods for bacteria will determine the efficacy of prebiotics. It may be possible to address prophylactically certain gastrointestinal complaints through the selective targeting of gut bacteria.  (+info)

Possible mechanisms by which pro- and prebiotics influence colon carcinogenesis and tumor growth. (5/1690)

Oligofructose and inulin, selective fermentable chicory fructans, have been shown to stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, which are regarded as beneficial strains in the colon. Studies were designed to evaluate inulin (Raftiline) and oligofructose (Raftilose) for their potential inhibitory properties against the development of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. ACF are putative preneoplastic lesions from which adenomas and carcinomas may develop in the colon. The results of this study indicate that dietary administration of oligofructose and inulin inhibits the development of ACF in the colon, suggesting the potential colon tumor inhibitory properties of chicory fructans. The degree of ACF inhibition was more pronounced in animals given inulin than in those fed oligofructose. Because these prebiotics selectively stimulate the growth of bifidobacteria, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activities, ras-p21 ontoprotein expressions and tumor inhibitory activity of lyophilized cultures of Bifidobacterium longum against chemically induced colon and mammary carcinogenesis and against colonic tumor cell proliferation were examined. Dietary administration of lyophilized cultures of B. longum strongly suppressed colon and mammary tumor development and tumor burden. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis was associated with a decrease in colonic mucosal cell proliferation and activities of colonic mucosal and tumor ornithine decarboxylase and ras-p21. Human clinical trials are likely to broaden our insight into the importance of the pre- and probiotics in health and disease.  (+info)

The effect of synbiotics on colon carcinogenesis in rats. (6/1690)

Evidence indicates that consumption of probiotic microorganisms such as bifidobacteria reduces the risk of colon cancer in animal models. Feeding certain fructans such as oligofructose and inulin, which are thought to selectively increase the growth of intestinal bifidobacteria (i.e., a prebiotic effect), also has been shown to reduce colon cancer risk. The objective of our study was twofold, i. e., to determine whether the combination of bifidobacteria and oligofructose would have an additive effect (i.e., synbiotic) in reducing colon cancer risk in rats, and to determine whether other oligosaccharides would also be effective as part of a synbiotic combination. The development of colonic preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypts) was used as an index of colon cancer risk. In one series of experiments, rats were given the carcinogen 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and administered one of the following treatments: skim milk (control), bifidobacteria (bifido), oligofructose (OF) or bifido + OF. Neither bifido nor OF alone significantly reduced aberrant crypt number. Bifido + OF reduced aberrant crypt number in five of six experiments, although the reduction was significant in only one. However, a paired comparison of the six experiments indicated a significant overall reduction in aberrant crypts by bifido + OF (P = 0.039). Soybean oligosaccharide (SBO) and wheat bran oligosaccharide (WBO) were also fed in combination with bifidobacteria. In two other experiments, SBO did not alter the number of aberrant crypts compared with the control, whereas WBO reduced aberrant crypt number in one experiment but not in another. Of OF, SBO and WBO, only SBO reduced the colonic mucosa proliferation compared with the control. These results suggest that the combination of bifidobacteria and oligofructose reduces colon cancer risk in carcinogen-treated rats, but the effect of other oligosaccharides is uncertain.  (+info)

Impact on the composition of the faecal flora by a new probiotic preparation: preliminary data on maintenance treatment of patients with ulcerative colitis. (7/1690)

BACKGROUND: Although 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) oral compounds are the standard maintenance treatment for ulcerative colitis in remission, some patients cannot use them because of side-effects. Clinical and experimental observations have suggested the potential role of probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease therapy. AIM: To evaluate the effects on intestinal microflora and the clinical efficacy of a new probiotic preparation in patients with ulcerative colitis in remission. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty patients with ulcerative colitis, intolerant or allergic to 5-ASA, have been treated with a new probiotic preparation (VSL#3, CSL, Milan, Italy) containing 5x10(11) cells/g of 3 strains of bifidobacteria, 4 strains of lactobacilli and 1 strain of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus. Two doses of 3 g were administered o.d. for 12 months. Faecal samples for stool culture were obtained from the patients at the beginning of the trial and after 10, 20, 40, 60, 75, 90 days, 12 months and at 15 days after the end of the treatment. The following bacterial groups have been evaluated in the faeces: total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, enterococci, Streptococcus thermophilus, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, Bacteroides, clostridia, coliforms. Patients were assessed clinically every two months, and assessed endoscopically at 6 and 12 months or in relapse. RESULTS: Faecal concentrations of Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus, lactobacilli and bifidobacteria increased significantly in all patients, compared to their basal level, from the 20th day of treatment (P<0.05) and remained stable throughout the study. Concentrations of Bacteroides, clostridia, coliforms, total aerobic and anaerobic bacteria did not change significantly during treatment (P = N.S.). Fifteen of 20 treated patients remained in remission during the study, one patient was lost to follow up, while the remaining relapsed. No significant side-effects have been reported. CONCLUSIONS: These results show that this probiotic preparation is able to colonize the intestine, and suggest that it may be useful in maintaining the remission in ulcerative colitis patients intolerant or allergic to 5-ASA. Controlled trials are warranted to confirm these preliminary results.  (+info)

Characterization of two Bacillus probiotics. (8/1690)

Bacillus subtilis is currently used as an oral probiotic. We examined two commercial B. subtilis probiotic preparations, Enterogermina and Biosubtyl. Surprisingly, physiological and genetic characterization of the bacteria contained in each of these preparations has shown that neither contains B. subtilis.  (+info)

  • Probiotics can also help with "leaky gut syndrome," a gastrointestinal condition that may cause or aggravate a wide variety of symptoms in your pets, including itchy skin, a dull coat, yeast infections, unpleasant odors, and allergies. (
  • The numerous strains of powerful probiotics contained in Fundamental Probiotic produce lactic acid and hydrogen peroxide that are antagonistic to the various pathogenic yeast, viruses and bacteria that can produce disease if allowed to live and multiply. (
  • When you hear the word "probiotics," you probably think of your digestive system. (
  • Numerous studies show that many medical conditions associated with the digestive system can also be treated with probiotics. (
  • Scientists do not know all of the specific mechanisms that cause probiotics to help with your digestive system and, by extension, other important organ systems in your body that are closely tied to your digestive tract. (
  • The Probiotics in Animal Feed Market is projected to reach $4.40 Billion by 2019, at a CAGR of 7.7% from 2014 to 2019. (
  • Probiotics are a top trend in the global food industry, and according to a report released by market research firm, Markets and Markets, the probiotic ingredients market in the US is expected to be worth $46 billion by the year 2020. (
  • On the other hand, those same probiotic cultures must be able to survive boiling temperatures upon the addition of hot water used to steep the tea. (
  • The increasing awareness about animal health, rising demand for quality animal produce, and ban of usage of antibiotic growth promoters in animal feed are the key factors fueling the growth of the market for probiotics in animal feed. (
  • Probiotics for the prevention and treatment of antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • The notion that specific probiotic bacterial strains can impact barrier integrity fuelled research in which in vitro cell lines, animal models and clinical trials are employed to assess whether probiotics can revert the diseased state back to homeostasis and health. (
  • The specific probiotic we use in all our dog food recipe is Ganeden BC 30. (
  • Studies are actually relatively consistent when it comes to using probiotics to treat conditions related to diarrhea in patients of all ages. (
  • This is especially true of diarrhea in those who were taking antibiotics, so it seems that probiotics can unsurprisingly reverse some of the negative side effects of antibiotics. (
  • The growth of the global probiotics in animal feed market is driven by the increasing awareness among consumers about the health benefits of probiotics, rising demand for meat and related products, increased demand for quality animal produce, and increasing concerns about animal health among the livestock owners. (