The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.
The branch of mathematics dealing with the purely logical properties of probability. Its theorems underlie most statistical methods. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Usually refers to the use of mathematical models in the prediction of learning to perform tasks based on the theory of probability applied to responses; it may also refer to the frequency of occurrence of the responses observed in the particular study.
Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.
A theorem in probability theory named for Thomas Bayes (1702-1761). In epidemiology, it is used to obtain the probability of disease in a group of people with some characteristic on the basis of the overall rate of that disease and of the likelihood of that characteristic in healthy and diseased individuals. The most familiar application is in clinical decision analysis where it is used for estimating the probability of a particular diagnosis given the appearance of some symptoms or test result.
A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.
Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.
A stochastic process such that the conditional probability distribution for a state at any future instant, given the present state, is unaffected by any additional knowledge of the past history of the system.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of genetic processes or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
In statistics, a technique for numerically approximating the solution of a mathematical problem by studying the distribution of some random variable, often generated by a computer. The name alludes to the randomness characteristic of the games of chance played at the gambling casinos in Monte Carlo. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Processes that incorporate some element of randomness, used particularly to refer to a time series of random variables.
Functions constructed from a statistical model and a set of observed data which give the probability of that data for various values of the unknown model parameters. Those parameter values that maximize the probability are the maximum likelihood estimates of the parameters.
Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.
Establishing the father relationship of a man and a child.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A theoretical technique utilizing a group of related constructs to describe or prescribe how individuals or groups of people choose a course of action when faced with several alternatives and a variable amount of knowledge about the determinants of the outcomes of those alternatives.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The complete summaries of the frequencies of the values or categories of a measurement made on a group of items, a population, or other collection of data. The distribution tells either how many or what proportion of the group was found to have each value (or each range of values) out of all the possible values that the quantitative measure can have.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The condition in which reasonable knowledge regarding risks, benefits, or the future is not available.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Sequential operating programs and data which instruct the functioning of a digital computer.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)
A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
The deductive study of shape, quantity, and dependence. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
Family in the order COLUMBIFORMES, comprised of pigeons or doves. They are BIRDS with short legs, stout bodies, small heads, and slender bills. Some sources call the smaller species doves and the larger pigeons, but the names are interchangeable.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The pattern of any process, or the interrelationship of phenomena, which affects growth or change within a population.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
The science and art of collecting, summarizing, and analyzing data that are subject to random variation. The term is also applied to the data themselves and to the summarization of the data.
The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.
The discipline studying genetic composition of populations and effects of factors such as GENETIC SELECTION, population size, MUTATION, migration, and GENETIC DRIFT on the frequencies of various GENOTYPES and PHENOTYPES using a variety of GENETIC TECHNIQUES.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Substances used for their pharmacological actions on any aspect of neurotransmitter systems. Neurotransmitter agents include agonists, antagonists, degradation inhibitors, uptake inhibitors, depleters, precursors, and modulators of receptor function.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Number of individuals in a population relative to space.
The number of units (persons, animals, patients, specified circumstances, etc.) in a population to be studied. The sample size should be big enough to have a high likelihood of detecting a true difference between two groups. (From Wassertheil-Smoller, Biostatistics and Epidemiology, 1990, p95)
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
Membrane-bound compartments which contain transmitter molecules. Synaptic vesicles are concentrated at presynaptic terminals. They actively sequester transmitter molecules from the cytoplasm. In at least some synapses, transmitter release occurs by fusion of these vesicles with the presynaptic membrane, followed by exocytosis of their contents.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
The ratio of alveolar ventilation to simultaneous alveolar capillary blood flow in any part of the lung. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The measure of that part of the heat or energy of a system which is not available to perform work. Entropy increases in all natural (spontaneous and irreversible) processes. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.
Any deviation of results or inferences from the truth, or processes leading to such deviation. Bias can result from several sources: one-sided or systematic variations in measurement from the true value (systematic error); flaws in study design; deviation of inferences, interpretations, or analyses based on flawed data or data collection; etc. There is no sense of prejudice or subjectivity implied in the assessment of bias under these conditions.
Summarizing techniques used to describe the pattern of mortality and survival in populations. These methods can be applied to the study not only of death, but also of any defined endpoint such as the onset of disease or the occurrence of disease complications.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A distribution function used to describe the occurrence of rare events or to describe the sampling distribution of isolated counts in a continuum of time or space.
The use of statistical and mathematical methods to analyze biological observations and phenomena.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.
In INFORMATION RETRIEVAL, machine-sensing or identification of visible patterns (shapes, forms, and configurations). (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The application of STATISTICS to biological systems and organisms involving the retrieval or collection, analysis, reduction, and interpretation of qualitative and quantitative data.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.
Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
A phenotypically recognizable genetic trait which can be used to identify a genetic locus, a linkage group, or a recombination event.
A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
The proportion of one particular in the total of all ALLELES for one genetic locus in a breeding POPULATION.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.
The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.
Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.
Theory and development of COMPUTER SYSTEMS which perform tasks that normally require human intelligence. Such tasks may include speech recognition, LEARNING; VISUAL PERCEPTION; MATHEMATICAL COMPUTING; reasoning, PROBLEM SOLVING, DECISION-MAKING, and translation of language.
The record of descent or ancestry, particularly of a particular condition or trait, indicating individual family members, their relationships, and their status with respect to the trait or condition.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
A functional system which includes the organisms of a natural community together with their environment. (McGraw Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Theoretical representations that simulate psychological processes and/or social processes. These include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
The co-inheritance of two or more non-allelic GENES due to their being located more or less closely on the same CHROMOSOME.
A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.
Computer-assisted interpretation and analysis of various mathematical functions related to a particular problem.
The strengthening of a conditioned response.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The transference of BONE MARROW from one human or animal to another for a variety of purposes including HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION or MESENCHYMAL STEM CELL TRANSPLANTATION.
The application of probability and statistical methods to calculate the risk of occurrence of any event, such as onset of illness, recurrent disease, hospitalization, disability, or death. It may include calculation of the anticipated money costs of such events and of the premiums necessary to provide for payment of such costs.
The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Warm-blooded VERTEBRATES possessing FEATHERS and belonging to the class Aves.
Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Theoretical construct used in applied mathematics to analyze certain situations in which there is an interplay between parties that may have similar, opposed, or mixed interests. In a typical game, decision-making "players," who each have their own goals, try to gain advantage over the other parties by anticipating each other's decisions; the game is finally resolved as a consequence of the players' decisions.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Transplantation between individuals of the same species. Usually refers to genetically disparate individuals in contradistinction to isogeneic transplantation for genetically identical individuals.
Therapeutic act or process that initiates a response to a complete or partial remission level.
Disease having a short and relatively severe course.
New abnormal growth of tissue. Malignant neoplasms show a greater degree of anaplasia and have the properties of invasion and metastasis, compared to benign neoplasms.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)
The determination of the nature of a disease or condition, or the distinguishing of one disease or condition from another. Assessment may be made through physical examination, laboratory tests, or the likes. Computerized programs may be used to enhance the decision-making process.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
The total number of individuals inhabiting a particular region or area.
Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
An individual having different alleles at one or more loci regarding a specific character.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
The clinical entity characterized by anorexia, diarrhea, loss of hair, leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, growth retardation, and eventual death brought about by the GRAFT VS HOST REACTION.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
The mating of plants or non-human animals which are closely related genetically.

## The significance of non-significance. (1/8370)

We discuss the implications of empirical results that are statistically non-significant. Figures illustrate the interrelations among effect size, sample sizes and their dispersion, and the power of the experiment. All calculations (detailed in Appendix) are based on actual noncentral t-distributions, with no simplifying mathematical or statistical assumptions, and the contribution of each tail is determined separately. We emphasize the importance of reporting, wherever possible, the a priori power of a study so that the reader can see what the chances were of rejecting a null hypothesis that was false. As a practical alternative, we propose that non-significant inference be qualified by an estimate of the sample size that would be required in a subsequent experiment in order to attain an acceptable level of power under the assumption that the observed effect size in the sample is the same as the true effect size in the population; appropriate plots are provided for a power of 0.8. We also point out that successive outcomes of independent experiments each of which may not be statistically significant on its own, can be easily combined to give an overall p value that often turns out to be significant. And finally, in the event that the p value is high and the power sufficient, a non-significant result may stand and be published as such.  (+info)

## Capture-recapture models including covariate effects. (2/8370)

Capture-recapture methods are used to estimate the incidence of a disease, using a multiple-source registry. Usually, log-linear methods are used to estimate population size, assuming that not all sources of notification are dependent. Where there are categorical covariates, a stratified analysis can be performed. The multinomial logit model has occasionally been used. In this paper, the authors compare log-linear and logit models with and without covariates, and use simulated data to compare estimates from different models. The crude estimate of population size is biased when the sources are not independent. Analyses adjusting for covariates produce less biased estimates. In the absence of covariates, or where all covariates are categorical, the log-linear model and the logit model are equivalent. The log-linear model cannot include continuous variables. To minimize potential bias in estimating incidence, covariates should be included in the design and analysis of multiple-source disease registries.  (+info)

## Model for bacteriophage T4 development in Escherichia coli. (3/8370)

Mathematical relations for the number of mature T4 bacteriophages, both inside and after lysis of an Escherichia coli cell, as a function of time after infection by a single phage were obtained, with the following five parameters: delay time until the first T4 is completed inside the bacterium (eclipse period, nu) and its standard deviation (sigma), the rate at which the number of ripe T4 increases inside the bacterium during the rise period (alpha), and the time when the bacterium bursts (mu) and its standard deviation (beta). Burst size [B = alpha(mu - nu)], the number of phages released from an infected bacterium, is thus a dependent parameter. A least-squares program was used to derive the values of the parameters for a variety of experimental results obtained with wild-type T4 in E. coli B/r under different growth conditions and manipulations (H. Hadas, M. Einav, I. Fishov, and A. Zaritsky, Microbiology 143:179-185, 1997). A "destruction parameter" (zeta) was added to take care of the adverse effect of chloroform on phage survival. The overall agreement between the model and the experiment is quite good. The dependence of the derived parameters on growth conditions can be used to predict phage development under other experimental manipulations.  (+info)

## Molecular studies suggest that cartilaginous fishes have a terminal position in the piscine tree. (4/8370)

The Chondrichthyes (cartilaginous fishes) are commonly accepted as being sister group to the other extant Gnathostomata (jawed vertebrates). To clarify gnathostome relationships and to aid in resolving and dating the major piscine divergences, we have sequenced the complete mtDNA of the starry skate and have included it in phylogenetic analysis along with three squalomorph chondrichthyans-the common dogfish, the spiny dogfish, and the star spotted dogfish-and a number of bony fishes and amniotes. The direction of evolution within the gnathostome tree was established by rooting it with the most closely related non-gnathostome outgroup, the sea lamprey, as well as with some more distantly related taxa. The analyses placed the chondrichthyans in a terminal position in the piscine tree. These findings, which also suggest that the origin of the amniote lineage is older than the age of the oldest extant bony fishes (the lungfishes), challenge the evolutionary direction of several morphological characters that have been used in reconstructing gnathostome relationships. Applying as a calibration point the age of the oldest lungfish fossils, 400 million years, the molecular estimate placed the squalomorph/batomorph divergence at approximately 190 million years before present. This dating is consistent with the occurrence of the earliest batomorph (skates and rays) fossils in the paleontological record. The split between gnathostome fishes and the amniote lineage was dated at approximately 420 million years before present.  (+info)

## Toward a leukemia treatment strategy based on the probability of stem cell death: an essay in honor of Dr. Emil J Freireich. (5/8370)

Dr. Emil J Freireich is a pioneer in the rational treatment of cancer in general and leukemia in particular. This essay in his honor suggests that the cell kill concept of chemotherapy of acute myeloblastic leukemia be extended to include two additional ideas. The first concept is that leukemic blasts, like normal hemopoietic cells, are organized in hierarchies, headed by stem cells. In both normal and leukemic hemopoiesis, killing stem cells will destroy the system; furthermore, both normal and leukemic cells respond to regulators. It follows that acute myelogenous leukemia should be considered as a dependent neoplasm. The second concept is that cell/drug interaction should be considered as two phases. The first, or proximal phase, consists of the events that lead up to injury; the second, or distal phase, comprises the responses of the cell that contribute to either progression to apoptosis or recovery. Distal responses are described briefly. Regulated drug sensitivity is presented as an example of how distal responses might be used to improve treatment.  (+info)

## A reanalysis of IgM Western blot criteria for the diagnosis of early Lyme disease. (6/8370)

A two-step approach for diagnosis of Lyme disease, consisting of an initial EIA followed by a confirmatory Western immunoblot, has been advised by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). However, these criteria do not examine the influence of the prior probability of Lyme disease in a given patient on the predictive value of the tests. By using Bayesian analysis, a mathematical algorithm is proposed that computes the probability that a given patient's Western blot result represents Lyme disease. Assuming prior probabilities of early Lyme disease of 1%-10%, the current CDC minimum criteria for IgM immunoblot interpretation yield posttest probabilities of 4%-32%. The value of the two-step approach for diagnosis of early Lyme disease may be limited in populations at lower risk of disease or when patients present with atypical signs and symptoms.  (+info)

## Bayesian inference on biopolymer models. (7/8370)

MOTIVATION: Most existing bioinformatics methods are limited to making point estimates of one variable, e.g. the optimal alignment, with fixed input values for all other variables, e.g. gap penalties and scoring matrices. While the requirement to specify parameters remains one of the more vexing issues in bioinformatics, it is a reflection of a larger issue: the need to broaden the view on statistical inference in bioinformatics. RESULTS: The assignment of probabilities for all possible values of all unknown variables in a problem in the form of a posterior distribution is the goal of Bayesian inference. Here we show how this goal can be achieved for most bioinformatics methods that use dynamic programming. Specifically, a tutorial style description of a Bayesian inference procedure for segmentation of a sequence based on the heterogeneity in its composition is given. In addition, full Bayesian inference algorithms for sequence alignment are described. AVAILABILITY: Software and a set of transparencies for a tutorial describing these ideas are available at http://www.wadsworth.org/res&res/bioinfo/  (+info)

## Using imperfect secondary structure predictions to improve molecular structure computations. (8/8370)

MOTIVATION: Until ab initio structure prediction methods are perfected, the estimation of structure for protein molecules will depend on combining multiple sources of experimental and theoretical data. Secondary structure predictions are a particularly useful source of structural information, but are currently only approximately 70% correct, on average. Structure computation algorithms which incorporate secondary structure information must therefore have methods for dealing with predictions that are imperfect. EXPERIMENTS PERFORMED: We have modified our algorithm for probabilistic least squares structural computations to accept 'disjunctive' constraints, in which a constraint is provided as a set of possible values, each weighted with a probability. Thus, when a helix is predicted, the distances associated with a helix are given most of the weight, but some weights can be allocated to the other possibilities (strand and coil). We have tested a variety of strategies for this weighting scheme in conjunction with a baseline synthetic set of sparse distance data, and compared it with strategies which do not use disjunctive constraints. RESULTS: Naive interpretations in which predictions were taken as 100% correct led to poor-quality structures. Interpretations that allow disjunctive constraints are quite robust, and even relatively poor predictions (58% correct) can significantly increase the quality of computed structures (almost halving the RMS error from the known structure). CONCLUSIONS: Secondary structure predictions can be used to improve the quality of three-dimensional structural computations. In fact, when interpreted appropriately, imperfect predictions can provide almost as much improvement as perfect predictions in three-dimensional structure calculations.  (+info)

Recurrence can also refer to the re-emergence of symptoms in a previously treated condition, such as a chronic pain condition that returns after a period of remission.

In medical research, recurrence is often studied to understand the underlying causes of disease progression and to develop new treatments and interventions to prevent or delay its return.

The symptoms of pulmonary embolism can vary, but may include shortness of breath, chest pain, coughing up blood, rapid heart rate, and fever. In some cases, the clot may be large enough to cause a pulmonary infarction (a " lung injury" caused by lack of oxygen), which can lead to respiratory failure and death.

Pulmonary embolism can be diagnosed with imaging tests such as chest X-rays, CT scans, and ultrasound. Treatment typically involves medications to dissolve the clot or prevent new ones from forming, and in some cases, surgery may be necessary to remove the clot.

Preventive measures include:

* Avoiding prolonged periods of immobility, such as during long-distance travel
* Exercising regularly to improve circulation
* Managing chronic conditions such as high blood pressure and cancer
* Taking blood-thinning medications to prevent clot formation

Early recognition and treatment of pulmonary embolism are critical to reduce the risk of complications and death.

There are different types of Breast Neoplasms such as:

1. Fibroadenomas: These are benign tumors that are made up of glandular and fibrous tissues. They are usually small and round, with a smooth surface, and can be moved easily under the skin.

2. Cysts: These are fluid-filled sacs that can develop in both breast tissue and milk ducts. They are usually benign and can disappear on their own or be drained surgically.

3. Ductal Carcinoma In Situ (DCIS): This is a precancerous condition where abnormal cells grow inside the milk ducts. If left untreated, it can progress to invasive breast cancer.

4. Invasive Ductal Carcinoma (IDC): This is the most common type of breast cancer and starts in the milk ducts but grows out of them and invades surrounding tissue.

5. Invasive Lobular Carcinoma (ILC): It originates in the milk-producing glands (lobules) and grows out of them, invading nearby tissue.

Breast Neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as a lump or thickening in the breast or underarm area, skin changes like redness or dimpling, change in size or shape of one or both breasts, discharge from the nipple, and changes in the texture or color of the skin.

Treatment options for Breast Neoplasms may include surgery such as lumpectomy, mastectomy, or breast-conserving surgery, radiation therapy which uses high-energy beams to kill cancer cells, chemotherapy using drugs to kill cancer cells, targeted therapy which uses drugs or other substances to identify and attack cancer cells while minimizing harm to normal cells, hormone therapy, immunotherapy, and clinical trials.

It is important to note that not all Breast Neoplasms are cancerous; some are benign (non-cancerous) tumors that do not spread or grow.

Disease progression can be classified into several types based on the pattern of worsening:

1. Chronic progressive disease: In this type, the disease worsens steadily over time, with a gradual increase in symptoms and decline in function. Examples include rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and Parkinson's disease.
2. Acute progressive disease: This type of disease worsens rapidly over a short period, often followed by periods of stability. Examples include sepsis, acute myocardial infarction (heart attack), and stroke.
3. Cyclical disease: In this type, the disease follows a cycle of worsening and improvement, with periodic exacerbations and remissions. Examples include multiple sclerosis, lupus, and rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Recurrent disease: This type is characterized by episodes of worsening followed by periods of recovery. Examples include migraine headaches, asthma, and appendicitis.
5. Catastrophic disease: In this type, the disease progresses rapidly and unpredictably, with a poor prognosis. Examples include cancer, AIDS, and organ failure.

Disease progression can be influenced by various factors, including:

1. Genetics: Some diseases are inherited and may have a predetermined course of progression.
2. Lifestyle: Factors such as smoking, lack of exercise, and poor diet can contribute to disease progression.
3. Environmental factors: Exposure to toxins, allergens, and other environmental stressors can influence disease progression.
4. Medical treatment: The effectiveness of medical treatment can impact disease progression, either by slowing or halting the disease process or by causing unintended side effects.
5. Co-morbidities: The presence of multiple diseases or conditions can interact and affect each other's progression.

Understanding the type and factors influencing disease progression is essential for developing effective treatment plans and improving patient outcomes.

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus) infection is a condition in which the body is infected with HIV, a type of retrovirus that attacks the body's immune system. HIV infection can lead to AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome), a condition in which the immune system is severely damaged and the body is unable to fight off infections and diseases.

There are several ways that HIV can be transmitted, including:

1. Sexual contact with an infected person
2. Sharing of needles or other drug paraphernalia with an infected person
3. Mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Blood transfusions ( although this is rare in developed countries due to screening processes)
5. Organ transplantation (again, rare)

The symptoms of HIV infection can be mild at first and may not appear until several years after infection. These symptoms can include:

1. Fever
2. Fatigue
3. Swollen glands in the neck, armpits, and groin
4. Rash
5. Muscle aches and joint pain
6. Night sweats
7. Diarrhea
8. Weight loss

If left untreated, HIV infection can progress to AIDS, which is a life-threatening condition that can cause a wide range of symptoms, including:

1. Opportunistic infections (such as pneumocystis pneumonia)
2. Cancer (such as Kaposi's sarcoma)
3. Wasting syndrome
4. Neurological problems (such as dementia and seizures)

HIV infection is diagnosed through a combination of blood tests and physical examination. Treatment typically involves antiretroviral therapy (ART), which is a combination of medications that work together to suppress the virus and slow the progression of the disease.

Prevention methods for HIV infection include:

1. Safe sex practices, such as using condoms and dental dams
2. Avoiding sharing needles or other drug-injecting equipment
3. Avoiding mother-to-child transmission during pregnancy, childbirth, or breastfeeding
4. Post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP), which is a short-term treatment that can prevent infection after potential exposure to the virus
5. Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which is a daily medication that can prevent infection in people who are at high risk of being exposed to the virus.

It's important to note that HIV infection is manageable with proper treatment and care, and that people living with HIV can lead long and healthy lives. However, it's important to be aware of the risks and take steps to prevent transmission.

Examples of acute diseases include:

1. Common cold and flu
2. Pneumonia and bronchitis
3. Appendicitis and other abdominal emergencies
4. Heart attacks and strokes
5. Asthma attacks and allergic reactions
6. Skin infections and cellulitis
7. Urinary tract infections
8. Sinusitis and meningitis
9. Gastroenteritis and food poisoning
10. Sprains, strains, and fractures.

Acute diseases can be treated effectively with antibiotics, medications, or other therapies. However, if left untreated, they can lead to chronic conditions or complications that may require long-term care. Therefore, it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time.

Neoplasm refers to an abnormal growth of cells that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Neoplasms can occur in any part of the body and can affect various organs and tissues. The term "neoplasm" is often used interchangeably with "tumor," but while all tumors are neoplasms, not all neoplasms are tumors.

Types of Neoplasms

There are many different types of neoplasms, including:

1. Carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the epithelial cells lining organs and glands. Examples include breast cancer, lung cancer, and colon cancer.
2. Sarcomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in connective tissue, such as bone, cartilage, and fat. Examples include osteosarcoma (bone cancer) and soft tissue sarcoma.
3. Lymphomas: These are cancers of the immune system, specifically affecting the lymph nodes and other lymphoid tissues. Examples include Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
4. Leukemias: These are cancers of the blood and bone marrow that affect the white blood cells. Examples include acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL).
5. Melanomas: These are malignant tumors that arise in the pigment-producing cells called melanocytes. Examples include skin melanoma and eye melanoma.

Causes and Risk Factors of Neoplasms

The exact causes of neoplasms are not fully understood, but there are several known risk factors that can increase the likelihood of developing a neoplasm. These include:

1. Genetic predisposition: Some people may be born with genetic mutations that increase their risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
2. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental toxins, such as radiation and certain chemicals, can increase the risk of developing a neoplasm.
3. Infection: Some neoplasms are caused by viruses or bacteria. For example, human papillomavirus (HPV) is a common cause of cervical cancer.
4. Lifestyle factors: Factors such as smoking, excessive alcohol consumption, and a poor diet can increase the risk of developing certain types of neoplasms.
5. Family history: A person's risk of developing a neoplasm may be higher if they have a family history of the condition.

Signs and Symptoms of Neoplasms

The signs and symptoms of neoplasms can vary depending on the type of cancer and where it is located in the body. Some common signs and symptoms include:

1. Unusual lumps or swelling
2. Pain
3. Fatigue
4. Weight loss
5. Change in bowel or bladder habits
6. Unexplained bleeding
7. Coughing up blood
8. Hoarseness or a persistent cough
9. Changes in appetite or digestion
10. Skin changes, such as a new mole or a change in the size or color of an existing mole.

Diagnosis and Treatment of Neoplasms

The diagnosis of a neoplasm usually involves a combination of physical examination, imaging tests (such as X-rays, CT scans, or MRI scans), and biopsy. A biopsy involves removing a small sample of tissue from the suspected tumor and examining it under a microscope for cancer cells.

The treatment of neoplasms depends on the type, size, location, and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health. Some common treatments include:

1. Surgery: Removing the tumor and surrounding tissue can be an effective way to treat many types of cancer.
2. Chemotherapy: Using drugs to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer has spread to other parts of the body.
3. Radiation therapy: Using high-energy radiation to kill cancer cells can be effective for some types of cancer, especially if the cancer is located in a specific area of the body.
4. Immunotherapy: Boosting the body's immune system to fight cancer can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.
5. Targeted therapy: Using drugs or other substances to target specific molecules on cancer cells can be an effective treatment for some types of cancer.

Prevention of Neoplasms

While it is not always possible to prevent neoplasms, there are several steps that can reduce the risk of developing cancer. These include:

1. Avoiding exposure to known carcinogens (such as tobacco smoke and radiation)
2. Maintaining a healthy diet and lifestyle
3. Getting regular exercise
4. Not smoking or using tobacco products
5. Limiting alcohol consumption
6. Getting vaccinated against certain viruses that are associated with cancer (such as human papillomavirus, or HPV)
7. Participating in screening programs for early detection of cancer (such as mammograms for breast cancer and colonoscopies for colon cancer)
8. Avoiding excessive exposure to sunlight and using protective measures such as sunscreen and hats to prevent skin cancer.

It's important to note that not all cancers can be prevented, and some may be caused by factors that are not yet understood or cannot be controlled. However, by taking these steps, individuals can reduce their risk of developing cancer and improve their overall health and well-being.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can be aggressive and spread to other parts of the body (metastasize). The most common type of malignant prostatic neoplasm is adenocarcinoma of the prostate, which accounts for approximately 95% of all prostate cancers. Other types of malignant prostatic neoplasms include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas.

Prostatic neoplasms can be diagnosed through a variety of tests such as digital rectal examination (DRE), prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test, imaging studies (ultrasound, CT scan or MRI), and biopsy. Treatment options for prostatic neoplasms depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options can include active surveillance, surgery (robotic-assisted laparoscopic prostatectomy or open prostatectomy), radiation therapy (external beam radiation therapy or brachytherapy), and hormone therapy.

In summary, Prostatic Neoplasms are tumors that occur in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The most common types of malignant prostatic neoplasms are adenocarcinoma of the prostate, and other types include sarcomas and small cell carcinomas. Diagnosis is done through a variety of tests, and treatment options depend on the type, stage, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health.

This definition of 'Neoplasm Recurrence, Local' is from the Healthcare Professionals edition of the Merriam-Webster Medical Dictionary, copyright Â© 2007 by Merriam-Webster, Inc.

The diagnosis of GVHD is based on a combination of clinical findings, laboratory tests, and biopsies. Treatment options include immunosuppressive drugs, corticosteroids, and in severe cases, stem cell transplantation reversal or donor lymphocyte infusion.

Prevention of GVHD includes selecting the right donor, using conditioning regimens that minimize damage to the recipient's bone marrow, and providing appropriate immunosuppression after transplantation. Early detection and management of GVHD are critical to prevent long-term complications and improve survival rates.

Explanation: Genetic predisposition to disease is influenced by multiple factors, including the presence of inherited genetic mutations or variations, environmental factors, and lifestyle choices. The likelihood of developing a particular disease can be increased by inherited genetic mutations that affect the functioning of specific genes or biological pathways. For example, inherited mutations in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes increase the risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer.

The expression of genetic predisposition to disease can vary widely, and not all individuals with a genetic predisposition will develop the disease. Additionally, many factors can influence the likelihood of developing a particular disease, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and other health conditions.

Inheritance patterns: Genetic predisposition to disease can be inherited in an autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive, or multifactorial pattern, depending on the specific disease and the genetic mutations involved. Autosomal dominant inheritance means that a single copy of the mutated gene is enough to cause the disease, while autosomal recessive inheritance requires two copies of the mutated gene. Multifactorial inheritance involves multiple genes and environmental factors contributing to the development of the disease.

Examples of diseases with a known genetic predisposition:

1. Huntington's disease: An autosomal dominant disorder caused by an expansion of a CAG repeat in the Huntingtin gene, leading to progressive neurodegeneration and cognitive decline.
2. Cystic fibrosis: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the CFTR gene, leading to respiratory and digestive problems.
3. BRCA1/2-related breast and ovarian cancer: An inherited increased risk of developing breast and ovarian cancer due to mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes.
4. Sickle cell anemia: An autosomal recessive disorder caused by a point mutation in the HBB gene, leading to defective hemoglobin production and red blood cell sickling.
5. Type 1 diabetes: An autoimmune disease caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors, including multiple genes in the HLA complex.

Understanding the genetic basis of disease can help with early detection, prevention, and treatment. For example, genetic testing can identify individuals who are at risk for certain diseases, allowing for earlier intervention and preventive measures. Additionally, understanding the genetic basis of a disease can inform the development of targeted therapies and personalized medicine."

Gambling can also be considered a behavioral addiction, as some individuals may become so consumed by the activity that they neglect other aspects of their lives, experience financial problems, and exhibit other signs of addiction. In this context, gambling is often classified as an impulse control disorder or a substance use disorder.

In the medical field, gambling can have various effects on an individual's physical and mental health, such as:

1. Financial problems: Gambling can lead to significant financial losses, which can cause stress, anxiety, and depression.
2. Sleep disturbances: Engaging in gambling activities at night or experiencing the excitement of winning can disrupt sleep patterns and lead to insomnia or other sleep disorders.
3. Substance abuse: Gambling can sometimes be accompanied by substance abuse, as individuals may turn to drugs or alcohol to cope with their gambling problems or to enhance their gambling experience.
4. Mood disorders: Gambling can contribute to the development of mood disorders such as depression, anxiety, and bipolar disorder.
5. Suicidal ideation: In extreme cases, individuals struggling with gambling addiction may experience suicidal thoughts or attempts.
6. Social problems: Gambling can strain relationships with family and friends, leading to social isolation and loneliness.
7. Physical health problems: Chronic stress and anxiety associated with gambling can contribute to various physical health problems, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and musculoskeletal problems.
8. Cognitive impairment: Compulsive gambling can affect cognitive functioning, including attention, memory, and decision-making abilities.
9. Family dynamics: Gambling can have a significant impact on family dynamics, leading to conflicts, divorce, and financial hardship.
10. Financial consequences: Gambling can lead to significant financial problems, including debt, bankruptcy, and even criminal activity.

It's important to note that not all individuals who experience these problems will develop a gambling disorder, and that other factors such as genetics, family history, and environmental factors can contribute to the development of gambling addiction.

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

In this article, we will explore the definition and impact of chronic diseases, as well as strategies for managing and living with them. We will also discuss the importance of early detection and prevention, as well as the role of healthcare providers in addressing the needs of individuals with chronic diseases.

What is a Chronic Disease?

A chronic disease is a condition that lasts for an extended period of time, often affecting daily life and activities. Unlike acute diseases, which have a specific beginning and end, chronic diseases are long-term and persistent. Examples of chronic diseases include:

1. Diabetes
2. Heart disease
3. Arthritis
4. Asthma
5. Cancer
6. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)
7. Chronic kidney disease (CKD)
8. Hypertension
9. Osteoporosis
10. Stroke

Impact of Chronic Diseases

The burden of chronic diseases is significant, with over 70% of deaths worldwide attributed to them, according to the WHO. In addition to the physical and emotional toll they take on individuals and their families, chronic diseases also pose a significant economic burden, accounting for a large proportion of healthcare expenditure.

Chronic diseases can also have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, limiting their ability to participate in activities they enjoy and affecting their relationships with family and friends. Moreover, the financial burden of chronic diseases can lead to poverty and reduce economic productivity, thus having a broader societal impact.

Given the significant burden of chronic diseases, it is essential that we address them effectively. This requires a multi-faceted approach that includes:

1. Lifestyle modifications: Encouraging healthy behaviors such as regular physical activity, a balanced diet, and smoking cessation can help prevent and manage chronic diseases.
2. Early detection and diagnosis: Identifying risk factors and detecting diseases early can help prevent or delay their progression.
3. Medication management: Effective medication management is crucial for controlling symptoms and slowing disease progression.
4. Multi-disciplinary care: Collaboration between healthcare providers, patients, and families is essential for managing chronic diseases.
5. Health promotion and disease prevention: Educating individuals about the risks of chronic diseases and promoting healthy behaviors can help prevent their onset.
6. Addressing social determinants of health: Social determinants such as poverty, education, and employment can have a significant impact on health outcomes. Addressing these factors is essential for reducing health disparities and improving overall health.
7. Investing in healthcare infrastructure: Investing in healthcare infrastructure, technology, and research is necessary to improve disease detection, diagnosis, and treatment.
8. Encouraging policy change: Policy changes can help create supportive environments for healthy behaviors and reduce the burden of chronic diseases.
9. Increasing public awareness: Raising public awareness about the risks and consequences of chronic diseases can help individuals make informed decisions about their health.
10. Providing support for caregivers: Chronic diseases can have a significant impact on family members and caregivers, so providing them with support is essential for improving overall health outcomes.

Conclusion

Chronic diseases are a major public health burden that affect millions of people worldwide. Addressing these diseases requires a multi-faceted approach that includes lifestyle changes, addressing social determinants of health, investing in healthcare infrastructure, encouraging policy change, increasing public awareness, and providing support for caregivers. By taking a comprehensive approach to chronic disease prevention and management, we can improve the health and well-being of individuals and communities worldwide.

Pre-B ALL is characterized by the abnormal growth of immature white blood cells called B lymphocytes. These cells are produced in the bone marrow and are normally present in the blood. In Pre-B ALL, the abnormal B cells accumulate in the bone marrow, blood, and other organs, crowding out normal cells and causing a variety of symptoms.

The symptoms of Pre-B ALL can vary depending on the individual patient, but may include:

* Fatigue
* Easy bruising or bleeding
* Frequent infections
* Swollen lymph nodes
* Enlarged liver or spleen
* Bone pain
* Confusion or seizures (in severe cases)

Pre-B ALL is most commonly diagnosed in children, but it can also occur in adults. Treatment typically involves a combination of chemotherapy and sometimes bone marrow transplantation. The prognosis for Pre-B ALL is generally good, especially in children, with a high survival rate if treated promptly and effectively. However, the cancer can be more difficult to treat in adults, and the prognosis may be less favorable.

Overall, Pre-B ALL is a rare and aggressive form of leukemia that requires prompt and specialized treatment to improve outcomes for patients.

Acute wounds and injuries are those that occur suddenly and heal within a relatively short period of time, usually within a few days or weeks. Examples of acute wounds include cuts, scrapes, and burns. Chronic wounds and injuries, on the other hand, are those that persist over a longer period of time and may not heal properly, leading to long-term complications. Examples of chronic wounds include diabetic foot ulcers, pressure ulcers, and chronic back pain.

Wounds and injuries can be caused by a variety of factors, including accidents, sports injuries, violence, and medical conditions such as diabetes or circulatory problems. Treatment for wounds and injuries depends on the severity of the injury and may include cleaning and dressing the wound, applying antibiotics, immobilizing broken bones, and providing pain management. In some cases, surgery may be necessary to repair damaged tissues or restore function.

Preventive measures for wounds and injuries include wearing appropriate protective gear during activities such as sports or work, following safety protocols to avoid accidents, maintaining proper hygiene and nutrition to prevent infection, and seeking medical attention promptly if an injury occurs.

Overall, wounds and injuries can have a significant impact on an individual's quality of life, and it is important to seek medical attention promptly if symptoms persist or worsen over time. Proper treatment and management of wounds and injuries can help to promote healing, reduce the risk of complications, and improve long-term outcomes.

These disorders are caused by changes in specific genes that fail to function properly, leading to a cascade of effects that can damage cells and tissues throughout the body. Some inherited diseases are the result of single gene mutations, while others are caused by multiple genetic changes.

Inherited diseases can be diagnosed through various methods, including:

1. Genetic testing: This involves analyzing a person's DNA to identify specific genetic changes that may be causing the disease.
2. Blood tests: These can help identify certain inherited diseases by measuring enzyme levels or identifying specific proteins in the blood.
3. Imaging studies: X-rays, CT scans, and MRI scans can help identify structural changes in the body that may be indicative of an inherited disease.
4. Physical examination: A healthcare provider may perform a physical examination to look for signs of an inherited disease, such as unusual physical features or abnormalities.

Inherited diseases can be treated in various ways, depending on the specific condition and its causes. Some treatments include:

1. Medications: These can help manage symptoms and slow the progression of the disease.
2. Surgery: In some cases, surgery may be necessary to correct physical abnormalities or repair damaged tissues.
3. Gene therapy: This involves using genes to treat or prevent inherited diseases.
4. Rehabilitation: Physical therapy, occupational therapy, and other forms of rehabilitation can help individuals with inherited diseases manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life.

Inherited diseases are a significant public health concern, as they affect millions of people worldwide. However, advances in genetic research and medical technology have led to the development of new treatments and management strategies for these conditions. By working with healthcare providers and advocacy groups, individuals with inherited diseases can access the resources and support they need to manage their conditions and improve their quality of life.

There are several different types of leukemia, including:

1. Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL): This is the most common type of leukemia in children, but it can also occur in adults. It is characterized by an overproduction of immature white blood cells called lymphoblasts.
2. Acute Myeloid Leukemia (AML): This type of leukemia affects the bone marrow's ability to produce red blood cells, platelets, and other white blood cells. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
3. Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): This type of leukemia affects older adults and is characterized by the slow growth of abnormal white blood cells called lymphocytes.
4. Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (CML): This type of leukemia is caused by a genetic mutation in a gene called BCR-ABL. It can occur at any age but is most common in adults.
5. Hairy Cell Leukemia: This is a rare type of leukemia that affects older adults and is characterized by the presence of abnormal white blood cells called hairy cells.
6. Myelodysplastic Syndrome (MDS): This is a group of disorders that occur when the bone marrow is unable to produce healthy blood cells. It can lead to leukemia if left untreated.

Treatment for leukemia depends on the type and severity of the disease, but may include chemotherapy, radiation therapy, targeted therapy, or stem cell transplantation.

There are several types of lung neoplasms, including:

1. Adenocarcinoma: This is the most common type of lung cancer, accounting for approximately 40% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the glands of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
2. Squamous cell carcinoma: This type of lung cancer accounts for approximately 25% of all lung cancers and is more common in men than women. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the squamous cells lining the airways of the lungs.
3. Small cell lung cancer (SCLC): This is a highly aggressive form of lung cancer that accounts for approximately 15% of all lung cancers. It is often found in the central parts of the lungs and can spread quickly to other parts of the body.
4. Large cell carcinoma: This is a rare type of lung cancer that accounts for only about 5% of all lung cancers. It is a malignant tumor that originates in the large cells of the respiratory tract and can be found in any part of the lung.
5. Bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAC): This is a rare type of lung cancer that originates in the cells lining the airways and alveoli of the lungs. It is more common in women than men and tends to affect older individuals.
6. Lymphangioleiomyomatosis (LAM): This is a rare, progressive, and often fatal lung disease that primarily affects women of childbearing age. It is characterized by the growth of smooth muscle-like cells in the lungs and can lead to cysts, lung collapse, and respiratory failure.
7. Hamartoma: This is a benign tumor that originates in the tissue of the lungs and is usually found in children. It is characterized by an overgrowth of normal lung tissue and can be treated with surgery.
8. Secondary lung cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
9. Metastatic cancer: This type of cancer occurs when cancer cells from another part of the body spread to the lungs through the bloodstream or lymphatic system. It is more common in people who have a history of smoking or exposure to other carcinogens.
10. Mesothelioma: This is a rare and aggressive form of cancer that originates in the lining of the lungs or abdomen. It is caused by asbestos exposure and can be treated with surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy.

Lung diseases can also be classified based on their cause, such as:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms and can include pneumonia, tuberculosis, and bronchitis.
2. Autoimmune diseases: These are caused by an overactive immune system and can include conditions such as sarcoidosis and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
3. Genetic diseases: These are caused by inherited mutations in genes that affect the lungs and can include cystic fibrosis and primary ciliary dyskinesia.
4. Environmental diseases: These are caused by exposure to harmful substances such as tobacco smoke, air pollution, and asbestos.
5. Radiological diseases: These are caused by exposure to ionizing radiation and can include conditions such as radiographic breast cancer and lung cancer.
6. Vascular diseases: These are caused by problems with the blood vessels in the lungs and can include conditions such as pulmonary embolism and pulmonary hypertension.
7. Tumors: These can be benign or malignant and can include conditions such as lung metastases and lung cancer.
8. Trauma: This can include injuries to the chest or lungs caused by accidents or other forms of trauma.
9. Congenital diseases: These are present at birth and can include conditions such as bronchopulmonary foregut malformations and congenital cystic adenomatoid malformation.

Each type of lung disease has its own set of symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options. It is important to seek medical attention if you experience any persistent or severe respiratory symptoms, as early diagnosis and treatment can improve outcomes and quality of life.

The term "refractory" refers to the fact that this type of anemia does not respond well to standard treatments, such as blood transfusions or medications. The term "excess blasts" refers to the presence of a large number of immature cells in the bone marrow.

RAEB is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that can develop into acute myeloid leukemia (AML), a type of cancer that affects the blood and bone marrow. AML is characterized by the rapid growth of abnormal white blood cells, which can crowd out normal cells in the bone marrow and lead to a variety of symptoms, including fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss.

RAEB is usually diagnosed in adults over the age of 60, although it can occur at any age. The condition is often associated with other health problems, such as myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), a group of disorders that affect the bone marrow and blood cells.

Treatment for RAEB typically involves chemotherapy and/or bone marrow transplantation. The goal of treatment is to slow the progression of the disease, reduce symptoms, and improve quality of life. In some cases, RAEB may be managed with supportive care, such as blood transfusions and antibiotics, to help manage symptoms and prevent complications.

Overall, refractory anemia with excess blasts is a serious and complex condition that requires careful management by a healthcare team of hematologists, oncologists, and other specialists. With appropriate treatment, many people with RAEB are able to achieve long-term remission and improve their quality of life.

Lymphatic metastasis occurs when cancer cells enter the lymphatic vessels and are carried through the lymphatic system to other parts of the body. This can happen through several mechanisms, including:

1. Direct invasion: Cancer cells can invade the nearby lymphatic vessels and spread through them.
2. Lymphatic vessel embolization: Cancer cells can block the flow of lymphatic fluid and cause the formation of a clot-like structure, which can trap cancer cells and allow them to grow.
3. Lymphatic vessel invasion: Cancer cells can infiltrate the walls of lymphatic vessels and spread through them.

Lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer, particularly in the breast, melanoma, and other cancers that have a high risk of lymphatic invasion. The presence of lymphatic metastasis in a patient's body can indicate a more aggressive cancer and a poorer prognosis.

Treatment for lymphatic metastasis typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. Surgery may be used to remove any affected lymph nodes or other tumors that have spread through the lymphatic system. Chemotherapy may be used to kill any remaining cancer cells, while radiation therapy may be used to shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.

In summary, lymphatic metastasis is a common mechanism for the spread of cancer through the body, particularly in cancers that originate in organs with a high lymphatic drainage. Treatment typically involves a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy to remove or shrink the tumors and relieve symptoms.

1. Infection: Bacterial or viral infections can develop after surgery, potentially leading to sepsis or organ failure.
2. Adhesions: Scar tissue can form during the healing process, which can cause bowel obstruction, chronic pain, or other complications.
3. Wound complications: Incisional hernias, wound dehiscence (separation of the wound edges), and wound infections can occur.
4. Respiratory problems: Pneumonia, respiratory failure, and atelectasis (collapsed lung) can develop after surgery, particularly in older adults or those with pre-existing respiratory conditions.
5. Cardiovascular complications: Myocardial infarction (heart attack), cardiac arrhythmias, and cardiac failure can occur after surgery, especially in high-risk patients.
6. Renal (kidney) problems: Acute kidney injury or chronic kidney disease can develop postoperatively, particularly in patients with pre-existing renal impairment.
7. Neurological complications: Stroke, seizures, and neuropraxia (nerve damage) can occur after surgery, especially in patients with pre-existing neurological conditions.
8. Pulmonary embolism: Blood clots can form in the legs or lungs after surgery, potentially causing pulmonary embolism.
9. Anesthesia-related complications: Respiratory and cardiac complications can occur during anesthesia, including respiratory and cardiac arrest.
10. delayed healing: Wound healing may be delayed or impaired after surgery, particularly in patients with pre-existing medical conditions.

It is important for patients to be aware of these potential complications and to discuss any concerns with their surgeon and healthcare team before undergoing surgery.

of Ala.-Huntsville) Probability on In Our Time at the BBC Probability and Statistics EBook Edwin Thompson Jaynes. Probability ... Conditional probability is the probability of some event A, given the occurrence of some other event B. Conditional probability ... The most popular version of objective probability is frequentist probability, which claims that the probability of a random ... Probability Wikimedia Commons has media related to Probability. Virtual Laboratories in Probability and Statistics (Univ. ...
Law 2 is analogous to the addition law of probability, only the probability being substituted by the probability amplitude. ... The probability, which is the modulus squared of the probability amplitude, then, follows the interference pattern under the ... Clearly, the sum of the probabilities, which equals the sum of the absolute squares of the probability amplitudes, must equal 1 ... The modulus squared of this quantity represents a probability density. Probability amplitudes provide a relationship between ...
... is the chance of an inherited trait becoming extinct as a function of time t. If t = âˆž this may be the ...
The "nominal coverage probability" is often set at 0.95. The coverage probability is the actual probability that the interval ... the nominal coverage probability will equal the coverage probability (termed "true" or "actual" coverage probability for ... The "probability" in coverage probability is interpreted with respect to a set of hypothetical repetitions of the entire data ... When the actual coverage probability is greater than the nominal coverage probability, the interval is termed a conservative ( ...
blog on free probability recorded lectures on free probability (Functional analysis, Exotic probabilities, Free probability ... The relation of free probability with random matrices is a key reason for the wide use of free probability in other subjects. ... RMTool - A MATLAB-based free probability calculator. Alcatel-Lucent Chair on Flexible Radio Applications of Free Probability to ... Free probability is currently undergoing active research. Typically the random variables lie in a unital algebra A such as a C ...
In mathematics, a probability measure is a real-valued function defined on a set of events in a probability space that ... Probability measures are also used in mathematical biology. For instance, in comparative sequence analysis a probability ... The requirements for a function Î¼ {\displaystyle \mu } to be a probability measure on a probability space are that: Î¼ {\ ... is that a probability measure must assign value 1 to the entire probability space. Intuitively, the additivity property says ...
The commuting probability can be defined for infinite compact groups; the probability measure is then, after a renormalisation ... That is why p ( G ) {\displaystyle p(G)} is called the commuting probability of G {\displaystyle G} . The finite group G {\ ... It can be generalized to infinite groups equipped with a suitable probability measure, and can also be generalized to other ... Hofmann, Karl H.; Russo, Francesco G. (2012). "The probability that x and y commute in a compact group". Mathematical ...
... combines two different approaches to probability. Probability and information Probability and frequency ... The probability estimates given by it do not always obey the law of total of probability. Applying the law of total probability ... Prior probabilities are the probabilities before a fact is known. Posterior probabilities are after a fact is known. The ... Probability and statistics was focused on probability distributions and tests of significance. Probability was formal, well ...
In decision theory, a pignistic probability is a probability that a rational person will assign to an option when required to ... A pignistic probability transform will calculate these pignistic probabilities from a structure that describes belief ... These are the pignistic probabilities. The term was coined by Philippe Smets, and stems from the Latin pignus, a bet. He ... The justification for the use of probability functions is usually linked to "rational" behavior to be held by an ideal agent ...
Much research involving probability is done under the auspices of applied probability. However, while such research is ... Applied probability is the application of probability theory to statistical problems and other scientific and engineering ... ISBN 0-387-23378-4 Blake, I.F. (1981) Introduction to Applied Probability, Wiley. ISBN 0-471-06082-8 The Applied Probability ... Queueing theory Renewal theory Additional information and resources Applied Probability Trust INFORMS Institute for Operations ...
Assume two biased coins, the first with probability p of turning up heads and the second with probability q > p of turning up ... 1 with probability (q âˆ’ p)/(1 âˆ’ p). Then the sequence of Yi has exactly the probability distribution of tosses made with the ... the probability that the first coin produces at least k heads should be less than the probability that the second coin produces ... In probability theory, coupling is a proof technique that allows one to compare two unrelated random variables (distributions) ...
The sum of the probability of heads and the probability of tails, is 1. Borel algebra Conditional probability - Probability of ... That is, the probability that an event in A or B will happen is the sum of the probability of an event in A and the probability ... Theories which assign negative probability relax the first axiom. This is the assumption of unit measure: that the probability ... ISBN 0-201-01503-X. McCord, James R.; Moroney, Richard M. (1964). "Axiomatic Probability". Introduction to Probability Theory. ...
... , a graphical technique for comparing two data sets, may refer to: P-P plot, "Probability-Probability" or " ... a Q-Q plot against the standard normal distribution Probability plot correlation coefficient Probability plot correlation ... "Percent-Percent" plot Q-Q plot, "Quantile-Quantile" plot Normal probability plot, ... coefficient plot This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Probability plot. If an internal link led ...
Probability theory, Statistical theory, All stub articles, Probability stubs, Statistics stubs). ... In probability and statistics, decoupling is a reduction of a sample statistic to an average of the statistic evaluated on ...
... is a decision strategy in which predictions of class membership are proportional to the class base rates. ... The probability-matching strategy is of psychological interest because it is frequently employed by human subjects in decision ... examination of probability matching and rational choice. Journal of Behavioral Decision Making, 15(3), 233-250. v t e (Articles ... just as probability matching (.5 Ã—.5 + .5 Ã— .5). Duda, Richard O.; Hart, Peter E.; Stork, David G. (2001), Pattern ...
Similarly, the prior probability of a random event or an uncertain proposition is the unconditional probability that is ... Some attempts have been made at finding a priori probabilities, i.e. probability distributions in some sense logically required ... in the case of probability distributions, is the negative expected value of the logarithm of the probability mass or density ... without starting with a prior probability distribution, one does not end up getting a posterior probability distribution, and ...
The propensity theory of probability is a probability interpretation in which the probability is thought of as a physical ... These single-case probabilities are known as propensities or chances. Hence, it can be thought of as "meta-probability". In ... Bayesian probability Frequentism 'Interpretations of Probability', Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy [1]. Retrieved 23 ... with high probability) be close to the probability of heads on each single toss. This law suggests that stable long-run ...
Traditional probability sufficient. Some critics of p-boxes argue that precisely specified probability distributions are ... P-boxes can arise from computations involving probability distributions, or involving both a probability distribution and an ... The sum of two random variables characterized by well-specified probability distributions is another precise probability ... uncertain number interval cumulative probability distribution upper and lower probabilities credal set risk analysis ...
The posterior probability is a type of conditional probability that results from updating the prior probability with ... In variational Bayesian methods, the posterior probability is the probability of the parameters Î¸ {\displaystyle \theta } given ... this probability equals 0.4. P ( B ) {\displaystyle P(B)} , or the probability that the student is not a girl (i.e. a boy) ... Posterior probability is a conditional probability conditioned on randomly observed data. Hence it is a random variable. For a ...
... may refer to: Probability distribution Probability axioms, which define a probability function Probability ... a real-valued function on a probability space Probability distribution function (disambiguation) This disambiguation page lists ...
... a log probability is simply a logarithm of a probability. The use of log probabilities means representing probabilities on a ... probabilities. Accuracy. The use of log probabilities improves numerical stability, when the probabilities are very small, ... The log probability is widely used in implementations of computations with probability, and is studied as a concept in its own ... Since the probabilities of independent events multiply, and logarithms convert multiplication to addition, log probabilities of ...
... belongs to the category of evidential probabilities; to evaluate the probability of a hypothesis, the ... Bayesian probability is an interpretation of the concept of probability, in which, instead of frequency or propensity of some ... Broadly speaking, there are two interpretations of Bayesian probability. For objectivists, who interpret probability as an ... Since individuals act according to different probability judgments, these agents' probabilities are "personal" (but amenable to ...
Universality probabilities are very related to the Chaitin constant, which is the halting probability of a universal prefix- ... Universality probability is an abstruse probability measure in computational complexity theory that concerns universal Turing ... In particular, the universality probability can be seen as the non-halting probability of a machine with oracle the third ... the universality probability of it is the probability that it remains universal even when every input of it (as a binary string ...
In probability theory, an excursion probability is the probability that a stochastic process surpasses a given value in a fixed ... It is the probability P { sup t âˆˆ T f ( t ) â‰¥ u } . {\displaystyle \mathbb {P} \left\{\sup _{t\in T}f(t)\geq u\right\}.} ... First-excursion probabilities can be used to describe deflection to a critical point experienced by structures during "random ... Yang, J. -N. (1973). "First-excursion probability in non-stationary random vibration". Journal of Sound and Vibration. 27 (2): ...
A low-probability observation string is one that can only be generated by a long computer program. Algorithmic probability is ... The universal probability distribution is the probability distribution on all possible output strings with random input, ... A single universal prior probability that can be substituted for each actual prior probability in Bayes's rule was invented by ... In algorithmic information theory, algorithmic probability, also known as Solomonoff probability, is a mathematical method of ...
The empirical probability, relative frequency, or experimental probability of an event is the ratio of the number of outcomes ... More generally, empirical probability estimates probabilities from experience and observation. Given an event A in a sample ... The phrase a-posteriori probability is also used as an alternative to empirical probability or relative frequency. The use of ... The term a-posteriori probability, in its meaning as equivalent to empirical probability, may be used in conjunction with a ...
Daniel A. Klain, Gian-Carlo Rota - Introduction to Geometric Probability. Maurice G. Kendall, Patrick A. P. Moran - Geometrical ... Integral geometry sprang from the principle that the mathematically natural probability models are those that are invariant ... Eugene Seneta, Karen Hunger Parshall, FranÃ§ois Jongmans - Nineteenth-Century Developments in Geometric Probability: J. J. ... Wendel's theorem Herbert Solomon (1978). Geometric Probability. Philadelphia, PA: Society for Industrial and Applied ...
Event (probability theory) - In statistics and probability theory, set of outcomes to which a probability is assigned Sample ... Under the measure-theoretic definition of a probability space, the probability of an outcome need not even be defined. In ... In contrast, in a continuous distribution, individual outcomes all have zero probability, and non-zero probabilities can only ... Outcomes may occur with probabilities that are between zero and one (inclusively). In a discrete probability distribution whose ...
Suppose the probabilities for lottery A are (Cured: .90, Uncured: .00, Dead: .10), and for lottery B are (Cured: .50, Uncured ... The elements of a lottery correspond to the probabilities that each of the states of nature will occur, e.g. (Rain:.70, No Rain ... In situation 1, option 1a has a certain loss of $500 and option 1b has equal probabilities of losing$1000 or $0. In situation ... In expected utility theory, a lottery is a discrete distribution of probability on a set of states of nature. ... ... mathematicians interpret the probability values of probability theory. There are two broad categories of probability ... as opposed to the term chance for a propensity probability. Some examples of epistemic probability are to assign a probability ... 3.1 Classical Probability 3.2 Logical Probability 3.3 Subjective Probability 3.4 Frequency Interpretations 3.5 Propensity ... Negative probability Philosophy of mathematics Philosophy of statistics Pignistic probability Probability amplitude (quantum ... Imprecise probability generalizes probability theory to allow for partial probability specifications, and is applicable when ... Lower and upper probabilities, denoted by P. _. (. A. ). {\displaystyle {\underline {P}}(A)}. and P. Â¯. (. A. ). {\displaystyle ... is equivalent to a precise probability. *. P. _. (. A. ). =. 0. {\displaystyle {\underline {P}}(A)=0}. and P. Â¯. (. A. ). =. 1 ... Issues with imprecise probabilities. One issue with imprecise probabilities is that there is often an independent degree ... Theodore P. Hill "Partitioning General Probability Measures," The Annals of Probability, Ann. Probab. 15(2), 804-813, (April, ... Keywords: atomic probability measures , cake-cutting , fair division problems , minimax decision rules , Optimal-partitioning ... Suppose$\mu_1,\ldots,\mu_n$are probability measures on the same measurable space$(\Omega, \mathscr{F})$. Then if all atoms ... "Partitioning General Probability Measures." Ann. Probab. 15 (2) 804 - 813, April, 1987. https://doi.org/10.1214/aop/1176992173 ... Savage, I. (1952), Probability inequalities of the Tchebycheff type:, , National Institute of Standards and Technology, ... ... determining probability of causation, for each claim for which NIOSH is required to complete a radiation dose reconstruction. ... Probability of Causation Final Rule. On May 2, 2002, the Department of Health and Human Services published its final rule on ... Public Comments on the Probability of Causation Rule. The final Rule on PC went into effect after the public the Advisory Board ... Guidelines for Determining Probability of Causation Under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of ... Mathematician Lily Serna visits Luna Park to explain a great probability pitfall. ... 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In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function that ... In probability theory, a probability density function (PDF), or density of a continuous random variable, is a function that ... Calculate the probability that clock stops between 2 pm and 2:45 pm. ... P(a \le X \le b)}$ = probability that some value x lies within this interval. ...
• I discovered that if I wanted to develop a solid foundation in machine learning then a familiarity with the basics of probability theory and statistical inference would be useful. (goodreads.com)
• This certificate teaches the theory that underpins statistical inference and probability, equipping you to understand the assumptions and limitations of a range of statistical models. (open.ac.uk)
• Theodore P. Hill "Partitioning General Probability Measures," The Annals of Probability, Ann. (projecteuclid.org)
• You will learn what is event, dependent and independent events, simple probability, conditional probability. (math10.com)
• Designed for middle grades mathematics educators that are beginning with or already using TI-Nspireâ„¢ technology and the Building Concepts lesson series, this workshop focuses on strategies for engaging students in new ways of visualizing and thinking about statistics and probability. (ti.com)
• As the authors also emphasise: probability isn't hard mathematics, but what makes it hard is connecting it with the real world and knowing how to apply the vast array of tools available. (goodreads.com)
• Probability is an area of mathematics of tremendous contemporary importance across all aspects of human endeavour. (oup.com)
• This book is a compact account of the basic features of probability and random processes at the level of first and second year mathematics undergraduates and Masters' students in cognate fields. (oup.com)
• Thomas Bayes (1701-1761) ( Figure ) was a Presbyterian Minister, and how he become interested in statistics and probability is uncertain. (cdc.gov)
• Bayes presented his famous theorem on probability in "An Essay Towards Solving a Problem in the Doctrine of Chances," which was published posthumously by his friend Richard Price in 1763. (cdc.gov)
• Uncertainty is traditionally modelled by a probability distribution, as developed by Kolmogorov , [1] Laplace , de Finetti , [2] Ramsey , Cox , Lindley , and many others. (wikipedia.org)
• Developed from celebrated Harvard statistics lectures, Introduction to Probability provides essential language and tools for understanding statistics, randomness, and uncertainty. (goodreads.com)
• I would like to receive email from MITx and learn about other offerings related to Probability - The Science of Uncertainty and Data. (edx.org)
• Bayesian approaches use prior knowledge and information (e.g., probabilities) that may help reduce uncertainty in analysis and have therefore been increasingly adopted by analysts in public health. (cdc.gov)
• Imprecise probability generalizes probability theory to allow for partial probability specifications, and is applicable when information is scarce, vague, or conflicting, in which case a unique probability distribution may be hard to identify. (wikipedia.org)
• Walley's theory extends the traditional subjective probability theory via buying and selling prices for gambles, whereas Weichselberger's approach generalizes Kolmogorov 's axioms without imposing an interpretation. (wikipedia.org)
• This book starts from the basic concepts of probability theory and develops it up to the law of large numbers and the central limit theorem (and more). (goodreads.com)
• Study the mathematical theory underlying methods and concepts used in practical statistical analyses while learning to develop probability models and investigate their properties. (open.ac.uk)
• This follows from the fact that probability theory only applies to systems with a finite possibility of occurring at least once in the universe, and it would be inconceivable that 10 158 different trials could ever be made in our entire space-time universe. (icr.org)
• It is a challenging class but will enable you to apply the tools of probability theory to real-world applications or to your research. (edx.org)
• The emphasis of the meeting will be on Algebra, Analysis and Combinatorics as well as the interactions between these areas and probability theory. (euro-math-soc.eu)
• Bayes's theorem provides a method of explicitly including prior events or knowledge when considering the probabilities of current events (for example, including a history of smoking when calculating the probability of developing lung cancer). (cdc.gov)
• TI-Nspireâ„¢ lessons that support a learning progression for statistics and probability. (ti.com)
• This workshop focuses on strategies for engaging students in new ways of thinking about statistics and probability within and across grades 6, 7 and 8. (ti.com)
• Since machine learning involves a good amount of statistics, I started looking for books or resources on probability. (goodreads.com)
• This statistics illustrates the probability of default (PD) on loans to corporations in Central and Eastern Europe (CEE) as of the first quarter of 2020, by country. (statista.com)
• Be first to hear about new textbooks, new editions, and updates in probability and statistics by ensuring you are correctly signed up to receive e-newsletters from us. (oup.com)
• In general, using statistical weights that reflect the probability of selection and propensity of response for sampled individuals will affect parameter estimates, while incorporating the attributes of the complex sample design (i.e. differential weighting, clustering and stratification) will affect variance estimates (estimated standard errors and thereby test statistics and confidence intervals). (cdc.gov)
• As of the first quarter of 2020, Slovenia displayed the highest probability of a corporate loan defaulting with approximately 4.03 percent. (statista.com)
• Determining Lambda for a Poisson probability calculation [Solved! (intmath.com)
• Taken from appropriate cell of life table (as a by-product of life expectancy calculation), i.e. (1-L5 probability to survive by 5)*1000. (who.int)
• Standard consistency conditions relate upper and lower probability assignments to non-empty closed convex sets of probability distributions. (wikipedia.org)
• This book teaches basic probability and several of the more common statistical distributions in an academic but easy to read style. (goodreads.com)
• The first formal treatment dates back at least to the middle of the nineteenth century, by George Boole , [3] who aimed to reconcile the theories of logic and probability. (wikipedia.org)
• 5 stars for the effort of giving the intuitive stories for each probability distribution concept. (goodreads.com)
• Consider n variables drawn independently from an arbitrary probability distribution. (brainmass.com)
• We introduce the Precipitation Probability DISTribution (PPDIST) dataset, a collection of global high-resolution (0.1Â°) observation-based climatologies (1979-2018) of the occurrence and peak intensity of precipitation ( P ) at daily and 3-hourly time-scales. (nature.com)
• People have a limited ability to determine their own subjective probabilities and might find that they can only provide an interval. (wikipedia.org)
• Perhaps the most common generalization is to replace a single probability specification with an interval specification. (wikipedia.org)
• In the 1920s, in A Treatise on Probability , Keynes [11] formulated and applied an explicit interval estimate approach to probability. (wikipedia.org)
• The contents of this courseare heavily based upon the corresponding MIT class -- Introduction to Probability -- a course that has been offered and continuously refined over more than 50 years. (edx.org)
• For several years, physicians have determined that the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) may influence the probability of a stroke on depressed people. (articlealley.com)
• Under the terms of the deal, Probability will create several exciting slot games based on famous movies produced by Paramount over the years. (bonusgambling.org)
• Single Sheet Inkjet Tattoo Transfer Paper In all probability probably the most well known and most widely out there kind of tattoo paper may be the single sheet assortment. (articlealley.com)
• See our page on Calculating the Probability of Causation for more information. (cdc.gov)
• dmf: I suspect calculating the final probabilities would be quite involved, as the page you linked to indicates. (intmath.com)
• Work on imprecise probability models proceeded fitfully throughout the 20th century, with important contributions by Bernard Koopman , C.A.B. Smith , I.J. Good , Arthur Dempster , Glenn Shafer , Peter M. Williams , Henry Kyburg , Isaac Levi , and Teddy Seidenfeld . (wikipedia.org)
• Identify several (e.g., five to seven) high-probability requests-those that the student follows 80% to 100% of the time-that relate to the context of the low-p request. (vanderbilt.edu)
• DOL will use the energy employee's personal characteristics, employment information, medical information, and dose reconstruction results to determine the Probability of Causation (PC)-that is, the likelihood that the worker's cancer was caused by exposure to radiation during employment. (cdc.gov)
• This report presents results of an investigation into the influence of disk electrode material on the probability of. (cdc.gov)
• The Bureau of Mines completed an investigation of the influence of material on the ignition probability using the breakflash apparatus. (cdc.gov)
• Now, maybe Durangobill would be able to tie all this into the already complex probability calculations for 7-card hands! (intmath.com)
• As stated in the module on sampling in NHANES, the NHANES has a complex, multistage, probability cluster design. (cdc.gov)
• We derive the general expression of the probability density for the kth largest variable. (brainmass.com)
• And then the coefficients squared give me the probabilities of measuring each eigenvalue as a function of time. (physicsforums.com)
• The idea to use imprecise probability has a long history. (wikipedia.org)
• That is the idea that probabilities don't add they multiply. (medscape.com)
• Estonia on the other hand during the same period had a probability of default (PD) rate of almost one percent. (statista.com)
• The BBVA categorize probability of default as "a measure of credit rating that is assigned internally to a customer or a contract with the aim of estimating the probability of non-compliance within a year. (statista.com)
• A lower probability function is superadditive but not necessarily additive, whereas an upper probability is subadditive. (wikipedia.org)
• It does not just introduce the concept but provides many examples of applying probability in real-life situations. (goodreads.com)
• Life is a school of probability. (causeweb.org)
• [12] At the start of the 1990s, the field started to gather some momentum, with the publication of Peter Walley 's book Statistical Reasoning with Imprecise Probabilities [7] (which is also where the term "imprecise probability" originates). (wikipedia.org)
• Import products to Magento, an easy way If you are browsing this write-up you are in all probability attempting to figure out how you can import your files to Magento. (articlealley.com)