That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)
Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.
Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
All organized methods of funding.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.
Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.
Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.
Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.
Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.
The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Financial support of research activities.
National Health Insurance in the United States refers to a proposed system of healthcare financing that would provide comprehensive coverage for all residents, funded through a combination of government funding and mandatory contributions, and administered by a public agency.
Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Cambodia" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, known officially as the Kingdom of Cambodia. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to try and help answer those for you.
Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.
The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)
A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country located in South Asia and it does not have a medical definition. If you have any medical question or term that you would like me to define, please provide it and I will be happy to help.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.
Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is the name of a country located in South Asia, known for its diverse landscapes and rich biodiversity.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context; it is a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions related to medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those topics for you.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or concept, it is a country located in South America, known officially as the Federative Republic of Brazil. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or science, I'd be happy to help answer those!
The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Physicians who hold degrees from medical schools in countries other than the ones in which they practice.
Individuals licensed to practice medicine.
Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.
Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.
A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.
The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Place or physical location of work or employment.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Time period from 2001 through 2100 of the common era.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.
The use of severity-of-illness measures, such as age, to estimate the risk (measurable or predictable chance of loss, injury or death) to which a patient is subject before receiving some health care intervention. This adjustment allows comparison of performance and quality across organizations, practitioners, and communities. (from JCAHO, Lexikon, 1994)
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
Institutions with an organized medical staff which provide medical care to patients.
Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.
The practice of nursing by a registered or licensed nurse to care for a specific patient in a health facility or in the home.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The exertion of a strong influence or control over others in a variety of settings--administrative, social, academic, etc.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
I'm afraid there seems to be a misunderstanding - "Africa" is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. Africa is the world's second-largest and second-most populous continent, consisting of 54 countries with diverse cultures, peoples, languages, and landscapes. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help answer those for you!
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.
The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.
An infant during the first month after birth.
Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.
Organized services to administer immunization procedures in the prevention of various diseases. The programs are made available over a wide range of sites: schools, hospitals, public health agencies, voluntary health agencies, etc. They are administered to an equally wide range of population groups or on various administrative levels: community, municipal, state, national, international.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.
The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Any of the infectious diseases of man and other animals caused by species of MYCOBACTERIUM.
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.

Storage of cord blood attracts private-sector interest. (1/875)

Storage of cord blood from their babies can cost parents several hundred dollars, and some private companies are already offering the service. Janis Hass reports that some Canadian specialists question the value of the banks.  (+info)

Health expenditure and finance: who gets what? (2/875)

The methods used in South Africa's first comprehensive review of health finance and expenditure are outlined. Special measures were adopted to make the process acceptable to all concerned during a period of profound political transition. The estimation of indicators of access to public sector resources for districts sorted by per capita income allowed the health care problems of disadvantaged communities to be highlighted.  (+info)

The public/private mix and human resources for health. (3/875)

This paper examines the general question of the public/private mix in health care, with special emphasis on its implications for human resources. After a brief conceptual exercise to clarify these terms, we place the problem of human resources in the context of the growing complexity of health systems. We next move to an analysis of potential policy alternatives. Unfortunately, a lot of the public/private debate has looked only at the pragmatic aspects of such alternatives. Each of them, however, reflects a specific set of values--an ideology--that must be made explicit. For this reason, we outline the value assumptions of the four major principles to allocate resources for health care: purchasing power, poverty, socially perceived priority, and citizenship. Finally, the last section discusses some of the policy options that health care systems face today, with respect to the combinations of public and private financing and delivery of services. The conclusion is that we need to move away from false dichotomies and dilemmas as we search for creative ways of combining the best of the state and the market in order to replace polarized with pluralistic systems. The paper is based on a fundamental premise: The way we deal with the question of the public/private mix will largely determine the shape of health care in the next century.  (+info)

The potential of health sector non-governmental organizations: policy options. (4/875)

Non-governmental organizations (NGOs) have increasingly been promoted as alternative health care providers to the state, furthering the same goals but less hampered by government inefficiencies and resource constraints. However, the reality of NGO health care provision is more complex. Not only is the distinction between government and NGO providers sometimes difficult to determine because of their operational integration, but NGOs may also suffer from resource constraionts and management inefficiencies similar to those of government providers. Some registered NGOs operate as for-profit providers in practice. Policy development must reflect the strengths and weaknesses of NGOs in particular settings and should be built on NGO advantages over government in terms of resource mobilization, efficiency and/or quality. Policy development will always require a strong government presence in co-ordinating and regulating health care provision, and an NGO sector responsive to the policy goals of government.  (+info)

The state of health planning in the '90s. (5/875)

The art of health planning is relatively new in many developing countries and its record is not brilliant. However, for policy makers committed to sustainable health improvements and the principle of equity, it is an essential process, and in need of improvement rather than minimalization. The article argues that the possibility of planning playing a proper role in health care allocative decisions is increasingly being endangered by a number of developments. These include the increasing use of projects, inappropriate decentralization policies, and the increasing attention being given to NGOs. More serious is the rise of New Right thinking which is undermining the role of the State altogether in health care provision. The article discusses these developments and makes suggestions as to possible action needed to counteract them.  (+info)

Efficiency and quality in the public and private sectors in Senegal. (6/875)

It is often argued that the private sector is more efficient than the public sector in the production of health services, and that government reliance on private provision would help improve the efficiency and equity of public spending in health. A review of the literature, however, shows that there is little evidence to support these statements. A study of government and non-governmental facilities was undertaken in Senegal, taking into account case mix, input prices, and quality of care, to examine relative efficiency in the delivery of health services. The study revealed that private providers are highly heterogeneous, although they tend to offer better quality services. A specific and important group of providers--Catholic health posts--were shown to be significantly more efficient than public and other private facilities in the provision of curative and preventive ambulatory services at high levels of output. Policies to expand the role of the private sector need to take into account variations in types of providers, as well as evidence of both high and low quality among them. In terms of public sector efficiency, findings from the study affirm others that indicate drug policy reform to be one of the most important policy interventions that can simultaneously improve efficiency, quality and effectiveness of care. Relationships that this study identified between quality and efficiency suggest that strategies to improve quality can increase efficiency, raise demand for services, and thereby expand access.  (+info)

The role of private medical practitioners and their interactions with public health services in Asian countries. (7/875)

This paper aims to review the role of private practitioners and their interactions with public health services in developing countries, focusing largely on the Asian region. Evidence on the distribution of health facilities, manpower, health expenditures and utilization rates shows that private practitioners are significant health care providers in many Asian countries. Limited information has been published on interactions between public and private providers despite their co-existence. Issues related to enforcement of regulations, human resources, patient referrals and disease notifications, are examined.  (+info)

Private payers of health care in Brazil: characteristics, costs and coverage. (8/875)

The private sector is the predominant provider of health care in Brazil, particularly for inpatient services, and financing is a mix of public (through a prospective reimbursement system) and private. Roughly a quarter of the population has private insurance coverage, reflecting rapid growth in the past decade fuelled by the crisis in the public reimbursement system and the perceived deterioration of publicly provided care. Four major forms of insurance exist: (1) prepaid group practice; (2) medical cooperatives, physician owned and operated preferred provider organizations; (3) company health plans where employers ensure employee access to services under various types of arrangements from direct provision to purchasing of private services; and (4) health indemnity insurance. Each type of plan includes a wide variety of subplans from basic individual/family coverage to comprehensive executive coverage. The paper discusses the characteristics, costs and utilization patterns of all types of privately financed care, as well as the major problems associated with private financing: the limited package of benefits and low payout ceilings, inadequate consumer information and virtually no regulation.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Private Sector" is not a medical definition. It is an economic and sociopolitical term that refers to businesses and organizations which are not owned or controlled by the government. They can be privately owned and operated for profit, such as corporations, partnerships, and sole proprietorships, or they can be non-profit organizations, such as charities and advocacy groups. The private sector is distinct from the "Public Sector," which includes entities that are owned and controlled by the government, like public schools, hospitals, and other services provided by the state.

A Public Sector, in the context of healthcare, refers to the portion of a country's health system that is managed and funded by the government. This sector provides medical services through state-owned hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, as well as through publicly financed programs such as Medicare and Medicaid in the United States or the National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom. The public sector aims to ensure that all citizens have access to necessary medical care, regardless of their ability to pay. It is often funded through taxes and is accountable to the public for its performance.

Private hospitals are medical facilities that are owned and operated by private entities, such as corporations or individuals, rather than being government-owned. They are funded through patient fees, private insurance, and some may also receive funding from charitable organizations. Private hospitals can offer a range of services, including emergency care, inpatient and outpatient care, diagnostic tests, and surgeries. They may have the flexibility to offer more specialized medical equipment and procedures compared to public hospitals, as well as potentially having shorter wait times for non-emergency procedures. However, private hospitals may not be accessible to all individuals due to their cost, and they may prioritize profit over patient care in some cases.

In medical terms, "private practice" refers to the provision of healthcare services by a licensed and trained medical professional (such as a doctor, nurse practitioner, or dentist) who operates independently and is not employed by a hospital, clinic, or other health care institution. In private practice, these professionals offer their medical expertise and treatments directly to patients on a fee-for-service basis or through insurance billing. They are responsible for managing their own schedules, appointments, staff, and finances while maintaining compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and professional standards.

Private practices can vary in size and structure, ranging from solo practitioners working alone to larger group practices with multiple healthcare providers sharing resources and expertise. The primary advantage of private practice is the autonomy it provides for medical professionals to make decisions regarding patient care, treatment options, and business management without interference from external entities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "privatization" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Privatization generally refers to the process of transferring ownership, control, or management of a previously publicly owned or controlled entity, industry, or service to private hands. This concept can apply to various sectors, including healthcare services and institutions, but it does not have a unique medical meaning.

The Health Care Sector is a segment of the economy that includes companies and organizations that provide goods and services to treat patients with medical conditions, as well as those that work to maintain people's health through preventative care and health education. This sector includes hospitals, clinics, physician practices, dental practices, pharmacies, home health care agencies, nursing homes, laboratories, and medical device manufacturers, among others.

The Health Care Sector is often broken down into several subsectors, including:

1. Providers of healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, and physician practices.
2. Payers of healthcare costs, such as insurance companies and government agencies like Medicare and Medicaid.
3. Manufacturers of healthcare products, such as medical devices, pharmaceuticals, and biotechnology products.
4. Distributors of healthcare products, such as wholesalers and pharmacy benefit managers.
5. Providers of healthcare information technology, such as electronic health record systems and telemedicine platforms.

The Health Care Sector is a significant contributor to the economy in many countries, providing employment opportunities and contributing to economic growth. However, it also faces significant challenges, including rising costs, an aging population, and increasing demands for access to high-quality care.

Public-Private Sector Partnerships (PPPs) in the context of healthcare, according to the World Health Organization (WHO), are "arrangements between public and private sector entities based on clearly defined roles and responsibilities, where all participants share risks and benefits, in which a significant portion of the investment and/or risk is taken on by the private sector partner(s) for the delivery of an essential healthcare service."

PPPs can take various forms, such as:

1. Service contracts: The public sector hires a private company to manage and operate specific services.
2. Management contracts: A private entity manages and operates public health facilities or services while the ownership remains with the government.
3. Public-private mixed ownership: Both public and private sectors share ownership of an enterprise, often through joint ventures.
4. Lease agreements: The government leases its healthcare infrastructure to a private company for management and operation.
5. Joint financing arrangements: Both public and private sectors contribute funds towards the development or expansion of healthcare services.
6. Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) initiatives: Private companies support healthcare projects as part of their CSR commitments.

PPPs aim to improve access, quality, and efficiency in healthcare delivery while promoting innovation and financial sustainability. However, they also pose challenges related to governance, accountability, and potential conflicts of interest. Therefore, careful planning, monitoring, and evaluation are essential for successful PPPs in the healthcare sector.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

The "delivery of health care" refers to the process of providing medical services, treatments, and interventions to individuals in order to maintain, restore, or improve their health. This encompasses a wide range of activities, including:

1. Preventive care: Routine check-ups, screenings, immunizations, and counseling aimed at preventing illnesses or identifying them at an early stage.
2. Diagnostic services: Tests and procedures used to identify and understand medical conditions, such as laboratory tests, imaging studies, and biopsies.
3. Treatment interventions: Medical, surgical, or therapeutic treatments provided to manage acute or chronic health issues, including medications, surgeries, physical therapy, and psychotherapy.
4. Acute care services: Short-term medical interventions focused on addressing immediate health concerns, such as hospitalizations for infections, injuries, or complications from medical conditions.
5. Chronic care management: Long-term care and support provided to individuals with ongoing medical needs, such as those living with chronic diseases like diabetes, heart disease, or cancer.
6. Rehabilitation services: Programs designed to help patients recover from illnesses, injuries, or surgeries, focusing on restoring physical, cognitive, and emotional function.
7. End-of-life care: Palliative and hospice care provided to individuals facing terminal illnesses, with an emphasis on comfort, dignity, and quality of life.
8. Public health initiatives: Population-level interventions aimed at improving community health, such as disease prevention programs, health education campaigns, and environmental modifications.

The delivery of health care involves a complex network of healthcare professionals, institutions, and systems working together to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. This includes primary care physicians, specialists, nurses, allied health professionals, hospitals, clinics, long-term care facilities, and public health organizations. Effective communication, coordination, and collaboration among these stakeholders are essential for high-quality, patient-centered care.

I am not aware of a specific medical definition for "entrepreneurship," as it is a term that is more commonly used in the contexts of business, economics, and innovation. However, entrepreneurship can have implications for health and healthcare in terms of promoting innovation, improving access to care, and contributing to economic growth and development.

In general, entrepreneurship refers to the process of identifying and creating new opportunities for profit and value, often through the development and launch of new products, services, or business models. Entrepreneurs are individuals who take on the risks and responsibilities associated with starting and running a business, typically with the goal of generating profits and creating value for themselves and others.

In the context of healthcare, entrepreneurship can involve developing new medical technologies, treatments, or healthcare delivery models that improve patient outcomes, increase access to care, and reduce costs. Entrepreneurial activities in healthcare may also include developing innovative approaches to addressing public health challenges, such as improving disease prevention and management, promoting healthy behaviors, and addressing social determinants of health.

While entrepreneurship is not a medical concept per se, it can have important implications for health and healthcare, and can contribute to improvements in health outcomes, access to care, and overall well-being.

Health care reform refers to the legislative efforts, initiatives, and debates aimed at improving the quality, affordability, and accessibility of health care services. These reforms may include changes to health insurance coverage, delivery systems, payment methods, and healthcare regulations. The goals of health care reform are often to increase the number of people with health insurance, reduce healthcare costs, and improve the overall health outcomes of a population. Examples of notable health care reform measures in the United States include the Affordable Care Act (ACA) and Medicare for All proposals.

"Public hospitals" are defined as healthcare institutions that are owned, operated, and funded by government entities. They provide medical services to the general public, regardless of their ability to pay. Public hospitals can be found at the local, regional, or national level and may offer a wide range of services, including emergency care, inpatient and outpatient care, specialized clinics, and community health programs. These hospitals are accountable to the public and often have a mandate to serve vulnerable populations, such as low-income individuals, uninsured patients, and underserved communities. Public hospitals may receive additional funding from various sources, including patient fees, grants, and donations.

'Government Financing' in the context of healthcare refers to the role of government in funding healthcare services, programs, and infrastructure. This can be achieved through various mechanisms such as:

1. Direct provision of healthcare services: The government operates and funds its own hospitals, clinics, and other healthcare facilities, where it employs healthcare professionals to deliver care.
2. Public insurance programs: The government establishes and manages health insurance programs, like Medicare and Medicaid in the United States, which provide coverage for specific populations and reimburse healthcare providers for services delivered to enrollees.
3. Tax subsidies and incentives: Governments may offer tax breaks or other financial incentives to encourage private investments in healthcare infrastructure, research, and development.
4. Grants and loans: Government agencies can provide funding to healthcare organizations, researchers, and educational institutions in the form of grants and loans for specific projects, programs, or initiatives.
5. Public-private partnerships (PPPs): Governments collaborate with private entities to jointly fund and manage healthcare services, facilities, or infrastructure projects.

Government financing plays a significant role in shaping healthcare systems and ensuring access to care for vulnerable populations. The extent of government involvement in financing varies across countries, depending on their political, economic, and social contexts.

Voluntary hospitals, also known as non-profit or private hospitals, are medical institutions that are privately owned and operated, typically by a charitable organization or community group. They are called "voluntary" because they are not run by the government and rely on donations, grants, and other forms of financial support from the community to operate.

Voluntary hospitals can be religious or secular in nature and often have a mission to serve specific populations or provide care for underserved communities. They may offer a range of medical services, including emergency care, inpatient and outpatient care, diagnostic testing, and specialized treatments.

These hospitals are typically governed by a board of directors made up of community members and are required to operate on a non-profit basis, meaning that any revenue generated must be reinvested into the hospital's operations or mission rather than distributed to shareholders or owners. Voluntary hospitals may also receive funding from government sources such as Medicare and Medicaid, but they are not owned or operated by the government.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizations" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. If you are referring to "organs" in the body, here is a definition:

Organs: In human anatomy, a part of the body that performs a specialized function. Organs are composed of several types of tissues, which are groups of cells that perform a similar function. Examples of organs include the heart, lungs, liver, and kidneys. Each organ's tissue has a specific structure that allows it to carry out its function in a highly efficient manner.

If you were asking about organizations in the context of medical institutions or healthcare systems, here is a definition:

Healthcare Organization: An entity that provides healthcare services, such as hospitals, clinics, physician practices, and long-term care facilities. These organizations can be public, private, or nonprofit and are responsible for delivering medical care to patients, managing health information, conducting research, and promoting public health. They may also provide education and training to healthcare professionals. Healthcare organizations must comply with various regulations and accreditation standards to ensure the quality and safety of patient care.

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "government" is a political or administrative concept and does not have a medical definition. In general, it refers to the group of people who govern a community or country, or the system by which they govern. This could include elected officials, appointed leaders, and bureaucracies that oversee various functions such as public health, education, and infrastructure. However, in the context of your question, I assume you may be interested in how government policies and systems can impact health and healthcare. If you have any specific questions related to this or another topic, please let me know!

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

Organized financing in a medical context generally refers to the planning and coordination of financial resources and arrangements to support healthcare programs, services, or research. This can involve various funding sources, such as governmental agencies, private insurance, charitable organizations, and individual donors. The goal of organized financing is to ensure sustainable and equitable access to high-quality healthcare for all individuals, while also promoting cost-effective and efficient use of resources. Organized financing may also include efforts to address financial barriers to care, such as high out-of-pocket costs or lack of insurance coverage, and to promote transparency and accountability in the use of healthcare funds.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

Proprietary hospitals, also known as private for-profit hospitals, are healthcare institutions that are owned and operated by a private company or individual with the primary goal of generating a profit. These hospitals are funded through patient fees, investments, and other sources of revenue. They are required to meet state and federal regulations regarding patient care and safety but may have more flexibility in making business decisions compared to non-profit or government-owned hospitals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Health facilities, also known as healthcare facilities, are organizations that provide health services, treatments, and care to individuals in need of medical attention. These facilities can include various types of establishments such as hospitals, clinics, doctor's offices, dental practices, long-term care facilities, rehabilitation centers, and diagnostic imaging centers.

Health facilities are designed to offer a range of services that promote health, prevent illness, diagnose and treat medical conditions, and provide ongoing care for patients with chronic illnesses or disabilities. They may also offer educational programs and resources to help individuals maintain their health and well-being.

The specific services offered by health facilities can vary widely depending on the type and size of the facility, as well as its location and target population. However, all health facilities are required to meet certain standards for safety, quality, and patient care in order to ensure that patients receive the best possible treatment and outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Interinstitutional Relations" is not a commonly used medical term. Instead, it is more frequently used in the context of social sciences, particularly in relation to organizations and their interactions with each other. In this context, interinstitutional relations refers to the relationships, cooperative arrangements, and communication between different organizations or institutions.

However, if you are looking for a term related to medical institutions or healthcare organizations, you might be interested in "Interprofessional Relations" or "Interdisciplinary Collaboration." These terms describe the interactions, coordination, and cooperation among various healthcare professionals and disciplines to provide comprehensive and high-quality patient care.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Government Agencies" is a very broad term and does not have a specific medical definition. Government agencies are administrative bodies of a government that carry out certain legislated functions, and these can cover a wide range of areas, including public health, environmental protection, workplace safety, and many others.

However, if you're interested in learning about government agencies that deal with health-related matters, here are a few examples:

1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC): A federal agency in the United States that conducts and supports public health activities to decrease preventable diseases, injuries, and disabilities.
2. National Institutes of Health (NIH): A US government agency responsible for biomedical and health-related research. It comprises 27 institutes and centers focusing on various disease areas and other health issues.
3. Food and Drug Administration (FDA): A US government agency that oversees the safety of food, dietary supplements, medications, vaccines, cosmetics, medical devices, and radiation-emitting products.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA): A US government agency responsible for protecting human health and the environment by enforcing regulations related to air and water quality, hazardous waste disposal, pesticides, and other environmental concerns.
5. World Health Organization (WHO): An international organization that coordinates global health initiatives, sets international health standards, and provides technical assistance to member countries in addressing various health issues.

These are just a few examples of government agencies that deal with health-related matters. If you have a specific agency or area of interest, I'd be happy to help provide more information!

A pharmacy is a retail store or a healthcare facility where medications, both prescription and over-the-counter, are sold or dispensed. Pharmacies are staffed by professional pharmacists who provide medication therapy management services, including reviewing the patient's medication history, checking for potential drug interactions, dosage adjustments, and providing education to patients on the safe and effective use of their medications.

Pharmacies may also offer other health-related products such as medical supplies, vitamins, and personal care items. Some pharmacies are part of a larger healthcare system, such as hospitals or clinics, while others are standalone retail stores. In addition to traditional brick-and-mortar locations, there are also online pharmacies that operate over the internet.

It's important for patients to only obtain medications from licensed and reputable pharmacies to ensure their safety and the effectiveness of their treatment.

Proprietary health facilities are privately owned and operated healthcare facilities. These facilities are typically motivated by profit and can take various forms such as hospitals, clinics, diagnostic centers, rehabilitation facilities, and long-term care centers. They can be owned and managed by a single individual, a group of investors, or a corporation.

Proprietary health facilities may provide a range of medical services, from routine check-ups to complex procedures, depending on their size, staffing, and equipment. They are subject to state and federal regulations regarding patient safety, quality of care, and billing practices. Patients who choose to receive care at proprietary health facilities typically pay out-of-pocket or through private insurance, although some may also accept Medicare and Medicaid payments.

I am not a medical professional, but I can tell you that the term "contract services" is more commonly used in business and healthcare administration than in clinical medicine. It generally refers to an agreement between a healthcare provider or organization and another entity for the delivery of specific medical services over a defined period of time. The contract outlines the scope, expectations, and compensation for these services.

For example, a hospital may have a contract with a staffing agency to provide nursing personnel on a temporary basis. Or, an insurance company might have a contract with a network of healthcare providers to deliver medical care to their policyholders at agreed-upon rates. These arrangements can help ensure consistent quality and cost control in the delivery of healthcare services.

Quality of health care is a term that refers to the degree to which health services for individuals and populations increase the likelihood of desired health outcomes and are consistent with current professional knowledge. It encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Clinical effectiveness: The use of best available evidence to make decisions about prevention, diagnosis, treatment, and care. This includes considering the benefits and harms of different options and making sure that the most effective interventions are used.
2. Safety: Preventing harm to patients and minimizing risks associated with healthcare. This involves identifying potential hazards, implementing measures to reduce errors, and learning from adverse events to improve systems and processes.
3. Patient-centeredness: Providing care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs, and values. This includes ensuring that patients are fully informed about their condition and treatment options, involving them in decision-making, and providing emotional support throughout the care process.
4. Timeliness: Ensuring that healthcare services are delivered promptly and efficiently, without unnecessary delays. This includes coordinating care across different providers and settings to ensure continuity and avoid gaps in service.
5. Efficiency: Using resources wisely and avoiding waste, while still providing high-quality care. This involves considering the costs and benefits of different interventions, as well as ensuring that healthcare services are equitably distributed.
6. Equitability: Ensuring that all individuals have access to quality healthcare services, regardless of their socioeconomic status, race, ethnicity, gender, age, or other factors. This includes addressing disparities in health outcomes and promoting fairness and justice in healthcare.

Overall, the quality of health care is a multidimensional concept that requires ongoing evaluation and improvement to ensure that patients receive the best possible care.

Healthcare financing refers to the various mechanisms used to raise and allocate funds to pay for healthcare goods and services. This can include both public and private sources of funding, such as government health programs (like Medicare and Medicaid in the US), private health insurance, out-of-pocket payments, and donations or grants from external organizations.

Effective healthcare financing is critical to ensuring access to quality healthcare services for all individuals, regardless of their ability to pay. It involves striking a balance between ensuring that healthcare providers are adequately compensated for their services while also keeping costs affordable for patients and families. Ultimately, the goal of healthcare financing is to promote health equity and improve overall population health.

"Essential drugs" is a term used in the medical and public health fields to refer to a list of medications that are considered necessary to meet the most important needs of a healthcare system. The concept of essential drugs was first introduced by the World Health Organization (WHO) in 1977, with the aim of promoting access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

The WHO's Model List of Essential Medicines (EML) is regularly updated and contains a core list of essential medicines that should be available at all times in adequate quantities, in the appropriate dosage forms, and at a price that the majority of the population can afford. The list includes drugs for a wide range of medical conditions, from infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria to chronic conditions such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer.

The selection of essential medicines is based on several criteria, including the burden of disease in a population, the safety and efficacy of the drug, its cost-effectiveness, and its place in the overall treatment strategy for a particular condition. The goal is to ensure that healthcare systems have access to a basic set of medicines that can address the most common health needs of their populations, while also allowing for flexibility to meet the specific needs of individual countries and regions.

In summary, essential drugs are a list of medications considered necessary to meet the most important healthcare needs of a population, selected based on criteria such as disease burden, safety, efficacy, cost-effectiveness, and treatment strategy. The concept is promoted by the World Health Organization to improve access to affordable, effective, and safe medicines for all people, particularly those in low- and middle-income countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "investments" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is an economic and financial term that refers to the allocation of resources, usually money, with the expectation of receiving future returns or benefits. This could include purchasing stocks, bonds, real estate, or other assets with the goal of generating income or appreciating in value over time.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related concepts, I'd be happy to help!

Public Health Administration refers to the leadership, management, and coordination of public health services and initiatives at the local, state, or national level. It involves overseeing and managing the development, implementation, and evaluation of policies, programs, and services aimed at improving the health and well-being of populations. This may include addressing issues such as infectious disease control, chronic disease prevention, environmental health, emergency preparedness and response, and health promotion and education.

Public Health Administration requires a strong understanding of public health principles, leadership and management skills, and the ability to work collaboratively with a variety of stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, policymakers, and other organizations. The ultimate goal of Public Health Administration is to ensure that public health resources are used effectively and efficiently to improve the health outcomes of populations and reduce health disparities.

National health programs are systematic, large-scale initiatives that are put in place by national governments to address specific health issues or improve the overall health of a population. These programs often involve coordinated efforts across various sectors, including healthcare, education, and social services. They may aim to increase access to care, improve the quality of care, prevent the spread of diseases, promote healthy behaviors, or reduce health disparities. Examples of national health programs include immunization campaigns, tobacco control initiatives, and efforts to address chronic diseases such as diabetes or heart disease. These programs are typically developed based on scientific research, evidence-based practices, and public health data, and they may be funded through a variety of sources, including government budgets, grants, and private donations.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

Facility regulation and control in a medical context refers to the laws, rules, and guidelines established by regulatory bodies to ensure that healthcare facilities are operating safely, effectively, and in compliance with standards set forth to protect patients and healthcare providers. This can include regulations related to building design and construction, infection control, staffing ratios, medication management, quality improvement, and patient rights.

Regulatory bodies such as the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) in the United States or the Care Quality Commission (CQC) in the United Kingdom establish these regulations and conduct regular inspections to ensure compliance. Non-compliance with facility regulations can result in fines, sanctions, or loss of licensure for the facility.

Facility control, on the other hand, refers to the internal processes and procedures that a healthcare facility implements to ensure ongoing compliance with regulatory requirements. This may include policies and procedures related to staff training, quality improvement, infection control, medication management, and patient safety. Effective facility regulation and control are critical for ensuring high-quality care and maintaining the trust of patients and the wider community.

Economic competition in the context of healthcare and medicine generally refers to the rivalry among healthcare providers, organizations, or pharmaceutical companies competing for patients, resources, market share, or funding. This competition can drive innovation, improve quality of care, and increase efficiency. However, it can also lead to cost-containment measures that may negatively impact patient care and safety.

In the pharmaceutical industry, economic competition exists between different companies developing and marketing similar drugs. This competition can result in lower prices for consumers and incentives for innovation, but it can also lead to unethical practices such as price gouging or misleading advertising.

Regulation and oversight are crucial to ensure that economic competition in healthcare and medicine promotes the well-being of patients and the public while discouraging harmful practices.

Universal coverage is a term used in healthcare policy to describe a system in which all residents of a particular country or region have access to necessary healthcare services, regardless of their ability to pay. This can be achieved through various mechanisms, such as mandatory health insurance, government provision of care, or a mix of public and private financing.

The goal of universal coverage is to ensure that everyone has access to essential medical services, including preventive care, doctor visits, hospitalizations, and prescription medications, without facing financial hardship due to medical expenses. Universal coverage can help reduce disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, improve overall population health, and provide economic benefits by reducing the burden of uncompensated care on healthcare providers and taxpayers.

It's important to note that universal coverage does not necessarily mean that all healthcare services are provided for free or at no cost to the individual. Rather, it means that everyone has access to a basic level of care, and that out-of-pocket costs are kept affordable through various mechanisms such as cost-sharing, subsidies, or risk pooling.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Social Marketing" is not a term typically used in the field of medicine. Instead, it is a marketing strategy that uses commercial marketing techniques and principles to influence the behavior of target audiences in order to improve their personal well-being and that of their communities. This approach has been applied to various public health and healthcare initiatives, such as promoting healthy lifestyles, preventing substance abuse, and increasing vaccination rates.

However, if you're looking for a medical definition related to social aspects or interactions, there might be some confusion. In that case, I would need more context to provide an accurate definition. Could you please clarify your question?

I must clarify that I'm a helpful assistant and not a doctor, but I can tell you that 'politics' is not a term used in medicine. Politics refers to the activities associated with the governance of a country or area, especially the debate or conflict among individuals or groups having or hoping to achieve power. If you have any medical questions, feel free to ask!

I believe you may have mixed up the terms "medicine" and "commerce." Commerce is a broad term that refers to the buying and selling of goods and services. It is not typically used in a medical context, so it does not have a specific medical definition. However, I can provide you with some related terms that might be helpful:

1. Medical commerce: This term generally refers to the business aspects of healthcare, such as the buying and selling of medical supplies, equipment, and services. It may also refer to the economic relationships between various stakeholders in the healthcare system, including providers, insurers, pharmaceutical companies, and patients.
2. Telemedicine commerce: This term specifically refers to the use of technology to facilitate remote consultations and transactions between healthcare providers and patients. Examples include online appointment scheduling, virtual consultations, and electronic prescribing.
3. Medical tourism: This is a form of commerce where people travel to other countries to receive medical treatment or procedures that may be less expensive or more accessible than in their home country. It can also refer to the business of providing medical services to international patients.
4. Healthcare marketing: This term refers to the activities and strategies used by healthcare organizations to promote their products, services, and brands to potential customers. It includes advertising, public relations, social media, content marketing, and other tactics designed to build awareness, generate leads, and drive sales.

I hope this information is helpful! Let me know if you have any further questions or concerns.

Contraceptive agents are substances or medications that are used to prevent pregnancy by interfering with the normal process of conception and fertilization or the development and implantation of the fertilized egg. They can be divided into two main categories: hormonal and non-hormonal methods.

Hormonal contraceptive agents include combined oral contraceptives (COCs), progestin-only pills, patches, rings, injections, and implants. These methods work by releasing synthetic hormones that mimic the natural hormones estrogen and progesterone in a woman's body. By doing so, they prevent ovulation, thicken cervical mucus to make it harder for sperm to reach the egg, and thin the lining of the uterus to make it less likely for a fertilized egg to implant.

Non-hormonal contraceptive agents include barrier methods such as condoms, diaphragms, cervical caps, and sponges, which prevent sperm from reaching the egg by creating a physical barrier. Other non-hormonal methods include intrauterine devices (IUDs), which are inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy, and fertility awareness-based methods, which involve tracking ovulation and avoiding intercourse during fertile periods.

Emergency contraceptive agents, such as Plan B or ella, can also be used to prevent pregnancy after unprotected sex or contraceptive failure. These methods work by preventing or delaying ovulation, preventing fertilization, or preventing implantation of a fertilized egg.

It's important to note that while contraceptive agents are effective at preventing pregnancy, they do not protect against sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Using condoms in addition to other forms of contraception can help reduce the risk of STIs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "policy making" is not a medical term per se. It refers to the process of formulating or establishing official guidelines or rules, such as public policies or organizational policies, that govern decisions and actions. In the context of healthcare, policy making can refer to the development of guidelines, laws, regulations, and procedures that govern the delivery, financing, and accessibility of medical care and health promotion activities.

Examples of policy making in healthcare include:

* Developing clinical practice guidelines for the management of specific medical conditions
* Establishing reimbursement policies for medical procedures or treatments
* Implementing regulations to ensure patient safety and quality of care
* Creating public health policies to address population health issues, such as tobacco control or obesity prevention.

Health care surveys are research tools used to systematically collect information from a population or sample regarding their experiences, perceptions, and knowledge of health services, health outcomes, and various other health-related topics. These surveys typically consist of standardized questionnaires that cover specific aspects of healthcare, such as access to care, quality of care, patient satisfaction, health disparities, and healthcare costs. The data gathered from health care surveys are used to inform policy decisions, improve healthcare delivery, identify best practices, allocate resources, and monitor the health status of populations. Health care surveys can be conducted through various modes, including in-person interviews, telephone interviews, mail-in questionnaires, or online platforms.

"Research Support as Topic" is not a specific medical term or diagnosis. However, in the context of medical literature and research, "research support" refers to the resources, funding, and infrastructure that enable and facilitate the conduct of scientific research. This can include financial support from various sources such as government agencies, private organizations, or institutions; access to laboratory facilities, equipment, and databases; and technical assistance in study design, data collection and analysis, and manuscript preparation.

When "research support" is designated as a topic in medical literature, it typically refers to articles that discuss the various aspects of research funding, ethics, and management, including best practices for grant writing, financial conflict of interest disclosures, and responsible conduct of research. It may also include studies that examine the impact of research support on the quality, quantity, and outcomes of scientific research.

National Health Insurance (NHI) in the United States does not refer to a specific federal program, but rather it is often used to describe the concept of universal healthcare financing, where all residents have access to necessary healthcare services, and the costs are shared among the entire population.

However, the closest equivalent to NHI in the US is Medicare, which is a federal social insurance program that provides health insurance coverage to people aged 65 and older, some younger people with disabilities, and people with end-stage renal disease. It is not a true NHI system because it does not cover all residents of the country.

Therefore, there is no widely accepted medical definition of 'National Health Insurance, United States' in the context of an actual existing program or policy.

"Competitive bidding" is not a medical term, but rather a business or procurement concept that can be applied in various industries, including healthcare. In the context of healthcare, competitive bidding typically refers to a process where healthcare providers or suppliers submit bids to provide goods or services to a payer, such as a government agency or insurance company, at the lowest possible price.

The goal of competitive bidding is to promote cost savings and efficiency in the delivery of healthcare services. For example, Medicare uses a competitive bidding program for certain medical equipment and supplies, such as wheelchairs and oxygen equipment, where suppliers submit bids and are awarded contracts based on their ability to provide high-quality items at the lowest price.

However, it's important to note that while competitive bidding can lead to cost savings, it may also have unintended consequences, such as reducing provider participation or limiting access to certain services in some areas. Therefore, it is essential to balance cost savings with quality and access considerations when implementing competitive bidding programs in healthcare.

Health planning is a systematic process of creating strategies, policies, and goals to improve the health of a population and ensure the provision of adequate and accessible healthcare services. It involves assessing the health needs of the community, establishing priorities, developing interventions, and implementing and evaluating programs to address those needs. The ultimate goal of health planning is to optimize the health status of the population, reduce health disparities, and make efficient use of resources in the healthcare system. This process typically involves collaboration among various stakeholders, including healthcare professionals, policymakers, community members, and advocacy groups.

Acupuncture is a form of traditional Chinese medicine that involves the insertion of thin needles into specific points on the body to stimulate the body's natural healing processes. According to traditional Chinese medicine theory, energy (known as "qi" or "chi") flows through the body along pathways called meridians. Acupuncture is believed to help restore the flow of qi and improve the balance of the body's energy.

In modern medical practice, acupuncture is often used to treat pain, including chronic pain, muscle stiffness, and headaches. It is also sometimes used to treat conditions such as nausea and vomiting, insomnia, and addiction. The precise mechanism by which acupuncture works is not fully understood, but it is thought to involve the release of natural pain-relieving chemicals called endorphins, as well as other physiological changes in the body. Acupuncture is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified practitioner, and side effects are typically mild and temporary.

I apologize for any confusion, but "Cambodia" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, bordered by Thailand, Laos, Vietnam, and the Gulf of Thailand. The capital city of Cambodia is Phnom Penh.

If you have any questions related to healthcare, medical conditions, treatments, or other health-related topics, I would be happy to help you with those!

Employee incentive plans are programs designed by organizations to motivate and reward employees for achieving specific goals or targets that align with the company's objectives. These plans can take various forms, such as:

1. Bonus plans: Cash payments made to employees based on their individual performance, team performance, or organizational results.
2. Profit-sharing plans: A portion of the company's profits is distributed among employees, often tied to their length of service or position within the organization.
3. Stock option plans: Employees are given the opportunity to purchase company stocks at a predetermined price, which may increase in value over time, providing them with a financial benefit.
4. Recognition programs: Non-monetary rewards, such as certificates, plaques, or public recognition, are given to employees who demonstrate exceptional performance or achieve significant milestones.
5. Training and development opportunities: Offering employees the chance to improve their skills and knowledge through courses, workshops, or conferences can serve as an incentive for high performers.
6. Flexible work arrangements: Allowing employees to have flexible schedules, remote work options, or other accommodations can be a valuable incentive for many workers.

The primary objective of employee incentive plans is to enhance employee engagement, motivation, and job satisfaction while promoting the achievement of organizational goals.

Malaria is not a medical definition itself, but it is a disease caused by parasites that are transmitted to people through the bites of infected female Anopheles mosquitoes. Here's a simple definition:

Malaria: A mosquito-borne infectious disease caused by Plasmodium parasites, characterized by cycles of fever, chills, and anemia. It can be fatal if not promptly diagnosed and treated. The five Plasmodium species known to cause malaria in humans are P. falciparum, P. vivax, P. ovale, P. malariae, and P. knowlesi.

A Health Benefit Plan for Employees refers to a type of insurance policy that an employer provides to their employees as part of their benefits package. These plans are designed to help cover the costs of medical care and services for the employees and sometimes also for their dependents. The specific coverage and details of the plan can vary depending on the terms of the policy, but they typically include a range of benefits such as doctor visits, hospital stays, prescription medications, and preventative care. Employers may pay all or part of the premiums for these plans, and employees may also have the option to contribute to the cost of coverage. The goal of health benefit plans for employees is to help protect the financial well-being of workers by helping them manage the costs of medical care.

"Legislation as Topic" is a legal term that refers to laws, regulations, or statutes related to medicine, healthcare, and the medical field. This can include legislation regarding the practice of medicine, patient rights, healthcare financing, medical research, pharmaceuticals, and public health, among other things. Essentially, "Legislation as Topic" covers any law or regulation that impacts the medical community, healthcare system, or individual patients. It is a broad category that can encompass many different areas of law and policy.

Health care costs refer to the expenses incurred for medical services, treatments, procedures, and products that are used to maintain or restore an individual's health. These costs can be categorized into several types:

1. Direct costs: These include payments made for doctor visits, hospital stays, medications, diagnostic tests, surgeries, and other medical treatments and services. Direct costs can be further divided into two subcategories:
* Out-of-pocket costs: Expenses paid directly by patients, such as co-payments, deductibles, coinsurance, and any uncovered medical services or products.
* Third-party payer costs: Expenses covered by insurance companies, government programs (like Medicare, Medicaid), or other entities that pay for health care services on behalf of patients.
2. Indirect costs: These are the expenses incurred as a result of illness or injury that indirectly impact an individual's ability to work and earn a living. Examples include lost productivity, absenteeism, reduced earning capacity, and disability benefits.
3. Non-medical costs: These are expenses related to caregiving, transportation, home modifications, assistive devices, and other non-medical services required for managing health conditions or disabilities.

Health care costs can vary significantly depending on factors such as the type of medical service, geographic location, insurance coverage, and individual health status. Understanding these costs is essential for patients, healthcare providers, policymakers, and researchers to make informed decisions about treatment options, resource allocation, and health system design.

"State Medicine" is not a term that has a widely accepted or specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it can refer to the organization, financing, and delivery of healthcare services and resources at the national or regional level, overseen and managed by the government or state. This can include public health initiatives, regulation of healthcare professionals and institutions, and the provision of healthcare services through publicly funded programs.

In some contexts, "State Medicine" may also refer to the practice of using medical treatments or interventions as a means of achieving political or social objectives, such as reducing crime rates or improving economic productivity. However, this usage is less common and more controversial.

Health services research (HSR) is a multidisciplinary field of scientific investigation that studies how social factors, financing systems, organizational structures and processes, health technologies, and personal behaviors affect access to healthcare, the quality and cost of care, and ultimately, our health and well-being. The goal of HSR is to inform policy and practice, improve system performance, and enhance the health and well-being of individuals and communities. It involves the use of various research methods, including epidemiology, biostatistics, economics, sociology, management science, political science, and psychology, to answer questions about the healthcare system and how it can be improved.

Examples of HSR topics include:

* Evaluating the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of different healthcare interventions and technologies
* Studying patient-centered care and patient experiences with the healthcare system
* Examining healthcare workforce issues, such as shortages of primary care providers or the impact of nurse-to-patient ratios on patient outcomes
* Investigating the impact of health insurance design and financing systems on access to care and health disparities
* Analyzing the organization and delivery of healthcare services in different settings, such as hospitals, clinics, and long-term care facilities
* Identifying best practices for improving healthcare quality and safety, reducing medical errors, and eliminating wasteful or unnecessary care.

Health services needs refer to the population's requirement for healthcare services based on their health status, disease prevalence, and clinical guidelines. These needs can be categorized into normative needs (based on expert opinions or clinical guidelines) and expressed needs (based on individuals' perceptions of their own healthcare needs).

On the other hand, health services demand refers to the quantity of healthcare services that consumers are willing and able to pay for, given their preferences, values, and financial resources. Demand is influenced by various factors such as price, income, education level, and cultural beliefs.

It's important to note that while needs represent a population's requirement for healthcare services, demand reflects the actual utilization of these services. Understanding both health services needs and demand is crucial in planning and delivering effective healthcare services that meet the population's requirements while ensuring efficient resource allocation.

Antimalarials are a class of drugs that are used for the prevention, treatment, and elimination of malaria. They work by targeting the malaria parasite at various stages of its life cycle, particularly the erythrocytic stage when it infects red blood cells. Some commonly prescribed antimalarials include chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, quinine, mefloquine, and artemisinin-based combinations. These drugs can be used alone or in combination with other antimalarial agents to increase their efficacy and prevent the development of drug resistance. Antimalarials are also being investigated for their potential use in treating other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and cancer.

The United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government agency that provides medical care and benefits to veterans of the US armed forces. Here's the official definition from the VA's website:

"The US Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is an independent federal establishment charged with providing federal benefits, services, and healthcare to eligible United States veterans, their dependents, and certain other specified individuals."

The VA operates a vast network of medical centers, clinics, and benefits offices throughout the country, providing a range of services including medical treatment, long-term care, disability compensation, vocational rehabilitation, education assistance, home loan guarantees, and life insurance.

Artemisinins are a class of antimalarial drugs derived from the sweet wormwood plant (Artemisia annua). They are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly species of malaria parasite. Artemisinins have become an essential component in the treatment of malaria and are often used in combination therapy regimens to reduce the risk of drug resistance.

The artemisinin compounds contain a unique peroxide bridge that is responsible for their antimalarial activity. They work by generating free radicals that can damage the parasite's membranes, leading to its rapid death. Artemisinins have a fast action and can significantly reduce the parasite biomass in the first few days of treatment.

Some commonly used artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) include:

* Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem)
* Artesunate-amodiaquine (Coarsucam)
* Artesunate-mefloquine (Artequin)
* Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim, Duo-Cotecxin)

Artemisinins have also shown potential in treating other conditions, such as certain types of cancer and viral infections. However, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy for these indications.

Personal Financing is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it refers to the management of an individual's financial resources, such as income, assets, liabilities, and debts, to meet their personal needs and goals. This can include budgeting, saving, investing, planning for retirement, and managing debt.

In the context of healthcare, personal financing may refer to the ability of individuals to pay for their own medical care expenses, including health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-pays, and out-of-pocket costs. This can be a significant concern for many people, particularly those with chronic medical conditions or disabilities who may face ongoing healthcare expenses.

Personal financing for healthcare may involve various strategies, such as setting aside savings, using health savings accounts (HSAs) or flexible spending accounts (FSAs), purchasing health insurance policies with lower premiums but higher out-of-pocket costs, or negotiating payment plans with healthcare providers. Ultimately, personal financing for healthcare involves making informed decisions about how to allocate financial resources to meet both immediate and long-term medical needs while also balancing other financial goals and responsibilities.

Public health is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as "the art and science of preventing disease, prolonging life and promoting human health through organized efforts of society." It focuses on improving the health and well-being of entire communities, populations, and societies, rather than individual patients. This is achieved through various strategies, including education, prevention, surveillance of diseases, and promotion of healthy behaviors and environments. Public health also addresses broader determinants of health, such as access to healthcare, housing, food, and income, which have a significant impact on the overall health of populations.

The "drug industry" is also commonly referred to as the "pharmaceutical industry." It is a segment of the healthcare sector that involves the research, development, production, and marketing of medications or drugs. This includes both prescription and over-the-counter medicines used to treat, cure, or prevent diseases and medical conditions in humans and animals.

The drug industry comprises various types of organizations, such as:

1. Research-based pharmaceutical companies: These are large corporations that focus on the research and development (R&D) of new drugs, clinical trials, obtaining regulatory approvals, manufacturing, and marketing their products globally. Examples include Pfizer, Johnson & Johnson, Roche, and Merck.

2. Generic drug manufacturers: After the patent for a brand-name drug expires, generic drug manufacturers can produce and sell a similar version of the drug at a lower cost. These companies must demonstrate that their product is bioequivalent to the brand-name drug in terms of safety, quality, and efficacy.

3. Biotechnology companies: These firms specialize in developing drugs using biotechnological methods, such as recombinant DNA technology, gene therapy, or monoclonal antibodies. Many biotech companies focus on specific therapeutic areas, like oncology, immunology, or neurology.

4. Contract research organizations (CROs): CROs provide various services to the drug industry, including clinical trial management, data analysis, regulatory affairs support, and pharmacovigilance. They work with both large pharmaceutical companies and smaller biotech firms to help streamline the drug development process.

5. Drug delivery system companies: These organizations focus on developing innovative technologies for delivering drugs more effectively and safely to patients. Examples include transdermal patches, inhalers, or long-acting injectables.

6. Wholesalers and distributors: Companies that purchase drugs from manufacturers and distribute them to pharmacies, hospitals, and other healthcare providers.

The drug industry plays a crucial role in improving public health by discovering, developing, and delivering new treatments for various diseases and medical conditions. However, it is also subject to criticism and regulation due to concerns about high drug prices, marketing practices, and the potential for conflicts of interest between industry and healthcare professionals.

Fees and charges in a medical context refer to the costs that patients are required to pay for healthcare services, treatments, or procedures. These may include:

1. Professional fees: The amount charged by healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, or therapists for their time, expertise, and services provided during consultations, examinations, or treatments.

2. Hospital charges: The costs associated with a patient's hospital stay, including room and board, nursing care, medications, and diagnostic tests.

3. Facility fees: Additional charges levied by hospitals, clinics, or ambulatory surgery centers to cover the overhead expenses of maintaining the facility and its equipment.

4. Procedure or treatment-specific fees: Costs directly related to specific medical procedures, surgeries, or treatments, such as anesthesia, radiology services, laboratory tests, or surgical supplies.

5. Ancillary fees: Additional costs for items like crutches, slings, or durable medical equipment that patients may need during their recovery process.

6. Insurance copayments, coinsurance, and deductibles: The portion of healthcare expenses that patients are responsible for paying based on their insurance policy terms.

It is essential for patients to understand the fees and charges associated with their medical care to make informed decisions about their treatment options and manage their healthcare costs effectively.

Veterans hospitals, also known as Veterans Administration (VA) hospitals, are healthcare facilities provided by the US Department of Veterans Affairs. These hospitals offer comprehensive medical care, including inpatient and outpatient services, to eligible veterans. The services offered include surgery, mental health counseling, rehabilitation, long-term care, and other specialized treatments. The mission of veterans hospitals is to provide high-quality healthcare to those who have served in the US military.

Cooperative behavior, in a medical or healthcare context, refers to the actions and attitudes displayed by individuals or groups working together to achieve a common goal related to health and well-being. This may involve patients following their healthcare providers' advice, healthcare professionals collaborating to diagnose and treat medical conditions, or communities coming together to promote healthy behaviors and environments. Cooperative behavior is essential for positive health outcomes, as it fosters trust, communication, and shared decision-making between patients and healthcare providers, and helps to ensure that everyone involved in the care process is working towards the same goal.

The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) is not a medical term per se, but it is a government organization that oversees and provides funding for many public health initiatives, services, and institutions in the United States. Here's a brief definition:

The HHS is a cabinet-level department in the US federal government responsible for protecting the health of all Americans and providing essential human services. It achieves this by promoting effective and efficient delivery of high-quality healthcare, conducting critical medical research through its agencies, such as the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and enforcing public health laws and regulations, including those related to food safety, through its agencies, such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Additionally, HHS oversees the Medicare and Medicaid programs, which provide healthcare coverage for millions of elderly, disabled, and low-income Americans.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "poverty" is not a medical condition or term. It is a social condition defined by the World Bank as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," and measured through indicators such as income, consumption, and access to basic services. Poverty can have significant impacts on health outcomes and healthcare access, but it is not considered a medical diagnosis. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to try my best to help answer them!

Health services refer to the delivery of healthcare services, including preventive, curative, and rehabilitative services. These services are typically provided by health professionals such as doctors, nurses, and allied health personnel in various settings, including hospitals, clinics, community health centers, and long-term care facilities. Health services may also include public health activities such as health education, surveillance, and health promotion programs aimed at improving the health of populations. The goal of health services is to promote and restore health, prevent disease and injury, and improve the quality of life for individuals and communities.

"Health manpower" is a term that refers to the number and type of healthcare professionals (such as doctors, nurses, allied health professionals, and support staff) who are available to provide healthcare services in a particular area or system. It's an important consideration in healthcare planning and policy, as the availability and distribution of health manpower can have a significant impact on access to care, quality of care, and health outcomes.

Therefore, medical definition of 'Health Manpower' could be: "The composition and distribution of healthcare professionals who are available to deliver healthcare services, including their skills, training, and experience. Health manpower is an essential component of healthcare systems and is influenced by factors such as population needs, workforce supply, and government policies."

"Health personnel" is a broad term that refers to individuals who are involved in maintaining, promoting, and restoring the health of populations or individuals. This can include a wide range of professionals such as:

1. Healthcare providers: These are medical doctors, nurses, midwives, dentists, pharmacists, allied health professionals (like physical therapists, occupational therapists, speech therapists, dietitians, etc.), and other healthcare workers who provide direct patient care.

2. Public health professionals: These are individuals who work in public health agencies, non-governmental organizations, or academia to promote health, prevent diseases, and protect populations from health hazards. They include epidemiologists, biostatisticians, health educators, environmental health specialists, and health services researchers.

3. Health managers and administrators: These are professionals who oversee the operations, finances, and strategic planning of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals, clinics, or public health departments. They may include hospital CEOs, medical directors, practice managers, and healthcare consultants.

4. Health support staff: This group includes various personnel who provide essential services to healthcare organizations, such as medical records technicians, billing specialists, receptionists, and maintenance workers.

5. Health researchers and academics: These are professionals involved in conducting research, teaching, and disseminating knowledge related to health sciences, medicine, public health, or healthcare management in universities, research institutions, or think tanks.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines "health worker" as "a person who contributes to the promotion, protection, or improvement of health through prevention, treatment, rehabilitation, palliation, health promotion, and health education." This definition encompasses a wide range of professionals working in various capacities to improve health outcomes.

Cost control in a medical context refers to the strategies and practices employed by healthcare organizations to manage and reduce the costs associated with providing patient care while maintaining quality and safety. The goal is to optimize resource allocation, increase efficiency, and contain expenses without compromising the standard of care. This may involve measures such as:

1. Utilization management: Reviewing and monitoring the use of medical services, tests, and treatments to ensure they are necessary, appropriate, and evidence-based.
2. Case management: Coordinating patient care across various healthcare providers and settings to improve outcomes, reduce unnecessary duplication of services, and control costs.
3. Negotiating contracts with suppliers and vendors to secure favorable pricing for medical equipment, supplies, and pharmaceuticals.
4. Implementing evidence-based clinical guidelines and pathways to standardize care processes and reduce unwarranted variations in practice that can drive up costs.
5. Using technology such as electronic health records (EHRs) and telemedicine to streamline operations, improve communication, and reduce errors.
6. Investing in preventive care and wellness programs to keep patients healthy and reduce the need for costly interventions and hospitalizations.
7. Continuously monitoring and analyzing cost data to identify trends, opportunities for improvement, and areas of potential waste or inefficiency.

Health Services Administration (HSA) is not a medical term per se, but rather a field of study and practice within healthcare management. Here's a definition that encompasses its meaning:

Health Services Administration (HSA) refers to the planning, directing, coordinating, and supervising of health services in hospitals, clinics, nursing homes, public health agencies, and other medical facilities. It involves managing financial resources, developing organizational policies, ensuring quality assurance, maintaining regulatory compliance, and promoting efficient delivery of healthcare services to improve patient outcomes and overall population health. HSA professionals may hold titles such as hospital administrator, clinical director, or healthcare executive.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

Quality Assurance in the context of healthcare refers to a systematic approach and set of activities designed to ensure that health care services and products consistently meet predetermined standards of quality and safety. It includes all the policies, procedures, and processes that are put in place to monitor, assess, and improve the quality of healthcare delivery.

The goal of quality assurance is to minimize variability in clinical practice, reduce medical errors, and ensure that patients receive evidence-based care that is safe, effective, timely, patient-centered, and equitable. Quality assurance activities may include:

1. Establishing standards of care based on best practices and clinical guidelines.
2. Developing and implementing policies and procedures to ensure compliance with these standards.
3. Providing education and training to healthcare professionals to improve their knowledge and skills.
4. Conducting audits, reviews, and evaluations of healthcare services and processes to identify areas for improvement.
5. Implementing corrective actions to address identified issues and prevent their recurrence.
6. Monitoring and measuring outcomes to evaluate the effectiveness of quality improvement initiatives.

Quality assurance is an ongoing process that requires continuous evaluation and improvement to ensure that healthcare delivery remains safe, effective, and patient-centered.

"Drug costs" refer to the amount of money that must be paid to acquire and use a particular medication. These costs can include the following:

1. The actual purchase price of the drug, which may vary depending on factors such as the dosage form, strength, and quantity of the medication, as well as whether it is obtained through a retail pharmacy, mail-order service, or other distribution channel.
2. Any additional fees or charges associated with obtaining the drug, such as shipping and handling costs, insurance copayments or coinsurance amounts, and deductibles.
3. The cost of any necessary medical services or supplies that are required to administer the drug, such as syringes, needles, or alcohol swabs for injectable medications, or nebulizers for inhaled drugs.
4. The cost of monitoring and managing any potential side effects or complications associated with the use of the drug, which may include additional medical appointments, laboratory tests, or other diagnostic procedures.

It is important to note that drug costs can vary widely depending on a variety of factors, including the patient's insurance coverage, the pharmacy where the drug is obtained, and any discounts or rebates that may be available. Patients are encouraged to shop around for the best prices and to explore all available options for reducing their out-of-pocket costs, such as using generic medications or participating in manufacturer savings programs.

Maternal health services refer to the preventative, diagnostic, and treatment-based healthcare services provided during pregnancy, childbirth, and postnatal period. These services aim to ensure the best possible health outcomes for mothers throughout their reproductive years, including family planning, preconception care, antenatal care, delivery, postpartum care, and management of chronic conditions or complications that may arise during pregnancy and childbirth.

The World Health Organization (WHO) outlines several critical components of maternal health services:

1. Antenatal care: Regular check-ups to monitor the mother's and fetus's health, identify potential risks, provide essential interventions, and offer counseling on nutrition, breastfeeding, and birth preparedness.
2. Delivery care: Skilled attendance during childbirth, including normal vaginal delivery and assisted deliveries (forceps or vacuum extraction), and access to emergency obstetric care for complications such as hemorrhage, eclampsia, obstructed labor, and sepsis.
3. Postnatal care: Continuum of care for mothers and newborns during the first six weeks after childbirth, focusing on recovery, early detection and management of complications, immunization, family planning, and psychosocial support.
4. Family planning: Access to modern contraceptive methods, counseling on fertility awareness, and safe abortion services where legal, to enable women to plan their pregnancies and space their children according to their reproductive intentions.
5. Management of chronic conditions: Comprehensive care for pregnant women with pre-existing or pregnancy-induced medical conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and mental health disorders.
6. Preconception care: Identification and management of risk factors before conception to optimize maternal and fetal health outcomes.
7. Prevention and management of gender-based violence: Screening, counseling, and referral services for women experiencing intimate partner violence or sexual violence during pregnancy and childbirth.
8. Health promotion and education: Community-based interventions to raise awareness about the importance of maternal health, promote positive health behaviors, and reduce barriers to accessing healthcare services.

Maternal health services should be accessible, affordable, acceptable, and equitable for all women, regardless of their age, race, ethnicity, socioeconomic status, or geographical location. Adequate investment in maternal health infrastructure, human resources, and service delivery models is essential to achieve universal health coverage and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) by 2030.

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

Organizational efficiency is a management concept that refers to the ability of an organization to produce the desired output with minimal waste of resources such as time, money, and labor. It involves optimizing processes, structures, and systems within the organization to achieve its goals in the most effective and efficient manner possible. This can be achieved through various means, including the implementation of best practices, the use of technology to automate and streamline processes, and the continuous improvement of skills and knowledge among employees. Ultimately, organizational efficiency is about creating value for stakeholders while minimizing waste and maximizing returns on investment.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Rural health services refer to the healthcare delivery systems and facilities that are located in rural areas and are designed to meet the unique health needs of rural populations. These services can include hospitals, clinics, community health centers, mental health centers, and home health agencies, as well as various programs and initiatives aimed at improving access to care, addressing health disparities, and promoting health and wellness in rural communities.

Rural health services are often characterized by longer travel distances to healthcare facilities, a greater reliance on primary care and preventive services, and a higher prevalence of certain health conditions such as chronic diseases, injuries, and mental health disorders. As a result, rural health services must be tailored to address these challenges and provide high-quality, affordable, and accessible care to rural residents.

In many countries, rural health services are supported by government policies and programs aimed at improving healthcare infrastructure, workforce development, and telehealth technologies in rural areas. These efforts are critical for ensuring that all individuals, regardless of where they live, have access to the healthcare services they need to maintain their health and well-being.

The World Health Organization (WHO) is not a medical condition or term, but rather a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for international public health. Here's a brief description:

The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations that acts as the global authority on public health issues. Established in 1948, WHO's primary role is to coordinate and collaborate with its member states to promote health, prevent diseases, and ensure universal access to healthcare services. WHO is headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, and has regional offices around the world. It plays a crucial role in setting global health standards, monitoring disease outbreaks, and providing guidance on various public health concerns, including infectious diseases, non-communicable diseases, mental health, environmental health, and maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Rwanda" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help answer them for you.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pakistan" is a country in South Asia and not a medical term or condition. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I would be happy to help!

"World Health" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, it is often used in the context of global health, which can be defined as:

"The area of study, research and practice that places a priority on improving health and achieving equity in health for all people worldwide. It emphasizes trans-national health issues, determinants, and solutions; involves many disciplines within and beyond the health sciences and engages stakeholders from across sectors and societies." (World Health Organization)

Therefore, "world health" could refer to the overall health status and health challenges faced by populations around the world. It encompasses a broad range of factors that affect the health of individuals and communities, including social, economic, environmental, and political determinants. The World Health Organization (WHO) plays a key role in monitoring and promoting global health, setting international standards and guidelines, and coordinating responses to global health emergencies.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "South Africa" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located at the southernmost tip of the African continent. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Urban health services refer to the provision of healthcare and public health programs in urban areas, designed to meet the unique needs and challenges of urban populations. These services encompass a wide range of facilities, professionals, and interventions that aim to improve the health and well-being of people living in urban environments. They often address issues such as infectious diseases, chronic conditions, mental health, environmental hazards, and social determinants of health that are prevalent or amplified in urban settings. Examples of urban health services include hospital systems, community health centers, outreach programs, and policy initiatives focused on improving the health of urban populations.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Case Studies" is not a medical term. It is a term that is used in various fields including business, management, and social sciences to describe the analysis of a specific organization or a particular aspect of its functioning. An organizational case study typically involves an in-depth examination of an organization, including its structure, culture, processes, and outcomes, with the aim of understanding its performance, challenges, and opportunities for improvement.

In healthcare, case studies are often used to examine specific clinical scenarios or patient cases. However, "Organizational Case Studies" in a medical context might refer to the study of healthcare organizations, such as hospitals or clinics, to analyze their management practices, quality of care, financial performance, and other factors that can impact patient outcomes and overall organizational success.

Organizational models in the context of medicine refer to frameworks that are used to describe, analyze, and improve the structure, processes, and outcomes of healthcare organizations. These models provide a systematic way of understanding how different components of an organization interact with each other and how they contribute to the overall performance of the system.

Examples of organizational models in healthcare include:

1. The Donabedian model: This model focuses on the structure, process, and outcome of healthcare as interrelated components that influence the quality of care.
2. The Baldrige Performance Excellence Program: This model provides a framework for organizations to evaluate their performance and identify areas for improvement in seven categories: leadership, strategic planning, customer focus, measurement, analysis, and knowledge management; workforce focus; process management; and results.
3. The Institute of Medicine's (IOM) six aims for improvement: The IOM has identified six aims that should be the focus of healthcare quality improvement efforts: safety, timeliness, patient-centeredness, effectiveness, efficiency, and equity.
4. The Lean management system: This model is a process improvement approach that focuses on eliminating waste and maximizing value for customers through continuous improvement and respect for people.
5. The Six Sigma methodology: This model is a data-driven approach to quality improvement that seeks to reduce variation and defects in processes through the use of statistical tools and techniques.

These are just a few examples of organizational models used in healthcare. Each model has its own strengths and limitations, and organizations may choose to adopt one or more models depending on their specific needs and goals.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Sri Lanka" is not a medical term or concept. Sri Lanka is an island country located in the Indian Ocean, south of India. It is known for its diverse landscapes ranging from rainforests and arid plains to highlands and sandy beaches.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try and help answer them!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Vietnam" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical conditions or terminology, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I apologize, but "Brazil" is not a medical term or condition. It is the largest country in both South America and Latin America by land area and population. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health concerns, please provide more information and I will do my best to help.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Organizational Objectives" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general management and business concept. Organizational objectives are the goals or targets that an organization aims to achieve through its operations and functions. These can include financial objectives like profitability and growth, as well as non-financial objectives related to areas like quality, innovation, social responsibility, and employee satisfaction.

In a healthcare setting, organizational objectives might include improving patient outcomes, increasing patient satisfaction, reducing costs, implementing new treatments or technologies, enhancing community health, and maintaining ethical standards.

Medicare is a social insurance program in the United States, administered by the Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS), that provides health insurance coverage to people who are aged 65 and over; or who have certain disabilities; or who have End-Stage Renal Disease (permanent kidney failure requiring dialysis or a transplant).

The program consists of four parts:

1. Hospital Insurance (Part A), which helps pay for inpatient care in hospitals, skilled nursing facilities, hospices, and home health care.
2. Medical Insurance (Part B), which helps pay for doctors' services, outpatient care, medical supplies, and preventive services.
3. Medicare Advantage Plans (Part C), which are private insurance plans that provide all of your Part A and Part B benefits, and may include additional benefits like dental, vision, and hearing coverage.
4. Prescription Drug Coverage (Part D), which helps pay for medications doctors prescribe for treatment.

Medicare is funded by payroll taxes, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and general revenue. Beneficiaries typically pay a monthly premium for Part B and Part D coverage, while Part A is generally free for those who have worked and paid Medicare taxes for at least 40 quarters.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

"Foreign Medical Graduates" (FMGs) are physicians who have graduated from a medical school outside of the country where they are seeking to practice medicine. These doctors may be required to pass certain examinations and complete additional training in order to meet the licensing requirements of the new country. The specific requirements for FMGs can vary depending on the country and jurisdiction.

A physician is a healthcare professional who practices medicine, providing medical care and treatment to patients. Physicians may specialize in various fields of medicine, such as internal medicine, surgery, pediatrics, psychiatry, or radiology, among others. They are responsible for diagnosing and treating illnesses, injuries, and disorders; prescribing medications; ordering and interpreting diagnostic tests; providing counseling and education to patients; and collaborating with other healthcare professionals to provide comprehensive care. Physicians may work in a variety of settings, including hospitals, clinics, private practices, and academic medical centers. To become a physician, one must complete a Doctor of Medicine (M.D.) or Doctor of Osteopathic Medicine (D.O.) degree program and pass licensing exams to practice medicine in their state.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational innovation" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a concept that is more commonly used in the fields of business and management, where it refers to the introduction of new methods, ideas, or products within an organization. This can include things like new processes, structures, or technologies that are designed to improve efficiency, effectiveness, or competitive advantage.

In healthcare organizations, for example, organizational innovation might involve the implementation of new electronic health records systems, the creation of multidisciplinary care teams, or the adoption of novel approaches to patient engagement and empowerment. These types of innovations can help to improve patient outcomes, reduce costs, and enhance the overall quality of care.

Ambulatory care facilities are healthcare providers where patients receive medical services, treatments, or procedures that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These facilities are often used for diagnosis, observation, and outpatient care such as same-day surgery, preventive health screenings, and minor procedures. They can include a wide range of settings like physician offices, community clinics, urgent care centers, dialysis centers, and surgical centers. The goal of ambulatory care facilities is to provide high-quality medical services in a convenient and cost-effective manner for patients who do not require hospitalization.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

Health resources refer to the personnel, facilities, equipment, and supplies that are used in the delivery of healthcare services. This includes:

1. Human resources: Healthcare professionals such as doctors, nurses, pharmacists, and allied health professionals.

2. Physical resources: Hospitals, clinics, laboratories, and other healthcare facilities.

3. Technological resources: Medical equipment and technology used for diagnosis and treatment, such as MRI machines, CT scanners, and electronic health records.

4. Financial resources: Funding for healthcare services, including public and private insurance, government funding, and out-of-pocket payments.

5. Informational resources: Research findings, evidence-based practices, and health education materials that inform healthcare decision-making.

The adequate availability, distribution, and utilization of these health resources are crucial for ensuring access to quality healthcare services and improving population health outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Consumer satisfaction in a medical context refers to the degree to which a patient or their family is content with the healthcare services, products, or experiences they have received. It is a measure of how well the healthcare delivery aligns with the patient's expectations, needs, and preferences. Factors that contribute to consumer satisfaction may include the quality of care, communication and interpersonal skills of healthcare providers, accessibility and convenience, affordability, and outcomes. High consumer satisfaction is associated with better adherence to treatment plans, improved health outcomes, and higher patient loyalty.

Program Evaluation is a systematic and objective assessment of a healthcare program's design, implementation, and outcomes. It is a medical term used to describe the process of determining the relevance, effectiveness, and efficiency of a program in achieving its goals and objectives. Program evaluation involves collecting and analyzing data related to various aspects of the program, such as its reach, impact, cost-effectiveness, and quality. The results of program evaluation can be used to improve the design and implementation of existing programs or to inform the development of new ones. It is a critical tool for ensuring that healthcare programs are meeting the needs of their intended audiences and delivering high-quality care in an efficient and effective manner.

Physician's practice patterns refer to the individual habits and preferences of healthcare providers when it comes to making clinical decisions and managing patient care. These patterns can encompass various aspects, such as:

1. Diagnostic testing: The types and frequency of diagnostic tests ordered for patients with similar conditions.
2. Treatment modalities: The choice of treatment options, including medications, procedures, or referrals to specialists.
3. Patient communication: The way physicians communicate with their patients, including the amount and type of information shared, as well as the level of patient involvement in decision-making.
4. Follow-up care: The frequency and duration of follow-up appointments, as well as the monitoring of treatment effectiveness and potential side effects.
5. Resource utilization: The use of healthcare resources, such as hospitalizations, imaging studies, or specialist consultations, and the associated costs.

Physician practice patterns can be influenced by various factors, including medical training, clinical experience, personal beliefs, guidelines, and local availability of resources. Understanding these patterns is essential for evaluating the quality of care, identifying potential variations in care, and implementing strategies to improve patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Zambia" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southern Africa, known officially as the Republic of Zambia. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "International Cooperation" is not a medical term. It refers to the collaboration and exchange of resources and information between countries or international organizations in various fields, including politics, economics, culture, environment, and security, among others. In the context of healthcare and medicine, international cooperation can involve joint research projects, sharing of data and clinical trial results, collaborative efforts to combat global health issues (such as infectious diseases or chronic conditions), capacity building in low-resource settings, and standardizing medical practices and guidelines across countries.

Family planning services refer to comprehensive healthcare programs and interventions that aim to help individuals and couples prevent or achieve pregnancies, according to their desired number and spacing of children. These services typically include:

1. Counseling and education: Providing information about various contraceptive methods, their effectiveness, side effects, and appropriate use. This may also include counseling on reproductive health, sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and preconception care.
2. Contraceptive services: Making a wide range of contraceptive options available to clients, including barrier methods (condoms, diaphragms), hormonal methods (pills, patches, injectables, implants), intrauterine devices (IUDs), and permanent methods (tubal ligation, vasectomy).
3. Screening and testing: Offering STI screening and testing, as well as cervical cancer screening for eligible clients.
4. Preconception care: Providing counseling and interventions to help women achieve optimal health before becoming pregnant, including folic acid supplementation, management of chronic conditions, and avoidance of harmful substances (tobacco, alcohol, drugs).
5. Fertility services: Addressing infertility issues through diagnostic testing, counseling, and medical or surgical treatments when appropriate.
6. Menstrual regulation: Providing manual vacuum aspiration or medication to safely and effectively manage incomplete miscarriages or unwanted pregnancies within the first trimester.
7. Pregnancy options counseling: Offering unbiased information and support to help individuals make informed decisions about their pregnancy, including parenting, adoption, or abortion.
8. Community outreach and education: Engaging in community-based initiatives to increase awareness of family planning services and promote reproductive health.
9. Advocacy: Working to remove barriers to accessing family planning services, such as policy changes, reducing stigma, and increasing funding for programs.

Family planning services are an essential component of sexual and reproductive healthcare and contribute significantly to improving maternal and child health outcomes, reducing unintended pregnancies, and empowering individuals to make informed choices about their reproductive lives.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Cost-benefit analysis (CBA) is a systematic process used to compare the costs and benefits of different options to determine which one provides the greatest net benefit. In a medical context, CBA can be used to evaluate the value of medical interventions, treatments, or policies by estimating and monetizing all the relevant costs and benefits associated with each option.

The costs included in a CBA may include direct costs such as the cost of the intervention or treatment itself, as well as indirect costs such as lost productivity or time away from work. Benefits may include improved health outcomes, reduced morbidity or mortality, and increased quality of life.

Once all the relevant costs and benefits have been identified and quantified, they are typically expressed in monetary terms to allow for a direct comparison. The option with the highest net benefit (i.e., the difference between total benefits and total costs) is considered the most cost-effective.

It's important to note that CBA has some limitations and can be subject to various biases and assumptions, so it should be used in conjunction with other evaluation methods to ensure a comprehensive understanding of the value of medical interventions or policies.

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

Community health services refer to a type of healthcare delivery that is organized around the needs of a specific population or community, rather than individual patients. These services are typically focused on preventive care, health promotion, and improving access to care for underserved populations. They can include a wide range of services, such as:

* Primary care, including routine check-ups, immunizations, and screenings
* Dental care
* Mental health and substance abuse treatment
* Public health initiatives, such as disease prevention and health education programs
* Home health care and other supportive services for people with chronic illnesses or disabilities
* Health services for special populations, such as children, the elderly, or those living in rural areas

The goal of community health services is to improve the overall health of a population by addressing the social, economic, and environmental factors that can impact health. This approach recognizes that healthcare is just one factor in determining a person's health outcomes, and that other factors such as housing, education, and income also play important roles. By working to address these underlying determinants of health, community health services aim to improve the health and well-being of entire communities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Tanzania" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "income" is not a medical term. Income is an economic term that refers to the inflow of monetary resources or earnings that an individual or household receives from various sources, such as employment, investments, or government benefits. It is typically used in financial and economic contexts rather than medical ones. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "workplace" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "workplace" generally refers to a place where people work or carry out their jobs. It could be an office, a factory, a construction site, a retail store, or any other location where work-related activities take place.

If you're looking for a term related to health or medicine that describes a physical location, some examples might include "healthcare facility," "clinic," "hospital," "operating room," or "examination room." If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!

Health promotion is the process of enabling people to increase control over their health and its determinants, and to improve their health. It moves beyond a focus on individual behavior change to include social and environmental interventions that can positively influence the health of individuals, communities, and populations. Health promotion involves engaging in a wide range of activities, such as advocacy, policy development, community organization, and education that aim to create supportive environments and personal skills that foster good health. It is based on principles of empowerment, participation, and social justice.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malaysia" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in Southeast Asia, consisting of thirteen states and three federal territories. If you have any questions about Malaysia's geography, culture, or people, I would be happy to try to help answer those! However, if you have a question related to medicine or healthcare, please provide more details so I can give you an accurate and helpful response.

Costs refer to the total amount of resources, such as money, time, and labor, that are expended in the provision of a medical service or treatment. Costs can be categorized into direct costs, which include expenses directly related to patient care, such as medication, supplies, and personnel; and indirect costs, which include overhead expenses, such as rent, utilities, and administrative salaries.

Cost analysis is the process of estimating and evaluating the total cost of a medical service or treatment. This involves identifying and quantifying all direct and indirect costs associated with the provision of care, and analyzing how these costs may vary based on factors such as patient volume, resource utilization, and reimbursement rates.

Cost analysis is an important tool for healthcare organizations to understand the financial implications of their operations and make informed decisions about resource allocation, pricing strategies, and quality improvement initiatives. It can also help policymakers and payers evaluate the cost-effectiveness of different treatment options and develop evidence-based guidelines for clinical practice.

Lactones are not a medical term per se, but they are important in the field of pharmaceuticals and medicinal chemistry. Lactones are cyclic esters derived from hydroxy acids. They can be found naturally in various plants, fruits, and some insects. In medicine, lactones have been used in the synthesis of drugs, including certain antibiotics and antifungal agents. For instance, the penicillin family of antibiotics contains a beta-lactone ring in their structure, which is essential for their antibacterial activity.

I believe there might be a bit of confusion in your question. "History" is a subject that refers to events, ideas, and developments of the past. It's not something that has a medical definition. However, if you're referring to the "21st century" in a historical context, it relates to the period from 2001 to the present. It's an era marked by significant advancements in technology, medicine, and society at large. But again, it doesn't have a medical definition. If you meant something else, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Occupational Health Services (OHS) refer to a branch of healthcare that focuses on the prevention and management of health issues that arise in the workplace or are caused by work-related factors. These services aim to promote and maintain the highest degree of physical, mental, and social well-being of workers in all occupations.

OHS typically includes:

1. Health surveillance and screening programs to identify early signs of work-related illnesses or injuries.
2. Occupational health education and training for employees and managers on topics such as safe lifting techniques, hazard communication, and bloodborne pathogens exposure control.
3. Ergonomic assessments and interventions to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders and other work-related injuries.
4. Development and implementation of policies and procedures to address workplace health and safety issues.
5. Case management and return-to-work programs for employees who have been injured or become ill on the job.
6. Medical monitoring and treatment of work-related injuries and illnesses, including rehabilitation and disability management services.
7. Collaboration with employers to identify and address potential health hazards in the workplace, such as chemical exposures, noise pollution, or poor indoor air quality.

Overall, Occupational Health Services play a critical role in protecting the health and safety of workers, reducing the burden of work-related illnesses and injuries, and promoting a healthy and productive workforce.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "leadership" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Leadership is a concept that relates to the ability of an individual or an organization's management to set and achieve challenging goals, take swift and decisive action, outperform the competition, and inspire others to perform at their best.

In healthcare settings, leadership refers to the skills, behaviors, and attitudes of those in positions of authority within a healthcare organization. Effective healthcare leaders are able to create a positive organizational culture, communicate a clear vision, motivate and engage staff, manage resources effectively, and ensure high-quality patient care. They must also be able to adapt to changing circumstances, make informed decisions based on data and evidence, and work collaboratively with other healthcare professionals and stakeholders.

Risk adjustment is a statistical method used in healthcare financing and delivery to account for differences in the health status and expected healthcare costs among groups of enrollees. It is a process that modifies payment rates or capitation amounts based on the relative risk of each enrollee, as measured by demographic factors such as age, sex, and chronic medical conditions. The goal of risk adjustment is to create a more level playing field for healthcare providers and insurers by reducing the financial impact of serving patients who are sicker or have greater healthcare needs. This allows for a more fair comparison of performance and payment across different populations and helps to ensure that resources are distributed equitably.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

A hospital is a healthcare facility where patients receive medical treatment, diagnosis, and care for various health conditions, injuries, or diseases. It is typically staffed with medical professionals such as doctors, nurses, and other healthcare workers who provide round-the-clock medical services. Hospitals may offer inpatient (overnight) stays or outpatient (same-day) services, depending on the nature of the treatment required. They are equipped with various medical facilities like operating rooms, diagnostic equipment, intensive care units (ICUs), and emergency departments to handle a wide range of medical situations. Hospitals may specialize in specific areas of medicine, such as pediatrics, geriatrics, oncology, or trauma care.

Cost savings in a medical context generally refers to the reduction in expenses or resources expended in the delivery of healthcare services, treatments, or procedures. This can be achieved through various means such as implementing more efficient processes, utilizing less expensive treatment options when appropriate, preventing complications or readmissions, and negotiating better prices for drugs or supplies.

Cost savings can also result from comparative effectiveness research, which compares the relative benefits and harms of different medical interventions to help doctors and patients make informed decisions about which treatment is most appropriate and cost-effective for a given condition.

Ultimately, cost savings in healthcare aim to improve the overall value of care delivered by reducing unnecessary expenses while maintaining or improving quality outcomes for patients.

Private duty nursing is a type of nursing care provided in a home or other residential setting to an individual who requires more intensive or complex medical care than can be provided through traditional home health services. This type of care is usually provided by a registered nurse (RN) or licensed practical nurse (LPN) and is tailored to meet the specific needs of the patient. The services may include direct patient care, such as administering medications, monitoring vital signs, wound care, and managing medical equipment, as well as education and support for the patient and their family members. Private duty nursing is often utilized when a patient is recovering from surgery, has a chronic illness or disability, or requires end-of-life care. It is usually paid for out-of-pocket or through long-term care insurance.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Africa" actually refers to a continent, not a medical condition or concept. Africa is the second-largest continent in the world, consisting of 54 countries and a wide range of diverse ethnic groups, cultures, languages, and landscapes. It is home to a vast array of wildlife, including many species that are not found anywhere else in the world. If you have any questions about Africa's geography, history, or culture, I would be happy to try to help answer them!

Prenatal care is a type of preventive healthcare that focuses on providing regular check-ups and medical care to pregnant women, with the aim of ensuring the best possible health outcomes for both the mother and the developing fetus. It involves routine prenatal screenings and tests, such as blood pressure monitoring, urine analysis, weight checks, and ultrasounds, to assess the progress of the pregnancy and identify any potential health issues or complications early on.

Prenatal care also includes education and counseling on topics such as nutrition, exercise, and lifestyle choices that can affect pregnancy outcomes. It may involve referrals to specialists, such as obstetricians, perinatologists, or maternal-fetal medicine specialists, for high-risk pregnancies.

Overall, prenatal care is an essential component of ensuring a healthy pregnancy and reducing the risk of complications during childbirth and beyond.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Healthcare Quality Indicators (QIs) are measurable elements that can be used to assess the quality of healthcare services and outcomes. They are often based on evidence-based practices and guidelines, and are designed to help healthcare providers monitor and improve the quality of care they deliver to their patients. QIs may focus on various aspects of healthcare, such as patient safety, clinical effectiveness, patient-centeredness, timeliness, and efficiency. Examples of QIs include measures such as rates of hospital-acquired infections, adherence to recommended treatments for specific conditions, and patient satisfaction scores. By tracking these indicators over time, healthcare organizations can identify areas where they need to improve, make changes to their processes and practices, and ultimately provide better care to their patients.

"Diffusion of Innovation" is a theory that describes how new ideas, products, or methods spread within a population or society. It was first introduced by Everett M. Rogers in his book "Diffusion of Innovations" in 1962. The theory explains the process and factors that influence the adoption and implementation of an innovation over time.

The diffusion of innovation model includes five stages:

1. Knowledge: Individuals become aware of the innovation but lack further information about it.
2. Persuasion: Individuals form a positive or negative opinion about the innovation and consider adopting it.
3. Decision: Individuals decide whether to adopt or reject the innovation.
4. Implementation: Individuals put the innovation into practice.
5. Confirmation: Individuals seek reinforcement of their decision to continue using the innovation or, in some cases, to reverse their decision and abandon it.

The theory also identifies five categories of adopters based on their willingness to adopt an innovation:

1. Innovators: Those who are willing to take risks and try new ideas early on.
2. Early Adopters: Those who have social networks, respect, and influence and are opinion leaders in their communities.
3. Early Majority: Those who deliberate before adopting an innovation but eventually adopt it.
4. Late Majority: Those who are skeptical about the innovation and only adopt it when it becomes mainstream or necessary.
5. Laggards: Those who resist change and are the last to adopt an innovation.

In medical contexts, diffusion of innovation theory can be applied to understand how new treatments, drugs, or medical devices spread within healthcare systems and communities. It can help healthcare professionals and policymakers develop strategies to promote evidence-based practices and improve patient outcomes.

Drug utilization refers to the use of medications by patients or healthcare professionals in a real-world setting. It involves analyzing and evaluating patterns of medication use, including prescribing practices, adherence to treatment guidelines, potential duplications or interactions, and outcomes associated with drug therapy. The goal of drug utilization is to optimize medication use, improve patient safety, and minimize costs while achieving the best possible health outcomes. It can be studied through various methods such as prescription claims data analysis, surveys, and clinical audits.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Guideline adherence, in the context of medicine, refers to the extent to which healthcare professionals follow established clinical practice guidelines or recommendations in their daily practice. These guidelines are systematically developed statements designed to assist practitioners and patient decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. Adherence to evidence-based guidelines can help improve the quality of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote optimal patient outcomes. Factors that may influence guideline adherence include clinician awareness, familiarity, agreement, self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and the complexity of the recommendation.

Immunization programs, also known as vaccination programs, are organized efforts to administer vaccines to populations or communities in order to protect individuals from vaccine-preventable diseases. These programs are typically implemented by public health agencies and involve the planning, coordination, and delivery of immunizations to ensure that a high percentage of people are protected against specific infectious diseases.

Immunization programs may target specific age groups, such as infants and young children, or populations at higher risk of certain diseases, such as travelers, healthcare workers, or individuals with weakened immune systems. The goals of immunization programs include controlling and eliminating vaccine-preventable diseases, reducing the morbidity and mortality associated with these diseases, and protecting vulnerable populations from outbreaks and epidemics.

Immunization programs may be delivered through a variety of settings, including healthcare facilities, schools, community centers, and mobile clinics. They often involve partnerships between government agencies, healthcare providers, non-governmental organizations, and communities to ensure that vaccines are accessible, affordable, and acceptable to the populations they serve. Effective immunization programs require strong leadership, adequate funding, robust data systems, and ongoing monitoring and evaluation to assess their impact and identify areas for improvement.

Primary health care is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as:

"Essential health care that is based on practical, scientifically sound and socially acceptable methods and technology made universally accessible to individuals and families in the community through their full participation and at a cost that the community and country can afford. It forms an integral part both of the country's health system, of which it is the central function and main focus, and of the overall social and economic development of the community. It is the first level of contact of individuals, the family and community with the national health system bringing health care as close as possible to where people live and work, and constitutes the first element of a continuing health care process."

Primary health care includes a range of services such as preventive care, health promotion, curative care, rehabilitation, and palliative care. It is typically provided by a team of health professionals including doctors, nurses, midwives, pharmacists, and other community health workers. The goal of primary health care is to provide comprehensive, continuous, and coordinated care to individuals and families in a way that is accessible, affordable, and culturally sensitive.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Malawi" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in southeastern Africa. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

A drug combination refers to the use of two or more drugs in combination for the treatment of a single medical condition or disease. The rationale behind using drug combinations is to achieve a therapeutic effect that is superior to that obtained with any single agent alone, through various mechanisms such as:

* Complementary modes of action: When different drugs target different aspects of the disease process, their combined effects may be greater than either drug used alone.
* Synergistic interactions: In some cases, the combination of two or more drugs can result in a greater-than-additive effect, where the total response is greater than the sum of the individual responses to each drug.
* Antagonism of adverse effects: Sometimes, the use of one drug can mitigate the side effects of another, allowing for higher doses or longer durations of therapy.

Examples of drug combinations include:

* Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for HIV infection, which typically involves a combination of three or more antiretroviral drugs to suppress viral replication and prevent the development of drug resistance.
* Chemotherapy regimens for cancer treatment, where combinations of cytotoxic agents are used to target different stages of the cell cycle and increase the likelihood of tumor cell death.
* Fixed-dose combination products, such as those used in the treatment of hypertension or type 2 diabetes, which combine two or more active ingredients into a single formulation for ease of administration and improved adherence to therapy.

However, it's important to note that drug combinations can also increase the risk of adverse effects, drug-drug interactions, and medication errors. Therefore, careful consideration should be given to the selection of appropriate drugs, dosing regimens, and monitoring parameters when using drug combinations in clinical practice.

**Referral:**
A referral in the medical context is the process where a healthcare professional (such as a general practitioner or primary care physician) sends or refers a patient to another healthcare professional who has specialized knowledge and skills to address the patient's specific health condition or concern. This could be a specialist, a consultant, or a facility that provides specialized care. The referral may involve transferring the patient's care entirely to the other professional or may simply be for a consultation and advice.

**Consultation:**
A consultation in healthcare is a process where a healthcare professional seeks the opinion or advice of another professional regarding a patient's medical condition. This can be done in various ways, such as face-to-face meetings, phone calls, or written correspondence. The consulting professional provides their expert opinion to assist in the diagnosis, treatment plan, or management of the patient's condition. The ultimate decision and responsibility for the patient's care typically remain with the referring or primary healthcare provider.

Insurance coverage, in the context of healthcare and medicine, refers to the financial protection provided by an insurance policy that covers all or a portion of the cost of medical services, treatments, and prescription drugs. The coverage is typically offered by health insurance companies, employers, or government programs such as Medicare and Medicaid.

The specific services and treatments covered by insurance, as well as the out-of-pocket costs borne by the insured individual, are determined by the terms of the insurance policy. These terms may include deductibles, copayments, coinsurance, and coverage limits or exclusions. The goal of insurance coverage is to help individuals manage the financial risks associated with healthcare expenses and ensure access to necessary medical services.

Population surveillance in a public health and medical context refers to the ongoing, systematic collection, analysis, interpretation, and dissemination of health-related data for a defined population over time. It aims to monitor the health status, identify emerging health threats or trends, and evaluate the impact of interventions within that population. This information is used to inform public health policy, prioritize healthcare resources, and guide disease prevention and control efforts. Population surveillance can involve various data sources, such as vital records, disease registries, surveys, and electronic health records.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

"Forecasting" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a general term used in various fields, including finance, economics, and meteorology, to describe the process of making predictions or estimates about future events or trends based on historical data, trends, and other relevant factors. In healthcare and public health, forecasting may be used to predict the spread of diseases, identify potential shortages of resources such as hospital beds or medical equipment, or plan for future health care needs. However, there is no medical definition for "forecasting" itself.

Health plan implementation is not a medical term per se, but rather a term used in the context of healthcare management and administration. It refers to the process of putting into action the plans, strategies, and policies of a health insurance or healthcare benefit program. This includes activities such as:

1. Designing and structuring health benefits and coverage options
2. Developing provider networks and reimbursement rates
3. Establishing procedures for claims processing and utilization management
4. Implementing care management programs to improve health outcomes and reduce costs
5. Communicating the plan details to members and providers
6. Ensuring compliance with relevant laws, regulations, and accreditation standards

The goal of health plan implementation is to create a well-functioning healthcare benefit program that meets the needs of its members while managing costs and ensuring quality care.

In the context of medicine, the term "ownership" is not typically used as a formal medical definition. However, it may be used informally to refer to the responsibility and authority that a healthcare provider has in managing a patient's care. For example, a physician may say that they "take ownership" of a patient's care, meaning that they will oversee and coordinate all aspects of the patient's medical treatment. Additionally, in medical research or clinical trials, "data ownership" refers to who has the rights to access, use, and share the data collected during the study.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Tuberculosis (TB) is a chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also involve other organs and tissues in the body. The infection is usually spread through the air when an infected person coughs, sneezes, or talks.

The symptoms of pulmonary TB include persistent cough, chest pain, coughing up blood, fatigue, fever, night sweats, and weight loss. Diagnosis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and microbiological tests such as sputum smear microscopy and culture. In some cases, molecular tests like polymerase chain reaction (PCR) may be used for rapid diagnosis.

Treatment usually consists of a standard six-month course of multiple antibiotics, including isoniazid, rifampin, ethambutol, and pyrazinamide. In some cases, longer treatment durations or different drug regimens might be necessary due to drug resistance or other factors. Preventive measures include vaccination with the Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine and early detection and treatment of infected individuals to prevent transmission.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is owned by private groups, ... The private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In private sector, activities are guided by the motive to ... Economics portal Company law Free enterprise Private enterprise Private law Public economics Public sector Three-sector model " ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Private sector, Economic sectors, Capitalism). ...
... (PSD) is a term in the international development industry to refer to a range of strategies for ... The private sector itself can play an important role in advocating for a better business environment. Many development agencies ... Earning a decent income in the private sector, it is argued, is also more dignifying than relying on hand-outs. An April 2013 ... While some development agencies therefore see it as part of Private Sector Development, many treat it as a separate field in ...
... and the sector began to shrink in 2017. For the greater part of the 20th century the private rented sector was in long-term ... whilst reducing the private rented sector. During this period owner-occupied dwellings rose by 24 percent whilst the private ... The private rented sector (PRS) is a classification of United Kingdom housing tenure as described by the Ministry of Housing, ... Since January 1990, the percentage of UK housing stock in the private rented sector has grown from 9 per cent to 19 per cent ...
... to the private sector incurring outright reductions ("haircuts") on the value of its debt holdings.: 6 The term "private sector ... private sector involvement (PSI) refers, broadly speaking, to the forced contribution of private sector creditors to a ... Part of that deal was the agreement for private-sector involvement (PSI), whereby private investors were asked to accept to ... The private sector involvements covers measures such as the rescheduling, re-profiling, and restructuring of the state-debt ...
The Private Sector Advisory Council (PSAC) is a Philippine government advisory council that offers guidance to the President of ... Rivas, Ralf (July 13, 2022). "Marcos picks Sabin Aboitiz to head Private Sector Advisory Council". Rappler. Retrieved June 28, ... Lead for Healthcare Sector: Paolo Borromeo, president and CEO of AC Health, a wholly-owned subsidiary of Ayala Corporation. ... Lead for Agriculture Sector: Aileen Uygongco-Ongkauko, president of La Filipina Uy Gongco Corporation Lead for Digital ...
The Union of Private Sector Employees (German: Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, GPA) was a trade union representing white ... In November 2006, it merged with the Union of Printing, Journalism, and Paper, to form the Union of Private Sector Employees, ... Articles containing German-language text, Clerical trade unions, Finance sector trade unions, Trade unions established in 1945 ...
The Pacific Islands Private Sector Organisation (PIPSO) was established in 2007 to promote the private sector's role in policy ... It aims to assist members to formulate national private sector strategies and to advocate the interests of the private sector ... It describes its mission as being to "facilitate private sector-driven economic growth for the benefit of the region". The ... In addition to the Pacific Forum, donors and the regional private sector, PIPSO collaborates closely with other organisations ...
"Union of Private Sector Professionals ERTO" (in Finnish). Union of Private Sector Professionals. Retrieved 14 January 2021. " ... The Union of Private Sector Professionals (Finnish: Toimihenkilöliitto, Erto; formerly Federation of Special Service and ... Union of Private Sector Professionals. 25 November 2017. Retrieved 14 January 2021. Erityisalojen Toimihenkilöliitto ERTO ry:n ... is a trade union representing a variety of private sector professionals. The federation was founded in 1968, as the General ...
"COVID-19 Private Sector Fund appeals for support". Graphic Online. "COVID-19 Private Sector Fund to feed 8,000 head-porters a ... Ghana COVID-19 Private Sector Fund is an initiative by the Government of Ghana (GOG) to help fight the novel corona virus ... "COVID-19 Private Sector Fund to build 100-bed isolation center in six weeks". Citinewsroom - Comprehensive News in Ghana. 2020- ... "Ghana COVID-19 Private Sector Fund launches #10GhanaChallenge to raise funds for infectious disease isolation and treatment ...
... was extensive and included widespread use of forced labor in Nazi Germany and ... Beginning in 1941, private sector companies leased concentration camp prisoners for forced labor projects. The most notorious ... However, the role of the private sector in Nazi Germany has been described as an example of state-corporate crime. Corporations ... Individuals and companies in the private sector faced prosecutions and restitution claims after the war for their wrongdoing; ...
The President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives was created on 14 October 1981 by former U.S. President Ronald Reagan ... The President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives was established by President Regan in 1981 to help encourage more ... Executive Order 12329 -- President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives, archived from the original on 2016-03-05, ... Denise M Allard (ed). "*4036* President's Task Force on Private Sector Initiatives": Encyclopedia of Governmental Advisory ...
The Federation of Public and Private Sector Employees (Finnish: Julkis- ja yksityisalojen toimihenkilöliitto, Jyty) is a trade ... "Federation of Public and Private Sector Employees". 1919: Harald Dalström 1920: Zachris Castren 1938: Knut Furuhjelm 1944: Alex ... Public sector trade unions, Trade unions established in 1918, 1918 establishments in Finland, Trade unions in Finland). ...
... (Chinese: 国退民进), or state retreats and people advance, known in Chinese as ... the private sector retreats". After 1978, the first landmark event of the phenomenon of "guotui minjin" in China was the " ... "guotui minjin", also called as renationalization, is an economic term referring to the phenomenon of private companies moving ... allowing state-owned capital to withdraw from competitive industries and private enterprises to enter. Since the reform and ...
The GPA-DJP was created on January 1, 2007, with the merger of the Union of Private Sector Employees (GPA), formerly Austria's ... The Union of Private Sector Employees, Printing, Journalism, and Paper (German: Gewerkschaft der Privatangestellten, Druck, ... It represents the interests of Austrian private sector employees, graphics and paper industry employees, and journalists. It ... and with them negotiates on the order of 160 collective agreements per year across diverse economic sectors. ...
The United States Senate Environment and Public Works Subcommittee on Private Sector and Consumer Solutions to Global Warming ... Global warming portal Ecology portal Environment portal "Private Sector and Consumer Solutions to Global Warming and Wildlife ... It served as a counterpart to the new Subcommittee on Public Sector Solutions to Global Warming, Oversight, and Children's ...
In 2009 the U.S. membership of public sector unions surpassed membership of private sector unions for the first time, at 7.9m ... "an ardent supporter of collective bargaining in the private sector, was opposed to it in the public sector." Roosevelt in 1937 ... "Public or Private Sector Wage Leadership? An International Perspective," Scandinavian Journal of Economics 114.1 (2012): 228- ... A public-sector trade union (or public-sector labor union) is a trade union which primarily represents the interests of ...
Today, private companies dominate the generation sector with almost 70% of capacity in their hands. Although there are about 40 ... Private companies dominate the generation sector. In terms of participation, state companies hold 31% of generation capacity, ... The table below summarizes the contribution of both the private and the public sector: Source: Ministerio de Energia y Minas ... in hands of the private utilities. However, in terms of electricity distributed, private companies have the lead with 71% of ...
In the distribution sector, three private companies, Edenor (Empresa Distribuidora y Comercializadora Norte), Edesur ( ... The functions of generation, transmission, and distribution are open to the private sector, but there are restrictions on cross ... Sector eléctrico. Evaluación de las inversiones necesarias para el sector eléctrico nacional en el mediano plazo. Consultor: Dr ... Prior to 1991, the electricity sector in Argentina was vertically integrated. The sector experienced a serious crisis in the ...
Patrick McGeehan (March 24, 2002). "Private Sector; Call Him a Specialist In Bridge Financing". New York Times. Heidi N. Moore ...
Zuckerman, Laurence (November 4, 2001). "Private Sector; For a Hardened Lawyer, A Tender Personal Moment". The New York Times. ... In 2017, Boies' firm reportedly directed the Israeli private intelligence company Black Cube to spy on alleged victims of ...
Labaton, Stephen (August 18, 2002). "Private Sector; Pitt's Rules: Lawyers Out, Bartenders In". The New York Times. For a ...
"Private Sector; Seeing the Corporation's Demise". The New York Times. November 14, 1999. "Justin Fox". CUNY TV. "HBR Global ...
Patrick McGeehan (Nov 25, 2001). "Private Sector; Tapping the Wall Street Melting Pot". The New York Times. Laurence Arnold ( ... "Private Equity Recognition Event Honors Thomas H. Lee". UJA-Federation of New York. Apr 30, 2014. Kenneth Libo (Sep 18, 2008 ... Michael J. de la Merced (Jul 31, 2015). "Jerome Kohlberg Jr., Pioneer of the Private Equity Industry, Dies at 90". The New York ... Rick Schnall (born 1970), partner at private equity firm Clayton Dubilier & Rice and minority owner of NBA's Atlanta Hawks Alan ...
Barboza, David (1999-08-01). "PRIVATE SECTOR; A Maverick Has Plans for Chicago". New York Times. Retrieved 2008-06-16. v t e ( ... He is currently[as of?] the executive chairman and CEO of SilkRoad Equity, a private investment firm, and founded Platinum ... Private equity and venture capital investors, 20th-century American businesspeople, American technology company founders, All ... has acquired and integrated nearly 200 public and private companies. Filipowski was the 1998 recipient of the Anti-Defamation ...
McGeehan, Patrick (2001-06-03). "Private Sector; Dumbed Down on Wall St.: Junk Finance, With Pictures". The New York Times ... Before the private placement, a New York Times columnist noted that a portion of the private placement might be used to ... As of 2007, Vranos and Ellington Management managed $5.4 billion in hedge funds and private accounts, and an additional $1.2 ... In June 2007, Vranos launched a private placement of a new entity, Ellington Financial LLC, to institutional investors. The ...
Smith, Dean (April 2, 2000). "PRIVATE SECTOR; Echoes of a Closing Door". The New York Times. Walsh, Sharon; Swoboda, Frank ( ... Robertson's Tiger Fund accurately predicted the dot-com bubble, purposely underweighting the technology sector. Tiger's largest ...
Morrow, David J. (4 October 1998). "PRIVATE SECTOR; Sweetening a Bitter Pill at Upjohn". The New York Times. Tanouye, Elyse (30 ... In late 2009, Schering Plough merged with Merck & Co (MRK), and Hassan left for Warburg Pincus (WP), a private equity company ... "Warburg Pincus , A Leading Global Private Equity Firm". October 10, 2019. Professor Ram Charan: Reinvent: XVII SGP proxy ...
Ross Sorkin, Andrew (1999-10-31). "PRIVATE SECTOR; An Empire Built on Collegiality". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-08-27. ...
GLADSTONE), Laura M. Holson (COMPILED BY RICK (2002-02-03). "Private Sector; A Merger Tale That's All in the Family". The New ...
Wyatt, Edward (25 October 1998). "PRIVATE SECTOR; Dr. Doom to Bankers: There You Go Again". The New York Times. Retrieved 3 ...
Private Sector from The World Bank: Data ... Domestic credit to private sector (% of GDP). Also Show. *None ...
... to advise the government on their private sector structural reform agenda. ... Action needs to be taken to facilitate open markets to private sector participation under a level playing field, improve public ... private partnership frameworks, and in some sectors, reform for state owned enterprises. Ecuador has a rich natural endowment ... to advise the government on their private sector structural reform agenda. The grant will provide technical assistance on ...
... the private sector ultimately must make functional health IT a widespread reality, David Brailer tells conference attendees. ... SAN FRANCISCO-While government will provide incentives and muscle, the private sector must ultimately make functional health ... "We dont expect private purchasers to do something were not willing to do," Brailer said. The government also could increase ... I spoke with Jed Ayres, CEO of IGEL, about the endpoint sector, and an open source OS for the cloud; we also spoke about... ...
private-sector. November 8, 2022 1:00AM Comparing Government and Private Sector Compensation in Alberta, 2021. ... labour, compensation, ontario, public-sector, benefits, government workers, wages, private-sector, salaries ...
private-sector. Novembre 8, 2022 1:00AM Comparing Government and Private Sector Compensation in Alberta, 2021. ... labour, compensation, ontario, public-sector, benefits, government workers, wages, private-sector, salaries ...
... its process of debt repayment in the private sector. ... If it wasnt for that federal sector, the US economy would be ... The US economy has largely completed its process of debt repayment in the private sector that began as a consequence of the ...
... private sector added 157,000 jobs in June, topping economists forecasts of 68,000, according to payrolls processor ADP. ... The private sector added 157,000 jobs last month, exceeding expectations for a gain of 68,000, according to a Reuters survey of ... U.S. private employers added far more jobs than expected in June, bouncing back from a surprise slump the month before, a ...
Private Sector Salaries To email a link to this page, enter the recipients email address and a message below. After confirming ... Median Private Practice Starting Salaries for the Class of 2011 Plunge as Private Practice Jobs Continue to Erode (July 12, ... and the gap between private sector and public interest lawyer salaries remains as large as ever. ... What Do New Law Graduates Who Go into Private Practice Earn? A 25-Year Retrospective (NALP Bulletin, October 2018) - It does ...
"We always send the vast majority of our graduates to the larger private-sector firms. But even for us, it was a very strong ...
The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is owned by private groups, ... The private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. In private sector, activities are guided by the motive to ... Economics portal Company law Free enterprise Private enterprise Private law Public economics Public sector Three-sector model " ... Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, Private sector, Economic sectors, Capitalism). ...
Prime Minister Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim has called for greater public-private partnership to spur Malaysias development. ... Globally, in countries like Singapore, Finland, and Germany, effective public-private partnerships have contributed to them ... Prime Minister Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim has called for greater public-private partnership to spur Malaysias development. ...
... major projects including soil testing programme to provide crop specific advisory to farmers being taken up in public private ... The State government is opening entry of private players in the agriculture sector with three ... The State government is opening entry of private players in the agriculture sector with three major projects including soil ... During the first year, the government will chip in Rs 37.5 lakh per centre and the private payer will have to provide Rs 12.5 ...
... policies and institutions behind private sector engagement, the focus and delivery of private sector engagements, private ... the DAC introduced a peer learning review on working with and through the private sector in development co-operation. Private ... provides a typology of private sector engagement and outlines key lessons. It highlights the importance of aligning private ... It also looks at investing in institutional capacities, developing a suite of flexible mechanisms for private sector engagement ...
UNDP and the Private Sector "While the private sector can bring both agility in delivery and new approaches to financing the ... How is UNDP leading private-sector engagement in the SDGs? UNDP assists national governments in aligning private investment ... The private sector is also crucial to SDG achievement as an investor of much-needed capital. Through its partnerships with ... The private sector is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) - by creating employment, building skills ...
More than 100 projects have leveraged over $30 million in private sector investment, supported 83 patent and IP registrations, ... ThriveFORWARD-backed ventures are advancing a wide array of digital and cleantech applications across multiple critical sectors ... and strengthening capacity in sectors critical to Canadas economic recovery and growth. ...
... climate envoy John Kerry said the private sector can find solutions to climate change by funding the trillions needed for a ... I believe the private sector has the ability to win this battle for us, Kerry said Wednesday during an interview at the ... Private sector breakthroughs in areas such as battery storage, green hydrogen and direct air carbon capture could be game ... John Kerry says private sector can win climate change battle. Published Wed, Dec 1 2021 4:26 PM EST. ...
Join us for the launch of a joint Asia Society-Hoover Institution report exploring the CCPs undertaking to harness private ... and political control over the financial sector and private economy. Johnson was previously a lecturer in the history and ... The CCP Absorbs Chinas Private Sector: Capitalism with Party Characteristics, on Thursday, September 7th, at Asia Society New ... Rather, the CCP has launched a massive structural undertaking to harness private capital to restore the Partys political ...
The right kind of investment - with input from private and public sectors - will make all the difference for businesses and for ...
... mongabay. ... The private sector is "pumping hundreds of billions of dollars" into cleaner and renewable energies, says a new publication ... mining and steel sectors alongside oil and gas and the power sector. ... But other sectors appear to be either treading water or seeing emissions continue to rise including oil and gas and chemicals. ...
Private Sector Power R&D, and our competitive strategy for the future economic growth and sustainability. By Rutjawate ... Private Sector Power. Private Sector Power R&D, and our competitive strategy for the future economic growth and sustainability ... Private Sector Power. R&D, and our competitive strategy for the future economic growth and sustainability.. ... Therefore, the private sector must increase R&D expenditures in order to gain back competitive advantages that we have lost due ...
So with public hospitals closed to elective surgery, a quiet revolution in private health care is unfolding, led by a wave of ... but the pandemic has created an opportunity for existing private healthcare providers to expand and new competitors to enter ... investment in private hospitals and growth in health insurance. Traditionally public hospitals provide the overwhelming ... private sector offerings were set to expand in the coming years.. As the role of the private sector increases, so does demand ...
Saudi Arabias non-oil private sector stabilised in July after four months of contraction, a survey showed on Wednesday, ... The non-oil private sector is at the centre of de facto ruler Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salmans reform plans aimed at ... DUBAI, Aug 5 (Reuters) - Saudi Arabias non-oil private sector stabilised in July after four months of contraction, a survey ...
... has called on private-sector institutions to offer training opportunities to students through the summer training program Saifi ... Private sector urged to train Saudi youth /node/1494491/saudi-arabia Private sector urged to train Saudi youth. ... Private-sector establishments with 25 or more employees are obliged to join the Saifi program. ... The private sector is being asked to train more Saudi youngsters. (SPA) ...
Biden Raises Federal Contractors Minimum Wage, Putting Pressure on Private Sector A wage of at least $15 must be paid to ... The wage hike is expected to increase pressure on Congress to raise the private-sector minimum wage as well. Sen. Bernie ... could put pressure on private-sector employers to raise pay for low-income workers. ...
... the private sector added 222,000 jobs. Given revised data for 2010, this is the 12th consecutive month of private-sector growth ... one showing just the private sector job market.. In January, while the public sector lost 30,000 jobs - the consequence of ... PRIVATE-SECTOR JOB GROWTH STARTS TO FLOURISH…. In the previous post, we talked about the new monthly jobs report, but in ... Private-sector job growth starts to flourish by Steve Benen March 4, 2011. January 9, 2022. ...
The Leading Asias Private Sector Infrastructure Fund was established in March 2016. ... Senior Investment Specialist, Fund Manager, Leading Asias Private Infrastructure Fund. Private Sector Operations Department. E ... and will seek to support a range of private sector participation modalities including public-private partnerships, joint ... Leading Asias Private Infrastructure Fund. What is the fund?. The Leading Asias Private Infrastructure Fund was established ...
... economy annually and has the largest economic multiplier of any major sector and accounts for 63% of private-sector research ... representing small and large manufacturers in every industrial sector and in all 50 states. Manufacturing employs more than 12. ... in every industrial sector. We are the nations most effective resource and influential advocate for manufacturers. ...
A whole swathe of NHS mental health services has been closed or transferred to the for profit private sector from the NHS.1 We ... Should NHS mental health services fear the private sector? Yes BMJ 2010; 341 :c5382 doi:10.1136/bmj.c5382 ... Under these proposals the NHS will be reduced to government payers funding the private sector to commission and provide care.3 ... Should NHS mental health services fear the private sector? Yes. BMJ 2010; 341 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.c5382 (Published ...
"This new Private Sector Growth and Social Protection Development Policy Grant (PSG & SP DPG) from the World Bank will ... Private Sector Firm. World Bank Group. Other. How often do you visit the World Bank website? This is my first time. Daily. ... "The main objective of the proposed Development Policy Grant is to foster private sector growth in the non-hydrocarbon part of ... Yemen: World Bank Grant to Support Private Sector Growth and Social Protection. December 14, 2010 ...
4 that the U.S. private sector shed 203,000 jobs in October, the seventh month in a row that employment declines were smaller ... In the goods-producing sector 117,000 jobs were lost.. The ADP survey added support to indications that job losses are slowing ... Employment in the manufacturing sector dropping 65,000.. ... U.S. Private Sector Sheds 203,000 Jobs in October. Nov. 4, 2009 ...
  • The Asia Society's Center on U.S.-China Relations and the Hoover Institution's project on China's Global Sharp Power invite you to the launch of their new joint report, The CCP Absorbs China's Private Sector: Capitalism with Party Characteristics , on Thursday, September 7th, at Asia Society New York, from 8:30am to 10am ET. (asiasociety.org)
  • Private Sector Engagement for Sustainable Development: Lessons from the DAC examines the politics, policies and institutions behind private sector engagement, the focus and delivery of private sector engagements, private sector engagement portfolios, effective partnership and thematic issues including risk, leverage and ensuring results. (oecd.org)
  • Drawing on the practical experiences of DAC members, the report highlights good practice, provides a typology of private sector engagement and outlines key lessons. (oecd.org)
  • It also looks at investing in institutional capacities, developing a suite of flexible mechanisms for private sector engagement, and adopting appropriate systems to monitor, evaluate and report on the results of partnerships with the private sector. (oecd.org)
  • How is UNDP leading private-sector engagement in the SDGs? (undp.org)
  • Through a wide range of regional engagement or security cooperation activities - from bilateral military-to-military working groups to multilateral whole-of-government and private sector conferences - the J6 team provides regional partners with valuable knowledge and resources to build and enhance coalition-friendly communications and information technology capabilities and capacity. (nationaldefensemagazine.org)
  • 3. These commitments were followed by the adoption of resolution EM/RC65/R.3 on private sector engagement for advancing universal health coverage at the 65th session of the WHO Regional Committee for the Eastern Mediterranean in October 2018. (who.int)
  • This resolution endorsed a framework for action on effective engagement with the private health sector, and the Committee urged Member States, inter alia, to incorporate effective engagement with the private sector for service delivery into their national policy, strategies and plans towards achieving UHC, and to strengthen the capacity of ministries of health to design, manage, monitor and evaluate effective engagement with the private sector for health service delivery. (who.int)
  • 4. Resolution EM/RC65/R.3 further requested the Regional Director to support assessments to identify challenges and opportunities related to the engagement of private care providers in service delivery in order to develop strategic action plans for effective partnership towards achieving UHC. (who.int)
  • Africa Regional Office and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) designed a three-day policy dialogue workshop with the objective of supporting selected countries in the development of their workplans for effective engagement with the private health sector. (who.int)
  • States to identify gaps and priorities for engagement with the private health sector. (who.int)
  • The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) and the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) conducted a survey of respirator use and practices of U.S. private sector employers in 2001 - 2002. (cdc.gov)
  • Respirator usage in private sector firms, 2001. (cdc.gov)
  • The Open Data Institut e (ODI) has launched a research and development (R&D) project aimed at understanding the extent to which cities can get access to data collected by private sector organisations . (computerweekly.com)
  • The ODI cited Transport for London's partnership with Waze around sharing traffic data for planning purposes as an example of a collaborative approach around data involving public and private organisations . (computerweekly.com)
  • The ODI plans to engage with people and organisations working in data-sharing projects involving the public and private sector to validate its findings, with a view of publishing a report. (computerweekly.com)
  • We'd also like it to encourage private sector organisations to consider how they can provide access to data to tackle the big challenges that our cities face," he added. (computerweekly.com)
  • UNHCR staff sometimes think that budgeting frameworks used by private sector organisations tend to prioritise activities that they would implement directly, rather than activities that are implemented by someone else or another organisation. (rsm.nl)
  • Private sector expenditure comprises the outlays of insurers and third-party payers other than social security, mandated and voluntary employer health services and other enterprises provided health services, non-profit institutions and non-governmental organisations (such as Red Cross) financed health care, private investments in medical care facilities and household out-of-pocket spending. (who.int)
  • Through its partnerships with private-sector actors, UNDP can influence the adoption of inclusive and sustainable business practices. (undp.org)
  • In addition, it works directly with private companies to embed the SDGs into their business models and governance processes while collaborating with public, private, and multilateral actors to facilitate multi-stakeholder partnerships. (undp.org)
  • The fund will undertake project finance (nonrecourse or limited recourse) and corporate finance transactions, and will seek to support a range of private sector participation modalities including public-private partnerships, joint ventures, private finance initiative projects, and privatizations, as well as conventional project finance. (adb.org)
  • The Canadian space program is getting revamped to allow more partnerships between government, the private sector and various research bodies, as well as continue to support major international projects and training for future astronauts, Industry Minister James Moore announced Friday. (cbc.ca)
  • Exemplar is an investment in our workforce and a significant opportunity for us to enhance our capabilities through public-private partnerships. (dhs.gov)
  • Public-private partnerships, in which the private sector builds, controls, and operates infrastructure projects subject to strict government oversight and regulation, can help bridge that gap. (bcg.com)
  • wanted to find out more about working with the private sector in operational partnerships in 2019, it asked the Partnerships Resource Centre (PrC) at Rotterdam School of Management, Erasmus University (RSM) to assess the evidence. (rsm.nl)
  • After almost a year of gathering facts and considering the analysis, PrC's research team under the leadership of managing director Marieke de Wal produced an official report with recommendations for working in private sector partnerships, which has now been published by the UNHCR . (rsm.nl)
  • EM/RC63/R.2 further emphasizes the importance of strengthening public-private partnerships in service delivery through a family practice approach. (who.int)
  • 6. The Regional Office has developed an in-depth assessment tool on the private health sector that covers aspects such as financing, modes of access to services, quality control, regulatory frameworks and governance, data collection and public-private partnerships. (who.int)
  • Action needs to be taken to facilitate open markets to private sector participation under a level playing field, improve public-private partnership frameworks, and in some sectors, reform for state owned enterprises. (worldbank.org)
  • Private equity is the OTC provision of equity capital through private or institutional investments with the participation of companies in another company for a limited time in order to generate financial benefits. (statista.com)
  • Members of the OECD Development Assistance Committee (DAC) are increasingly working with the private sector in development co-operation to realise sustainable development outcomes. (oecd.org)
  • The private sector is critical to achieving the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) - by creating employment, building skills, spurring innovation, providing essential infrastructure, and supplying affordable goods and services. (undp.org)
  • UNDP assists national governments in aligning private investment with their sustainable development priorities, influencing businesses of all sizes through enabling policy and regulatory environments. (undp.org)
  • From disaster management to sustainable development : how the public sector, private sector and voluntary organizations can work together. (who.int)
  • What role should the private sector play in urban development work with organizations like UN-Habitat? (spacing.ca)
  • With support from FedDev Ontario, thriveFORWARD helps job creators future-proof their businesses, build resiliency and prepare for growth by supporting the transition to a green economy, fostering an inclusive recovery, enhancing Canada's competitiveness through digital adoption to improve productivity and manufacturing processes, and strengthening capacity in sectors critical to Canada's economic recovery and growth. (businesswire.com)
  • Rather, the CCP has launched a massive structural undertaking to harness private capital to restore the Party's political authority across China's economic landscape, while preserving the technology and capital flows necessary for Xi Jinping's ambition of making the PRC the world's dominant superpower. (asiasociety.org)
  • Private Sector Power R&D, and our competitive strategy for the future economic growth and sustainability. (the-scientist.com)
  • ADB supports projects in developing member countries that create economic and development impact, delivered through both public and private sector operations, advisory services, and knowledge support. (adb.org)
  • Yemen's prospects depend on the hydrocarbon sector for the short-term and on the identification of new sources of economic growth over the medium-term. (worldbank.org)
  • A recent report by economist Steve Moore's Committee to Unleash Prosperity revealed that the top Biden Administration officials charged with economic policy, including Treasury Secretary Janet Yellen and other White House special assistants (68 top executive-branch officials in all) have less than 2 ½ years of experience in the private sector. (pacificresearch.org)
  • Many UNHCR staff members involved in private sector engagements can clearly see the goals of the partnership, particularly if they have previous experience working with or in the private sector, are innovative in their approaches to operational programming, and understand their political economic context. (rsm.nl)
  • We described RD-STDC by using weekly rates per 10,000 workers and plotted the claims by epidemiologic week and by economic sector and subsector. (cdc.gov)
  • African development report : Africa in the world economy, fostering private sector development in Africa, economic and social statistics on Africa [1997 ed. (who.int)
  • Results show that private-sector retailers are driven first and foremost by business and economic practicalities when choosing a medicine supplier, prioritising low purchase price , free delivery, and availability of credit. (bvsalud.org)
  • So with public hospitals closed to elective surgery, a quiet revolution in private health care is unfolding, led by a wave of investment in private hospitals and growth in health insurance. (yahoo.com)
  • Traditionally public hospitals provide the overwhelming majority of in-patient care, looking after everything from tonsillectomies to heart bypass surgery, but the pandemic has created an opportunity for existing private healthcare providers to expand and new competitors to enter the market. (yahoo.com)
  • There is no publicly available data on such investments, but in the past two years only two new private hospitals were opened. (yahoo.com)
  • In a statement on Monday, the ministry said the private sector can treat and rehabilitate drug addicts at hospitals specializing in addiction treatment, departments within hospitals, specialized clinics for addiction treatment, or addiction rehabilitation centers, in accordance with rehabilitation and treatment controls for private health care institutions. (arabnews.com)
  • 15 September 2019 - The Libyan Ministry of Health, in partnership with WHO, has disseminated the findings of a survey on the private health sector in Libya at a workshop held on 5 September that was co-chaired by the Minister of Health and the WHO Representative, and attended by Ministry of Health staff and representatives of private sector hospitals and United Nation agencies. (who.int)
  • Expenditure on R&D is a key indicator of government and private sector efforts to obtain competitive advantage in science and technology. (the-scientist.com)
  • The grant will provide technical assistance on designing regulatory frameworks and implementation for specific industries to enable private sector green competitiveness. (worldbank.org)
  • As we approach Canada's 150th birthday in 2017, we want to continue to support a strong, competitive and innovative space sector that will be here with us for the long-term, making us proud,' Moore said. (cbc.ca)
  • U.S. private employers added far more jobs than expected in June, bouncing back from a surprise slump the month before, a report by a payrolls processor showed on Thursday. (foxbusiness.com)
  • President Joe Biden's executive order requiring federal contractors to pay a $15 hourly minimum wage, which he signed on April 27, could put pressure on private-sector employers to raise pay for low-income workers. (shrm.org)
  • The Leading Asia's Private Infrastructure Fund was established in March 2016. (adb.org)
  • This statistic illustrates the total amount of investments in private equity in the Netherlands as of 2016, broken down by business sector. (statista.com)
  • Results of search for 'su:{Private sector. (who.int)
  • While the private sector can bring both agility in delivery and new approaches to financing the SDGs, the UN has an important role to play in creating an enabling environment for business to contribute. (undp.org)
  • Ultimately, we hope that the outputs of this work will help cities understand how others gain access to the data they need and inform their own approaches to accessing data held by the private sector," said Jack Hardinges , policy advisor at the ODI. (computerweekly.com)
  • Private sector approaches to effective family planning / Karen G. Foreit. (who.int)
  • To describe the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) epidemic among private-sector workers, we analyzed respiratory disease short-term disability claims (RD-STDC) submitted during 2020 to the Mexican Social Security Institute (Spanish acronym IMSS) by 19.1 million workers insured by the IMSS. (cdc.gov)
  • The private sector added 157,000 jobs last month, exceeding expectations for a gain of 68,000, according to a Reuters survey of economists. (foxbusiness.com)
  • I believe the private sector has the ability to win this battle for us,' Kerry said Wednesday during an interview at the Reuters Next conference. (cnbc.com)
  • Private hospital executives interviewed by Reuters have pledged or invested 85 million euros ($100 million) in the sector: a new hospital due in the capital Budapest, taking the lion's share of that spending, alongside a surgical ward planned in an existing facility and additional beds and upgraded equipment completed in another. (yahoo.com)
  • DUBAI, Aug 5 (Reuters) - Saudi Arabia's non-oil private sector stabilised in July after four months of contraction, a survey showed on Wednesday, suggesting the worst of the disruption caused by the coronavirus pandemic may be over. (nasdaq.com)
  • Replying to a discussion on the budget proposal for 2014-15 for the agricultural sector, in the Legislative Assembly, Minister of State for Agriculture Krishna Byre Gowda said the government will rope in private players to provide "soil health card" to farmers. (deccanherald.com)
  • Private health insurance grew by 23% last year, with some of that large increase due to relatively low market penetration according to Hungarian insurance association figures. (yahoo.com)
  • As private health insurance expands and we also grow organically, our patient numbers will increase,' he said. (yahoo.com)
  • As the role of the private sector increases, so does demand for private health insurance,' business unit leader Gabor Zsolnai said, adding that Union expected another 15-20% increase in private health insurance sales this year. (yahoo.com)
  • Should NHS mental health services fear the private sector? (bmj.com)
  • A whole swathe of NHS mental health services has been closed or transferred to the for profit private sector from the NHS. (bmj.com)
  • RIYADH: Minister of Health Tawfiq Al-Rabiah has adopted and included drug rehabilitation centers within health services support system in the private sector. (arabnews.com)
  • How can the private sector help in advancing health equity? (weforum.org)
  • What role can the private sector play in advancing health equity? (weforum.org)
  • Currently, the private health sector consists of 537 outpatient centres, 235 inpatients centres, 371 dental clinics, 3089 pharmacies, 411 laboratories and 19 diagnostic imaging centres. (who.int)
  • He appealed to private investors to invest in the private health sector, which will not only enhance the quality of curative services, but will also significantly reduce the financial burden on the government. (who.int)
  • Ms Elizabeth Hoff, WHO Representative, thanked the Ministry of Health's Health Information Centre for generating such valuable evidence on the status of the private health sector in Libya. (who.int)
  • Ms Hoff said that the role of the private sector should be encouraged in order to achieve the goals of universal health coverage. (who.int)
  • She encouraged the Ministry of Health to engage with the private health sector and to develop a public-private partnership strategy focusing on underserved areas and vulnerable populations, without compromising on the quality of care. (who.int)
  • In an effort to alleviate public fears and promote the COVID-19 vaccine uptake, the Ministry of Health in collaboration with the British Embassy and private sector influencers on 17th May 2021 conducted a questions and answer panel discussion on COVID-19 vaccine in Liberia. (who.int)
  • Dr. Jallah called for a more strengthened collaboration between the health and private sectors in addressing misinformation and rumor that could threaten the COVID-19 vaccine uptake. (who.int)
  • Going private : why people pay for their health care / Michael Calnan, Sarah Cant and Jonathan Gabe. (who.int)
  • Public and private roles in health : a review and analysis of experience in Sub-Saharan Africa / Sara Bennett and Ellias Ngalande-Banda. (who.int)
  • Private and public initiatives : working together for health and education / Jacques van der Gaag. (who.int)
  • Public and private roles in health : theory and financing patterns Philip Musgrove. (who.int)
  • However, the sector has expanded with only limited national policy direction and is often not included in public health sector planning. (who.int)
  • The private health sector is thus an untapped resource in the context of expanding universal health coverage (UHC). (who.int)
  • United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS (UNAIDS), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and UNICEF, in their two-year joint workplan on primary health care, agreed to support the development of national workplans in 11 countries to operationalize the private health sector framework for action. (who.int)
  • 10. The Regional Office is conducting a review/analysis of the private health sector in the following eight thematic areas: immunization, child and maternal health mergency care system noncommunicable disease nutrition mental health health information use of guidelines and protocols and communicable diseases and immunization (in Morocco and Pakistan). (who.int)
  • The number of public and private primary health care facilities available relative to the total population for the same geographical area. (who.int)
  • In 2019, Discovery Health published a risk adjustment model to determine standardised mortality rates across South African private hospital systems, with the aim of contributing towards quality improvement in the private healthcare sector . (bvsalud.org)
  • Kerry also said the private sector is increasingly disclosing climate-related risks and opportunities, as well as reassessing investments that previously didn't consider climate risk. (cnbc.com)
  • Private sector companies are increasingly seeking to expand their definition of 'value creation' at the heart of their business models. (rsm.nl)
  • ThriveFORWARD-backed ventures are advancing a wide array of digital and cleantech applications across multiple critical sectors and value chains. (businesswire.com)
  • Given revised data for 2010, this is the 12th consecutive month of private-sector growth. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • This new Private Sector Growth and Social Protection Development Policy Grant (PSG & SP DPG) from the World Bank will complement the program under the ECF through its focus on private sector development and improved coverage of the social protection net in Yemen. (worldbank.org)
  • Fully private garbage collection exists today in large part due to the growth of contracted garbage collection over many decades, and now people tend to understand that this is a real business with viable private providers. (cato-unbound.org)
  • We estimated industry-, sector- and subsector-specific cumulative RD-STDC incidence by dividing the sum of RD-STDC by the worker population registered at IMSS for each year and compared 2015-2019 (baseline) with 2020 by using risk ratios. (cdc.gov)
  • The private sector employs most of the workforce in some countries. (wikipedia.org)
  • More than 100 projects have leveraged over $30 million in private sector investment, supported 83 patent and IP registrations, launched 240 new products, processes or services-creating 445 jobs and impacting a further 2,400 across southern Ontario. (businesswire.com)
  • Kerry said that no government in the world has enough money to solve the climate crisis or complete the energy transition, and that private investment in clean energy technology is therefore critical to combatting climate change. (cnbc.com)
  • The right kind of investment - with input from private and public sectors - will make all the difference for businesses and for our economy. (cfo.com)
  • In developed countries, however, business expenditure on R&D is always higher than the government's, so an investment in R&D from the private sector is key to driving the country's competitiveness in science and technology. (the-scientist.com)
  • Private equity is a form of equity investment into private companies not listed on the stock exchange. (statista.com)
  • Many of the risks are in addition to those found in publicly procured infrastructure projects, and they therefore pose particular challenges to private-sector companies. (bcg.com)
  • During the first year, the government will chip in Rs 37.5 lakh per centre and the private payer will have to provide Rs 12.5 lakh. (deccanherald.com)
  • Anita Gurney, chief executive of the Duna Medical Centre private clinic that opened a new hospital in Budapest this year, said while in-patient private care could be pricey, it is no longer just the privilege of the elite. (yahoo.com)
  • The non-oil private sector is at the centre of de facto ruler Crown Prince Mohammed bin Salman's reform plans aimed at diversifying the kingdom's economy away from oil. (nasdaq.com)
  • It highlights the importance of aligning private sector engagements to overall development co-operation strategies and aid effectiveness principles. (oecd.org)
  • Other than capital, alone, what can enable us to harness the expertise that the private sector can provide in a meaningful and impactful way? (spacing.ca)
  • The State government is opening entry of private players in the agriculture sector with three major projects including soil testing programme to provide crop specific advisory to farmers being taken up in public private partnership (PPP) mode during the coming months. (deccanherald.com)
  • The private sector is "pumping hundreds of billions of dollars" into cleaner and renewable energies, says a new publication released yesterday by the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP). (mongabay.com)
  • In free enterprise countries, such as the United States, the private sector is wider, and the state places fewer constraints on firms. (wikipedia.org)
  • In his recent response article , Sheldon Richman takes exception to my claim that government contracting with private firms to deliver public services offers a way to demonstrate to the public that ideas like privatization work on a smaller scale. (cato-unbound.org)
  • The US economy has largely completed its process of debt repayment in the private sector that began as a consequence of the global financial crisis, a former director of the US Congressional Budget Office says. (smh.com.au)
  • In January, while the public sector lost 30,000 jobs - the consequence of significant spending cuts - the private sector added 222,000 jobs. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • However, the report warns that the energy technology sector is showing signs of a bubble, with initial public offering (IPO) values and venture capital deployments more than doubling last year. (mongabay.com)
  • He warns against granting "private" corporate monopolies, which are not true privatizations, but act as arms of the state. (cato-unbound.org)
  • UNHCR engages with almost 250 private sector actors in more than 60 countries to improve the protection and well-being of people of concern. (rsm.nl)
  • UNDP's experience with the private sector spans inclusive business, livelihoods, value chain development, market-driven climate solutions and more. (undp.org)
  • In countries with more government authority, such as China, the public sector makes up most of the economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • He noted that this won't happen "without equivocating over the word privatization and blurring the line between private and public sector. (cato-unbound.org)
  • The private sector is the part of the economy, sometimes referred to as the citizen sector, which is owned by private groups, usually as a means of establishment for profit or non profit, rather than being owned by the government. (wikipedia.org)
  • A Public Role for the Private Sector: Industry Self-Regulation in a Global Economy. (wikipedia.org)
  • If it wasn't for that federal sector, the US economy would be growing beyond 3 per cent a year, but thanks to the drag it's around 2 per cent a year,'' Mr Orszag said. (smh.com.au)
  • His expertise covers China's contemporary elite politics, strategic thinking, and political control over the financial sector and private economy. (asiasociety.org)
  • Hadaf is overseeing the summer training program in cooperation with the Ministry of Labor and Social Development, chambers of commerce, private-sector institutions, training bodies and students. (arabnews.com)
  • Through funding from C-JET, a grant is being implemented by the World Bank in Ecuador, to advise the government on their private sector structural reform agenda. (worldbank.org)
  • The private sector is being asked to train more Saudi youngsters. (arabnews.com)
  • But most people who move to my town are not used to private fire services and have never heard of private fire contractors, so they tend to react as if it's a foreign concept. (cato-unbound.org)
  • A Canadian space advisory council will also be established, to be comprised of 'stakeholders in the public and private space domain' and chaired by the CSA president. (cbc.ca)
  • Under these proposals the NHS will be reduced to government payers funding the private sector to commission and provide care. (bmj.com)
  • Richman notes the need to "[teach] folks that government is unneeded to provide public services," and one powerful way to start teaching them is to have a private contractor show up to do a job they're used to seeing a government employee perform. (cato-unbound.org)
  • For many types of government services, more radical types of privatization are not likely to materialize tomorrow unless citizens can see that there is an existing batch of private providers demonstrating competency in delivering comparable services today. (cato-unbound.org)
  • A dispute over government-regulated, private-sector wage hikes was settled Monday night by a majority vote in the National Wage Council that set mandatory biannual raises at 3 percent. (ticotimes.net)
  • The Central Region Cybersecurity Conference, formerly the Central Region Communications Conference, provides the best example of combined whole-of-government and private sector efforts. (nationaldefensemagazine.org)
  • They include the risk of government decisions that are aimed at making users (and voters) happy but that penalize private-sector partners. (bcg.com)
  • For the U.S. Central Command's communications and computers directorate, the J6, providing, operating and defending C5 environments in the most complex and volatile region of the world requires persistent coordination and collaboration across stakeholder communities - within the Defense Department, the interagency, private sector and international counterparts in the central region and beyond. (nationaldefensemagazine.org)
  • RIYADH: The Human Resources Development Fund (Hadaf) has called on private-sector institutions to offer training opportunities to students through the summer training program Saifi. (arabnews.com)
  • The fund will provide financing to companies and projects, as well as to financial intermediaries (e.g., holding companies and local currency vehicles) where there is a link to Infrastructure (with the exclusion of private equity funds). (adb.org)
  • The session I was a part of was the second half of a discussion moderated by Katarina Felgenhauer of the Urban Private Sector Advisory Board (UPSAB)-the recently founded organization responsible for officially representing the private sector voice to UN-Habitat-and Christine Auclair, the chief of the private sector unit of UN-Habitat and project leader of the World Urban Campaign. (spacing.ca)
  • It was, in practice, a very targeted (and, to be honest, refreshingly efficient) session, where they were looking to draft ideas for the best model to get the private sector involved in UN-Habitat activities like disaster relief, slum upgrading, infrastructure projects, etc. (spacing.ca)
  • For example, if you did not have private fire services companies in existence today providing high-quality, cost-effective services to governments under contract, then most people would likely dismiss claims that the private sector can and should perform these services in the future. (cato-unbound.org)
  • The operation of a private sector leasing (PSL) scheme is an effective way to expand housing stock to cope with demand. (alanboswell.com)
  • Conclusion ITherefore, given the results presented, it may be concluded that most of the private dental clinics in the city of Porto Velho, Rondônia, use autoclave sterilization as the preferred method and that it was effective given the biological indicators used, but the knowledge of dental surgeons regarding the process of sterilization and disinfection was insufficient, which alerts to the need for greater awareness by the professionals. (bvsalud.org)
  • A productive discussion on getting the private sector involved in UN-Habitat initiatives. (spacing.ca)
  • It can be seen that private equity investments in consumer goods and services reached a value of almost 596.9 million euros at that time. (statista.com)
  • How should or could the private sector be contributing more to urban development aid projects? (spacing.ca)
  • FROM investments to internationalisation, TVET to transportation, and everything in between, Prime Minister Datuk Seri Anwar Ibrahim has called for greater public-private partnership to spur Malaysia's development. (thestar.com.my)
  • This, especially, if it necessarily means partnering with other companies in the private sector, thus diluting, so to say, the "branding" they would get from taking on a project themselves? (spacing.ca)
  • It will place our Department's best STEM minds in for-profit companies in the private sector, allowing them to hone their skills and expand their experiences, while ensuring that our Department retains key talent. (dhs.gov)
  • A 2013 study by the International Finance Corporation (part of the World Bank Group) identified that 90 percent of jobs in developing countries are in the private sector. (wikipedia.org)
  • For Thailand, the money spent on R&D by the private sector is relatively small compared to developed countries in Asia. (the-scientist.com)
  • The study assesses the financing needs of the SMEs in the Eastern Partnership countries and the market failures that are constraining the development of the SME sector. (eib.org)
  • In the previous post , we talked about the new monthly jobs report, but in keeping with tradition , here's a slightly different chart - one showing just the private sector job market. (washingtonmonthly.com)
  • ADP reported on Nov. 4 that the U.S. private sector shed 203,000 jobs in October, the seventh month in a row that employment declines were smaller than in the previous month. (industryweek.com)
  • In the goods-producing sector 117,000 jobs were lost. (industryweek.com)
  • Annual planning cycles don't encourage designing longer-term interventions, and for targeting higher-level impact outcomes - the sort that are desired by the private sector. (rsm.nl)
  • It is hoped that the results can support both education and the monitoring of safe practices for the sterilization of dental instruments in private clinics in Porto Velho, helping and encouraging the academic community with the importance of this issue in training. (bvsalud.org)