The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.
That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.
Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.
A component of the PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE that provides leadership related to the delivery of health services and the requirements for and distribution of health resources, including manpower training.
Insurance providing a broad range of medical services and supplies, when prescribed by a physician, whether or not the patient is hospitalized. It frequently is an extension of a basic policy and benefits will not begin until the basic policy is exhausted.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.
Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.
Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.
Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.
A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)
Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.
Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.
Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.
The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.
Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.
Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.
Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.
The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.
Mobilization of human, financial, capital, physical and or natural resources to generate goods and services.
All organized methods of funding.
The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.
Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.
Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Contracts between an insurer and a subscriber or a group of subscribers whereby a specified set of health benefits is provided in return for a periodic premium.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.
Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)
Size and composition of the family.
The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The state wherein the person is well adjusted.
The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Societal or individual decisions about the equitable distribution of available resources.
The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.
The state of the organism when it functions optimally without evidence of disease.
The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)
Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.
Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.
A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)
Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
Management of public health organizations or agencies.
Organized services to provide mental health care.
Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.
Discussion of documents issued by local, regional, or national governments or by their agencies or subdivisions.
Books designed by the arrangement and treatment of their subject matter to be consulted for definite terms of information rather than to be read consecutively. Reference books include DICTIONARIES; ENCYCLOPEDIAS; ATLASES; etc. (From the ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The optimal state of the mouth and normal functioning of the organs of the mouth without evidence of disease.
Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.
Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.
The provision of expert assistance in developing health planning programs, plans as technical materials, etc., as requested by Health Systems Agencies or other health planning organizations.
Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.
Based on known statistical data, the number of years which any person of a given age may reasonably expected to live.
The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.
Discussion of lists of works, documents or other publications, usually with some relationship between them, e.g., by a given author, on a given subject, or published in a given place, and differing from a catalog in that its contents are restricted to holdings of a single collection, library, or group of libraries. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.
Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.
The status of health in rural populations.
A health care system which combines physicians, hospitals, and other medical services with a health plan to provide the complete spectrum of medical care for its customers. In a fully integrated system, the three key elements - physicians, hospital, and health plan membership - are in balance in terms of matching medical resources with the needs of purchasers and patients. (Coddington et al., Integrated Health Care: Reorganizing the Physician, Hospital and Health Plan Relationship, 1994, p7)
City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.
Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.
Calculation of the energy expenditure in the form of heat production of the whole body or individual organs based on respiratory gas exchange.
Heat production, or its measurement, of an organism at the lowest level of cell chemistry in an inactive, awake, fasting state. It may be determined directly by means of a calorimeter or indirectly by calculating the heat production from an analysis of the end products of oxidation within the organism or from the amount of oxygen utilized.
The status of health in urban populations.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Community health education events focused on prevention of disease and promotion of health through audiovisual exhibits.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Activities performed to identify concepts and aspects of published information and research reports.
Organized services to provide information on any questions an individual might have using databases and other sources. (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
An infant during the first month after birth.
The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.
Degree to which individuals have the capacity to obtain, process, and understand basic health information and services needed to make appropriate health decisions.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE service for health professionals and consumers. It links extensive information from the National Institutes of Health and other reviewed sources of information on specific diseases and conditions.
Planning for health resources at a regional or multi-state level.
Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of references and citations to books, articles, publications, etc., generally on a single subject or specialized subject area. Databases can operate through automated files, libraries, or computer disks. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, FACTUAL which is used for collections of data and facts apart from bibliographic references to them.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
A constituent organization of the DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES concerned with protecting and improving the health of the nation.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.
Organizations of health care providers that agree to be accountable for the quality, cost, and overall care of Medicare beneficiaries who are enrolled in the traditional fee-for-service program who are assigned to it. Assigned means those beneficiaries for whom the professionals in the organization provide the bulk of primary care services. ( CareOrganization.pdf accessed 03/16/2011)
The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).
The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.
Organizations which assume the financial responsibility for the risks of policyholders.
The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.
A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.
Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.
An organization of insurers or reinsurers through which particular types of risk are shared or pooled. The risk of high loss by a particular insurance company is transferred to the group as a whole (the insurance pool) with premiums, losses, and expenses shared in agreed amounts.
Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.
Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to people living in a community or neighborhood.
Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.
Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.
The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.
The use of statistical methods in the analysis of a body of literature to reveal the historical development of subject fields and patterns of authorship, publication, and use. Formerly called statistical bibliography. (from The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.
The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
Services designed for HEALTH PROMOTION and prevention of disease.
Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.
The interactions between members of a community and representatives of the institutions within that community.
Copies of a work or document distributed to the public by sale, rental, lease, or lending. (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983, p181)
A generic concept reflecting concern with the modification and enhancement of life attributes, e.g., physical, political, moral and social environment; the overall condition of a human life.
Tax-exempt trusts or custodial accounts established by individuals with financial institutions for saving money for future medical expenses.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.
State plans prepared by the State Health Planning and Development Agencies which are made up from plans submitted by the Health Systems Agencies and subject to review and revision by the Statewide Health Coordinating Council.
Services for the diagnosis and treatment of diseases in the aged and the maintenance of health in the elderly.
A geographic location which has insufficient health resources (manpower and/or facilities) to meet the medical needs of the resident population.
Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The confinement of a patient in a hospital.
Professions or other business activities directed to the cure and prevention of disease. For occupations of medical personnel who are not physicians but who are working in the fields of medical technology, physical therapy, etc., ALLIED HEALTH OCCUPATIONS is available.
A nursing specialty concerned with promoting and protecting the health of populations, using knowledge from nursing, social, and public health sciences to develop local, regional, state, and national health policy and research. It is population-focused and community-oriented, aimed at health promotion and disease prevention through educational, diagnostic, and preventive programs.
Health care services provided to patients on an ambulatory basis, rather than by admission to a hospital or other health care facility. The services may be a part of a hospital, augmenting its inpatient services, or may be provided at a free-standing facility.
Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.
Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.
Insurance providing benefits to cover part or all of the psychiatric care.
An agency of the NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to advancement of medical and related sciences. Major activities of this institute include the collection, dissemination, and exchange of information important to the progress of medicine and health, research in medical informatics and support for medical library development.
The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.
The physical condition of human reproductive systems.
A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.
Systems where the input data enter the computer directly from the point of origin (usually a terminal or workstation) and/or in which output data are transmitted directly to that terminal point of origin. (Sippl, Computer Dictionary, 4th ed)
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.
Adverse or favorable selection bias exhibited by insurers or enrollees resulting in disproportionate enrollment of certain groups of people.
Health services for employees, usually provided by the employer at the place of work.
Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
An Act prohibiting a health plan from establishing lifetime limits or annual limits on the dollar value of benefits for any participant or beneficiary after January 1, 2014. It permits a restricted annual limit for plan years beginning prior to January 1, 2014. It provides that a health plan shall not be prevented from placing annual or lifetime per-beneficiary limits on covered benefits. The Act sets up a competitive health insurance market.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.
Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.
Payments or services provided under stated circumstances under the terms of an insurance policy. In prepayment programs, benefits are the services the programs will provide at defined locations and to the extent needed.
Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.
The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.
An operating division of the US Department of Health and Human Services. It is concerned with the overall planning, promoting, and administering of programs pertaining to health and medical research. Until 1995, it was an agency of the United States PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE.
Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.
Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.
Norms, criteria, standards, and other direct qualitative and quantitative measures used in determining the quality of health care.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.
Total number of calories taken in daily whether ingested or by parenteral routes.
Health care provided to specific cultural or tribal peoples which incorporates local customs, beliefs, and taboos.
The systematic application of information and computer sciences to public health practice, research, and learning.
Voluntary groups of people representing diverse interests in the community such as hospitals, businesses, physicians, and insurers, with the principal objective to improve health care cost effectiveness.
Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.
Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The intrinsic moral worth ascribed to a living being. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Expenditure on health was 8.7% of GDP in 2014. Only 2.9% of the population is covered by private health insurance. The health ... The National Health Model, approved in 2013, emphasizes primary health care. The Directorate-General of Human Resources ... An estimated 17% of Hondurans do not have regular access to health services. Total per capita health expenditure was US$212 in ... The health expenditure was US$197 per person in 2004. There are about 57 physicians per 100,000 people. Life expectancy at ...
They may be funded by public expenditure, charitable donations, or private payment and health insurance. In the United Kingdom ... Due to the need for hospitals to prioritise their limited resources, there is a tendency in countries with such systems for ' ... The National Health Service, the principal provider of health care in the United Kingdom, was founded in 1948. During the ... Hospitals are usually funded by public funding, health organisations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies, or ...
This represents 2,190 euros per capita and an expenditure of 9.1% of the Spanish GDP. Regarding human resources, the health ... 72.4 billion corresponding to the public sector and 29.3 billion to the private sector). ... According to the Annual Report of the National Health System 2018, the total expenditure of the Spanish health system in 2016 ... Ministry of Health and Social Security (2) Ministry of Work, Health and Social Security (3) Ministry of Health and Consumers (4 ...
... and various health centers, whereas the private sector allocates resources within private offices, clinics, and hospitals. Very ... expenditures ($672). The health care system requires more funds to improve the coverage and overall health care system in ... Today, the Guatemalan health care system is split into three separate divisions: the public, private nonprofit, and private for ... Health education provides mothers with resources to handle health issues and gives them access to knowledgeable sources outside ...
... of the country's total healthcare expenditure. The vast majority of that funding came from mineral resource revenue which meant ... There are also two private hospitals in the country. The government pays for the treatment of patients referred abroad for ... Public health teams conduct tuberculosis and malaria control campaigns. Botswana's total expenditure on health is 5.4% of their ... A 2014 study on Botswana's human resources for health, stated that the country must begin to attract and retain migrant health ...
... health services pushes large numbers of people to incur heavy out of pocket expenditures on services purchased from the private ... is well established from the history of industrialized countries and it should have high priority in health related resource ... Increasing the cooperation between private and public sector health care providers to achieve health goals. This will include ... OOP can be reduced only by increasing public expenditure on health and by setting up widespread public health service providers ...
... health services pushes large numbers of people to incur heavy out of pocket expenditures on services purchased from the private ... Furthermore, because of limited government resources, much of the health care provided comes from non profits such as The MINDS ... Increasing the cooperation between private and public sector health care providers to achieve health goals. This will include ... OOP can be reduced only by increasing public expenditure on health and by setting up widespread public health service providers ...
"World Health Organization, Bangladesh National Health Accounts, an overview on the public and private expenditures in health ... While the Human Resources Development Unit was merged to the Administration wing of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare ... The Policy Research Unit was composed of three wings, the Health Economics Unit, Human Resources Development Unit, and Gender ... The Health Economics Unit traces back to a government project under the Fourth Population and Health Project of the Ministry of ...
Most of the expenditure was contributed by health insurance schemes and private spending, which corresponded to 40% and 45% of ... eHealth Health information exchange (HIE) Health information management (HIM) Human resources for health (HRH) information ... Therefore, substantial resources were collected to build China's own health informatics system. Most of these resources were ... The current government health care system consists of several directions: Preventive health care Primary health care ...
India has one of the lowest ratios of the public to private health expenditure. The infant mortality rate for the richest 20% ... According to Friedman, globalization 1.0, which dates to 1492, involved countries globalizing for natural resources. In ... but more progress could be made with the help of private interests. The private sector has more than enough financial power to ... It can be done through private universities and learning centres. Also, global universities might be established in India to a ...
... voluntary private health insurance; (v) mandatory private health insurance; and (vi) personal healthcare reserve (a combination ... the recurrent expenditure of the government on medical and health care services increased continuously, from $32 billion in ... provided would inevitably be affected by the heavy workload of the medical staff and proportionally less medical resources per ... The private consultant PricewaterhouseCoopers Service Limited was hired by the FHB to review on the current private health ...
... non-governmental organizations and private contributions. The total health expenditure per capita has increased from $4.5 per ... To increase health service utilization To improve quality of care, by increasing resources for health facilities through strong ... The main purchasers of health service in Ethiopia are: the Ministry of Health; Regional Health Bureaus; District/Woreda Health ... To increase access to health care and reduce household vulnerability to out of pocket(oop) health expenditure. As shown in the ...
Argentina's health care system is composed of a universal health care system and a private system. The government maintains a ... of its GDP on health care expenditures.[needs update] In January 2013, the Federal Registry of Health Establishments (Registro ... The top 30 chapters hold 73% of the beneficiaries and 75% of resources Health Care in Latin America. MSAS has established a ... Private medical facilities and health insurance also exist in the country. The Ministry of Health (MSAL), oversees all three ...
Most of the expenditure was contributed by health insurance schemes and private spending, which corresponded to 40% and 45% of ... Therefore, substantial resources were collected to build China's own health informatics system. Most of these resources were ... "The History of Health Informatics". Health Informatics, Nursing Informatics and Health Information Management Degrees. ... Thus, computer scientists working in computational health informatics and health scientists working in medical health ...
Health expenditure in 2009 amounted to EUR 15.7 billion. The public sector is the main source of health funding, 74.7% of ... Physiotherapy, dentistry and occupational health services are the most often used health services on the private sector. ... Finland used the least resources and attained average results, making Finland the most efficient public sector health service ... "Health Expenditure and Financing in 2009". National Institute for Health and Welfare. Archived from the original on 2012-04-23 ...
A number of private for profit clinics ("Cabinets Médical Privé") operate in Niamey and other cities. The total expenditure on ... Public health in Niger suffers from a chronic lack of resources and a small number of health providers relative to population. ... Niger health information from the World Health Organization The State of the World's Midwifery - Niger Country Profile. ... Country Health System Fact Sheet, 2006 Archived 2010-01-07 at the Wayback Machine. World Health Organization.] "Niger" (PDF). ...
However, expenditures on health care should not be confused with spending on public health. Public health measures may not ... Joint Task Group on Public Health Human Resources; Advisory Committee on Health Delivery & Human Resources; Advisory Committee ... These private organizations recognize the need for free and easy to access health materials often building libraries of ... community health, behavioral health, health economics, public policy, mental health, health education, health politics, ...
Expenditure on health accounts for approximately 17% of total government expenditure. All practising physicians are required to ... Proposed co-pays are: 0% at community health clinics 5% at the public hospital 10% at private clinics in network 40% at private ... Because of limited resources and problems of economies of scale, public health authorities will sometimes send critical cases ... In addition, many residents of the British Virgin Islands maintain private health insurance which allows them to access health ...
It is paid by private and public employers for health insurance. Social contributions represent a major part of social welfare ... causing a decline in its resources or increase its expenditure (old age, sickness, disability, unemployment, maternity, family ... Some are mandatory (supplemental pension plans of private sector employees) and other optional (mutual health insurance, ... Private societies had long existed, catering to small groups of middle class families who sought death and burial insurance. ...
... including public health programming. This plan, along with a medium term expenditure framework and a strategic health sector ... There is a small private sector in urban areas, and there are still traditional medicine practitioners. In the National Health ... whose primary responsibility was to ensure access of the poor to social resources - like health care - food security, and ... "A spatial database of health facilities managed by the public health sector in sub-Saharan Africa". World Health Organization. ...
Financing social sector expenditure particularly, health and education. The NIPFP maintains close functional links with the ... Environmental and resource economics, examining the use of fiscal instruments for environmental management and improvement. ... The library is centrally air-conditioned with cubicles providing private workspace to the visitors. Seminars and conferences ... Public expenditure and subsidies with particular reference to the analysis of trends and structural shifts and its management ...
Total health expenditure per capita in US dollars (PPP). This chart breaks it down further by public and private expenditures. ... Health resources - Health spending. doi:10.1787/8643de7e-en. Click "more" in the intro paragraph to see that PPP U.S. dollars ... List of countries by quality of health care List of OECD health expenditure by country by type of financing Health expenditure ... Total expenditure includes both public and private expenditures. The first table and bar chart lists member countries of the ...
Through grants and contracts, USAID mobilizes the technical resources of the private sector, other USG agencies, universities, ... GH-Global Health *Every year, the Global Health Bureau reports to the U.S. Congress through its Global Health Report to ... and education and human resources development. Specifically, USAID's budget would be reformed to account for expenditures for ... Health and Family PlanningEdit. Examples of projects assisted by missions' Health and Family Planning offices are projects for ...
2004). Public Perceptions Of Private Health Care In Socialist China,journal=Health Affairs, 6, 222-234. Chen, Lanyan, and ... "Effects of Public Hospital Reform on Inpatient Expenditures in Rural China". Health Economics. 26 (4): 421-430. doi:10.1002/hec ... They were primarily funded by the government but also collaborated with local systems for resources (equipment, physicians, etc ... Health care system Health in China Healthcare reform Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved Medical savings ...
Council for Health Freedom, who take the position that newborn health screening for "a specific set of newborn genetic ... Thus the initial expenditures can be difficult for states with tight budgets to justify. Screening fees have also increased in ... Newborn Screening Information & Resources Homepage of the Save Babies Through Screening Foundation, a grass-roots advocacy ... some states such as Mississippi have chosen to contract with private labs for expanded screening. Others have chosen to form ...
In India, the health system mixes public and private providers. Public health facilities - local clinics providing basic care, ... India's public health expenditures are lower than those of other middle-income countries. In 2012, they accounted for 4% of GDP ... the care provided by most state health systems suffers from inadequate resources and poor management. As a result, the majority ... Family Floater Health Insurance: Family health insurance plan covers entire family in one health insurance plan. It works under ...
Public Health 11(5/6), 2002 and especially Table on Household Expenditure Output-Based Aid in Water - Lessons in Implementation ... An estimated 500 private suppliers serve some total of about 500,000 people. Urban utility tariffs are set below cost recovery ... but also expand their systems using their own resources and repay a portion of capital costs to the national treasury. ... the share of water expenditures in household expenditures in urban areas of Paraguay was the lowest among 10 countries in Latin ...
Private hospitals under contract. According to the World Health Organization, in 2014, total expenditure on health reached 9.0 ... Urbanization and the abandonment of the countryside mean that 80% of medical resources are located in cities. In 2009, health ... Public funding represents 24.7% of total health expenditure. In 2009, health expenditure represented 4.96% of GDP, or 72.1 ... The National Universal Health Service, health subsystems and health insurance plans. The National Universal Health Service is a ...
Resource generation, resource allocation, and expenditure management (resource utilization) are the essential components of a ... but in private finance sources of income is direct. Collection of sufficient resources from the economy in an appropriate ... This functional classification allows policy makers to analyze expenditures on categories such as health, education, social ... revenues and expenditures, the expected growth and volatility of these revenues and expenditures, and the cost of servicing the ...
World Bank 2005 Infrastructure Rangel et al., Public Health 11(5/6), 2002 and especially Table on Household Expenditure Notes: ... The World Bank on private water operations in rural communities The World Bank, 2009. The World Bank on public-private water ... The highest water use can be found in some utilities in Brazil and Argentina, where water resources are abundant and water use ... First, it is not clear how water expenditures were defined in the surveys. It seems that in some cases expenditures to buy ...
... by John Peabody and colleagues takes a closer look at this issue in Asia and proposes that governments intervene in the health ... The government does this through user fees that either mobilize private resources to replace public resources or that shift ... Policy and Health in Asia. Financing and Allocating Public Expenditures. by John Peabody, Omar Rahman, Paul Gertler, Joyce Mann ... Can Mobilizing Private Resources Help?. Allocating public subsidies to correct limited insurance market failures is limited by ...
Technology helps to bridge health infrastructure and resources gap in rural areas. Industry Overview. Chart 1 Production vs ... Indias government envisages increasing public health expenditure. Competitive Landscape. Further growth ensured by rising ... especially by private sector players. Underdeveloped rural India offers vast opportunities for investment in healthcare ... Chart 3 Household Expenditure on Hospitals, Medical and Dental Services vs GDP 2001-2021. Chart 4 Household Expenditure on ...
This paper is the first to empirically explore the link between natural resource wealth and public health expenditures in light ... Governments should be made accountable for natural resource wealth and correct taxation could provide additional resources, ... significant inverse relationship between natural resource dependence, and even abundance, and public health spending over time ... earmarked for health. The extractive industry could increase their investments in sustainable Social Corporate Responsibility ...
... health services pushes large numbers of people to incur heavy out of pocket expenditures on services purchased from the private ... Furthermore, because of limited government resources, much of the health care provided comes from non profits such as The MINDS ... Increasing the cooperation between private and public sector health care providers to achieve health goals. This will include ... OOP can be reduced only by increasing public expenditure on health and by setting up widespread public health service providers ...
Limitations of methods for measuring out-of-pocket and catastrophic private health expenditures. Bull World Health Organ 2009; ... An Analysis of Donor Financing of Human Resources for Health Activities and Health Worker Migration in Sub-Saharan African ... Are Health Expenditure and Utilization Surveys Worth the Cost? (Short title for registration: Household Health Expenditure ... Global Health Expenditure Tracking Organizer: Ke Xu, World Health Organization. 8:30 - 16:30, Kollegienhaus Hörsaal 001. ...
Total health expenditure per capita in US dollars (PPP). This chart breaks it down further by public and private expenditures. ... Health resources - Health spending. doi:10.1787/8643de7e-en. Click "more" in the intro paragraph to see that PPP U.S. dollars ... List of countries by quality of health care List of OECD health expenditure by country by type of financing Health expenditure ... Total expenditure includes both public and private expenditures. The first table and bar chart lists member countries of the ...
... but health expenditure that is predominantly private (52%).. Figure 2. Health expenditure (as a percentage of GDP) and ... Virtual Health Library. SciELO. Regional Observatory of Human Resources in Health. PAHO Institutional Repository (IRIS). PAHO/ ... catastrophic health expenditures, disease prevention, health exclusion, health financing, health promotion, health systems ... a) Public health expenditure and its weight in total expenditure. Considering the universal health strategys public health ...
The first is total health expenditure as a percentage of gross domestic product (GDP). Brazil spends around 8% of GDP on health ... Historically, health policies in Brazil have always stimulated the private sector2. Thus, the federal, state and municipal ... Enough and adequately used financial resources are necessary to guarantee the right to health and to consolidate SUS principles ... World Health Organization. The World Health Report 2010 - health systems Financing: the path to universal coverage. Geneva: WHO ...
... private expenditures on health; pollution; and the depletion of natural resources - and adds in the value of activity that ... In the 1930s, British economist John Maynard Keynes had argued persuasively that while no mechanism exists in the private ... The 2015 edition of State of the World includes additional chapters on energy and debt, stranded assets, agricultural resource ... Full employment required that total expenditures rise continually to pay for the new infrastructure, factories and equipment ...
Health care resources and expenditures. *In 2018, personal health care expenditures in the United States totaled almost $3.1 ... Collaborating with other public and private health partners, NCHS uses a variety of data collection mechanisms to obtain ... health care resources (i.e., availability of physicians and dentists); and health care expenditures and payers. ... This process provides a broad perspective on the populations health, influences on health, and health outcomes. ...
But the hard fact is that financial resources, both public and private, fall drastically short of what is needed for universal ... According to WHO, the average annual health care expenditure in OECD countries is over $5,000 per person; in sub-Saharan Africa ... Making rural health care cost-effective is a critical lever for universal coverage; it will attract private providers to rural ... Health care providers across the board - public, private and NGO-led - face numerous and multifaceted challenges when it comes ...
... of health expenditure is met by individuals from their private resources.. India lost the opportunity to implement a national ... This was the period of private sector expansion in the health sector (post-SAP, even private health expenditure showed a ... Investment and expenditure in the public health sector is shrinking. As a result, the public health system is on the brink of ... Resource commitments to public health declined in the 1990s, especially in the developed states. Improvements in health ...
We have publications on different health topics for you to access. Filter by topic, publication type, audience, condition and ... Resources. Publications We have publications on different health topics for you to access. Filter by topic, publication type, ... Making private health insurance simpler for everyone - fact sheet 18 October 2019 ... expenditure and types of aged care services. ... Mens health (2) Apply Mens health filter *Mental health (6) ...
... they should be concerned about their total health-care expenditures, both public and private. An increase in tax funding should ... Although continuing to use private plans would perpetuate the tremendous administrative excesses that waste resources that ... But most individuals and businesses should be concerned not only about their tax expenditures for health care; ... For universal care, the state would tax every employee for health care but pay the health benefits for 35 million residents, ...
2008 Knox Keene Health Plan Expenditures Report. Private health insurance companies regulated by the Department of Managed ... 2004 Knox Keene Health Plan Expenditures Report. CMA this week released its 11th annual "Knox-Keene Health Plan Expenditures ... 2005 Knox Keene Health Plan Expenditures Report. CMA this week released its 12th annual Knox-Keene Health Plan Expenditures ... Professional Resources CMA On-Call. CMAs online health law library contains nearly 5,000 pages of valuable information for ...
Private health expenditures had a one-way relationship with adult literacy rates and its direction is from private health ... These expenditures can increase human development along with human resource and physical capital. The purpose of the present ... In this study, public health expenditure expenditures had a one-way relationship with adult literacy rate and its direction is ... Keywords: Hospital emergency service, Health information systems, Health sector, Health Sector Evolution Plan, Qom, Iran ...
Approximately 41,000 of these group sessions occurred in Allied health clinics.. Hospital resources and expenditure. In 2006-07 ... 265 private free-standing day hospital facilities and 278 other private hospitals. In 2006-07, there were almost 83,000 ... Australias health 2018 Australias health 2018 is the AIHWs 16th biennial report on the health of Australians. It… ... resources and bed numbers. This report is a useful resource for health planners, administrators and researchers with an ...
Presentation summarizes the major highlights from Health chapter of 12th Plan of India. ... Indias 12th Five year plan is widely believed to be Health Plan. ... ACCESS TO MEDICINES, VACCINES AND TECHNOLOGY: • Current Scenario:  Almost 74% of private out-of-pocket expenditures.  ... The New Architecture for UHC 1. Health Financing and Financial Protection 2. Health Service Norms 3. Human Resources for Health ...
Expenditure on health was 8.7% of GDP in 2014. Only 2.9% of the population is covered by private health insurance. The health ... The National Health Model, approved in 2013, emphasizes primary health care. The Directorate-General of Human Resources ... An estimated 17% of Hondurans do not have regular access to health services. Total per capita health expenditure was US$212 in ... The health expenditure was US$197 per person in 2004. There are about 57 physicians per 100,000 people. Life expectancy at ...
Read chapter 3 Understanding and Applying a Model for Financing Health Professional Education: An adequate, well-trained, and ... For example, in the case of Kenya, where nearly half of health care expenditures come from the private sector, why should there ... One risk is that the practice side of the health sector looks to hire other clinical pharmacists as a human resource strategy ... Working for health and growth: Investing in the health workforce. Report of the High-Level Commission on Health Employment and ...
Public and private domestic expenditures for health in a total 148 developing countries for 1983, were estimated to be $100 ... health services and programs, population programs, environmental sanitation, health sector resources, financing of health care ... 1986 external donor health expenditures totalled $4 billion, a small percentage of overall health expenditure for developing ... National health systems in developing countries are receiving increasing shares of the GNP. Total health expenditure by ...
... the public sector remains under-resourced and inequities persist in health expenditure; 55 - 60% of total health spending ... Today, the health care system still comprises both public and private sectors, with a shift in emphasis to primary health care ... Human resource challenges. Insufficient human resources are the major challenge facing the South African health system. A 2008 ... Health indicators. South Africa is a paradox of high health expenditure and supportive policies coupled with persistently poor ...
... for instance additional health facilities, better health information systems, or better trained human resources. Health ... Domestic private health expenditure per capita, PPP (current international $). Definition: Current private expenditures on ... health expenditure data using the new international classification for health expenditures in the revised System of Health ... Description: The map below shows how Domestic private health expenditure per capita, PPP (current international $) varies by ...
I also welcome the announced raise in expenditure on education and health in 2018 . Yet, it was brought to my attention that ... Government has expressed its intention of engaging in public private partnerships in important social sectors such as health, ... There is a consensus that a greater mobilisation of resources is needed. It has been estimated that the majority of all illicit ... Servicing this debt is now the countrys most important expenditure, and a significant amount of borrowing is being allocated ...
Public hospitals are resource-starved (the per capita expenditure on health was $86 in 2006, of which 25% was by the government ... Investigators at private hospitals get paid recruitment fees of between Rs 60,000 and Rs 120,000 per patient, depending on the ... public expenditure on health was less than 1% of the Gross Domestic Product [National Health Policy 2002] and this percentage ... Health economists have pointed out that only 15% of the Rs 1,500 billion spent on the health sector in India comes from the ...
... phase included data on public and private health expenditures in OECD countries-with data to come on health care resources, ... Science, Biology, and Health. Our physical exercise calculator may be one of Wolfram,Alphas most useful new additions, ... Regarding health care costs, a clear assessment of the role of administrative, ancillary and other not-specifically-care costs ... About , Pro , Products , Mobile Apps , Business Solutions , For Developers , Resources & Tools. Blog , Community , Participate ...
Strategies for Assuring the Provision of Qulaity Services Through Managed Care Delivery Systems to Children with Special Health ... illnesses have annual medical expenditures that are below the maximum expenditure limits of many private indemnity health ... public resources are raising difficult questions about supporting care for children and youth who require long-term health and ... Expenditures and Financing of Care. Some expenditures for the health care of children with special health care needs are like ...
... will lead to reduction in expenditure in other areas such as health environment, saving of water resources and for homeowners ... Serious investment through public-private partnership in improving the distribution networks is called for. This investment, ... Binukumar G.S., Institute for Resource Analysis and Policy, Hyderabad. Health, hygiene and sanitation are very much related to ... It is sheer wastage of national resources like water, electricity and human health and time. In these coping mechanisms, the ...
PAC consumes a large portion of the total expenditure in reproductive health in Ethiopia. Investing more resources in family ... Fourteen public and private health facilities were selected, representing 3 levels of health care. Cost information on drugs, ... estimates were derived of the cost to the health system of providing postabortion care (PAC), based on research conducted in ... planning programs to prevent unwanted pregnancies would be cost-beneficial to the health system. Autores: Vlassoff, Michael, ...
  • This process provides a broad perspective on the population's health, influences on health, and health outcomes. (
  • There is clear evidence that public financing is critical for good healthcare and health outcomes in any country. (
  • The inadequate commitment of public resources to healthcare was mainly responsible for poor health outcomes in India. (
  • The Fifth to Seventh Plan period was the 'golden era' of public health sector performance in India, when public investment and expenditure in healthcare peaked and health outcomes witnessed substantial improvement, first in the developed states and then in the underdeveloped ones. (
  • Improvements in health outcomes slowed down, and the rural-urban gap widened. (
  • Of these approaches, social grants have had the most impact on both health outcomes and poverty indicators. (
  • Comparative Effectiveness Research (CER) is a method of evaluation that compares the effectiveness of two or more medical treatments by assessing comparative health outcomes. (
  • Despite this high expenditure, health outcomes remain poor when compared to similar middle-income countries. (
  • Furthermore, considerable inequities in health care access and outcomes between Socio-economic groups remain. (
  • Health care providers are being asked to collect information on patients, services, and outcomes in a standardized way. (
  • At the same time, health outcomes such as infant mortality rates, life expectancy at birth and other health outcome indicators have improved. (
  • In this study, health outcomes are defined as an improvement in adult life expectancy and a reduction in the number of neonatal, infant, and under-five deaths. (
  • From the management perspective, investing in more private institutions, such as hospitals and clinics, is essential for health outcomes in the average country. (
  • F1 will bring about improvement in health outcomes, make health financing more equitable, and increase public satisfaction with health care services. (
  • Clinical informaticians, also known as clinical informaticists, transform health care by analyzing, designing, implementing, and evaluating information and communication systems that enhance individual and population health outcomes, improve [patient] care, and strengthen the clinician-patient relationship. (
  • Health is important to economic development, and economic development has an important impact on health outcomes. (
  • The introduction of Universal Health Insurance has been associated with increased health spending and mixed effects on health outcomes. (
  • A locally tailored approach, which is updated and informed by policymakers and recent evidence, is critical to improve patient outcomes and resource allocation efficiency - particularly in limited-setting countries like Lebanon. (
  • So why hasn't more been done with that data to slow the rapid climb in health care spending and begin competing on outcomes rather than expenditures? (
  • See Competing on Outcomes: Winning Strategies for Value-Based Health Care , BCG Focus, January 2014. (
  • To achieve the greatest improvement in outcomes, payers and providers need to proactively allocate resources before patients seek care and then track their impact. (
  • Although the United States spends considerably more of our GDP on medical services than other developed nations, our health outcomes are no better, and in many areas, much worse. (
  • The research on social services, health spending, and health outcomes suggests strongly that it is no coincidence that the U.S. has this unusual combination of spending and mediocre outcomes. (
  • States with a higher ratio of social to health spending also have significantly better health outcomes for such conditions as adult obesity, asthma, mental health indicators, mortality rates for lung cancer, high blood pressure, and heart attack, and Type 2 diabetes. (
  • First, to improve health outcomes while actually curbing health care costs, we need to rebalance federal spending patterns. (
  • The evidence suggests that such a shift could contribute to decreased hospital utilization, and thus reduced spending by Medicaid and Medicare, while improving health outcomes. (
  • We do not yet have good evidence to quantify the precise connection between spending on many social services and health outcomes. (
  • The markets with relatively high private spending stand out for having good health-system performance and health outcomes, and higher than average hospital prices. (
  • The next table use data from the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • World Health Organization. (
  • in most sub-Saharan countries the number is one or two (per 10,000 people) and most of these doctors operate in urban areas, according to the World Health Organization (WHO). (
  • World Health Organization Global Health Expenditure database ( (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has revised health expenditure data using the new international classification for health expenditures in the revised System of Health Accounts (SHA 2011). (
  • The health expenditure estimates have been prepared by the World Health Organization under the framework of the System of Health Accounts 2011 (SHA 2011). (
  • Iraq national health account 2008 / World Health Organization. (
  • The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the expression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. (
  • The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers' products does not imply that they are endorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. (
  • All reasonable precautions have been taken by the World Health Organization to verify the information contained in this publication. (
  • In no event shall the World Health Organization be liable for damages arising from its use. (
  • Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Health Publications, Production and Dissemination, World Health Organization, Regional Office for the Eastern Mediterranean, P.O. Box 7608, Nasr City, Cairo 11371, Egypt. (
  • The World Health Organization defines health care systems as follows: "A health system consists of all organizations, people and actions whose primary intent is to promote, restore or maintain health. (
  • World Health Organization, 2004. (
  • The results of this study can be used by the World Health Organization as well as other non-governmental organizations that provide financial assistance to East African countries. (
  • One of the most common methods is the definition of World Health Organization (WHO) of CHE. (
  • Drawing upon decades of experience, RAND provides research services, systematic analysis, and innovative thinking to a global clientele that includes government agencies, foundations, and private-sector firms. (
  • Financing clinical services by tapping public sources and mobilizing private sources is a role all governments use to intervene in the health sector. (
  • Governments intervene in the health sector for three key reasons. (
  • Industry set to see 12% CAGR over 2016-2021, mostly due to rising income levels, changing disease patterns and large investments, especially by private sector players. (
  • The extractive industry could increase their investments in sustainable Social Corporate Responsibility operations, specifically in the health sector. (
  • In the 1930s, British economist John Maynard Keynes had argued persuasively that while no mechanism exists in the private sector of capitalist economies to guarantee full employment, government spending could be used to prime the economic pump and stimulate job creation. (
  • Investment and expenditure in the public health sector is shrinking. (
  • Over this decade, utilisation of private health services, especially in the hospital sector, increased substantially, out-of pocket spending on healthcare galloped, and indebtedness due to healthcare affected nearly half the users of healthcare facilities. (
  • As a result of structural adjustment programmes, investment and expenditure in the public health sector has been declining. (
  • The country made very poor investments in the public health sector over the years. (
  • But the economic crisis of 1991 and the economic reforms posited by the Structural Adjustment Programme (SAP) pushed by the World Bank upset the achievements of the public health sector in this golden era. (
  • This has been caused by the compression of public spending in the health sector as well as allocative inefficiencies caused by unprecedented increases in salaries as a consequence of the implementation of the Fifth Pay Commission (1996-1998). (
  • Health sector reform deals with fundamental change of processes in policies and institutional arrangements of the health sector, usually guided by the government. (
  • Sustained information and education on health sector reform is needed to generate wider political and public understanding as well as support. (
  • Research to provide valid scientific evidence for strengthening the processes and mechanisms of health sector reform is also essential. (
  • Health sector reform is a sustained process of fundamental change in policies and institutional arrangements of the health sector 1 , usually guided by the government. (
  • It is aimed at improving the functioning and performance of the health sector and, ultimately, the health status of the population. (
  • Health sector reform deals with equity, efficiency, quality, financing, and sustainability in the provision of health care, and also in defining the priorities, refining the policies and reforming the institutions through which policies are implemented. (
  • The Committee recognized that reforms in health sector were needed to attain the universal goal of health-for-all and in ensuring equity, solidarity and social justice. (
  • Through a resolution 2 , the Regional Committee urged Member States to explore effective strategies for the political and administrative management of the process and content of health sector reform and to involve policy makers, providers of health services and the public in this process. (
  • The former Minister of Health responds to an earlier, inaccurate article about the dispute between some emergency ward physicians and the public sector in Chile. (
  • The World Bank has provided assistance for a health sector reform project to meet the challenges that accompany the demographic and epidemiologic transition, transitions from a planned to a market economy and from dictatorship to democracy, a cultural transition, and behavioral changes. (
  • Health economists have pointed out that only 15% of the Rs 1,500 billion spent on the health sector in India comes from the government. (
  • As states plan and implement health care reform and the private sector pursues major restructuring in health care delivery, new issues of concern are emerging regarding whether this population of children will be given opportunities to reach their full potential as adults. (
  • However, growth in private sector-and Medicaid-financed managed care programs may have negative consequences for the delivery of services to this group of children. (
  • Additional measures should focus on cutting tax expenditures, reforming the farmers' social security system and enhancing public-sector efficiency. (
  • Dr Sambo says in the report that there is a need for concerted action from African govern-ments and development partners to ensure that domestic and external funding for the health sector is not reduced. (
  • He proposes actions which, taken in appropriate combinations and according to local context, might enable countries to mitigate the negative impact of the financial crisis on health sector funding in Africa. (
  • The strategic targets of health reform initiatives have been to structure a unified health care sector along the lines of the original ESY proposal and to cope with current inefficiencies. (
  • The current level of resource allocation to the health care sector is higher than in many developed countries and is not sustainable. (
  • The private sector represents the largest source of health financing (61%) and the burden falls disproportionally on individual households, who account for 63% of private health care expenditure. (
  • Public Expenditure and the Private Sector. (
  • UNDP works in partnership with governments, civil society, the private sector and other UN organizations to support countries for the achievement of universal health coverage, including access to safe and affordable medicines, diagnostic and vaccines. (
  • Who manages the resources flowing in the health sector? (
  • How much money is being spent on the various activities and services provided within the health sector? (
  • Investment in manufacturing capacity was largely left to the private sector. (
  • Health care in South Africa varies from the most basic primary health care, offered free by the state, to highly specialised, hi-tech health services available in the both the public and private sector. (
  • However, the public sector is stretched and under-resourced in places. (
  • While the state contributes about 40% of all expenditure on health, the public health sector is under pressure to deliver services to about 80% of the population. (
  • The private sector, on the other hand, is run largely on commercial lines and caters to middle- and high-income earners who tend to be members of medical schemes. (
  • Improving human-resource management at state hospitals and strengthening co- ordination between the public and private health sector. (
  • The bulk of health-sector funding comes from the South Africa's National Treasury. (
  • This can largely be attributed to the inequities between the public and private sector. (
  • R120.8-billion (48.5%) in the private sector, which covers 16.2% of the population or 8.2-million people, many of whom have medical cover. (
  • R122.4-billion (49.2%) in the public sector, which is made up of 84% of the population, or 42-million people, who generally rely on the public health care sector. (
  • The Department of Health holds overall responsibility for health care, with a specific responsibility for the public sector. (
  • The implementation of the reforms in financing, service delivery and regulation which are aimed to tackle the inefficiencies and inequalities in the health system has been challenged by the decentralized environment and the presence of private sector, often creating fragmentation and variation in the quality of health services across the country. (
  • The NHS seems to be undergoing major surgery at the moment: much of which seems to increasingly involve the private sector. (
  • So our responsibility is to work with the private sector, as well as the voluntary sector, especially when it comes to capital projects. (
  • If the private sector could provide the infrastructural investment, we would be ready to buy the service from them. (
  • All well and good, but isn't this also an admission that the government can't afford to invest in the health sector? (
  • For example, when we came into government we found a shortage of beds in the acute health sector. (
  • 6. What does being FCAS mean for the health sector? (
  • Local Impacts, Health Sector The health sector is a significant source of employment for American workers, employing 6.3 million practitioners and technical workers, and 3.2 million Americans in health care support occupations in as of November, 2003. (
  • Passing the appropriate legislation as well as further opening the sector up to new international partnerships and foreign investors will likely be necessary to achieve this, as will continued investment in infrastructure and learning resources, particularly in rural and more marginalised regions. (
  • Driven by demand for better services from the expanding middle class and bolstered by higher levels of public expenditure, growth in Myanmar's health care sector is expected to accelerate. (
  • The report examines the current state of the global health care sector, provides a snapshot of activity in a number of geographic markets, and suggests considerations for stakeholders as they address funding, cost and other issues while seeking to grow revenue and market share in 2014 and beyond. (
  • From a policy perspective, it is necessary to understand if a greater allocation of resources to the healthcare sector is worthwhile and to determine whether to encourage private healthcare investment. (
  • Forecasts: U.S. Economy, Health Care Private Sector, Federal Budget Expenditures/Medicare/Medicaid," with James Glassman, managing director and senior economist at JPMorgan Securities, Inc. (
  • This document is the implementation framework (called Fourmula One for Health) of the Department of Health's health sector reform agenda. (
  • DOH) has taken a bold step of reforming how health services are delivered, regulated and financed by espousing health sector reforms which are anchored on good governance. (
  • Health (F1) in 2005 as the operational framework for health sector reforms. (
  • Health sector reform under the F1 has the strategic framework that includes operationalization of key flagship programs on financing, service delivery, regulation, and governance in both national and local levels. (
  • In essence, F1 embodies all priority programs, projects and activities that the health sector must embark to attain "Health for All Filipinos. (
  • To implement health reforms, the DOH engages the cooperation of its various partners under the Sector Development Approach for Health in planning, organizing, coordinating, and evaluating national and international support and assistance under a common sector policy and investments program led by the DOH. (
  • While there is an intent to increase spend on health care, the draft policy also stresses on the role of private sector. (
  • While the public sector is to focus on preventive and secondary care services, the document recommends contracting out services like ambulatory care, imaging and diagnostics, tertiary care down to non-medical services such as catering and laundry to the private sector. (
  • Households exposure to catastrophic health expenditure is a valuable measure to monitor financial protection in health sector payments. (
  • Lebanon has a mixed public and private healthcare sector. (
  • Eliminating polio from the Americas, with a reduction in the number of reported cases from 6,653 in 1970 to 0 in August 1991, is often sited as an example of effective collaboration among governments, nongovernmental organizations, the private sector, and local communities ( 5 ). (
  • PALM BEACH, Florida , March 4, 2019 /PRNewswire/ -- While many private sector industries in the U.S. vigorously denounce the government's intrusion, control and over-regulation on many matters, the largest complaint that reverberates is that the government just doesn't listen! (
  • The best ways to rebalance and reflect local conditions and opportunities will differ from place to place, and states are the best-placed level of government to facilitate large-scale cross-sector strategies to improve health. (
  • In 2018, personal health care expenditures in the United States totaled almost $3.1 trillion-a 4.1% increase from 2017. (
  • Since the 2018 publication of the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) Guidelines for Analysis of Trends pdf icon , the Spotlights have adhered to these guidelines in order to analyze trends from NCHS complex sample surveys and the National Vital Statistics System. (
  • In-depth consultation led by the WHO EMRO office in May 2018, focussed on health financing in chronic and acute emergencies. (
  • The Brazilian Ministry of Health estimates that three million people lost coverage from November 2018 to May 2019. (
  • protects their populations against the risk of impoverishing or catastrophic health expenditures. (
  • patients are compelled to pay more for treatment, and that makes a lot of people faced to Catastrophic Health Expenditures (CHE) and in long run fall below the poverty line. (
  • The present study had two aims: first, to estimate the prevalence and intensity of catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) in Iran. (
  • An increasing number of Iranians has been subject to catastrophic health care costs over the study period in both rural and urban areas (CHE = 2.57% in 2008 and 3.25% in 2015). (
  • Beside other financial indices, catastrophic health expenditures (CHE) are used to evaluate and monitor financial protection in health systems across the world. (
  • The National Health Policy was endorsed by the Parliament of India in 1983 and updated in 2002. (
  • The 2002 National Health Policy unashamedly acknowledges that the public healthcare system is grossly short of its defined requirements, that functioning is far from satisfactory, that morbidity and mortality due to easily curable diseases continue to be unacceptably high, and resource allocations generally insufficient. (
  • From 1990 to 2000 U.S. health expenditures grew 2.3 times faster than GDP, rising from 13% in 1997 to 14.6% in 2002, the highest rate in the OECD. (
  • Of the member nations that reported health care expenditure data in 2002, Mexico (6.1%), Poland (6.1%), South Korea (5.9%), and the Slovak Republic (5.7%) spent the least in the OECD. (
  • While the growth in health care spending (as expressed by an increase in health expenditures as a percentage of GDP) in the United States from 1997 to 2002 (1.6%) was not a universal trend, several other countries also experienced significant increases in the percentage of their GDP spent on health care during this period. (
  • Only the Slovak Republic saw a slight decline-a scant 0.1% drop in total health spending as a percentage of GDP between 1997 and 2002. (
  • In 2002 the United States also experienced the highest per capita spending for health care services, spending an average of $5,267 per citizen. (
  • In 2002 Turkey spent the least per capita of any OECD nation on health care ($446) followed by Mexico ($553), Poland ($654), the Slovak Republic ($698), and South Korea ($931). (
  • Public spending on health accounted for nearly 75% of total health spending on average across OECD countries in 2002, virtually unchanged from its share in 1995. (
  • Only sixteen OECD member nations reported private insurance expenditures for health care in 2002. (
  • Households In the latest available data (2002), the average household spent $2,350 a year, or 4.8 percent of its income, on health care. (
  • Researchers looked at data collected from the well-known National Health Interview Survey between 2001-2002 and 2010-2011. (
  • The Health Care Management Program at the University of California-Irvine Graduate School of Management has posted online eight sessions on "Health Politics and Policies in the Bush Administration" from the 2002 Health Care Forecast Conference , held in February. (
  • We found, as predicted by the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics in 2002, that availability is often limited by the challenges of difficulty in locating useable data, a lack of resources among public agencies to upgrade information technology systems for making data more usable and accessible to the public, and a lack of enterprise-wide coordination and geographic detail in data collection efforts. (
  • In turn, governments allocate these public revenues toward public health activities that benefit society above and beyond curative services that mainly benefit the individual. (
  • First, they intervene to provide health services that are "public goods," such as the benefit that accrues to others when preventing and treating infectious diseases such as tuberculosis. (
  • Evidence from the four NHAs shows that the governments are using their public funds mainly to subsidize hospital services (curative care) rather than to improve health status or ensure equity. (
  • When this is the case, subsidies can be increased for public health services by reallocating them away from curative care. (
  • Democracy, Public Expenditures, and the Poor: Understanding Political Incentives for Providing Public Services ," World Bank Research Observer , World Bank Group, vol. 20(1), pages 1-27. (
  • The evidence shows that when there are access barriers to services (whether economic, geographic, cultural, demographic, or other), a deterioration in health implies not only greater expenditure but a loss of income as well. (
  • Implementing the people- and community-centered model of care requires greater efficiency through the priority allocation of new resources to the first level of care and networks to increase the availability of quality services and speedily address unmet health needs. (
  • A series of mechanisms must be implemented simultaneously to transform the model of care and the health services structure. (
  • Health, United States, 2019 is the 43rd edition of the congressionally mandated annual report from the Secretary of Health and Human Services to the President and Congress of the United States about trends in health challenges facing the nation. (
  • The Universal Clinic can be deployed as a turnkey solution or in a modular fashion, e.g., existing under-resourced clinics can be outfitted with one or more of these modules to deliver better services. (
  • Our intent is not to reinvent the wheel, but to funnel, optimize and integrate best-of-breed technologies into a cohesive plug-and-play platform for a new paradigm of health care delivery - to provide quality services cost-effectively and at scale in rural markets. (
  • These trends are closely linked to a wide spectrum of changes in the economy since the mid-1980s, which have led to the privatisation of services, deregulation of drug prices, increased reliance on market mechanisms to address welfare needs, and a weakening of public health systems. (
  • This report describes information on a variety of aspects of Australia's hospital services, including admitted patient care, elective surgery waiting times, non-admitted emergency department care, outpatient care, and public hospital expenditure and resources. (
  • ensuring basic health services to all, and upholding and enforcing health ethics. (
  • Newton began by introducing the two debaters, Ann Cary of the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Nursing and Health Studies, and Patricia Hinton Walker of the Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. (
  • Additionally, more local health authorities are operating direct clinic and domiciliary services. (
  • Until the government announces the details of its plans for family planning services within the National Health Service beginning April 1974, the Family Planning Association's own detailed planning cannot be exact. (
  • Health financing is also critical for reaching universal health coverage (UHC) defined as all people obtaining the quality health services they need without suffering financial hardship (SDG 3.8). (
  • For more than a decade, government policy has been to reduce public support for healthcare services, and these services are under-resourced. (
  • The remaining 80% is spent by individuals using private services and without insurance. (
  • Increased monitoring of medical costs and greater recognition of limited public resources are raising difficult questions about supporting care for children and youth who require long-term health and education services. (
  • Many families and health care professionals are concerned, for example, that managed care programs 1 in both the public and private sectors will decrease access to certain subspecialty and supportive services and undermine recent efforts to develop community-based systems of care for these children and their families. (
  • In response to interest in identifying strategies with potential for enhancing the provision of quality services by managed care programs for children and youth who have special health care needs, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) convened an invitational workshop on December 12, 1994. (
  • With limited resources, it faces the task of developing the infrastructure and services of a modern social democracy. (
  • Albania devotes just over 3% of GDP to provision of health services. (
  • Since the late 2000s, universal health coverage (UHC) has been identified as an important goal, which is to ensure people's access to needed health services without suffering from financial hardships. (
  • The foundation does not invest in delivering health or education services. (
  • Parties must also maintain documentation to be available upon the request of the Secretary of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). (
  • 1 The updated Global Strategy for Women's, Children's, and Adolescents' Health calls for an even more ambitious agenda of expanding equitable coverage to a broader range of reproductive, maternal, newborn, child, and adolescent health services, as integral to the 2030 targets of the sustainable development goals. (
  • In addition, we draw on the experiences of several countries in the recent outbreak of Ebola virus disease, new evidence on the workforce requirements for achieving universal health coverage, 4 5 and the forthcoming WHO Global Strategy on Human Resources for Health: Workforce 2030 6 and WHO Global Strategy on People Centred and Integrated Health Care Services, 7 which describe innovative ways to deliver services and organise workforces. (
  • Even where efforts have been made to embed services at the community level, such as in the roll-out of integrated community case management of childhood illness programmes, a lack of full integration and stewardship by national health systems has hindered service use and sustainability. (
  • The delivery of health care services is based on both public and private providers. (
  • Despite success in improving the health of the population, the Greek health care system faces serious structural problems concerning the organization, financing and delivery of services. (
  • The high percentage of private expenditure goes against the principle of fair financing and equity in access to health care services. (
  • However, the three reforms attempted in the 1990s were never fully implemented, while the ambitious reform project of the period 2000-2004, which provided for the regionalization of the system, new management structures, prospective reimbursement, new employment conditions for hospital doctors, modernization of public health services and reorganization of primary health care, was abolished after the elections of 2004 and a change in government. (
  • Reorientation of the health system is also needed in terms of reducing the share of spending on inpatient services in favour of more day surgery, outpatient and home-based services. (
  • last use of health services and method of payment for health care services. (
  • Awareness was insufficient, health services were paid for mostly from OOP. (
  • Health systems should provide preventive and curative health which called for all health systems to move towards universal services that can ensure the health and wellbeing of community coverage, Nigeria initiated, developed and implemented a social residents. (
  • and ways that public resources can be they receive has the potential effect of impoverishing some more equitably allocated, providing evidence that health systems households that choose to seek services while excluding others are better financed through prepayment mechanisms such as from seeking health care. (
  • Hospitals (29.5%), drugs (16.0%) and physician services (15.3%) continued to account for the largest shares of health dollars (more than 60% of total health spending) in 2014, the latest year of actual expenditure data available. (
  • Existing law includes within the definition of community care facility a short-term residential therapeutic program, which is a residential facility licensed by the department and operated by any public agency or private organization that provides an integrated program of specialized and intensive care and supervision, services and supports, treatment, and short-term, 24-hour care and supervision to children. (
  • The bill would require the State Department of Health Care Services, in consultation with the State Department of Social Services and the County Behavioral Health Directors Association of California, among others, to provide guidance to counties for the provision of children's crisis residential services, including funding for children who are Medi-Cal beneficiaries and who are admitted to a children's crisis residential program. (
  • Existing law requires a short-term residential therapeutic program to obtain a contract with a county mental health plan to provide specialty mental health services and demonstrate the ability to meet the therapeutic needs of each child identified in specified plan documents. (
  • Existing law provides that funds appropriated by the Legislature to the California Health Facilities Financing Authority for the purposes of the act be made available to selected counties or counties acting jointly, except as otherwise provided, and used to provide, among other things, a complete continuum of crisis services for children and youth 21 years of age and under regardless of where they live in the state. (
  • Public expenditures for health care services, as a percentage of GDP, vary widely between the OECD member nations. (
  • Every year 100 million people are pushed into poverty and 150 million people suffer financial catastrophe because of out-of-pocket expenditure on health services. (
  • This report was developed under a subcontract with SysteMetrics, a Division of Medstat Systems, Inc. The statements and opinions expressed in the report are solely those of the author and do not reflect the position of the Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, SysteMetrics, or the National Association of Area Agencies on Aging. (
  • In addition to being statewide, the selected programs offer a range of community-based services, have a significant resource base relative to their target population, and have a well-defined assessment and care management system in place. (
  • In Maine, in addition to managing the aging waiver and the state-funded home care program, Area Agencies on Aging (AAAs) administer a modest amount of state program resources to provide services to persons with physical disabilities who are under age 60. (
  • The overall goal of the AHRQ Health Services Research Dissertation Grant Program is to help ensure that a diverse pool of highly trained health services researchers is available in adequate numbers and appropriate research areas to address the research mission and priorities of AHRQ. (
  • This program is authorized by 42 U.S.C. 299a(b), which provides that AHRQ may provide training grants in the field of health services research. (
  • Iraq is witnessing a demographic and epidemiological transition, creating additional constraints for the health system in managing the double burden of communicable and non-communicable diseases and adapting the supply of services and human resources to emerging needs and higher population expectations. (
  • With relatively limited financial resources and increasing cost of care, providing universal access to health services remains a major concern for the Government of Iraq. (
  • What is the burden on households from demanding and using health care services? (
  • Provincial health departments provide and manage comprehensive health services, via a district-based, public health-care model. (
  • A Health Charter has been devised with the aim of creating a platform for engagement between sectors to address issues of access, equity and quality of health services as well as issues of broad-based black economic empowerment and employment equity. (
  • One example is the Richmond Foundation: from whom we are renting hostel services for patients with mental health issues who would otherwise be at Mount Carmel Hospital. (
  • Presents key statistics on the resources, expenditure and revenue of public hospitals and on the services they provide. (
  • Although TB services are supposed to be provided free of charge, TB affected families incur different types of costs in the process of seeking care, which might include health and nonhealth related costs. (
  • TB programs need to identify the underlying factors for delay and related expenditure for TB related services, in order to devise an effective strategy to reduce them. (
  • It is important to strengthen public private partnership for TB services. (
  • Investments in government assets are the resources the project company spends on acquiring government assets such as state-owned enterprises, rights to provide services in a specific area, or the use of specific radio spectrums. (
  • Are home care services covered by Medicare or health insurance? (
  • Immigrant children and their families, a large and diverse population group, have numerous risks to physical health and functioning and may be unfamiliar with our health care services. (
  • Recently enacted federal welfare and immigration reform measures may increase the vulnerability of this population by limiting its access to health and social services. (
  • Every child within the geographic boundaries of the United States, regardless of that child's "status," should have full access to all social, educational, and health services that exist at the local, state, and federal levels for the care and benefit of children. (
  • The current debates about the government's role and expenditures have raised the issue of eligibility of immigrants, both legal and illegal, for health, social, and educational services. (
  • 1 In border states such as California, Texas, and Florida, which have experienced a large influx of immigrants, there have been calls for removing access and eligibility for illegal immigrants to publicly supported health, social, and educational services. (
  • Some individuals have gone further and advocated the same disenfranchisement of legal immigrants, making eligibility for public education, social services, and health services dependent upon both citizenship and residency and no longer residency alone. (
  • This put more pressure on SUS's capacity to meet the increasing demand for health services. (
  • Updated data on long-term financing and expenditures including baby boomers' increased demand for long-term services and expanded entitlements for the disabled. (
  • Healthy People 2010 provides a framework to assess health status, health behaviors and services, and to plan and evaluate health promotion programs. (
  • A new focus on 'performance' and 'accountability' is prompting health agencies to shift their emphasis on primarily providing services to include needs assessment and methods to assure that quality care is provided. (
  • fee- are two broad sources of health financ- for-services. (
  • In: Merson MH, Black RE and Mills AJ providing health services for their em- expenditure on health as a percentage (editors). (
  • The shared, long-term trends of an aging population and an increase in people inflicted with chronic diseases are expected to drive demand for health care services in both developed and emerging economies in 2014 and beyond. (
  • While facilitating increased health care access is an important and worthy endeavor, more people in the system means more demand for services that numerous health care systems are unable to accommodate due to workforce shortages, patient locations, and infrastructure limitations, in addition to the cost issues identified earlier. (
  • This article examines a publicly funded mental health services network, focusing on the patterns of interaction in five resource-based subnetworks. (
  • The Other Health Services industry includes a variety of health services that are not large enough to form individual industries. (
  • Additional health services in the industry include blood bank and community health centre operations.Growing private health insurance membership has supported the industry over the past five years. (
  • The Other Health Services industry has grown moderately over the past five years. (
  • Private health insurance covers many industry services including acupuncture, dietetics, natural therapies, occupational therapy and podiatry. (
  • Growth in private health insurance coverage has benefited the industry as it has increased the number of potential patients that can have the cost of industry services partially or fully subsidised. (
  • IBISWorld analysts also discuss how external factors such as Population aged 70 and older and Private health insurance membership in the Other Health Services industry impact industry performance. (
  • What is the Other Health Services Industry? (
  • Industry operators primarily provide allied, alternative or other health services in a community setting. (
  • 1-A limited subset of all health care interventions 2-Interventions result from a prioritization process 3-Interventions not independent from each other (integrated services) 4-Basic Package of Services offered to each individual depending on the epidemiological situation in the country and on available resources. (
  • 5-Basic health package lists health services/goods which are paid by the society because these are deemed to be basic or have priority (Benabbas, 2001). (
  • Total health care costs and mean costs for inpatient hospital care, emergency department visits, physician services, same-day surgeries, home care services and prescription drugs covered by the Ontario Drug Benefit Program rose systematically with increasing severity of household food insecurity. (
  • The proposed Universal Health Insurance system, with equal access to health care for all, based on need and not on the ability to pay, could greatly improve the provision of health services for people with disabilities in Ireland. (
  • There must be no incentives for insurers to selectively recruit people with lower levels of health needs or to impose financial disincentives for people accessing services. (
  • Comprehensive regulation and monitoring of Universal Health Insurance services should take into account the specific needs of people with disabilities. (
  • 2009). Bismarck systems, implemented in countries such as France and Germany, are characterised by the use of a range of Social Health Insurance providers who are usually independent of the providers of health services. (
  • However, it proposes to pose public health system as pre-paid services instead of social service. (
  • An assortment of secondary and tertiary services are proposed to be bought by the government from public and private healthcare facilities -- though it is unclear how this differs from the present system of 'empanelled' private hospitals. (
  • For instance, these policies should extend the interventions that target low-income populations particularly in rural areas, provide more coverage for catastrophic medical services in basic benefit packages, and develop supplementary health insurance. (
  • As OOP increases for healthcare services, risk spreading and pooling fades away and resource allocation becomes unfair. (
  • In the Americas, the Pan American Health Organization supports strategies for the appropriate control and elimination of vaccine-preventable diseases, especially if the strategies are designed to reduce health inequities, strengthen the political commitment for immunization services, and promote the culture of prevention. (
  • Political commitment to expand coverage and reach children and women who generally do not receive health services is important to the success of this initiative. (
  • EPI accomplished this purpose by setting up and expanding permanent services within the framework of primary health care and by creating the necessary mechanisms for effective, large-scale application of existing knowledge and technology. (
  • But they have little visibility-and no control over-one another's expenditures, which allows for the possibility of duplication and gaps in services. (
  • Even more significant, perhaps, is that when we look at health spending compared with spending on social services, the U.S. is a noticeable outlier. (
  • An important reason for such patterns is that in advanced countries, improvements at the margin in health tend to come more from additional investments in a good living environment and lifestyle habits than from more investments in medical services. (
  • Moreover, the research evidence on the best combination of medical and social services to improve health is not as robust as we would like. (
  • The federal government should review the evidence that social services are often the route to improved health, and agencies should work with health officials on ways to reprogram funding . (
  • We examined the availability of data in a sample of Wisconsin counties for expenditures in selected categories of health care, public health, human services, income support, job development, and education. (
  • Other research explores health investment relationships in detail, estimating the effect of public services on state mortality while controlling for median income and income inequality (7). (
  • Total per capita expenditures in public services were significantly associated with all mortality measures, as were expenditures in education, environment, and housing. (
  • With each country's total expenditure on health per capita in PPP U.S. dollars. (
  • Servicing this debt is now the country's most important expenditure, and a significant amount of borrowing is being allocated for this purpose," he added. (
  • It also attracts most of the country's health professionals. (
  • If people are a country's principal asset, then their health status defines the course of development, and their health characteristics determine the nature and direction of sustainable human development. (
  • The authors recommend taking the opportunity to encourage uptake of health insurance for young adults and those in low- and middle-income households. (
  • Beneficiaries of environment, households and firms, have a short-term parochial interest where private costs and benefits are taken into account. (
  • Brazil has 263 756 health agents, each one responsible for nearly 150 households in a geographically delineated area-usually the same area where the agent lives," says Jesem Orellana, an epidemiologist at the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation, in Amazonas. (
  • This study used the data from eight national repeated cross-sectional surveys on households' income and expenditure. (
  • The government does this through user fees that either mobilize private resources to replace public resources or that shift public utilization away from hospitals to clinics. (
  • The cost of seeking treatment even at public hospitals had increased five-fold (simultaneously, the cost of treatment in private hospitals increased nearly seven-fold), though the purchasing power of the poorer classes had not changed in any substantial way. (
  • This report is a useful resource for health planners, administrators and researchers with an interest in Australia's hospitals. (
  • Included in the report are public acute hospitals, public psychiatric hospitals, private free-standing day hospital facilities and other private hospitals. (
  • in private hospitals it was 2.5 days. (
  • Specialized hospitals can help reduce health care costs compared to general hospitals. (
  • Hospitals are usually funded by public funding, health organisations (for profit or nonprofit), health insurance companies, or charities, including direct charitable donations. (
  • Currently, hospitals are largely staffed by professional physicians, surgeons, nurses, and allied health practitioners, whereas in the past, this work was usually performed by the members of founding religious orders or by volunteers. (
  • Patients in both government hospitals and private hospitals are desperate for better quality and affordable care. (
  • Patients choose public hospitals because they cannot afford treatment in private hospitals. (
  • Patients who go to private hospitals may be more able to afford treatment, but catastrophic medical expenses can force them to sell assets, fall into debt, or stop essential treatment. (
  • Clinical trials are conducted by contract research organisations (CROs) which are developing the infrastructure for trials by making inroads into small towns, identifying trial sites in small private hospitals and developing databases of potential trial participants. (
  • The Minnesota Department of Health regulates capital investments made by hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, diagnostic imaging centers, and physician clinics. (
  • South Africa's public health system is a countrywide network of care facilities ranging from mobile and rural clinics to huge academic hospitals in the urban centres. (
  • The health budget for 2012/13 was R121-billion, which was aimed at improving hospitals and strengthening public health ahead of the National Health Insurance scheme. (
  • Apart from the announcement of a PPP with Vitals Global Healthcare for the construction and management of three hospitals - St Luke's, Karin Grech and Gozo - separate contracts are being drawn up with local private hospitals, as well as NGOs, such as the refurbishment/management of the Addolorata, the national cemetery. (
  • Not just with VGH - but also with private hospitals like St James and St Thomas, as well as a number of NGOs. (
  • With myhealth, these doctors will have immediate access to health records - with the patients' consent, naturally - at State hospitals and clinics. (
  • Detailed statistics on the characteristics and hospital care of admitted patients in both public and private hospitals are also provided. (
  • Patients who visited public hospitals were almost three times and those who visited private health facilities almost four times more likely to pay more than the median total expenditure, compared to those who visited health centre, AOR (95% CI) = 2.8 (1.53, 5.19) and AOR (CI) of 3.86 (1.06, 14.03), respectively. (
  • Two variables had statistically significant association with high pre-diagnosis expenditure, where patients with good level of knowledge about TB are less likely to spend more than the median, while patients who visited public hospitals or private health facilities had very high expenses. (
  • Hospital beds include inpatient beds available in public, private, general, and specialized hospitals and rehabilitation centers. (
  • Patients choose public hospitals because they cannot afford treatment in private hospitals but even here they pay for some drugs, tests and procedures, and this constitutes a burden that many cannot afford. (
  • and General Secretary, Myanmar Private Hospitals Association. (
  • The MoPH contracts 26 public and 105 private hospitals and covers about 240,000 hospital admissions annually. (
  • Among private hospitals 29 were T1, 44 were T2, and 33 were T3. (
  • Health, United States data cover four subject areas: health status and determinants, utilization of health resources, health care resources, and health care expenditures and payers. (
  • 14 The Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP) within the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality produced the KID in collaboration with public and private statewide data organizations. (
  • E-mail: [email protected] to determine the perception of community residents to health insurance, their pattern of health service utilization and method and amount of payment. (
  • Factors that contribute to spending growth encompass changes in health care utilization, population demographics, price inflation, and advances in medical technology. (
  • Household food insecurity was a robust predictor of health care utilization and costs incurred by working-age adults, independent of other social determinants of health. (
  • PAC consumes a large portion of the total expenditure in reproductive health in Ethiopia. (
  • A collection tools to help you accomplish reproductive health supplies-related goals. (
  • A fast-growing list of interactive presentations and workshops from thought-leaders in the reproductive health supplies community. (
  • The National Health Policy is being worked upon further in 2017 and a draft for public consultation has been released. (
  • Analysis of survey data shows that in 2017, the ACA reduced racial and ethnic disparities in health care coverage. (
  • Underdeveloped rural India offers vast opportunities for investment in healthcare infrastructure, human resources and telemedicine. (
  • Full employment required that total expenditures rise continually to pay for the new infrastructure, factories and equipment that made full employment possible. (
  • These statistics are concentrated in developing regions, especially in rural areas, where systemic gaps in financial, human and infrastructure resources lead to yawning gaps in health care delivery. (
  • It presents information on national health policy and governance, infrastructure and human resources. (
  • Both private and public sectors invested in infrastructure, national and local governments serving as coordinating agents for infrastructure build-up. (
  • Investment in water and sanitation projects with private participation covers infrastructure projects in water and sanitation that have reached financial closure and directly or indirectly serve the public. (
  • World Bank, Private Participation in Infrastructure Project Database ( (
  • A third constraint on patient access is lack of health care infrastructure in certain countries and outdated facilities in both developed and emerging markets. (
  • including capital expenditures on health, education, infrastructure and recurrent expenditures. (
  • These efforts of public private partnerships should not replace the Government's primary obligation of ensuring the economic, social and cultural rights equally among everyone and its obligation in allocating maximum available resources. (
  • Public health consumes around 11% of the government's total budget, which is allocated and mostly spent by the nine provinces. (
  • Most of the studies in this area have treated the impact of government's expenditure on health in Nigeria, without linking such expenditure appropriately to productivity. (
  • Moreover, reductions in state Medicaid expenditures during the next several years are likely to affect this population disproportionate relative to other groups of children. (
  • While Arkansas relies heavily on fixed federal, state and local budget resources to support its HCBS program, it also has access to an additional, essentially open-ended source of funding for personal care, available as an optional service in its Medicaid state plan. (
  • In Illinois, the HCBS program, funded by both state general funds and Medicaid waiver resources, operates as a statewide entitlement. (
  • However, among the countries declaring private insurance as a percentage of total expenditures for health, the United States far exceeded the others. (
  • A range of hospital performance indicators are reported as well as information on public hospital expenditure, resources and bed numbers. (
  • Chile has had a longterm social policy addressing socioeconomic problems in health and in education, resulting in impressive health indicators (e.g., in 1990, 97% immunization rate for children under 5 years of age. (
  • Extensive coverage of our health care system's structures, finances, and performance on a variety of population health indicators provides the necessary background, frameworks, and principles through which the adequacy of alternative health care system financing strategies can be analyzed. (
  • Over the last decade, total healthcare expenditures, comprised of both public and private healthcare expenditures, have increased in most East African countries. (
  • First, we documented that there is a strong, positive association between total healthcare expenditures and total life expectancy. (
  • While we identified a positive relationship between healthcare expenditures and female and male life expectancy, we found that healthcare had a stronger effect on improving life expectancy in females than in males. (
  • Moreover, we found a negative relationship between healthcare expenditures and the number of neonatal, infant, and under-five deaths. (
  • ABSTRACT An analysis was made of recent health care spending patterns in the occupied Palestinian territory, in order to inform future health policy-making and planning. (
  • Our analysis is informed by lessons from countries that have made the most rapid progress on millennium development goals 4 (to reduce child mortality rates), 5 (to improve maternal health), and 6 (to combat HIV/AIDS, malaria, and other diseases) since 2000. (
  • Data were obtained from the national health accounts for the period 2000-2011. (
  • 2001. Cambodia Demographic and Health Survey 2000. (
  • 2WHO, The world health report 2000. (
  • total expenditure on 2000. (
  • general health report 2000. (
  • Building on the successful experience of Cuba and English-speaking Caribbean countries in interrupting endemic transmission of the measles virus, the ministers of health adopted a resolution at the 24th Pan American Sanitary Conference in 1994 to interrupt indigenous measles transmission in the Americas by the year 2000. (
  • Inadequate financing and inefficient allocation and use of the available health care resources are major obstacles to progress toward equity and financial protection. (
  • Efficient allocation of public expenditure is a prerequisite for reducing inequities. (
  • Determination of priorities, stages to carry out Plan and propose the allocation of resources. (
  • Rationing limited water resources by hours per day has long been attempted by cities throughout the world as a means of providing equitable allocation to both the rich and poor in urban areas. (
  • To what extent does the allocation of health resources succeed in ensuring equity? (
  • These challenges must be overcome to provide policy-relevant information for optimal population health resource allocation. (
  • These requests are consistent with calls for comparative effectiveness research to inform cost-effective allocation of resources among the multiple determinants of health (2,3). (
  • While some countries had initiated fundamental changes, others had initiated sequential, evolutionary, and incremental changes in the policy, organization and management of health systems. (
  • With a focus on the prevalence of disparities in health and health care, the book reviews the historical evolution and organization of our health care system. (
  • Provides the latest information on the financing and organization of the U.S. health care system. (
  • CIHI is an independent, not-for-profit organization that provides essential information on Canada's health system and the health of Canadians. (
  • We found that the pattern of interactions among network organizations in resource-based subnetworks appears to be dependent on the organizations controlling these resources (the Network Administrative Organization versus network members) as well as the nature of the resource (tangible versus knowledge based). (
  • In September 2003, the 44th Directing Council of the Pan American Health Organization adopted a goal to eliminate rubella and congenital rubella syndrome by 2010. (
  • The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) supports strategies that encourage political commitment, reduce inequities in health, and enhance the culture of prevention ( 1 ). (
  • and health care expenditures and payers. (
  • Health care payers and providers have access to more data than the vast majority of organizations. (
  • Payers and providers-and, by extension, all health-care consumers-can now discern the extent to which each intervention, as well as its associated expenditures, contributes to better health. (
  • We spend the same in recurrent expenditure, but less in capital expenditure. (
  • We analyzed the proposal of Universal Health Coverage as an alternative to universal systems. (
  • Mandates:  To address the need of Universal Health Coverage. (
  • 9] to universal health coverage. (
  • There is no clear guidance on how to translate and apply the existing lessons and principles on health financing for universal health coverage to fragile situations. (
  • 8] as a percentage of total health expenditure was 68.5% in 2010. (
  • Investments to reform and improve health systems have not always been designed to deal with new challenges related largely to the demographic and epidemiological transition or the expectations of the population. (
  • Examines the historical evolvement of the U.S. health care system, its financing and health care delivery structures, and the prospects for health care reform. (
  • Revised chapter on health care reform that considers the 2016 election and anticipated changes to the Affordable Care Act. (
  • One viewpoint is that health care is taking too big a share of GDP, that the marginal benefits of high-tech medicine are small - that we're on the flat part" of the cost-results curve - and that controlling costs ought to be a major objective in health care finance reform. (
  • Improving health care access is a major goal of governments around the world, and a centerpiece of many reform efforts in many countries. (
  • Yet, acquiring and leveraging technology innovations require financial investments that many health care providers - even in developed economies - may struggle to afford in an era of cost-cutting and reform. (
  • 1) In addition to its wider reform agenda, urge and support the WHO to implement its reforms for outbreaks and health emergencies, in a timely manner, recognizing also its resource needs, with the understanding that the WHO should continue to play the central role in global public health crisis preparedness and response. (
  • Peabody and his colleagues looked at National Health Accounts (NHAs) for four very different Asian countries-India, Philippines, Sri Lanka, and Vietnam-to detail how health care is financed and where funds are allocated. (
  • The Constitution of India makes health in India the responsibility of the state governments, rather than the central federal government. (
  • Presentation summarizes the major highlights from Health chapter of 12th Plan of India. (
  • In India, BMGF's activities are largely in the fields of health and nutrition, where it co-funds government programmes, non-governmental organisations' activities and pharmaceutical companies' ventures here. (
  • 4 Thus BMGF's funds as such cannot make a major contribution to meeting the health needs of India. (
  • The larger context of clinical trials in India is poverty and the absence of affordable health care. (
  • A study conducted by the Future Health Systems Consortium in Murshidabad, West Bengal indicates that barriers to immunisation coverage are adverse geographic location, absent or inadequately trained health workers and low perceived need for immunization. (
  • Although continuing to use private plans would perpetuate the tremendous administrative excesses that waste resources that should be directed to patient care, fewer public tax dollars would be required to expand coverage to everyone. (
  • Frivolous lawsuits" has to be about reason No. 999 for the increases I have seen in my health coverage. (
  • There is vested collective interest in a national commitment health coverage early in the disease processes is addressed. (
  • [4] Many employers are seeking to limit their exposure to rising health care costs by requiring their employees to increase their contributions or by providing different forms of coverage, potentially reducing household available income finances as more costs are shifted from employers to employees. (
  • As a consequence of worsening political and economic crises, 2.9 million people lost private healthcare plan coverage, while violent deaths and outbreaks of infectious disease increased. (
  • Those who do not have health coverage face barriers for accessing health when needed. (
  • This is part of the California Healthline Daily Edition, a summary of health policy coverage from major news organizations. (
  • Expanded private health insurance coverage and Australia's ageing population have supported revenue growth over the period. (
  • The WHO considers health financing models with high risk pooled, such as health insurance and prepaid schemes, a promising means for achieving universal health-care coverage and promotion health care. (
  • The Ministry of Public Health (MoPH) functions as 'insurer of last resort' for approximately 54% of the population that would otherwise lack hospitalization coverage. (
  • This background paper examines health care spending and the impact on the economy of the United States. (
  • Examines the nation's health care needs, the prevalence of health and health care disparities, and the latest theories that explain the causal origins of health and health care disparities. (
  • The Trends in Income-Related Health Inequalities in Canada project examines whether health gaps between lower- and higher-income individuals have changed over time. (
  • such work examines the factor itself - such as being uninsured or high school graduation rates (5) - but not the financial or policy resources producing them. (
  • The National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) is the nation's principal health statistics agency, providing data to identify and address health issues. (
  • Collaborating with other public and private health partners, NCHS uses a variety of data collection mechanisms to obtain accurate information from multiple sources. (
  • A comparison of utilisation and health expenditure data across the 42nd (1987) and 52nd (1996) Rounds of the NSS showed up these alarming trends. (
  • The levels and trends of health expenditure data identify key issues such as weaknesses and strengths and areas that need investment, for instance additional health facilities, better health information systems, or better trained human resources. (
  • It generates consistent and comprehensive data on health spending in a country, which in turn can contribute to evidence-based policy-making. (
  • The Health, United States Spotlight is an infographic series that explores topics of public health importance using data from the Health, United States annual report. (
  • Consistent with the annual report, the Spotlight focuses on trends over time and features data from both NCHS and non-NCHS (government or private) sources. (
  • As always, the CIHI provides a wealth of health data and information resources and its site is an enormous asset to health researchers, health care administrators and policy makers across the country. (
  • Among 35 countries in the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) in 2014, the latest year for which comparable data is available, spending per person on health care remained highest in the United States (CA$11,126). (
  • It collects and publishes data about a wide range of economic and social issues including health and health care policy. (
  • Health Expenditures - statistics and numerical data 3. (
  • Health Care Costs - statistics and numerical data 4. (
  • Sources of data to estimate the total household expenditures on health. (
  • In the latest year data are available (2003), total national spending on health care rose to $1.67 trillion, or $5,670 per person. (
  • The challenge at this stage is to engage the 'passionate doers' primarily when they can 'do' something such as 'vote' on options, 'survey' people in their neighborhood about oral health knowledge and attitudes, or 'examine' children to collect baseline data and refer them for the care they need. (
  • An overview of Canadian health spending trends, featuring comparative expenditure data at provincial, territorial and international levels. (
  • The national health accounts data on the systems. (
  • The technology-enabled, transforming health care system is producing an immense volume of information and, more specifically, how to interpret and use that data will be important. (
  • Each profile contains statistical data on current health conditions, population dynamics, health and family planning behavior, and health and population trends in a given developing country. (
  • Information is compiled from AIM's health statistics database, which draws data from a diverse range of sources listed at the end of this profile. (
  • We obtained data for 67 033 people aged 18-64 years in Ontario who participated in the Canadian Community Health Survey in 2005, 2007/08 or 2009/10 to assess their household food insecurity status in the 12 months before the survey interview. (
  • We linked these data with administrative health care data to determine individuals' direct health care costs during the same 12-month period. (
  • The answer is that, despite the promise of electronic medical records, much of the data that reveals what works in health care has been inadequate and unusable-or is missing altogether. (
  • They also require significantly different data sources in order to tease out the impact of a current treatment and its associated expenditures from other variables, such as treatments already performed, genetics, risk factors, patient behaviors, and the environment. (
  • Big data and advanced analytics, used intelligently, provide an opportunity to bring together diverse data sources-including patient records, clinical trials, insurance claims, government records, registries, wearable devices, and even social media-to understand health in a truly value-oriented way. (
  • Data can transform health care in seemingly endless ways. (
  • National Health Expenditure Trends, 1975 to 2016 forecasts total health spending in Canada to reach $228 billion or $6,299 per Canadian in 2016. (
  • The U.S. Centers for Disease Control, for instance, estimates that health behaviors, medical care, and genes together contribute approximately 50 percent of the influence on population health, while social and environmental characteristics contribute the remaining 50 percent. (
  • Health system Health systems by country List of countries by hospital beds List of countries by life expectancy List of countries by infant mortality rate List of countries by quality of health care List of OECD health expenditure by country by type of financing Health expenditure and financing. (
  • Direct payment (or out-of-pocket expenditure) at the point of service, the most inefficient and regressive form of financing, yields an unstable flow of financial resources and constitutes an access barrier that impedes or delays care and makes it more expensive for both patients and the system. (
  • Weak health system regulatory capacity, excessive verticality in some public health programs, lack of integrated service delivery, and, occasionally, union pressure to protect privileges and lack of political will to make the necessary changes exacerbate and perpetuate this problem. (
  • Thus, the 16th conference adopted the theme Democracy and Health: health as a right and consolidation of the Unified Health System (SUS) funding. (
  • This privatisation policy, which mandates the introduction and/or increase of user charges at public health facilities, has taken the public health system to the brink of collapse. (
  • Non-salary components have shrunk considerably as budget increases do not factor in allocative efficiencies for the effective running of the public health system. (
  • This coupled with privatisation policies, including the introduction and/or increase in user charges, has taken the public health system to the brink of collapse. (
  • they take 20% to 30% of the health-care dollars of the current multipayer system. (
  • The process lays down a set of policy measures covering the four main core functions of the health system, viz. (
  • This overview of South Africa's demographic profile, economic development and health system provides the context in which to view the situation of antibiotic access and resistance. (
  • The presence and utilisation of these features within the health system are discussed in relation to access to essential medicines, with a particular focus on antibiotics. (
  • To address the knowledge gap that exists in costing unsafe abortion in Ethiopia, estimates were derived of the cost to the health system of providing postabortion care (PAC), based on research conducted in 2008. (
  • Investing more resources in family planning programs to prevent unwanted pregnancies would be cost-beneficial to the health system. (
  • Background: Human Resource for Health (HRH) is one of the most important building blocks of the health system. (
  • To achieve the sustainable development goals related to maternal, child, and adolescent health, countries need to integrate targeted interventions within their national health strategies and leverage them into financing, workforce, and monitoring capacity across the system, say James Campbell and colleagues . (
  • The HiT profiles are country-based reports that provide a detailed description of a health system and of policy initiatives in progress or under development. (
  • The health system is a mixture of public integrated, public contract and public reimbursement models, comprising elements from both the public and private sectors and incorporating principles of different organizational patterns. (
  • The system is financed by the state budget, social insurance contributions and private payments. (
  • These shortcomings result in low satisfaction with the health care system expressed by citizens. (
  • The landmark in the development of the Greek health care system was the creation of the national health system (‎ESY)‎ in 1983. (
  • system along formal and informal, public and private service provision. (
  • The Ministry of Health is examining the various health system functions and building blocks including health care financing with technical support from WHO. (
  • In order to provide elements of answers to the above mentioned questions, the Ministry of Health, in collaboration with WHO, embarked on several studies related to health care financing, including developing a system of national health accounts. (
  • With 14 different health departments, the system was characterised by fragmentation and duplication. (
  • The Philippine health system has undergone changes and trends to meet the timely demand for it. (
  • In fact, there have been many legislative actions undertaken by the government to form the regulatory framework for the health system and public health in the country. (
  • Today nearly 160 million people-around 75% of Brazil's population-depend solely on the Unified Health System (known as SUS) for healthcare. (
  • It is nothing to do with our health care system. (
  • This AJN award-winning textbook helps readers understand and critically assess the U.S. health care system and policies. (
  • Analyzes the current U.S. health care system and policies from several social justice theories, providing a critical examination of the field. (
  • Compares the U.S. health care system with that of other democracies, providing a unique comparative perspective. (
  • This book is an ideal text for graduate courses in health care policy or disparities in the U.S. health care system in schools of social work, public health, nursing, medicine, and public policy and administration. (
  • He is also the co-author of The Safety-Net Health Care System: Health Care at the Margins (Springer Publishing, 2012). (
  • How much did the health-care system save by not performing the transplant? (
  • Take a look at the health system resources that are available for mental health and addictions care in Canada, including financial and physical resources, and health care professionals. (
  • It's a call to action to the health care system and a call for additional research. (
  • The aging population, which is expected to more than triple again over the next half-century, and increasing life expectancies are expected to place a huge burden on the health care system in many markets. (
  • Their support to health system strengthening has not been comprehensive but has involved the selection of a few areas some of which were disease-focused. (
  • The World Health Report (2013) stated that inefficiency of the health department financing system has led to a waste of about 20% to 40% of the total health expenditures. (
  • Any deficiencies with the Universal Health Insurance system introduced in Ireland could disproportionately disadvantage people with disabilities. (
  • The Institute of Medicine (1) has called on the federal government to issue an annual report on trends and disparities in social and environmental factors that affect health and to advance the use of system-based simulation models to explain the health consequences of the underlying determinants of health. (
  • In Shaping a Health Statistics Vision for the 21st Century , the National Committee on Vital and Health Statistics (9) called for a better health statistics information system to help policy makers decide how to use health resources and emphasized the importance of considering factors beyond the health of the individual, to include community and socioeconomic factors. (
  • We have the wrong balance of social and medical spending if one of our priorities is improving health overall and measures such as infant mortality and life expectancy. (
  • Similarly, a study of the effects of state expenditures on state-level age-adjusted mortality reported on public expenditures, tax structures, and welfare program rules and found that more generous education spending, more progressive tax systems, and more lenient welfare program rules helped to improve population health (8). (
  • The types of projects included are operations and management contracts, operations and management contracts with major capital expenditure, greenfield projects (in which a private entity or a public-private joint venture builds and operates a new facility), and divestitures. (
  • however, these same advances are likely to increase overall costs, prompting widespread efforts by public and private health care providers and insurers to contain expenditure by restructuring care delivery models and promoting more efficient use of resources. (
  • Federal and state governments, along with private insurers, each pay for about one-third of third-party health-care spending for every individual in Australia. (
  • Public-private partnerships are key to supporting any public good, such as education. (
  • Government has expressed its intention of engaging in public private partnerships in important social sectors such as health, education, etc. (
  • The health status of the Greek population has strongly improved over the last few decades and seems to compare relatively favourably with other OECD and European Union (‎EU)‎ countries. (
  • India's 12th Five year plan is widely believed to be Health Plan. (
  • However, BMGF's funds are small compared to India's public health expenditure. (
  • The segmentation and fragmentation that characterize the majority of the Region's health systems give rise to inequities and inefficiencies that compromise universal access, quality, and financing. (
  • The mandate for investing in a step change to health care delivery systems has thus been limited. (
  • Continuous monitoring and review of health systems development is also required. (
  • In the context of the workshop discussion and this summary, managed care is used loosely to refer to health care systems, plans, and programs that are intentionally designed to integrate the financing of health care with its delivery. (
  • The performance of the health systems is substantially impacted by the performance of health workers. (
  • and investing in health systems strengthening using existing and new funding from national and international sources. (
  • 3 In this paper we highlight two core aspects that require urgent attention-building the resilience of health systems and ensuring sufficient human resources. (
  • Progress in achieving the millennium development goals has been substantive but uneven, with its equity, effectiveness, and sustainability being often undermined by lack of integration into national health systems. (
  • Fragile and under-resourced health systems struggle to cope, placing the lives and well-being of millions of people at risk. (
  • Presentation given by Professor Sophie Witter at a Satellite session of the 5th Global Symposium on Health Systems Reseach, on 'Health financing in fragile an conflict-affected states: controversies and innovations' on Monday 8th October iin Liverpool, UK. (
  • Improving health financing systems is critical to enable countries to raise more resources for health and make good choices about how to use them. (
  • Several social justice theories are used to critically evaluate current U.S. health care systems and policies, providing readers with various perspectives of the field. (
  • Prior to that, he was a social work practitioner and administrator in not-for-profit and public health care systems for 15 years. (
  • His teaching and research interests include health care policy, social welfare policy, poverty and inequality, safety-net health care systems, and the determinants of disparities in health and in health care. (
  • The national objectives serve as a 'menu' for identifying priorities and selecting objectives that are most relevant to states, territories, tribes, communities, settings (schools, worksites, etc.), and health care delivery systems. (
  • The number of Canadian seniors living with Alzheimer's disease and other forms of dementia is rising steadily, and so is the burden on caregivers and health care systems. (
  • Mills AJ, Ranson MK, The design of health systems. (
  • private programmes, systems, and policies. (
  • Whether a country is spending nearly 18 percent GDP on health care (like the U.S.) or recession-riddled Europe, which is spending around 10 percent, public and private funding systems are economically stressed - across the globe, rising costs are unaffordable and unsustainable. (
  • and Nick Franklin, senior vice president of public affairs at PacifiCare Health Systems. (
  • Health informatics tools include computers, clinical guidelines , formal medical terminologies, and information and communication systems, among others. (
  • The aims were to understand and profile the GHIs supporting health development and to assess their governance and alignment with country priorities, harmonisation and alignment of their interventions and efforts, and contribution towards health systems strengthening. (
  • Health systems in both Tanzania and Zambia are decentralised. (
  • On the positive side, however, in both Tanzania and Zambia improved alignment with the countries' priorities is noted in that most of the proposals submitted to the GHIs refer to the priorities, objectives and strategies in the national health development plans and, GHIs depend on the national health information systems. (
  • It means risk sharing/pooling plays a key role in all financing systems for achieving effectiveness and efficiency health systems. (
  • 3) Recognize that an operational y robust and technical y competent WHO is crucial for supporting countries in emergency preparedness, response and recovery and helping build resilient health systems. (
  • Bismarck and Beveridge systems - One method of distinguishing health care funding systems is between Bismarck and Beveridge systems ( Björnberg et al. (
  • To address the social determinants of health. (
  • Why have researchers not estimated the per capita level of investment at the community level for each of the determinants of health (medical care, public health, behaviors, and the social and physical environment and their related programs and policies) beyond which health does not improve at all or very much? (
  • Since the public and private health care sectors are broad, we focused on the public healthcare expenditure from 1999-2012 for objective analysis. (
  • Because of the increasing attention on improving population health, policy makers in the public and private sectors are asking for better information to guide their investment decisions. (
  • Over half the respondents (56.6%) had not heard about health insurance. (
  • Respondents who have good level of knowledge about TB are less likely to spend more than the median expenditure almost by a fifth compared to those with limited knowledge on TB, (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0.2, with 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.06, 0.84). (
  • The respondents included senior officers from health stakeholder agencies at the national and sub-national levels. (
  • Despite the economic growth and progress in health of the past decade, poverty and inequity within and among countries remain a challenge for the Region of the Americas. (
  • The absence of mechanisms to protect against the financial risk of ill health creates and perpetuates a vicious cycle of disease and poverty. (
  • However, high levels of poverty and unemployment mean health care remains largely the burden of the state. (
  • Public health care expenditure is considered as the explanatory variable for health status, productivity and poverty reduction. (
  • To investigate the roles of prices, poverty, and health in divergences between Medicare and private spending in Texas. (
  • Variation in Medicare and private spending per person are decomposed into prices and quantities, and their associations with poverty are measured. (
  • The 2 markets with extremely high Medicare-to-private spending ratios (Harlingen and McAllen) are predominantly Hispanic communities with markedly higher rates of poverty and lack of insurance and also extremely low physician supply. (
  • Extending the concept of the resource curse: natural resources and public spending on health ," IOB Working Papers 2014.01, Universiteit Antwerpen, Institute of Development Policy (IOB). (
  • Natural Resources and Economic Growth: The Role of Investment ," EPRU Working Paper Series 01-02, Economic Policy Research Unit (EPRU), University of Copenhagen. (
  • NCHS compiles statistical information to help guide public health and health policy decisions. (
  • The foundation's memorandum of understanding with the Bihar government (Bihar and Uttar Pradesh are the two states where the foundation's work is concentrated, according to the foundation website) elaborates on this strategy: to use the foundation's resources to "leverage public and private resources" for its objectives, and use "the state as an incubator of innovation" to influence national-level programmes and policy. (
  • The dominance of clientelism and party thinking instead of consensus-building has resulted in a health policy that lacks continuity and the ability to bring about change. (
  • Lack of a market for these resources, inappropriate policy measures to internalize the externalities, and inadequate standards of measurement invariably results in under- valuation of environmental resources. (
  • However, proper valuation of environmental resources by extending the traditional product boundary provides a better tool for policy formulation and decision-making. (
  • At the government level, industrial policy that reduced the cost to private firms of securing foreign technology enhanced social capacity. (
  • Addresses the latest developments in health care policy domains such as long-term care, end-of-life care, and initiatives to reduce disparities in health. (
  • Related to this, there is a need to inform all stakeholders including all Filipinos of F1 strategies as guiding principle and strategic approach in health planning, policy and program development, implementation and for monitoring and evaluation. (
  • The draft policy suggests making health a fundamental right similar to education and denial of the same could be punishable. (
  • The new policy is being introduced almost 13 years after the last health policy was drafted. (
  • Policy makers and industry leaders in most countries are trying to shift to newer reimbursement and delivery models, such as payment by results, episode-based payment, and value- and population-based health care. (
  • This analysis is part of The Leonard D. Schaeffer Initiative for Innovation in Health Policy , which is a partnership between the Center for Health Policy at Brookings and the USC Schaeffer Center for Health Policy & Economics. (
  • these natural experiments should offer investment and policy guidance for a business model on population health. (
  • In response to a request from the Subcommittee on Social Security of the House Ways and Means Committee, this study looks at how the incomes and wealth of baby boomers compare with those of their parents as young adults, assesses the financial health of current retirees as a basis for comparison, and discusses factors that will influence the financial well-being of baby boomers in retirement. (
  • 5 Summary he impending swell of retired baby boomers has raised concern that both public and private resources will be inadequate to provide for their financial well- being in retirement. (
  • How countries finance and allocate public expenditures determines how they meet their populations' health needs. (
  • Using a large panel dataset of world countries covering the period from 1991 to 2010, we find a robust, significant inverse relationship between natural resource dependence, and even abundance, and public health spending over time. (
  • This article includes 2 lists of countries of the world and their total expenditure on health per capita. (
  • In most developed countries, where healthcare access is near-universal, public financing, which accounts for around 80% of all health expenditure, whether through state revenues and/or social insurance, has been the critical component in realising universal access with equity. (
  • In contrast, in most developing countries the reverse is true -- 70-80% of health expenditure is met by individuals from their private resources. (
  • Ministers from Member countries of WHO SEAR, at their 15th meeting in August 1997 adopted the Declaration on Health Development in the South-East Asia Region in the 21st century. (
  • Public and private donor financing for health in developing countries. (
  • Public and private domestic expenditures for health in a total 148 developing countries for 1983, were estimated to be $100 billion. (
  • 1986 external donor health expenditures totalled $4 billion, a small percentage of overall health expenditure for developing countries. (
  • PDPs are essentially ways for industry to influence the decision-making process and get entry into the large and relatively untapped markets of public health programmes in developing countries. (
  • AttributionNonCommercialShareAlike 3.0 License, which allows others to remix, resource-poor and resource-rich communities and even from tweak, and build upon the work noncommercially, as long as the author is credited poor to rich countries. (
  • These countries, however, were spending a relatively small percentage of their GDP on health care in 1990. (
  • The Philippines, compared to most Asian countries, produces more and better human resources for health. (
  • Anyway we slice it, the countries share so much in so many things, in health care or whatever industry. (
  • Many countries across the globe are facing a challenge to meet their required number of health care workers, a shortage that directly affects the quality of care. (
  • A number of Global health initiatives (GHIs) have been created to support low and middle income countries. (
  • GHI efforts to improve general health governance have not been matched with similar efforts from the countries. (
  • GHIs are important funders of health in low and middle income countries. (
  • One of the most urgent and vexing challenges faced by many low- and middle-income countries is how to provide health care for the more than two billion poor people who live in these areas (developing countries). (
  • As much as more than 65% (in 2014) of total private health care expenditure in low-income countries comes from out-of-pocket payment by patients. (
  • In addition, according to World Bank report (2007), in low and lower middle-income countries was speared nearly 13% of global health spending with 87% the global disease burden. (
  • In 2007 with respect to the distribution of the global disease burden in low- and middle-income countries 87.5%, but only 12.5 percent of global health spending was in this group of countries. (
  • 4) Urge al countries to improve their prevention and preparedness against outbreaks and incorporate measures for enhanced national health security over time. (
  • Formal health insurance addresses this need, but many individuals, particularly the poor and already sick, either choose not to get it or cannot get it for cost reasons. (
  • This would cover all Californians and be funded by the money already being spent in this state for medical care and health insurance. (
  • About 4% comes from social insurance and 1% from private insurance companies. (
  • It comes as the GMC launched a review into its offer of private health insurance to staff in 2012 , as it sought 'efficiency gains' that would allow it to offer cuts to fees. (
  • financed through prepayment mechanisms such as health insurance. (
  • Of those not enrolled, 57.1% were willing to consider buying health insurance. (
  • Those in younger age groups, with higher levels of education and higher household incomes reported having heard of health insurance. (
  • Higher educational level and household incomes were positively associated with willingness to enroll in a health insurance scheme. (
  • In Nigeria, private health expenditure health insurance and general taxation than through user-fees. (
  • The remaining 25% of spending was paid by private sources, mainly private insurance and individuals. (
  • Private health insurance fills the gap between public expenditures and out-of-pocket costs. (
  • Fast-tracking the implementation of a National Health Insurance scheme, which will eventually cover all South Africans. (
  • Example of these are the Local Government code of 1991, National Health Insurance Act of 1995, Organ Donation Act (1991), Hospital Licensure Act, Pharmacy Act, Dangerous Drugs Act and many others. (
  • About four per cent comes from social insurance and one per cent from private insurance companies. (
  • Employers 174 million Americans, or 60.4 percent of the population, had employment-based health insurance during 2003. (
  • Employees Workers with employer-sponsored health insurance will often experience reductions in real (after adjusting for inflation) wages reductions (or wage growth) in response to health care cost growth. (
  • Most Californians now have health insurance. (
  • Findings suggest that population health programmes including screening and preventative health programmes need to be protected through tax-based financing and provided for outside of an insurance based model. (
  • These organizations help pharmaceutical companies boost efficiency by allowing them to channel their resources toward core operations, such as drug innovation. (
  • and allocating more resources for health promotion and disease prevention programmes. (
  • Objectives: - To promote a rapid rise in the standard of living of the people by efficient exploitation of the resources of the country, - Increasing production and offering opportunities to all for employment in the service of the community. (
  • Updated instructor's resources include for each chapter: chapter synopsis and learning objectives, ideas worth grasping, key terms and concepts, discussion questions, and writing assignments. (
  • The challenge that always confronts public health professionals when trying to promote HP 2010 is gaining commitment to use an organized planning approach based on setting priorities, developing measurable objectives, setting realistic targets, and measuring progress at regular intervals. (
  • Although the large number and diversity of health agency structures and resources make this a challenge, increased attention to these details will help when designing and tracking progress on the HP 2010 objectives. (
  • Health agencies also vary in their capacity to monitor the objectives they identify as most relevant to their missions. (
  • If that's right, then reducing the impact of health care on job market decisions, reducing out-of-pocket spending by the poor, and reducing the risk of a bad health event leading to financial ruin are all major objectives, along with improving quality and access. (
  • 1) Recognizing recent outbreaks of the Ebola and Zika viruses underscore the imperative to improve prevention of, detection of and response to public health emergencies, whether natural y occurring, deliberate or accidental, remain committed to advancing compliance with the WHO's IHR objectives including through the Global Health Security Agenda (GHSA). (
  • One of the main objectives of this initiative is improving women's health, consistent with achieving the Millennium Development Goals. (
  • One of the main objectives is improving women's health, which is also one of the major Millennium Development Goals in health ( 4 ). (
  • This is made up of out-of-pocket (OOP) personal resources, and With the costs of both infectious and non-communicable constituted 95.6% of private expenditure on health. (
  • Yet, as has been remarked in at least one study one should hold the applause given potential rebounds that may occur in spending whether due to costs of dying, future drug expenditures or other demand factors. (
  • It is often argued that over-exploitation takes place because stakeholders take into account only private costs and benefits, that too for the current period, in decision- making and ignore the externalities and the long-term aspects. (
  • Regulating costs to make health care affordable to all. (
  • A December 2004 survey of CEOs found that employee health care costs are the foremost cost concern in the minds of Americas business leaders. (
  • Some economists note that rising health care spending has important benefits, often outweighing the increased costs. (
  • Through economic analyses estimates of health IT implementation and use costs and benefits will be generated. (
  • While writing the first edition of Health at a Glance: Latin America and the Caribbean , very few of us could have imagined that a pandemic would have exposed the world to the worst health emergency in a century, with massive human, economic and social costs. (
  • One of the main strategies for the government to contain health care costs is higher patient cost sharing, that is, requiring patients to pay a larger share of the cost of care. (
  • As a share of GDP, health expenditure will represent 11.1% of Canada's GDP in 2016, a share that is below its 2010 peak as illustrated in the accompanying figure. (
  • In 2016, total health expenditure per capita is expected to range from $7,256 in Newfoundland and Labrador and $7,120 in Manitoba to $6,144 in Ontario and $5,822 in Quebec. (
  • The lack of resources intensified when, in December 2016, then President Michel Temer approved a constitutional amendment limiting the health budget over the next 20 years-with a projected decline of R$415 billion (£61 billion, $80 billion) by 2036. (
  • The experience and concrete products obtained during the years of the polio elimination initiative benefited the ministers of health by giving them the necessary confidence and credibility for allocating adequate resources to the current vaccination programs and embarking on new initiatives. (
  • 80% of the expenditures of routine vaccination programs, including the purchase of vaccines. (
  • For most of this century, government and community institutions have made substantial contributions that enhance access to health care for this population of children. (
  • The industry experienced a period of aggressive growth over the past five years, benefiting from an aging U.S. population and an expansion in private health-related R&D expenditures. (
  • Recent Trends Since the late 1990s, health care spending has increased at a faster rate of growth than has gross domestic product (GDP), inflation, and population. (
  • Determining health priorities helps direct resources to the programs that matter most to communities--those that will have the greatest impact on the health status of the population. (
  • Still, the trillion dollars a year or so we spend on health care, over and above what the average advanced country would spend if it had a population our size, is a hell of a lot of money. (
  • People with disabilities have higher level of health needs than the general population. (
  • Indeed, public health experts now agree that a variety of factors beyond access to and quality of health care influence population health. (
  • Almost nothing in the public and population health literature addresses these questions. (
  • Variation in private spending reflects the ability of the local population to pay for healthcare, whereas variation in Medicare is more driven by health status. (
  • Variation in private spending appears to reflect the ability of the local population to pay for healthcare, whereas variation in Medicare is more heavily driven by health status, and presumably, by clinical need. (
  • Infectious disease hospitalizations among infants account for substantial health care expenditures and hospital time in the United States, with respiratory disease hospitalizations constituting more than one half of all hospitalizations. (
  • Health Expenditure makes up a substantial part of the global economy. (
  • 13 , 14 With an estimated yearly incidence of 500 to 1000 new cases per million individuals in Western society, 7 which is ever increasing in concert with the increase in cardiovascular risk factors, 15 , 16 , 17 CLI poses a substantial burden on patients, healthcare providers, and resources. (
  • The empirical evidence has tended to show that health care cost increases are offset by either direct wage reductions, increased employee cost sharing, or in instances where wages are fixed (i.e., unionized contracts), by increases in the number of hours worked. (
  • governance, provision, financing and resource generation. (
  • Markets are divided into 4 groups and are compared based on the ratio of Medicare to private spending: "high-private," "proportional," "high-Medicare," and "extremely high-Medicare. (
  • Among Medicare beneficiaries, health status is a key driver of spending variation. (
  • Climate change has far-reaching impacts on human health and well-being. (
  • Often, extensive and rugged pastures that experience problems associated with grazing have sufficient forage but suffer from adverse impacts to natural resources from localized heavy grazing. (
  • This background paper focuses on a somewhat broader topichow health care spending impacts the economy of the United States. (
  • The health impacts of interventions that improve economic conditions such as household income are still the subject of considerable debate. (
  • The Varieties of Resource Experience: Natural Resource Export Structures and the Political Economy of Economic Growth ," World Bank Economic Review , World Bank Group, vol. 19(2), pages 141-174. (
  • Depending on whether a particular resource is tangible or tacit, subnetwork structures will differ in predictable ways. (