Privacy: The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)Confidentiality: The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.Genetic Privacy: The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.Computer Security: Protective measures against unauthorized access to or interference with computer operating systems, telecommunications, or data structures, especially the modification, deletion, destruction, or release of data in computers. It includes methods of forestalling interference by computer viruses or so-called computer hackers aiming to compromise stored data.Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act: Public Law 104-91 enacted in 1996, was designed to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the healthcare system, protect health insurance coverage for workers and their families, and to protect individual personal health information.Health Records, Personal: Longitudinal patient-maintained records of individual health history and tools that allow individual control of access.Disclosure: Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.Biological Specimen Banks: Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from accessed 1/31/2003)Security Measures: Regulations to assure protection of property and equipment.Informed Consent: Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.Health Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, retrieval, and dissemination of health information.Electronic Health Records: Media that facilitate transportability of pertinent information concerning patient's illness across varied providers and geographic locations. Some versions include direct linkages to online consumer health information that is relevant to the health conditions and treatments related to a specific patient.Patient Access to Records: The freedom of patients to review their own medical, genetic, or other health-related records.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.Information Dissemination: The circulation or wide dispersal of information.Patient Identification Systems: Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.Computer Communication Networks: A system containing any combination of computers, computer terminals, printers, audio or visual display devices, or telephones interconnected by telecommunications equipment or cables: used to transmit or receive information. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Information Management: Management of the acquisition, organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of information. (From Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)United StatesGovernment Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Pastoral Care: Counseling or comfort given by ministers, priests, rabbis, etc., to those in need of help with emotional problems or stressful situations.Medical Record Linkage: The creation and maintenance of medical and vital records in multiple institutions in a manner that will facilitate the combined use of the records of identified individuals.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Duty to Warn: A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.Internet: A loose confederation of computer communication networks around the world. The networks that make up the Internet are connected through several backbone networks. The Internet grew out of the US Government ARPAnet project and was designed to facilitate information exchange.Genetic Research: Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.Ethics, Research: The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.Minors: A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.Information Systems: Integrated set of files, procedures, and equipment for the storage, manipulation, and retrieval of information.Medical Informatics: The field of information science concerned with the analysis and dissemination of medical data through the application of computers to various aspects of health care and medicine.Adolescent Medicine: A branch of medicine pertaining to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases occurring during the period of ADOLESCENCE.Social Media: Platforms that provide the ability and tools to create and publish information accessed via the INTERNET. Generally these platforms have three characteristics with content user generated, high degree of interaction between creator and viewer, and easily integrated with other sites.Biometric Identification: A method of differentiating individuals based on the analysis of qualitative or quantitative biological traits or patterns. This process which has applications in forensics and identity theft prevention includes DNA profiles or DNA fingerprints, hand fingerprints, automated facial recognition, iris scan, hand geometry, retinal scan, vascular patterns, automated voice pattern recognition, and ultrasound of fingers.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Consumer Health Information: Information intended for potential users of medical and healthcare services. There is an emphasis on self-care and preventive approaches as well as information for community-wide dissemination and use.Ethics Committees, Research: Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.Ethics Consultation: Services provided by an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS) or an ethics team or committee (ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL) to address the ethical issues involved in a specific clinical case. The central purpose is to improve the process and outcomes of patients' care by helping to identify, analyze, and resolve ethical problems.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Telemedicine: Delivery of health services via remote telecommunications. This includes interactive consultative and diagnostic services.Personal Space: Invisible boundaries surrounding the individual's body which are maintained in relation to others.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Records as Topic: The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.Medical Informatics Applications: Automated systems applied to the patient care process including diagnosis, therapy, and systems of communicating medical data within the health care setting.Research Subjects: Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.Directed Tissue Donation: Tissue, organ, or gamete donation intended for a designated recipient.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Personal Autonomy: Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Consent Forms: Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.Attitude to Computers: The attitude and behavior associated with an individual using the computer.Outsourced Services: Organizational activities previously performed internally that are provided by external agents.

Driving toward guiding principles: a goal for privacy, confidentiality, and security of health information. (1/272)

As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate.  (+info)

Staff and patient feedback in mental health services for older people. (2/272)

OBJECTIVES: To compare the views of patients and staff on the quality of care provided on a psychogeriatric assessment ward over a five year period. To describe the quality improvements which were made as a result of their respective comments. DESIGN: Structured interviews were conducted with both patients and staff to obtain qualitative feedback and suggestions for improvement. An analysis of the percentage of positive and negative comments made by both patients and staff was used to compare the levels of satisfaction on a variety of aspects of the service provided. SETTING: Psychogeriatric inpatient assessment ward. SUBJECTS: 75 patients and 85 staff interviews were conducted. MAIN MEASURES: Structured interviews covering various aspects of service quality. RESULTS: Staff and patients picked up on different aspects of service quality as important. Quality improvements which arose from the interviews were clearly different. Generally patients were more positive about the physical environment and standards of professional care than staff, but less positive about issues of privacy, social interaction, and empowerment. CONCLUSIONS: The perspectives of patients and staff in this area are not interchangeable. Both series of interviews led to several positive changes in the quality of care. Interviews with staff seem to have been valuable in a low morale situation. A structured interview format provided patients with an opportunity to feedback openly and led to changes in service quality which would not otherwise have occurred.  (+info)

Medical records and privacy: empirical effects of legislation. (3/272)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the effects of state legislation requiring patient informed consent prior to medical record abstraction by external researchers for a specific study. DATA SOURCES/STUDY SETTING: Informed consent responses obtained from November 1997 through April 1998 from members of a Minnesota-based IPA model health plan. STUDY DESIGN: Descriptive case study of consent to gain access to medical records for a pharmaco-epidemiologic study of seizures associated with use of a pain medication that was conducted as part of the FDA's post-marketing safety surveillance program to evaluate adverse events associated with approved drugs. DATA COLLECTION: The informed consent process approved by an institutional review board consisted of three phases: (1) a letter from the health plan's medical director requesting participation, (2) a second mailing to nonrespondents, and (3) a follow-up telephone call to nonrespondents. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Of 140 Minnesota health plan members asked to participate in the medical records study, 52 percent (73) responded and 19 percent (26) returned a signed consent form authorizing access to their records for the study. For 132 study subjects enrolled in five other health plans in states where study-specific consent was not required, health care providers granted access to patient medical records for 93 percent (123) of the members. CONCLUSION: Legislation requiring patient informed consent to gain access to medical records for a specific research study was associated with low participation and increased time to complete that observational study. Efforts to protect patient privacy may come into conflict with the ability to produce timely and valid research to safeguard and improve public health.  (+info)

Jehovah's Witnesses' refusal of blood: obedience to scripture and religious conscience. (4/272)

Jehovah's Witnesses are students of the Bible. They refuse transfusions out of obedience to the scriptural directive to abstain and keep from blood. Dr Muramoto disagrees with the Witnesses' religious beliefs in this regard. Despite this basic disagreement over the meaning of Biblical texts, Muramoto flouts the religious basis for the Witnesses' position. His proposed policy change about accepting transfusions in private not only conflicts with the Witnesses' fundamental beliefs but it promotes hypocrisy. In addition, Muramoto's arguments about pressure to conform and coerced disclosure of private information misrepresent the beliefs and practices of Jehovah's Witnesses and ignore the element of individual conscience. In short, Muramoto resorts to distortion and uncorroborated assertions in his effort to portray a matter of religious faith as a matter of medical ethical debate.  (+info)

Questionnaire survey of California consumers' use and rating of sources of health care information including the Internet. (5/272)

OBJECTIVE: To understand how Californians use and rate various health information sources, including the Internet. RESEARCH DESIGN: Computer-assisted telephone interviews through which surveys were conducted in English or Spanish. SUBJECTS: A household sample generated by random digit dialing. The sample included 1007 adults (18+), 407 (40%) of whom had access to the Internet. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Past health information sources used, their usefulness and ease of use; future health information sources, which are trusted and distrusted; and concerns about integrating the Internet into future health information seeking and health care behaviors. RESULTS: Physicians and health care providers are more trusted for information than any other source, including the Internet. Among those with Internet access, a minority use it to obtain health information, and a minority is "very likely" to use e-mail to communicate with medical professionals or their own doctors and nurses, to refill prescriptions, or to make doctor appointments. Also, most of those with Internet access are "unlikely" to make their medical records available via the Internet, even if securely protected. CONCLUSIONS: The public, including frequent Internet users, has major concerns about the confidentiality of electronic medical records. Legislation may not assuage these fears and a long-term, open and collaborative process involving consumers and organizations from all the health care sectors may be needed for full public assurance.  (+info)

Ethical-legal problems of DNA databases in criminal investigation. (6/272)

Advances in DNA technology and the discovery of DNA polymorphisms have permitted the creation of DNA databases of individuals for the purpose of criminal investigation. Many ethical and legal problems arise in the preparation of a DNA database, and these problems are especially important when one analyses the legal regulations on the subject. In this paper three main groups of possibilities, three systems, are analysed in relation to databases. The first system is based on a general analysis of the population; the second one is based on the taking of samples for a particular list of crimes, and a third is based only on the specific analysis of each case. The advantages and disadvantages of each system are compared and controversial issues are then examined. We found the second system to be the best choice for Spain and other European countries with a similar tradition when we weighed the rights of an individual against the public's interest in the prosecution of a crime.  (+info)

Privacy Act; implementation. Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. Final rule. (7/272)

This final rule exempts the new system of records, the Healthcare Integrity and Protection Data Bank (HIPDB), from certain provisions of the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a). The establishment of the HIPDB is required by section 1128E of the Social Security Act (the Act), as added by section 221(a) of the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) of 1996. Section 1128E of the Act directed the Secretary to establish a national health care fraud and abuse data collection program for the reporting and disclosing of certain final adverse actions taken against health care providers, suppliers or practitioners, and to maintain a data base of final adverse actions taken against health care providers, suppliers and practitioners. Regulations implementing the new HIPDB were published in the Federal Register on October 26, 1999 (64 FR 57740). The exemption being set forth in this rule applies to investigative materials compiled for law enforcement purposes.  (+info)

The road not taken. (8/272)

The annual Janet Doe Lecture was established in 1966 to honor Janet Doe, emerita librarian of the New York Academy of Medicine. The lecture focuses on either the history or philosophy of health sciences librarianship. This lecture addresses three fundamental values of the field, highlighting basic beliefs of the profession that are at risk: privacy, intellectual property rights, and access to quality information. It calls upon readers to make the everyday choices required to keep the value system of health sciences librarianship in place. Robert Frost's poignant poem "The Road Not Taken" provides the metaphor for examining choices in an information economy.  (+info)

  • To manage today's ever-changing risk environment, many companies are engaging in cybersecurity and privacy risk assessments-conducted under privilege-to assess risks and provide a roadmap to creating proactive, agile privacy and cybersecurity programs. (
  • Since the Privacy Subcommittee also plays an advisory and community of experts' role, the sub-committee keeps abreast of any new legislation, polices, breaches and issues such as the emergence of Web 2.0 and its impact on government. (
  • The survey was designed to elicit answers and insights on how these providers detect and remediate privacy breaches. (
  • Eavesdropping on a whispered conversation, rummaging through personal belongings, or peeking through the window of a home are all activities that we can easily identify as flagrant invasions of privacy. (
  • If you are not satisfied with the centre's response you can contact the ABMDR Executive Officer, and if you are still not satisfied you can refer your complaint to the Commonwealth or state/territory Privacy Commissioner and we can provide you with their contact details. (
  • An explanation of cookies can be found at the site of the Privacy Commissioner). (
  • The Program seeks to integrate privacy protections into DOE, ensuring the protection of the personally identifiable information (PII) that is collected, used, maintained, retained, and shared by DOE programs. (
  • The Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (Part 99 of Title 34 of the Code of Federal Regulations) allows present or former students at educational institutions access to educational records kept on them, as well as basic protections of privacy of their records. (
  • A confidentiality agreement is entered into by all employees, contractors, and agents at the time of their employment or engagement with us protecting the privacy of individuals. (
  • Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation and Use and Disclosure of Federal Employees' Compensation Act Claims File Material;Final Rules. (
  • The DEPARTMENT OF LABOR hereby issues a final rule revising its existing regulations governing the conduct of Departmental employees and members of the public as it pertains to the treatment of records covered by the Privacy Act of 1974, 5 U.S.C. 552a, as amended. (
  • Legal standards now require privacy/security vendor contract terms, and companies should be ready to benchmark industry peer contract terms and reconsider liability limitations and other important contractual considerations. (
  • Privacy and security information for users of the Victus Health website. (
  • To learn more about the Privacy Shield Frameworks, and to view ABB's certification, please visit the US Department of Commerce's Privacy Shield website at (
  • For consideration are the privacy issues presented by new internet communication tools such as networking sites and web logs ("blogs"), the traditional concepts of privacy invasion, and why these concepts of individual privacy are unsuited to adequately protect the individual's sense of privacy in the digital age of the internet. (
  • Traditionally, an individual's concept of privacy has been easy to identify. (
  • With the added possibility of underage teenagers and children creating pages using applications such as MySpace and Facebook, the importance of protecting the individual's privacy rights online is undeniable. (
  • This is especially true in the protection of individual privacy rights. (
  • As a result, these traditional legal concepts of privacy protection now seem ill-equipped to adequately handle the issues presented by new forms of communication made available by the innovative technology of the internet age. (
  • Privacy protection concerns the right to keep your private life to yourself, a fundamental right in a society ruled by justice. (
  • We recognize that privacy is an important issue, so we design and operate our services with the protection of your privacy in mind. (
  • support the mandate of the PSSDC to "share information, develop partnerships and facilitate potential solutions that can be used to improve public sector service delivery" by playing a leadership and coordination role in matters related to access to information and privacy protection. (
  • Additionally, the survey sought to identify organizational behaviors which support the protection of patient privacy. (
  • We develop a semantics framework for verifying recent relaxations of differential privacy: R\'enyi differential privacy and zero-concentrated differential privacy. (
  • Moreover, we propose a framework to enable progression to more integrative models of the psychology of privacy in the digital age and in particular suggest that a group and social relations-based approach to privacy is needed. (
  • The existing regulations were promulgated shortly after the Privacy Act was enacted over 20 years ago and are in need of revision. (
  • The intent of these final regulations is to conform Labor Department requirements with the caselaw which evolved under the Privacy Act over the past years and to provide clarity. (
  • In order to reason about such properties compositionally, we introduce approximate span-liftings, generalizing approximate relational liftings previously developed for standard differential privacy to a more general class of divergences, and to continuous distributions. (
  • The Consumers Health Forum of Australia (CHF) is committed to protecting the privacy of individuals and continues to advocate for consumer privacy rights. (
  • These are as follows: sensitivity to individual differences in privacy disposition, a claim that privacy is fundamentally based in social interactions, a claim that privacy is inherently contextual, and a suggestion that privacy is as much about psychological groups as it is about individuals. (
  • 1.1 We are committed to safeguarding the privacy of our website visitors and service users. (
  • Other Third Party ad servers or ad networks may also use cookies to track users activities on this website to measure advertisement effectiveness and other reasons that will be provided in their own privacy policies, has no access or control over these cookies that may be used by third party advertisers. (
  • Our concept of human interaction is almost unrecognizable from the standards of just ten or twenty years ago, and entirely new privacy concerns have surfaced. (
  • If you believe that your privacy has been infringed, your concerns may be taken up with relevant donor centre, tissue typing/search centre, collection centre or apheresis centre. (
  • The Society Promoting Environmental Conservation (SPEC) respects the privacy of our stakeholders - members, donors, volunteers, event participants, community partners and employees. (
  • One critical piece of any internal assessment is the evaluation of contractual obligations and liability arising from privacy and cybersecurity across an organization. (
  • The origins of the right to privacy can be traced to the nineteenth century. (
  • In 1890, Samuel D. Warren and louis d. brandeis published 'The Right to Privacy,' an influential article that postulated a general common-law right of privacy. (
  • For the next half century, the right to privacy gradually evolved. (
  • Today, every jurisdiction in the country recognizes some form of constitutional, common-law, or statutory right to privacy. (
  • The constitutional right to privacy protects the liberty of people to make certain crucial decisions regarding their well-being without government coercion, intimidation, or interference. (
  • Acknowledging that the Constitution does not mention the word privacy anywhere in its text, the Court held that a general right to privacy may be inferred from the express language of the First, Third, Fourth, Fifth, and Fourteenth Amendments, as well as from the interests protected by them. (
  • If you believe your record contains information which is inaccurate, misleading, or otherwise in violation of your privacy rights, you have the right to challenge the content of the record. (
  • One of the responsibilities of the Legal and Access to Information and Privacy (ATIP) Coordinator is to provide information to the public on access to information and privacy matters, on behalf of IDRC, in the official language of your choice. (
  • FairWarning survey revealing a dramatic divergence of confidence levels in patient privacy programs between best practices care providers and other care providers. (