Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Hospitals, Private: A class of hospitals that includes profit or not-for-profit hospitals that are controlled by a legal entity other than a government agency. (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed)Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Policy Making: The decision process by which individuals, groups or institutions establish policies pertaining to plans, programs or procedures.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Health Priorities: Preferentially rated health-related activities or functions to be used in establishing health planning goals. This may refer specifically to PL93-641.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Public-Private Sector Partnerships: An organizational enterprise between a public sector agency, federal, state or local, and a private sector entity. Skills and assets of each sector are shared to deliver a service or facility for the benefit or use of the general public.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.United StatesFinancing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Hospitals, Public: Hospitals controlled by various types of government, i.e., city, county, district, state or federal.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Public Health Administration: Management of public health organizations or agencies.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Policy: A course or method of action selected to guide and determine present and future decisions.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Health Facilities: Institutions which provide medical or health-related services.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.IndiaQuality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.RNA, Spliced Leader: The small RNAs which provide spliced leader sequences, SL1, SL2, SL3, SL4 and SL5 (short sequences which are joined to the 5' ends of pre-mRNAs by TRANS-SPLICING). They are found primarily in primitive eukaryotes (protozoans and nematodes).Government Agencies: Administrative units of government responsible for policy making and management of governmental activities.Universal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Hospitals, Proprietary: Hospitals owned and operated by a corporation or an individual that operate on a for-profit basis, also referred to as investor-owned hospitals.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Entrepreneurship: The organization, management, and assumption of risks of a business or enterprise, usually implying an element of change or challenge and a new opportunity.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Organizations: Administration and functional structures for the purpose of collectively systematizing activities for a particular goal.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.BrazilPharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Financing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Interinstitutional Relations: The interactions between representatives of institutions, agencies, or organizations.Social Responsibility: The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Research: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Ethics, Business: The moral obligations governing the conduct of commercial or industrial enterprises.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Health Facilities, Proprietary: Health care institutions operated by private groups or corporations for a profit.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Health Manpower: The availability of HEALTH PERSONNEL. It includes the demand and recruitment of both professional and allied health personnel, their present and future supply and distribution, and their assignment and utilization.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Reproductive Health Services: Health care services related to human REPRODUCTION and diseases of the reproductive system. Services are provided to both sexes and usually by physicians in the medical or the surgical specialties such as REPRODUCTIVE MEDICINE; ANDROLOGY; GYNECOLOGY; OBSTETRICS; and PERINATOLOGY.Leadership: The function of directing or controlling the actions or attitudes of an individual or group with more or less willing acquiescence of the followers.CambodiaMedicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.Administrative Personnel: Individuals responsible for the development of policy and supervision of the execution of plans and functional operations.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Consumer Advocacy: The promotion and support of consumers' rights and interests.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Healthcare Financing: Methods of generating, allocating, and using financial resources in healthcare systems.Organizations, Nonprofit: Organizations which are not operated for a profit and may be supported by endowments or private contributions.Organizational Case Studies: Descriptions and evaluations of specific health care organizations.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Efficiency, Organizational: The capacity of an organization, institution, or business to produce desired results with a minimum expenditure of energy, time, money, personnel, materiel, etc.Health Planning: Planning for needed health and/or welfare services and facilities.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Research Support as Topic: Financial support of research activities.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Workplace: Place or physical location of work or employment.Artemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Lobbying: A process whereby representatives of a particular interest group attempt to influence governmental decision makers to accept the policy desires of the lobbying organization.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)Facility Regulation and Control: Formal voluntary or governmental procedures and standards required of hospitals and health or other facilities to improve operating efficiency, and for the protection of the consumer.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Environmental Policy: A course of action or principle adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or individual that concerns human interactions with nature and natural resources.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)PakistanFinancing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Consumer Participation: Community or individual involvement in the decision-making process.Health Resources: Available manpower, facilities, revenue, equipment, and supplies to produce requisite health care and services.Great BritainGovernment Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Ambulatory Care Facilities: Those facilities which administer health services to individuals who do not require hospitalization or institutionalization.FinlandKenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.Health Care Rationing: Planning for the equitable allocation, apportionment, or distribution of available health resources.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Biomedical Research: Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Legislation as Topic: The enactment of laws and ordinances and their regulation by official organs of a nation, state, or other legislative organization. It refers also to health-related laws and regulations in general or for which there is no specific heading.Zambia: A republic in southern Africa, south of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and TANZANIA, and north of ZIMBABWE. Its capital is Lusaka. It was formerly called Northern Rhodesia.Cephalopelvic Disproportion: A condition in which the HEAD of the FETUS is larger than the mother's PELVIS through which the fetal head must pass during a vaginal delivery.Occupational Health: The promotion and maintenance of physical and mental health in the work environment.Health Plan Implementation: Those actions designed to carry out recommendations pertaining to health plans or programs.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Organizational Objectives: The purposes, missions, and goals of an individual organization or its units, established through administrative processes. It includes an organization's long-range plans and administrative philosophy.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Personnel Management: Planning, organizing, and administering all activities related to personnel.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Health Facility Planning: Areawide planning for health care institutions on the basis of projected consumer need.Health Services Administration: The organization and administration of health services dedicated to the delivery of health care.CaliforniaContraceptive Agents: Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.Metaphor: The application of a concept to that which it is not literally the same but which suggests a resemblance and comparison. Medical metaphors were widespread in ancient literature; the description of a sick body was often used by ancient writers to define a critical condition of the State, in which one corrupt part can ruin the entire system. (From Med Secoli Arte Sci, 1990;2(3):abstract 331)Decision Making, Organizational: The process by which decisions are made in an institution or other organization.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Employee Grievances: Formal procedures whereby the employee expresses any dissatisfaction or feeling of injustice regarding the work situation.National Health Insurance, United StatesModels, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Employee Incentive Plans: Programs designed by management to motivate employees to work more efficiently with increased productivity, and greater employee satisfaction.United States Department of Veterans Affairs: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with overall planning, promoting, and administering programs pertaining to VETERANS. It was established March 15, 1989 as a Cabinet-level position.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.AfricaRisk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Patient Rights: Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.United States Dept. of Health and Human Services: A cabinet department in the Executive Branch of the United States Government concerned with administering those agencies and offices having programs pertaining to health and human services.Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Ethics, Medical: The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.Acupuncture: The occupational discipline of the traditional Chinese methods of ACUPUNCTURE THERAPY for treating disease by inserting needles along specific pathways or meridians.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Health Education: Education that increases the awareness and favorably influences the attitudes and knowledge relating to the improvement of health on a personal or community basis.Patient Advocacy: Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Community Health Planning: Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Conflict of Interest: A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Bioethical Issues: Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.Angola: A republic in southern Africa, southwest of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO and west of ZAMBIA. Its capital is Luanda.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Hospitals, Veterans: Hospitals providing medical care to veterans of wars.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Legislation, Medical: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Mental Health Services: Organized services to provide mental health care.Voluntary Programs: Programs in which participation is not required.Civil Rights: Legal guarantee protecting the individual from attack on personal liberties, right to fair trial, right to vote, and freedom from discrimination on the basis of race, color, religion, sex, age, disability, or national origin. (from http://www.usccr.gov/ accessed 1/31/2003)VietnamUrban Health Services: Health services, public or private, in urban areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Nursing, Private Duty: The practice of nursing by a registered or licensed nurse to care for a specific patient in a health facility or in the home.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.
The leaders were each accompanied by five private sector representatives who pledged their commitment to the SPP process and ... "marrying policy issues with business priorities", and that "one critical factor in the success of the SPP will be the active ... "public/private sector dialogue on the SPP" in Louisville, Kentucky, United States. The meeting was attended by 50 government ... as well as the competitiveness of key sectors including automotive, transportation, manufacturing and services." The NACC met ...
... results of ASPAN was the constitution of a private-public Competitiveness Council which is defining sector specific policies to ... In domestic issues, as Minister of Economy, Derbez proposed ten industrial policy programs for key sectors of the Mexican ... On the other hand, he gave high priority to the Asia Pacific region. In addition to the FTA with Japan, Mexico created a ... by the three leaders of the North American countries. One of the major ...
... then enter the private sector to lobby.[9] When those people who once served as public officials go into the private sector, ... Private sector lobbyists affect the political agenda by influencing the decisions and ideas of political leaders. When large- ... "PPA 590 WOMEN & PUBLIC POLICY". 2002.. *^ a b c d Boomgaarden, Hajo G.; Vliegenthart, Rens. "Explaining the rise of anti- ... For example, when Hurricane Katrina or the World Trade Centre attacks occurred they were unexpected but priority changing ...
The high-level annual forum is designed to attract participants from the private and public sectors, academia, experts, media ... The AGEI covers: Public Policy Recommendations, Economics of Eco-system Investing, Corporate Environmental Responsibility (CER ... You bring a sharp pencil of analysis, together with the right mix of people: private sector, government, academic, civil ... public leaders, scientists, civil society organizations, and media from across the region, and contribute to the environmental ...
... as well as to make significant public investments in other social and economic priorities. This has been described by the ... and domestic resources to attract private investment to opportunities in clean energy and new low carbon economic sectors, ... He was sworn in as Leader of the Opposition in the National Assembly on 17 August 2015. "Meet the New Cabinet Members" Archived ... the biggest expansion of the housing sector in Guyana's history, expansion of the water and sanitation systems, and large-scale ...
Food security has been given high priority in the Fiji 2020 Agriculture Sector Policy, as part of a shift from subsistence to ... and substantially increasing the number of research and development workers per 1 million people and public and private ... The country draws education leaders from other Pacific Island countries for training and, according to the Ministry of ... as it is already affecting almost all socio-economic sectors. The consequences of climate change can be seen in agriculture, ...
... policy is actively pursued has become widely accepted in the public and private sectors. Through Congressional testimony titled ... describes the resulting next generation of private-sector ventures; and proposes new, politically feasible national policies ... Trained and retrained American workers should be linked, as first priority, to jobs in sectors that need to be developed in the ... community leaders even helped to select and train the koban-based officers. Estimating the impact of local programs like these ...
Partnerships will flourish between the public and private sectors, spurring growth and maximising opportunities. The UAE will ... policies etc. Under Open Data, government data and information is made available to the public. People can now have access to ... According to the UAE Economic Report 2009 released by the UAE Ministry of Economy in May 2010 the non-oil sector contributed ... UAE Government Strategy highlights the priorities for the government during the years from 2011 to 2013. It forms the basis ...
... the private sector and other Indonesian leaders to improve policies and approaches that improve the lives of women and children ... charity and private sectors, to effect change. UNICEF was created in 1946 to provide food, clothing and health care to children ... Priorities include strengthened service delivery systems at the national and sub-national levels; promoting family-based care; ... UNICEF supports public education activities, to increase uptake of services and strengthen understanding of specific issues ...
... and financial sector reform, and creation of the legal framework for a market economy and private sector activity. Most ... the main priorities should be: to continue expanding revenue to strengthen public finances and to ensure debt sustainability, ... sustained reforms in the energy and financial sectors, improvements in the management of public investments, and the recently ... The European Parliament warned the government leaders in early 2017, that the parliamentary elections in June must be "free and ...
Blumenthal is Public Health Editor at The Huffington Post, the Senior Policy and Medical Advisor at amfAR, and a Clinical ... CDC and FDA and worked with other government departments and private sector organizations to improve women's health. Admiral ... "amfAR :: amfAR Policy and Medical Advisor Blumenthal Named Health Leader of the Year :: The Foundation for AIDS Research :: HIV ... Blumenthal's career spans decades of service in the public, non-profit, and academic health sectors, marked by contributions to ...
... and militia began turning over the responsibility for public security to the civilian sector. Judicial and public security ... The marked increase in police power suited the radical leaders in the party hierarchy who wanted public security forces to have ... Lawyers were expected to act as legal advisers to government and nongovernment organizations and as both public and private ... To advance its policy of market-based reforms, China adopted foreign approaches to legal regulation, particularly in the area ...
He seeks a balance between the public and private sectors. Ali does not belong to a political party and never has belonged to ... which had illegally privatized public land and public sector factories. Suing government officials for selling public property ... "providing affordable goods and proper employment policies". Private property as a concept is not a problem for Ali, who ... Speaking of his priorities as president, Ali said his primary focus would be restoration of Egypt's assets, lost when the ...
... supported by both the private and public sector. China's first subway was constructed in Beijing in the late 1960s, nearly one ... It is emerging as a leader in the technology sector. Tianjin Lishen Battery Joint-Stock Co. Ltd. is another China based battery ... and streamline resources from electric-vehicle carmakers and related equipment suppliers in the private and public sectors. ... China is implementing policies that advocate diversified energy sources for use across industries. In a parallel effort, ...
The next topics were unemployment, the economy, rural services, attracting investment, the public and private sectors, justice ... an increase in public sector salaries of 1,500 Syrian pounds ($32.60 US) a month and pledges to increase press freedom, create ... He stated the first priorities were citizenship for Kurds, lifting the state of emergency in the coming week or at the latest ... "Opposition leader Ribal Al-Assad is optimistic to changes in Syria". Elaph. 16 February 2011. Retrieved 16 February 2011. " ...
13 public and 5 mixed public-private sector) and 33,000 small and medium privately owned enterprises. About half the factories ... The government later gave higher priority to the productive sectors of agriculture and industry in economic plans for the 1968- ... This inchoate private sector played such an important role in the national economic recovery that party leaders urged its ... to encourage private foreign investments, and to allow greater private participation in the economy. The new economic policies ...
Medicine and medical care were also directed to these priority groups - particularly the military. Public and private medical ... Workers in prioritised sectors - private and government wartime industries, military and civilian construction, paper and ... Far more damaging were the policy's disturbing impact on regional market relationships and contribution to a sense of public ... The British authorities reacted by imprisoning the Congress leaders.[143] Without its leadership, the movement changed its ...
... it had built a strong public-sector with priority on cement, steel and fertilizers. After the end of government of peoples ... In 1992, the Leader of the Opposition in the Parliament, Benazir Bhutto, vehemently criticized the whole policy measure program ... The private sector education system negative effects of private sector education and it hashas created a disparity between the ... oil and gas sectors. Benazir's government did not privatize all state corporations, especially those who were collecting large ...
In 1992 the public sector accounted for 37% of the workforce. When measured relative to population, the gap between the ... both from private investors and the European Union's Common Agricultural Policy. In 2000, agriculture accounted for 2.4% of ... The Panel's recommendations are the result of a collaborative effort of technology industry leaders and experts in Northern ... However, this overall picture of health hides a dramatic shift in manufacturing priorities, with the decline of traditional ...
... has a group of around 50 core funders or partners representing both the public and private sector and various business sectors ... organisational policy and practice, and the impact of policy and practice. Disability Standard participants carry out an online ... EFD was created when its founder, Susan Scott-Parker, proposed to business leaders that companies should jointly fund a central ... measure their performance on disability across the whole business and put in place an action plan to address priority areas. ...
... aims to cover the online security interests of the public sector, the citizen as well as the private sector, giving also ... It sets out a path how ICT can be applied to different sectors of the economy and society, and how citizens and businesses can ... Digital Malta puts forward a set of guiding principles and policy actions of how ICT can be used for socio-economic development ... Furthermore, Malta has been reconfirmed as leader in the delivery and performance of eGovernment services amongst 34 countries ...
The second intervention was a forum with representatives from the private, public, non-profit, and community sectors to discuss ... a series of case studies of employers piloting new HR policies; and sector roundtables for case study participants to share ... Following Enough Talk, the committee created a non-profit corporation to convene leaders from all sectors to work together to ... identifying 13 as priorities for investment. Developed a roadmap to modernize income security to ensure the full economic ...
Private vs public funding in developing countries. Research into LCPS (low-cost private schools) found that over 5 years to ... Education sector. Beijing Normal University, which is governed directly by the Chinese Ministry of Education, is an example of ... John Locke's work Some Thoughts Concerning Education was written in 1693 and still reflects traditional education priorities in ... "50-State Comparison: State Kindergarten-Through-Third-Grade Policies". www.ecs.org. Retrieved 6 October 2018.. ...
To pay due attention and support to the private sector and pay facilities in foreign currencies in order to develop economic ... The new fund is to extend 50% of its financial facilities to private, cooperative and non-governmental sectors and 20% to ... NDFI defines overall priorities and is responsible for supervision, while Iranian banks are responsible for due diligence and ... The Articles of Association of the National Development Fund of Iran, under the directives of the Leader of the Islamic ...
Due to the comprehensive public sector, private healthcare sector is relatively small. Between 3-4% of in-patient care is ... than the municipal sector. Narrowing health gaps has been the objective of Finnish health policy since the 1980s, however, this ... According to the Euro health consumer index, which placed it in fourth position in its 2015 survey, Finland is a leader in ... The general practitioners are also gatekeepers to the more specialized services in the secondary and tertiary care sectors, as ...
... is a campaign launched by Prime Minister Narendra Modi on 15 July 2015 which aims to train over 40 crore people in India in different skills by 2022. It includes various initiatives of the government like "National Skill Development Mission", "National Policy for Skill Development and Entrepreneurship, 2015", "Pradhan Mantri Kaushal Vikas Yojana (PMKVY)" and the "Skill Loan scheme". The National Skill Development Corporation India (NSDC) was setup as a one of its kind, Public Private Partnership Company with the primary mandate of catalysing the skills landscape in India. It is based on the following pillars: 1.Create large and good quality vocational institute. 2.Reduce risk by providing patient capital. Including grants and equality. 3.To enable the creation and sustainability of support systems required for skill development. This includes the Industry led Sector Skill Councils.[1] PMKVY is the ...
... is a non-profit professional theatre company associated with the Louisiana State University Department of Theatre in Baton Rouge, Louisiana. The theatre companies home is located in the Reilly Theatre on the campus of LSU. In 1992, an historic livestock judging pavilion called the Swine Palace was slated for demolition. It was the first building constructed on the current campus of LSU and was identified as the future home of the Swine Palace theater company. The theater company founded in 1992 by Barry Kyle (former Artistic Director of the Royal Shakespeare Company's Swan Theatre) in association with LSU Department of Theatre was named after the original name of the building in which it would be located. The theater company was established with the goal to become Louisiana's premier professional theatre. A capital campaign to raise $3.5 million for the renovation of the structure was undertaken. The offspring of a public/private ...
In 2016, Trinidad and Tobago ranked 91st in the world (out of 114 countries) in wage equality between men and women for similar work. Research shows that there are substantial wage differences between men and women in Trinidad and Tobago. While women account for the largest entry into both the workforce and education, a 2015 study [15] shows that their wages are still less than men. On average, women earn USD$22,656 a year, while for that same period, men earns USD$41,527[10]. In the private sector, it appears that female workers, regardless of their position along the wage distribution, face a similar degree of discrimination.[16] At the aggregate level, there is a significant difference between male and female wages. Investigation showed that the demographics with the highest levels of discrimination were in the age groups 35-44, income levels $3,000-$5,999 and private sector employment vs ...
Concordia is a nonprofit, nonpartisan organization founded in 2011, which seeks to build effective public-private partnerships to create a more prosperous and sustainable future. It is best known for its annual summits in New York City, which are global affairs forums that promote partnering between governments, businesses, and nonprofits to address the world's most pressing needs. In addition, Concordia engages in year-round programming, campaigns, and research to effect global solutions via public-private partnerships. Concordia was founded in 2011 by Matthew Swift and Nicholas Logothetis. They had been best friends since high school, where they were business partners in a successful food purveyor enterprise. Both attended university in Washington D.C., and both had a background in journalism, media, politics, and international affairs. Noting the effectiveness of the ...
The private security industry in South Africa is an industry providing guarding, monitoring, armed reaction, escorting, investigating and other security-related services to private individuals and companies in the country. Over the years there has been tremendous growth in the private security industry, not only in South Africa, but also in the rest of the world. The private security industry in South Africa is among the largest in the world, with over 9,000 registered companies, 450,000 registered active private security guards and a further 1.5 million qualified (but inactive) guards; many times the available personnel than the combined South African police and army. Studies have shown that South Africa had 2.57 private security personnel for every police employee. This is attributed by some to the ...
There was no public or private sector university in Mardan till 2009. The first public sector university, Abdul Wali Khan University Mardan was established in 2009.[15] In 2016, a public sector women university Women University Mardan[16][17] started functioning while in 2017, University of Engineering and Technology, Peshawar Mardan campus was upgraded to full-fledge university and named University of Engineering and Technology Madan.[18][19][20] Bacha Khan Medical College, Mardan, which was established in 2010, is the city only medical college.[21] There is also a campus of University of Agriculture, Peshawar, which is named as Agriculture university Ameer Mohammad Khan Campus Mardan.[22] There are also two Postgraduate colleges in Mardan, one each for boys and girls. Government Post Graduate College Mardan, which was ...
Dalhousie University was founded in 1818 by Lord Dalhousie, who modeled the university on the University of Edinburgh, although instruction would not actually begin until 1838.[16] Unfortunately, 5 years later the university's first principal died and the university would remain closed until 1863, when it opened with 6 professors and 1 tutor.[17] The Dalhousie University Act(1963) includes a suggestion of denominational representation on the Board of Governors in proportion to support of endowed chairs. By relying on private contributions, Dalhousie managed to avoid most of the instability of government grants and bureaucratic infighting. Dalhousie University degrees were not awarded until 1866, and instruction did not commence until 1838. There were only 28 students who were in the degree program during this period and another 28 who were casual students. Further, there were only a handful of professors and 1 tutor. The school was consumed with financial difficulties. It ...
... , formerly known as East Shore Hospital, is a 106-bed private healthcare facility located in Telok Kurau, in the East side of Singapore. This hospital provides general and acute care, as well as a comprehensive range of clinical specialties and sub-specialties, including obstetrics and gynaecology, general surgery, orthopaedic surgery, Ear, Nose & Throat (ENT) and ophthalmology. Various ancillary services such as rehabilitation therapy and imaging services are also available. Parkway East Hospital began its operations in 1942 and was known as the Paglar Clinic and Maternity Hospital. It was founded by Dr Paglar, a Eurasian general practitioner. In 1974, his descendants sold the hospital to an Englishman, Dr Leo Taylor and was renamed Saint Mark's Maternity Hospital. Two years later, the hospital was sold to Hong Leong Group for residential purposes. However, the land was zoned for hospital use. Another doctor, Dr Sundarson, together with a group of businessmen and ...
JPRS is the registry for the .jp domain. In this capacity, they are responsible for the administration and operation of the .jp domain, interacting with the public through private registrars of record. JPRS is also a participant in the internationalized domain names (IDN) effort, which seeks to allow non-ASCII characters to be used in domain names. JPRS supports Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) which is a system by which Japanese characters can be converted into an ASCII representation of those characters, allowing Japanese characters to be used in applications without the underlying DNS system being altered. ...
... (SC) is a federally sponsored, Canada-wide initiative that provides E-business and Internet training services to small- and medium-sized businesses as well as senior citizens. Founded in 1996, the program is funded by Industry Canada and the Canadian government's Youth Employment Strategy and operates out of colleges and universities across the country, giving post-secondary students practical experience working with private-sector businesses to develop effective E-commerce strategies. There are currently 17 centres in operation across Canada. ...
... is the measure of physical investment used in computing GDP in the measurement of nations' economic activity. This is an important component of GDP because it provides an indicator of the future productive capacity of the economy. It includes replacement purchases plus net additions to capital assets plus investments in inventories. From 2002-2011 it amounted to 14.9% of devansh GDP, and from 1945-2011 was 15.7% of GDP (BEA, USDC, 2013). Net investment is gross investment minus depreciation. Of the four categories of GDP (investment, consumption, net exports, and government spending on goods and services) it is by far the least stable. Gross private domestic investment includes 3 types of investment:[citation needed] ...
The Ibrahim Index of African Governance (IIAG), established in 2007, provides an annual assessment of the quality of governance in African countries. Compiled by combining over 100 variables from more than 30 independent African and global institutions, the IIAG is the most comprehensive collection of data on African governance. The IIAG provides a framework for citizens, governments, institutions and the private sector to accurately assess the delivery of public goods and services, and policy outcomes, across the continent. As well as being a tool to help determine and debate government performance, the IIAG is a decision-making instrument with which to govern. The Foundation defines governance as the provision of the political, social and economic goods that a citizen has the right to expect from his or her state, and that a state has the responsibility to deliver to its citizens. The IIAG assesses ...
The South Eastern (SE) division inherited the largest fleet of 4 CEP units. The franchise was originally operated by Connex South Eastern, but after Connex lost the franchise it became South Eastern Trains. In 1996, when the franchise was awarded, a fleet of 85 standard units were in traffic. Many of these were quickly withdrawn from traffic, or transferred to the SW division. In early 1999, five units were converted to Class 411/9 3CEP units, with the removal of the second class open trailer. These removed trailers had not had so much work carried out on them at the time of refurbishment (as they were basically unchanged apart from cosmetic appearance and installation of hopper windows) and many had become severely corroded. This was necessary, as some stations could only accommodate 11 carriages. A further 13 units were later converted. The 3 CEP units were renumbered into the series 1101-1118. The Connex fleet contained two 'celebrity' units. The first, no. 1592, was repainted by staff at ...
... a group of public service leaders has told the Prime Minister, in an open letter. ... The government should mount a major campaign to champion public servants, ... Despite your recent support for public sector professionalism, all too frequently the actual policies and priorities of ... Fourthly, increasing employment opportunities in both the public and private sectors are drawing staff away from frontline work ...
It is my pleasure to speak with you on the role of the private sector in integrating health in Africa and I would like to thank ... This symposium is such a unique and valuable opportunity for public and business leaders, with development partners, civil ... to strengthen institutional capacity for policy dialogue with the private sector, and ... At WHO, our number one priority is to support our member states to achieve universal health coverage - so that all people can ...
Donors (e.g., member states, public and private partners, and other public health institutions) can support countries in ... thereby building trust and mutual accountability among countries to detect and respond to public health threats. ... The JEE process is wholly transparent; countries request a JEE and are encouraged to make its findings public. ... to the leaders of the line ministries and policy makers in the country. A final report is developed, shared with the country, ...
... resulting in Montanas largest ever public-private value-based payment initiative. Her work in the private sector includes ... Bresaw provides ongoing technical assistance and support to key sectors to ensure the use of best practice approaches in public ... Jessica Rhoades is an accomplished health care policy and advocacy leader with broad expertise and experience in Medicaid, the ... Priority Policy Issues. Education, December 2018. This provides sample talking points that connect education policy to health. ...
... resulting in Montanas largest ever public-private value-based payment initiative. Her work in the private sector includes ... Bresaw provides ongoing technical assistance and support to key sectors to ensure the use of best practice approaches in public ... Jessica Rhoades is an accomplished health care policy and advocacy leader with broad expertise and experience in Medicaid, the ... She competed a Ph.D. in Public Policy at the John W. McCormack Graduate School of Policy and Global States at the University of ...
One of the governments most important priorities is to encourage Brunei Malays to move into the private sector from the public ... The government policy of "Bruneisation" of the workforce encourages Brunei Malays to work in the private sector. The Brunei ... 55 million in installing a countrywide multimedia highway called RAGAM 21 to serve both the private and public sectors. ... The Bruneian government also boosts private business to nurture Brunei Malay leaders in industry and commerce. ...
Priority 5: Encouraging Private Sector Support. Ongoing partnership with the private sector is necessary in building a ... The network provides information about early care and education to public officials, the media, civic leaders and the public, ... Currently, state leaders are working to align P-3 policy during implementation to ensure highest-poverty children are served ... The broad definition of the early childhood workforce and the various sectors included in the criteria;. • The emphasis on a ...
Research should be conducted to better understand public- and private-sector leaders attitudes toward population health ... their own sectors. Research on these investments should also determine what cross-sectoral financial and policy investment at ... set cost-effective priorities, and help community partners recognize the need for cross-sector collaboration for health ... Metrics that can be easily understood by the public and policy makers. Many metrics that reflect the health of a population (eg ...
"African farmers and businesses must be empowered through good policies, increased public and private investments and strong ... increasing private sector investment and political commitment, all of which provide flickers of hope for a sector under revival ... African leaders face the challenge. Its not as if African leaders need any convincing about the need for more investments in ... Countries such as Ghana, Ethiopia, Rwanda and others have placed agriculture at the top of their development priorities list. ...
As I look back at successes and failures in technology management during my 30 years within the public and private sectors, ... 3. Set clear, achievable technology innovation goals and metrics using the business priorities from clients, public policy ... Typically this includes help from outside (unbiased) resources that can benchmark against public- and private-sector peers. ... Technology leaders can make a huge difference by setting the example and walking the talk of innovation and collaboration. ...
We will encourage our private sector partners to develop small, medium and large scale enterprises in a range of growth sectors ... sensible fiscal and monetary policies and using our national budget to spend our public resources on the right priorities and ... Public outcry over the recent cash-gate scandal and robust debates around the need to choose the right leaders during our May ... whose role will be to set major policy priorities of government; make tough choices within those competing priorities through ...
A policy statement on Diversifying Financing Sources and Fostering Private Sector Involvement in Infrastructure Investment ... In 2010, the Kyoto Report on Growth Strategy and Finance was adopted and submitted to APEC Leaders, which identified priorities ... The Implementation Roadmap to Develop Successful Infrastructure Public-Private Partnership Projects in the APEC Region was ... and enhancing finance to key sectors such as infrastructure, small and medium enterprises, households and green investment. ...
... business leaders must act decisively in a fast-evolving policy and regulatory environment. Learn more. ... Leader in US and global tax policy with an informed perspective on public and private sectors and a deep knowledge of the US ... EY Global Strategy and Transactions Leader for the Government and Public Sector; Partner, Geostrategic Business Group ... The COVID-19 pandemic has reset priorities. The biggest tasks for governments everywhere are keeping people safe and building ...
... and a private sector that will emerge in a very fragile state when the health crisis is past." ... Experts and thought leaders share their perspectives on the coronavirus (Covid-19) crisis. What should policy makers do now and ... Policy responses - Public employment services in the frontline for jobseekers, workers and employers ... providing guidance on the short-term measures needed in affected sectors and a specific focus on the vulnerable sectors of ...
Research should be conducted to better understand public- and private-sector leaders attitudes toward population health ... school nutrition policies are local, air quality policies are regional, and Medicare policies are national). ... set cost-effective priorities, and help community partners recognize the need for cross-sector collaboration for health ... by sectors outside health, what might motivate nonhealth sectors to come to the table, and whether a multisectoral investment ...
People from different sectors such as public and private are invited to apply so that discussions can be held about the ... Youth workers, Trainers, Youth leaders, Youth project managers, Youth policy makers, Volunteering mentors ... SALTO-YOUTH is a network of 7 Resource Centres working on European priority areas within the youth field.. Find out more about ... Business sector representatives working with youth • NA representatives (Youth, School, Higher Education, Adult Education, VET ...
Public ownership of strategic sectors of the economy is essential to sustain redistributive policies, as the recent decades ... Employed wage earners in the private sector of the capital earned $904 in December 2001. Those who were forced into under- ... The priority of Phoenix would be to develop a national plan of development to reactivate the economy, fix social priorities, ... The Left only joined the uprising on the second day, December 20, and then only the activists and militants, as the leaders ...
In response to dwindling donor funds, the Ghanaian government brought the countrys private-sector leaders together to launch ... The third policy area - eliminating discrimination in health-care settings - must become an international priority. The central ... To be sure, public and private corruption remains a significant obstacle to ensuring the right to health for all people. In ... and integrated action across sectors and diseases. Global health efforts should support efforts by countries where malaria is ...
Most of this will come from the private sector in the form of real estate development, public-private partnerships, and ... Decision-making should cut across sectors, break down silos between departments, and involve the private sector, civil society ... of investment that should be channeled toward sustainable projects that will encourage the right priorities for public sector ... Its up to Indias leaders and policymakers to make this vision a reality. ...
Second, the public and private sectors are no longer investing in basic research and development (R&D) at the levels needed to ... and providing incentives for private-sector R&D - should in my view be top priorities as Congress and the Administration ... Privacy Policy , *Cookie Policy , *Member Preferences , *Advertising , *IDG Careers , *Ad Choices , *E-commerce Links , * ... The leaders of U.S. scientific institutions recognize the importance of federal funding for basic scientific research. As NSF ...
We identify pathways to policy change, tap the strengths of commercial markets for social good, fortify value chains, ... Our approach reflects the diversity of our staff and the work we do across cultures, geographies, and sectors. ... Public-Private Partnerships. Our partnerships provide the foundation for enduring solutions, with complementary technical, ... 18 million of private funding in activities that addressed USAIDs priority health issues in Latin American countries. ...
Eskişehir established its building efficiency projects by engaging people from Turkeys public and private sectors and civil ... 4. Public Awareness-Raising: Since market demand for greener buildings can enhance compliance with new policies and create ... Eskişehir shows how, working together with the private sector, civil society and others, municipal governments can help break ... A few priority projects include:. 1. Greener Municipal Buildings: Eskişehir declared that all new municipal buildings must ...
Density is highest in the public sector and manufacturing industries. In parts of the private services sector, including retail ... Female-dominated sectors with high rates of part-time work are health and social care, retail and the hospitality sector. ... Communication between the new leader Hans-Christian Gabrielsen and the leader of the Confederation of Norwegian Enterprise (NHO ... Rights that can be put in front of the committee are related to working time schedules, leave and priority rights for part-time ...
"This truly represents a new private/public partnership to enhance and maximize the impact of these opportunities for the future ... "By bringing all these researchers and policy leaders together, those attending will be able to learn about the latest ... and leadership from the private sector with Monsanto and DuPont already having two of the largest seed production and ... "The Bio-Economy holds tremendous potential for many different sectors of the economy," said Jim Byrum, President of the ...
Lizano addressed the importance of a stronger union between the private and public sectors, so critical fiscal decisions could ... "We are going to have to make advances that better our private sector," Lizano said.. Gutiérrez, who presided over Banco Central ... plan with clear directives that articulate public and private actions with the administrations backing through state policies ... Venezuelan oppositional leader Leopoldo López gave himself up to government officials Tuesday. After walking through a sea of ...
  • It is common knowledge to most Malawians that many of the challenges in our key reform sectors are governance-related. (nyasatimes.com)
  • A web-based APEC Catalogue of Policy Experience and Choice was agreed in 2007 to collect and share knowledge on financial reform based on the practical experience of member economies and international agencies. (apec.org)
  • Yet it illuminates the challenges facing human services - complicated issues that reach across traditional boundaries and jurisdictions and that require human services leaders to rethink, reform and reactivateservicedeliveryinthenearfuture. (littlesis.org)
  • Joel spent twelve years on Capitol Hill as professional staff, where he helped enact nine laws, including the 2002 Trade Act, which created health care tax credits, the 2003 law that established the Medicare prescription drug benefit and Health Savings Accounts, the 2005 Deficit Reduction Act, and the 2006 Tax Reform and Health Care Act, which reformed Medicare payment policies. (horizondc.com)
  • Australia is well placed to reform its health sector to be more effective at promoting good health and managing lifestyle-related illness, chronic disease and an increasingly aged population. (mja.com.au)
  • In early 2019, NASHP examined 47 governors' state of the state and inaugural speeches to identify their social and economic health-related priorities, including education, housing, jobs, opioids, and the environment in a blog and chart to highlight their upstream health- and prevention-related plans. (nashp.org)
  • NASHP: Across the Nation, State Leaders Are Tackling the Global Issue of Environmental Protection , May 2019. (nashp.org)
  • At the occasion of the XIII European Patients' Rights Day, on the 9th of April 2019, a selection of candidates MEP for the new EU Parliament - representing different Countries and 4 different political Groups - have been invited to discuss different priority topics linked to healthcare policies at EU level, including health promotion & disease prevention, the value of and access to innovation. (activecitizenship.net)
  • Eskişehir established its building efficiency projects by engaging people from Turkey's public and private sectors and civil society, as well as the global Building Efficiency Accelerator platform, which includes international experts from research institutions, NGOs, academia and business. (wri.org)
  • Even more impactful, Eskisehir is a frontrunner city in implementing Turkey's National Energy Efficiency Action Plan , which outlines national goals for energy efficiency in buildings and other sectors through 2023. (wri.org)
  • It may be difficult for foreign donors to support a politically or economically motivated policy of curtailing Turkey's population growth, but they should wholeheartedly assist Turkey in its effort to expand and improve its MCH/FP services. (popline.org)
  • Overall aim of the 13th edition of the International Tool Fair: To promote quality in youth work and support capacity building of those working for youth empowerment Objectives - To enhance participants' critical thinking in order to be able to respond to challenges of the evolving context, in line with European Commission youth priorities (intercultural dialogue, participation in social and political life, social inclusion, entrepreneurship and employability, etc. (salto-youth.net)
  • Future progress requires strong political will, integrated policies and broad participation. (who.int)
  • Governors can control costs, advance their priorities, and enhance lives by improving the social and economic conditions that make up 80 percent of the factors affecting their residents' health. (nashp.org)
  • They also worked on mitigating the social impact of the crisis on the poor, restructuring corporate and financial sector, and strengthening international financial architecture. (apec.org)
  • We identify pathways to policy change, tap the strengths of commercial markets for social good, fortify value chains, strengthen accountability, and stabilize systems. (abtassociates.com)
  • Abt's work to recruit beneficiaries, inform them about the benefit offset, and collect and report earnings to the Social Security Administration is vital to testing this policy to determine if a benefit offset can encourage work for disability beneficiaries. (abtassociates.com)
  • Tourism, it said, needs to be repositioned as a key sector in social mobilization and economic growth in the national development plan with clear directives that articulate public and private actions with the administration's backing through state policies that promote fundamental development of the tourism industry. (amcostarica.com)
  • We are broadening our stakeholder base to include other social sectors as well. (oxfam.org)
  • You will analyse the social, political and economic factors that affect policy at a local, national and international level. (city.ac.uk)
  • The main sectors of the Fund's activities are brought into focus to illustrate the expansion of population-related programs and their relevance to economic and social development in Africa. (popline.org)
  • Integrate HiAP into ongoing S/THA work across all departments and levels, including policy, programs, and initiatives, as a means of employing a comprehensive approach to broadly address public health, health equity, and issues related to the social determinants of health. (astho.org)
  • She has held faculty appointments with major institutions including the University of Maryland, University of Central Missouri and the Presidio Graduate School teaching courses in sustainability and public heath policy. (naem.org)
  • Ultimately, HiAP strives to embed and institutionalize considerations of health, equity, and sustainability as a standard part of decision-making processes across multiple sectors. (astho.org)
  • Yet most countries still need to expand their best practices for Agriculture 2.0 before they can even think of deploying new techniques to bring their agriculture sectors to full potential. (bain.com)
  • First, many countries still manage their agriculture sectors based on tradition and empirical knowledge, rather than a comprehensive analytical approach. (bain.com)
  • In this capacity, she managed over 100 clients, including hedge funds, mutual funds, investment advisers and healthcare corporations and was responsible for anticipating and translating legislative and regulatory catalysts within all sectors of the healthcare marketplace. (horizondc.com)
  • Community health is determined by a multitude of factors beyond healthcare and, in many cases, beyond the traditional scope of public health activities. (astho.org)
  • ASTHO supports the use of HiAP principles and strategies to align public health and healthcare systems. (astho.org)
  • The event provided a civic perspective, putting and recognizing the citizens at the center of health policies, not only as "users or consumers" of health services or "patients" with a specific disease, but rather as active citizens participating in healthcare policymaking as essential stakeholders, strengthening our 'European citizenship' and trying to reduce the gap between citizens and Institutions, by showing also the benefits that the EU could offer to patients. (activecitizenship.net)
  • It is my pleasure to speak with you on the role of the private sector in integrating health in Africa and I would like to thank the Africa Health Business Symposium team for inviting me to share some ideas with you. (who.int)
  • At this same summit, leaders in business in Africa working together with the UN Economic Commission for Africa, convened Heads of States to deepen discussion on this issue. (who.int)
  • The vital contribution of private donors in facilitating the work of the Fund in Africa is given emphasis throughout the review. (popline.org)
  • Early studies show that family planning activities in Africa, and governmental population policies fall into a definite pattern within the continent and that the distribution of colonial empires was a major determinant of that pattern. (popline.org)
  • Learn about the innovative policies that Minnesota and Indiana leaders are implementing through executive orders, legislation, and budget appropriations to improve health and reduce disparities in every community. (nashp.org)
  • JEEs facilitate progress toward IHR 2005 implementation, thereby building trust and mutual accountability among countries to detect and respond to public health threats. (cdc.gov)
  • ASTHO believes that HiAP is most effective in achieving sustained integration of health concepts into the work of non-health sectors (e.g., transportation planning, community zoning, etc.) when common goals are defined and specific activities are proposed that benefit both parties and advance mutual priorities. (astho.org)
  • Spurred by its most pressing health challenges, communities across Tennessee are investing in a wide variety of cross-sector initiatives. (rwjf.org)
  • The National Physical Activity Plan (NPAP) was created as a "roadmap" to identify policies, practices, and initiatives that will increase population levels of physical activity to the national U.S. standards. (apha.org)
  • Chris has also held positions at Kaiser Permanente Northwest and health-policy consulting firms, including Health Management Associates, and she began her career as a policy analyst intern at Indiana's Office of Medicaid Policy and Planning. (nashp.org)
  • They also discussed the private sector's role and committed to working more closely together to improve health outcomes. (who.int)
  • Geopolitical areas such as counties or states are often used because they are the focus of much of the available data, but these areas do not necessarily reflect population health market areas where programs and policies are implemented to improve health outcomes. (cdc.gov)
  • Public outcry over the recent 'cash-gate' scandal and robust debates around the need to choose the right leaders during our May 2014 polls show that we want a 'step-change' in the way this country does business, and that this must happen now. (nyasatimes.com)
  • As COVID-19 reshapes the role of government, business leaders must act decisively in a fast-evolving policy and regulatory environment. (ey.com)
  • The UDF will build and grow effective Malawian institutions to monitor and constrain (rather than reward) the abuse of power and public resources. (nyasatimes.com)
  • EY has tracked economic support programs in over 130 jurisdictions, which have collectively implemented over 2000 fiscal and monetary policy provisions. (ey.com)
  • Kathleen's prior experience to includes extensive environmental and regulatory affairs positions in the private and non-profit sectors including roles serving as President of the Chlorine Institute and Vice President of the Synthetic Organic Chemical Manufacturers Association. (naem.org)
  • Jennifer joined Horizon Government Affairs in December 2008 as Vice President, focusing on legislative and regulatory developments within the pharmaceutical, biotechnology and medical device sectors. (horizondc.com)
  • It states that "to generate the jobs, incomes and food so badly needed for Africa's growing population over the next 20 years, agro-industries need to undergo a structural transformation," and it calls for more concerted investment in the sector. (un.org)
  • Only within the last 15 years, the public budget revenue increased from TJS 300m to TJS 18bn, and the population's income and savings increased by 25 and 85 times accordingly. (president.tj)
  • Governors are uniquely positioned to maximize state resources to address the conditions affecting health by leading cross-agency and public-private collaborations, leveraging siloed state resources, and advancing evidence-based health policy approaches. (nashp.org)
  • They endorsed the idea of enhancing the surveillance of financial sector supervisory regimes and agreed to implement the Action Plans for Strengthening Training of Bank Supervisors and Securities Regulators in APEC economies. (apec.org)
  • This may also include learning the language and terminology used by another sector to better understand their mission and principles. (astho.org)
  • Finance Ministers issued the Jeju Declaration on Enhancing Regional Cooperation against the Challenges of Population Ageing and an expert group was agreed to be formed to provide policy recommendations to aging issue in 2005. (apec.org)
  • And our technical cooperation programs have provided policy advice and capacity building. (unescap.org)
  • The letter calls on the Prime Minister to build on his recent speeches about the value of public services with a concerted effort to raise the esteem in which their staff are held. (kingsfund.org.uk)
  • The Prime Minister has begun to address the problem of public service workers feeling undervalued. (kingsfund.org.uk)
  • The entire UPMC conference series on advancing policy and practice [is] a call to action-a call to address the gaps in our preparedness now and to make more effective use of the resources we have in our communities and at all levels of government. (issuu.com)
  • The good news is that due to rising commodity prices, "the appetite is growing among investors, private equity, and investment and sovereign funds to tap into Africa's agriculture and agribusiness markets. (un.org)
  • At WHO, our number one priority is to support our member states to achieve universal health coverage - so that all people can access and afford the health care they need. (who.int)
  • Currently worth about $313 billion, the sector already provides jobs for 70% of the poorest people on the continent. (un.org)
  • People from different sectors such as public and private are invited to apply so that discussions can be held about the transferability of tools into different sectors. (salto-youth.net)
  • High-quality public transit can save people time and money. (wri.org)
  • ThenewobjectiveinDCisto align the human services system in order to actually grow the capacity of the customers that we serve - so that those people can then be free of public dependence and achieve their highest potential. (littlesis.org)
  • Cisco is the worldwide leader in networking that transforms how people connect, communicate and collaborate. (naem.org)
  • ASTHO defines HiAP as a collaborative approach that integrates and articulates health considerations into policy making and programming across sectors, and at all levels, to improve the health of all communities and people. (astho.org)
  • In consideration of the growth in international travel and trade, the emergence and reemergence of international disease threats, and other public health risks, in 1995 the 48th World Health Assembly called for a substantial revision of the International Health Regulations (IHR). (cdc.gov)
  • We will also be releasing a series of policy briefs on a range of subjects in the context of the COVID-19 crisis: on vaccines, taxes, education, SMEs, etc. (oecd.org)
  • Participating in the Tool Fair XIII is an opportunity for participants to shape educational and experiential pathways, to run a workshop and to share tools for learning (http://educationaltoolsportal.eu/en/tools-learning-non-formal-education) with colleagues in an international context, as well as to participate in workshops conducted by their peers. (salto-youth.net)
  • I decided to create a YouTube channel primarily for my research activities as well as a way for me to find and archive (favorite) interesting videos related to international education and public/citizen diplomacy. (blogspot.com)
  • The side benefit is that IHEC Blog's channel can serve as a clearinghouse for all international education and public/citizen diplomacy related channels on YouTube. (blogspot.com)
  • It has high standards of clinical care and training, strategies to deal with current health workforce shortage, 1 and a relatively accessible primary care sector. (mja.com.au)
  • Our expert staff combines decades of experience in health, economic, budget and tax policy with an intimate grasp of fast-evolving domains such as biomedicine and information technology. (horizondc.com)
  • Engaging with trade associations can enable businesses to mobilize more quickly and effectively when new policies or regulations are introduced. (ey.com)
  • Our blend of skill and experience means that we can develop and offer a service which meets public service needs precisely and effectively. (nightcourses.com)
  • State leaders are recognizing that the connection between the environment and human health is important - not only when air pollution triggers asthma, toxins contaminate water, or climate change propels tick- and mosquito-borne diseases - and taking action. (nashp.org)
  • This State Health Policy Briefing presents the issues identified by NASHP's state leadership as their most significant priorities for improving their health systems. (nashp.org)
  • Governors' state of the state and inaugural addresses provide critical insights into their policy proposals that impact the health of their residents. (nashp.org)
  • Provide ongoing consultation on health and health equity matters when current laws mandate the inclusion of health in state projects and policies. (astho.org)
  • For example, recently APHA launched the "Environmental Public Health Systems: Protecting the Health of Our Children" project to study the current state of child health services available across the United States. (apha.org)
  • APHA is conducting a 50-state scan and case studies to understand how the environmental public health system responds to the needs of young children and will use the results to highlight best practices and recommend improvements. (apha.org)