A group of genetic, infectious, or sporadic degenerative human and animal nervous system disorders associated with abnormal PRIONS. These diseases are characterized by conversion of the normal prion protein to an abnormal configuration via a post-translational process. In humans, these conditions generally feature DEMENTIA; ATAXIA; and a fatal outcome. Pathologic features include a spongiform encephalopathy without evidence of inflammation. The older literature occasionally refers to these as unconventional SLOW VIRUS DISEASES. (From Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 1998 Nov 10;95(23):13363-83)
Abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) resulting from a posttranslational modification of the cellular prion protein (PRPC PROTEINS). PrPSc are disease-specific proteins seen in certain human and animal neurodegenerative diseases (PRION DISEASES).
A fatal disease of the nervous system in sheep and goats, characterized by pruritus, debility, and locomotor incoordination. It is caused by proteinaceous infectious particles called PRIONS.
Proteins that are involved in the peptide chain termination reaction (PEPTIDE CHAIN TERMINATION, TRANSLATIONAL) on RIBOSOMES. They include codon-specific class-I release factors, which recognize stop signals (TERMINATOR CODON) in the MESSENGER RNA; and codon-nonspecific class-II release factors.
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (prion disease) of DEER and elk characterized by chronic weight loss leading to death. It is thought to spread by direct contact between animals or through environmental contamination with the prion protein (PRIONS).
Normal cellular isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS) encoded by a chromosomal gene and found in normal and scrapie-infected brain tissue, and other normal tissue. PrPC are protease-sensitive proteins whose function is unknown. Posttranslational modification of PrPC into PrPSC leads to infectivity.
A rare transmissible encephalopathy most prevalent between the ages of 50 and 70 years. Affected individuals may present with sleep disturbances, personality changes, ATAXIA; APHASIA, visual loss, weakness, muscle atrophy, MYOCLONUS, progressive dementia, and death within one year of disease onset. A familial form exhibiting autosomal dominant inheritance and a new variant CJD (potentially associated with ENCEPHALOPATHY, BOVINE SPONGIFORM) have been described. Pathological features include prominent cerebellar and cerebral cortical spongiform degeneration and the presence of PRIONS. (From N Engl J Med, 1998 Dec 31;339(27))
A genus of ascomycete FUNGI in the order SORDARIALES, which is found on SOIL and herbivore dung (FECES).
A transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of cattle associated with abnormal prion proteins in the brain. Affected animals develop excitability and salivation followed by ATAXIA. This disorder has been associated with consumption of SCRAPIE infected ruminant derived protein. This condition may be transmitted to humans, where it is referred to as variant or new variant CREUTZFELDT-JAKOB SYNDROME. (Vet Rec 1998 Jul 25;143(41):101-5)
A fibrous protein complex that consists of proteins folded into a specific cross beta-pleated sheet structure. This fibrillar structure has been found as an alternative folding pattern for a variety of functional proteins. Deposits of amyloid in the form of AMYLOID PLAQUES are associated with a variety of degenerative diseases. The amyloid structure has also been found in a number of functional proteins that are unrelated to disease.
The family Cervidae of 17 genera and 45 species occurring nearly throughout North America, South America, and Eurasia, on most associated continental islands, and in northern Africa. Wild populations of deer have been established through introduction by people in Cuba, New Guinea, Australia, New Zealand, and other places where the family does not naturally occur. They are slim, long-legged and best characterized by the presence of antlers. Their habitat is forests, swamps, brush country, deserts, and arctic tundra. They are usually good swimmers; some migrate seasonally. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1362)
A genus of the family Muridae having three species. The present domesticated strains were developed from individuals brought from Syria. They are widely used in biomedical research.
The amount time between exposure to an infectious agent and becoming symptomatic.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
A colloidal, hydrated aluminum silicate that swells 12 times its dry size when added to water.
An enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of keratin, and of other proteins with subtilisin-like specificity. It hydrolyses peptide amides. Endopeptidase K is from the mold Tritirachium album Limber. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 3.4.21.64.
Tungsten hydroxide oxide phosphate. A white or slightly yellowish-green, slightly efflorescent crystal or crystalline powder. It is used as a reagent for alkaloids and many other nitrogen bases, for phenols, albumin, peptone, amino acids, uric acid, urea, blood, and carbohydrates. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.
A suborder of the order ARTIODACTYLA whose members have the distinguishing feature of a four-chambered stomach, including the capacious RUMEN. Horns or antlers are usually present, at least in males.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.
An indolizidine alkaloid from the plant Swainsona canescens that is a potent alpha-mannosidase inhibitor. Swainsonine also exhibits antimetastatic, antiproliferative, and immunomodulatory activity.
A prion disease found exclusively among the Fore linguistic group natives of the highlands of NEW GUINEA. The illness is primarily restricted to adult females and children of both sexes. It is marked by the subacute onset of tremor and ataxia followed by motor weakness and incontinence. Death occurs within 3-6 months of disease onset. The condition is associated with ritual cannibalism, and has become rare since this practice has been discontinued. Pathologic features include a noninflammatory loss of neurons that is most prominent in the cerebellum, glial proliferation, and amyloid plaques. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p773)
A method of measuring the effects of a biologically active substance using an intermediate in vivo or in vitro tissue or cell model under controlled conditions. It includes virulence studies in animal fetuses in utero, mouse convulsion bioassay of insulin, quantitation of tumor-initiator systems in mouse skin, calculation of potentiating effects of a hormonal factor in an isolated strip of contracting stomach muscle, etc.
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
Changes in the amounts of various chemicals (neurotransmitters, receptors, enzymes, and other metabolites) specific to the area of the central nervous system contained within the head. These are monitored over time, during sensory stimulation, or under different disease states.
An order of fungi in the phylum ASCOMYCOTA that includes many valuable experimental organisms. There are eight families and very few anamorphic forms.
Proteins which are synthesized in eukaryotic organisms and bacteria in response to hyperthermia and other environmental stresses. They increase thermal tolerance and perform functions essential to cell survival under these conditions.
The unconsolidated mineral or organic matter on the surface of the earth that serves as a natural medium for the growth of land plants.
Non-hematopoietic cells, with extensive dendritic processes, found in the primary and secondary follicles of lymphoid tissue (the B cell zones). They are different from conventional DENDRITIC CELLS associated with T-CELLS. They are derived from MESENCHYMAL STEM CELLS and are negative for class II MHC antigen and do not process or present antigen like the conventional dendritic cells do. Instead, follicular dendritic cells have FC RECEPTORS and C3B RECEPTORS that hold antigen in the form of ANTIGEN-ANTIBODY COMPLEXES on their surfaces for long periods for recognition by B-CELLS.
A tough, malleable, iron-based alloy containing up to, but no more than, two percent carbon and often other metals. It is used in medicine and dentistry in implants and instrumentation.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens. When transmission is within the same species, the mode can be horizontal or vertical (INFECTIOUS DISEASE TRANSMISSION, VERTICAL).
An autosomal dominant familial prion disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentations including ATAXIA, spastic paraparesis, extrapyramidal signs, and DEMENTIA. Clinical onset is in the third to sixth decade of life and the mean duration of illness prior to death is five years. Several kindreds with variable clinical and pathologic features have been described. Pathologic features include cerebral prion protein amyloidosis, and spongiform or neurofibrillary degeneration. (From Brain Pathol 1998 Jul;8(3):499-513; Brain Pathol 1995 Jan;5(1):61-75)
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A family of heat-shock proteins that contain a 70 amino-acid consensus sequence known as the J domain. The J domain of HSP40 heat shock proteins interacts with HSP70 HEAT-SHOCK PROTEINS. HSP40 heat-shock proteins play a role in regulating the ADENOSINE TRIPHOSPHATASES activity of HSP70 heat-shock proteins.
The removal of contaminating material, such as radioactive materials, biological materials, or CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS, from a person or object.
Proteins found in any species of fungus.
Rendering pathogens harmless through the use of heat, antiseptics, antibacterial agents, etc.
An acridine derivative formerly widely used as an antimalarial but superseded by chloroquine in recent years. It has also been used as an anthelmintic and in the treatment of giardiasis and malignant effusions. It is used in cell biological experiments as an inhibitor of phospholipase A2.
Any of the numerous types of clay which contain varying proportions of Al2O3 and SiO2. They are made synthetically by heating aluminum fluoride at 1000-2000 degrees C with silica and water vapor. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.
Proteins that form the core of amyloid fibrils. For example, the core of amyloid A is formed from amyloid A protein, also known as serum amyloid A protein or SAA protein.
Disorders caused by imbalances in the protein homeostasis network - synthesis, folding, and transport of proteins; post-translational modifications; and degradation or clearance of misfolded proteins.
Preparations made from animal tissues or organs (ANIMAL STRUCTURES). They usually contain many components, any one of which may be pharmacologically or physiologically active. Tissue extracts may contain specific, but uncharacterized factors or proteins with specific actions.
Accumulations of extracellularly deposited AMYLOID FIBRILS within tissues.
Common name for the largest birds in the order PASSERIFORMES, family Corvidae. These omnivorous black birds comprise most of the species in the genus Corvus, along with ravens and jackdaws (which are often also referred to as crows).
A family of cellular proteins that mediate the correct assembly or disassembly of polypeptides and their associated ligands. Although they take part in the assembly process, molecular chaperones are not components of the final structures.
A strong organic base existing primarily as guanidium ions at physiological pH. It is found in the urine as a normal product of protein metabolism. It is also used in laboratory research as a protein denaturant. (From Martindale, the Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed and Merck Index, 12th ed) It is also used in the treatment of myasthenia and as a fluorescent probe in HPLC.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
An anionic surfactant, usually a mixture of sodium alkyl sulfates, mainly the lauryl; lowers surface tension of aqueous solutions; used as fat emulsifier, wetting agent, detergent in cosmetics, pharmaceuticals and toothpastes; also as research tool in protein biochemistry.
A class of MOLECULAR CHAPERONES found in both prokaryotes and in several compartments of eukaryotic cells. These proteins can interact with polypeptides during a variety of assembly processes in such a way as to prevent the formation of nonfunctional structures.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape and arrangement of multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Protease-resistant core of PrPSC, the abnormal isoform of prion proteins (PRIONS). PrP 27-30 is produced by limited proteolysis of the N-terminus of PrPSc.
Any adverse condition in a patient occurring as the result of treatment by a physician, surgeon, or other health professional, especially infections acquired by a patient during the course of treatment.
A constitution or condition of the body which makes the tissues react in special ways to certain extrinsic stimuli and thus tends to make the individual more than usually susceptible to certain diseases.
A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)
A subfamily of MURIDAE found nearly world-wide and consisting of about 20 genera. Voles, lemmings, and muskrats are members.
Identification of proteins or peptides that have been electrophoretically separated by blot transferring from the electrophoresis gel to strips of nitrocellulose paper, followed by labeling with antibody probes.
Diseases of non-human animals that may be transmitted to HUMANS or may be transmitted from humans to non-human animals.
Hereditary and sporadic conditions which are characterized by progressive nervous system dysfunction. These disorders are often associated with atrophy of the affected central or peripheral nervous system structures.
The imide of phthalic acids.
Hand-held tools or implements used by health professionals for the performance of surgical tasks.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
The properties of a pathogen that makes it capable of infecting one or more specific hosts. The pathogen can include PARASITES as well as VIRUSES; BACTERIA; FUNGI; or PLANTS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Disruption of the non-covalent bonds and/or disulfide bonds responsible for maintaining the three-dimensional shape and activity of the native protein.
The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.
The application of high intensity ultrasound to liquids.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily. It has specificity for LYMPHOTOXIN ALPHA1, BETA2 HETEROTRIMER and TUMOR NECROSIS FACTOR LIGAND SUPERFAMILY MEMBER 14. The receptor plays a role in regulating lymphoid ORGANOGENESIS and the differentiation of certain subsets of NATURAL KILLER T-CELLS. Signaling of the receptor occurs through its association with TNF RECEPTOR-ASSOCIATED FACTORS.
The adhesion of gases, liquids, or dissolved solids onto a surface. It includes adsorptive phenomena of bacteria and viruses onto surfaces as well. ABSORPTION into the substance may follow but not necessarily.
Hydrolases that specifically cleave the peptide bonds found in PROTEINS and PEPTIDES. Examples of sub-subclasses for this group include EXOPEPTIDASES and ENDOPEPTIDASES.
Inbred C57BL mice are a strain of laboratory mice that have been produced by many generations of brother-sister matings, resulting in a high degree of genetic uniformity and homozygosity, making them widely used for biomedical research, including studies on genetics, immunology, cancer, and neuroscience.
Carnivores of genus Mustela of the family MUSTELIDAE. The European mink, which has white upper and lower lips, was widely trapped for commercial purposes and is classified as endangered. The American mink, lacking a white upper lip, is farmed commercially.
The ability of a protein to retain its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to physical or chemical manipulations.
Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.
The clear, viscous fluid secreted by the SALIVARY GLANDS and mucous glands of the mouth. It contains MUCINS, water, organic salts, and ptylin.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.
Specialized tissues that are components of the lymphatic system. They provide fixed locations within the body where a variety of LYMPHOCYTES can form, mature and multiply. The lymphoid tissues are connected by a network of LYMPHATIC VESSELS.
The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.
Diseases of domestic and mountain sheep of the genus Ovis.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
Warm-blooded vertebrate animals belonging to the class Mammalia, including all that possess hair and suckle their young.
A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.
Substances used on inanimate objects that destroy harmful microorganisms or inhibit their activity. Disinfectants are classed as complete, destroying SPORES as well as vegetative forms of microorganisms, or incomplete, destroying only vegetative forms of the organisms. They are distinguished from ANTISEPTICS, which are local anti-infective agents used on humans and other animals. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Immunologic method used for detecting or quantifying immunoreactive substances. The substance is identified by first immobilizing it by blotting onto a membrane and then tagging it with labeled antibodies.
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
Establishment of the level of a quantifiable effect indicative of a biologic process. The evaluation is frequently to detect the degree of toxic or therapeutic effect.
Compounds containing carbohydrate or glycosyl groups linked to phosphatidylinositols. They anchor GPI-LINKED PROTEINS or polysaccharides to cell membranes.
A common neoplasm of early childhood arising from neural crest cells in the sympathetic nervous system, and characterized by diverse clinical behavior, ranging from spontaneous remission to rapid metastatic progression and death. This tumor is the most common intraabdominal malignancy of childhood, but it may also arise from thorax, neck, or rarely occur in the central nervous system. Histologic features include uniform round cells with hyperchromatic nuclei arranged in nests and separated by fibrovascular septa. Neuroblastomas may be associated with the opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2099-2101; Curr Opin Oncol 1998 Jan;10(1):43-51)
High molecular weight polymers containing a mixture of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides chained together by ribose or deoxyribose linkages.
Diseases that do not exhibit symptoms.
An encapsulated lymphatic organ through which venous blood filters.
Electron microscopy in which the ELECTRONS or their reaction products that pass down through the specimen are imaged below the plane of the specimen.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.
Different forms of a protein that may be produced from different GENES, or from the same gene by ALTERNATIVE SPLICING.
Proteins and peptides found in SALIVA and the SALIVARY GLANDS. Some salivary proteins such as ALPHA-AMYLASES are enzymes, but their composition varies in different individuals.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
Diminished or failed response of an organism, disease or tissue to the intended effectiveness of a chemical or drug. It should be differentiated from DRUG TOLERANCE which is the progressive diminution of the susceptibility of a human or animal to the effects of a drug, as a result of continued administration.
A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).
Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.
Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in fungi.
The assembly of the QUATERNARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE of multimeric proteins (MULTIPROTEIN COMPLEXES) from their composite PROTEIN SUBUNITS.
Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.
Transparent, tasteless crystals found in nature as agate, amethyst, chalcedony, cristobalite, flint, sand, QUARTZ, and tridymite. The compound is insoluble in water or acids except hydrofluoric acid.
Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.
Genes that are introduced into an organism using GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.
Any spaces or cavities within a cell. They may function in digestion, storage, secretion, or excretion.
Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.
A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.
Thiazoles are heterocyclic organic compounds containing a sulfur atom and a nitrogen atom, which are bound by two carbon atoms to form a five-membered ring, and are widely found in various natural and synthetic substances, including some pharmaceuticals and vitamins.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Change brought about to an organisms genetic composition by unidirectional transfer (TRANSFECTION; TRANSDUCTION, GENETIC; CONJUGATION, GENETIC, etc.) and incorporation of foreign DNA into prokaryotic or eukaryotic cells by recombination of part or all of that DNA into the cell's genome.
A genetic process by which the adult organism is realized via mechanisms that lead to the restriction in the possible fates of cells, eventually leading to their differentiated state. Mechanisms involved cause heritable changes to cells without changes to DNA sequence such as DNA METHYLATION; HISTONE modification; DNA REPLICATION TIMING; NUCLEOSOME positioning; and heterochromatization which result in selective gene expression or repression.
Techniques used for determining the values of photometric parameters of light resulting from LUMINESCENCE.
Characteristic restricted to a particular organ of the body, such as a cell type, metabolic response or expression of a particular protein or antigen.
Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.
Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.
A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.
The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A fractionated cell extract that maintains a biological function. A subcellular fraction isolated by ultracentrifugation or other separation techniques must first be isolated so that a process can be studied free from all of the complex side reactions that occur in a cell. The cell-free system is therefore widely used in cell biology. (From Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 2d ed, p166)
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
A group of enzymes which catalyze the hydrolysis of ATP. The hydrolysis reaction is usually coupled with another function such as transporting Ca(2+) across a membrane. These enzymes may be dependent on Ca(2+), Mg(2+), anions, H+, or DNA.
Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.
Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.
'Nerve tissue proteins' are specialized proteins found within the nervous system's biological tissue, including neurofilaments, neuronal cytoskeletal proteins, and neural cell adhesion molecules, which facilitate structural support, intracellular communication, and synaptic connectivity essential for proper neurological function.
Differential and non-random reproduction of different genotypes, operating to alter the gene frequencies within a population.
The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations, or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. All animals within an inbred strain trace back to a common ancestor in the twentieth generation.
A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)
The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.
Variant forms of the same gene, occupying the same locus on homologous CHROMOSOMES, and governing the variants in production of the same gene product.
Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.
Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
Filamentous proteins that are the main constituent of the thin filaments of muscle fibers. The filaments (known also as filamentous or F-actin) can be dissociated into their globular subunits; each subunit is composed of a single polypeptide 375 amino acids long. This is known as globular or G-actin. In conjunction with MYOSINS, actin is responsible for the contraction and relaxation of muscle.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A latent susceptibility to disease at the genetic level, which may be activated under certain conditions.

Characterization of the interaction domains of Ure2p, a prion-like protein of yeast. (1/2897)

In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the non-Mendelian inherited genetic element [URE3] behaves as a prion. A hypothesis has been put forward which states that [URE3] arises spontaneously from its cellular isoform Ure2p (the product of the URE2 gene), and propagates through interactions of the N-terminal domain of the protein, thus leading to its aggregation and loss of function. In the present study, various N- and C-terminal deletion mutants of Ure2p were constructed and their cross-interactions were tested in vitro and in vivo using affinity binding and a two-hybrid analysis. We show that the self-interaction of the protein is mediated by at least two domains, corresponding to the first third of the protein (the so-called prion-forming domain) and the C-terminal catalytic domain.  (+info)

Prion domain initiation of amyloid formation in vitro from native Ure2p. (2/2897)

The [URE3] non-Mendelian genetic element of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is an infectious protein (prion) form of Ure2p, a regulator of nitrogen catabolism. Here, synthetic Ure2p1-65 were shown to polymerize to form filaments 40 to 45 angstroms in diameter with more than 60 percent beta sheet. Ure2p1-65 specifically induced full-length native Ure2p to copolymerize under conditions where native Ure2p alone did not polymerize. Like Ure2p in extracts of [URE3] strains, these 180- to 220-angstrom-diameter filaments were protease resistant. The Ure2p1-65-Ure2p cofilaments could seed polymerization of native Ure2p to form thicker, less regular filaments. All filaments stained with Congo Red to produce the green birefringence typical of amyloid. This self-propagating amyloid formation can explain the properties of [URE3].  (+info)

A novel epitope for the specific detection of exogenous prion proteins in transgenic mice and transfected murine cell lines. (3/2897)

Prion diseases are closely linked to the conversion of host-encoded cellular prion protein (PrPC) into its pathological isoform (PrPSc). PrP conversion experiments in scrapie infected tissue culture cells, transgenic mice, and cell-free systems usually require unique epitopes and corresponding monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) for the immunological discrimination of exogenously introduced and endogenous PrP compounds (e.g., MAb 3F4, which is directed to an epitope on hamster and human but not on murine PrP). In the current work, we characterize a novel MAb designated L42 that reacts to PrP of a variety of species, including cattle, sheep, goat, dog, human, cat, mink, rabbit, and guinea pig, but does not bind to mouse, hamster, and rat PrP. Therefore, MAb L42 may allow future in vitro conversion and transgenic studies on PrPs of the former species. The MAb L42 epitope on PrPC includes a tyrosine residue at position 144, whereas mouse, rat, and hamster PrPs incorporate tryptophane at this site. To verify this observation, we generated PrP expression vectors coding for authentic or mutated murine PrPCs (i.e., codon 144 encoding tyrosine instead of tryptophan). After transfection into neuroblastoma cells, MAb L42 did not react with immunoblotted wild-type murine PrPC, whereas L42 epitope-tagged murine PrPC was strongly recognized. Immunoblot and fluorescence-activated cell sorting data revealed that tagged PrPC was correctly posttranslationally processed and translocated to the cell surface.  (+info)

Fatal familial insomnia: a new Austrian family. (4/2897)

We present clinical, pathological and molecular features of the first Austrian family with fatal familial insomnia. Detailed clinical data are available in five patients and autopsy in four patients. Age at onset of disease ranged between 20 and 60 years, and disease duration between 8 and 20 months. Severe loss of weight was an early symptom in all five patients. Four patients developed insomnia and/or autonomic dysfunction, and all five patients developed motor abnormalities. Analysis of the prion protein (PrP) gene revealed the codon 178 point mutation and methionine homozygosity at position 129. In all brains, neuropathology showed widespread cortical astrogliosis, widespread brainstem nuclei and tract degeneration, and olivary 'pseudohypertrophy' with vacuolated neurons, in addition to neuropathological features described previously, such as thalamic and olivary degeneration. Western blotting of one brain and immunocytochemistry in four brains revealed quantitative and regional dissociation between PrP(res)(the protease resistant form of PrP) deposition and histopathology. In the cerebellar cortex of one patient, PrP(res) deposits were prominent in the molecular layer and displayed a peculiar patchy and strip-like pattern with perpendicular orientation to the surface. In another patient, a single vacuolated neuron in the inferior olivary nuclei contained prominent intravacuolar granular PrP(res) deposits, resembling changes of brainstem neurons in bovine spongiform encephalopathy.  (+info)

Copper binding to the prion protein: structural implications of four identical cooperative binding sites. (5/2897)

Evidence is growing to support a functional role for the prion protein (PrP) in copper metabolism. Copper ions appear to bind to the protein in a highly conserved octapeptide repeat region (sequence PHGGGWGQ) near the N terminus. To delineate the site and mode of binding of Cu(II) to the PrP, the copper-binding properties of peptides of varying lengths corresponding to 2-, 3-, and 4-octarepeat sequences have been probed by using various spectroscopic techniques. A two-octarepeat peptide binds a single Cu(II) ion with Kd approximately 6 microM whereas a four-octarepeat peptide cooperatively binds four Cu(II) ions. Circular dichroism spectra indicate a distinctive structuring of the octarepeat region on Cu(II) binding. Visible absorption, visible circular dichroism, and electron spin resonance spectra suggest that the coordination sphere of the copper is identical for 2, 3, or 4 octarepeats, consisting of a square-planar geometry with three nitrogen ligands and one oxygen ligand. Consistent with the pH dependence of Cu(II) binding, proton NMR spectroscopy indicates that the histidine residues in each octarepeat are coordinated to the Cu(II) ion. Our working model for the structure of the complex shows the histidine residues in successive octarepeats bridged between two copper ions, with both the Nepsilon2 and Ndelta1 imidazole nitrogen of each histidine residue coordinated and the remaining coordination sites occupied by a backbone amide nitrogen and a water molecule. This arrangement accounts for the cooperative nature of complex formation and for the apparent evolutionary requirement for four octarepeats in the PrP.  (+info)

The yeast non-Mendelian factor [ETA+] is a variant of [PSI+], a prion-like form of release factor eRF3. (6/2897)

The yeast non-Mendelian factor [ETA+] is lethal in the presence of certain mutations in the SUP35 and SUP45 genes, which code for the translational release factors eRF3 and eRF1, respectively. One such mutation, sup35-2, is now shown to contain a UAG stop codon prior to the essential region of the gene. The non-Mendelian inheritance of [ETA+] is reminiscent of the yeast [PSI+] element, which is due to a self-propagating conformation of Sup35p. Here we show that [ETA+] and [PSI+] share many characteristics. Indeed, like [PSI+], the maintenance of [ETA+] requires the N-terminal region of Sup35p and depends on an appropriate level of the chaperone protein Hsp104. Moreover, [ETA+] can be induced de novo by excess Sup35p, and [ETA+] cells have a weak nonsense suppressor phenotype characteristic of weak [PSI+]. We conclude that [ETA+] is actually a weak, unstable variant of [PSI+]. We find that although some Sup35p aggregates in [ETA+] cells, more Sup35p remains soluble in [ETA+] cells than in isogenic strong [PSI+] cells. Our data suggest that the amount of soluble Sup35p determines the strength of translational nonsense suppression associated with different [PSI+] variants.  (+info)

Application of distance geometry to 3D visualization of sequence relationships. (7/2897)

SUMMARY: We describe the application of distance geometry methods to the three-dimensional visualization of sequence relationships, with examples for mumps virus SH gene cDNA and prion protein sequences. Sequence-sequence distance measures may be obtained from either a multiple sequence alignment or from sets of pairwise alignments. AVAILABILITY: C/Perl code and HTML/VRML files from http://www.nibsc.ac.uk/dg3dseq/  (+info)

Effectiveness of polyene antibiotics in treatment of transmissible spongiform encephalopathy in transgenic mice expressing Syrian hamster PrP only in neurons. (8/2897)

To date very few drugs have favorably influenced the course of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. In previous studies, the polyene antibiotics amphotericin B (AmB) and MS-8209 prolonged the incubation time in Syrian hamsters of the 263K strain of scrapie, but AmB had no effect against other scrapie strains in Syrian hamsters. In the present experiments using transgenic mice expressing Syrian hamster PrP in neurons only, MS-8209 extended the life spans of animals infected with the 263K strain but not the DY strain. AmB was effective against both 263K and DY and prevented death in 18% of DY-infected animals. The AmB effect against strain 263K was more prominent in mice whose endogenous PrP gene had been inactivated by homologous recombination. It was unclear whether this difference was due to a change in the duration of the disease or to possible interactive effects between the mouse PrP gene and the drugs themselves. The effectiveness of treatment after intracerebral scrapie infection in transgenic mice expressing PrP only in neurons suggested that neurons are important sites of action for these drugs.  (+info)

Prion diseases, also known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. They are unique in that they are caused by prions, which are misfolded proteins rather than infectious agents like bacteria or viruses. These abnormal prions can cause other normal proteins to misfold and accumulate in the brain, leading to brain damage and neurodegeneration.

Prion diseases can be sporadic, inherited, or acquired. Sporadic forms occur without a known cause and are the most common type. Inherited prion diseases are caused by mutations in the PRNP gene and are often associated with a family history of the disease. Acquired prion diseases can result from exposure to contaminated food (as in variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), medical procedures (iatrogenic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease), or inherited forms of the disease that cause abnormal prions to be secreted in body fluids (like kuru).

Common prion diseases in humans include:

1. Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) - sporadic, inherited, and acquired forms
2. Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) - acquired form linked to consumption of contaminated beef products
3. Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS) - inherited form
4. Fatal familial insomnia (FFI) - inherited form
5. Kuru - an acquired form that occurred in a isolated tribe due to cannibalistic practices, now eradicated

Prion diseases are characterized by rapidly progressing dementia, neurological symptoms, and motor dysfunction. There is no known cure for these diseases, and they are universally fatal.

PrP^Sc (prion protein scrapie) is a misfolded, abnormal conformational isoform of the prion protein (PrP), which is associated with a group of progressive neurodegenerative disorders known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). These diseases affect both humans and animals and include conditions like bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad cow disease") in cattle, scrapie in sheep, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans.

The PrP protein is a naturally occurring, normal cellular protein found primarily in the brain and central nervous system. It has a predominantly alpha-helical structure under physiological conditions. However, during the development of prion diseases, PrP^Sc forms through a conformational change where the alpha-helical regions are replaced by beta-sheet structures. This misfolded protein can aggregate and form amyloid fibrils, which deposit in various brain regions leading to neurodegeneration, spongiform changes, gliosis, and neuronal loss.

Importantly, PrP^Sc is thought to have self-propagating properties, as it can induce the conversion of normal PrP into more PrP^Sc through a process called seeded polymerization or templated misfolding. This mechanism is believed to underlie the infectious nature and transmissibility of prion diseases.

Scrapie is a progressive, fatal, degenerative disease affecting the central nervous system of sheep and goats. It is one of the transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases. The agent responsible for scrapie is thought to be an abnormal form of the prion protein, which can cause normal prion proteins in the brain to adopt the abnormal shape and accumulate, leading to brain damage and neurodegeneration.

Scrapie is characterized by several clinical signs, including changes in behavior, tremors, loss of coordination, itching, and excessive scraping of the fleece against hard surfaces, which gives the disease its name. The incubation period for scrapie can range from 2 to 5 years, and there is no known treatment or cure for the disease.

Scrapie is not considered a significant threat to human health, but it has served as a model for understanding other prion diseases, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle, which can cause variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans.

Peptide termination factors, also known as release factors, are proteins involved in the process of protein biosynthesis in cells. Specifically, they play a crucial role in the termination step of translation, which is the process by which the genetic code in messenger RNA (mRNA) is translated into a specific sequence of amino acids to form a protein.

During translation, ribosomes move along the mRNA and read the codons (three-nucleotide sequences) to add the corresponding amino acids to the growing polypeptide chain. When the ribosome encounters a stop codon (UAA, UAG, or UGA), peptide termination factors recognize it and bind to the ribosome. The specific factor that recognizes each stop codon is called a class 1 release factor.

In eukaryotic cells, there are two main class 1 release factors: eRF1 (eukaryotic release factor 1) and eRF3. eRF1 recognizes all three stop codons and promotes the hydrolysis of the peptidyl-tRNA bond, releasing the completed polypeptide chain from the ribosome. eRF3 acts as a GTPase and interacts with eRF1 to facilitate its binding to the ribosome.

Once the polypeptide is released, the ribosome dissociates from the mRNA, allowing for another round of translation or degradation of the mRNA. Peptide termination factors are essential for accurate protein synthesis and preventing errors due to premature termination or readthrough of stop codons.

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a progressive, fatal neurodegenerative disorder that affects members of the cervid family, including deer, elk, and moose. It is caused by prions, abnormally folded proteins that can cause other proteins in the brain to also misfold and accumulate, leading to brain damage and death.

CWD is characterized by several symptoms, including weight loss (wasting), excessive thirst and urination, listlessness, lack of coordination, and behavioral changes such as aggression or decreased social interaction. The disease is always fatal, with no known cure or vaccine available.

CWD is transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or contaminated environments, and it can persist in the environment for years. It is important to note that CWD has not been shown to infect humans, but public health officials recommend avoiding consumption of meat from infected animals as a precautionary measure.

PrPc proteins, also known as cellular prion proteins, are a type of protein found on the surface of many types of cells in the body, including neurons in the brain. The normal function of PrPc proteins is not entirely clear, but they are believed to play a role in various physiological processes such as protecting nerve cells from damage, regulating metal ion homeostasis, and participating in cell signaling pathways.

PrPc proteins are composed of 253 amino acids and have a molecular weight of approximately 35 kDa. They contain a highly conserved domain called the prion protein domain (PRD), which is rich in alpha-helices and contains a copper-binding site. The PRD is necessary for the normal function of PrPc proteins, but it is also the region that undergoes conformational changes to form the abnormal, disease-associated form of the protein called PrPSc.

PrPSc proteins are misfolded and aggregated forms of PrPc proteins that are associated with a group of neurodegenerative diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), including bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE or "mad cow disease"), scrapie in sheep, and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) in humans. The misfolded PrPSc proteins can cause other normal PrPc proteins to also misfold and aggregate, leading to the formation of amyloid fibrils that accumulate in the brain and cause neurodegeneration.

Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome (CJD) is a rare, degenerative, and fatal brain disorder. It is caused by an abnormal form of protein called prion that can cause normal proteins in the brain to fold into abnormal shapes and accumulate, leading to damage and death of brain cells.

The symptoms of CJD usually develop over a period of several months and include rapidly progressing dementia, memory loss, confusion, coordination problems, muscle stiffness, twitching, and shaking. Some people may also experience visual hallucinations, changes in personality, or depression.

There are three main types of CJD: sporadic, inherited, and acquired. Sporadic CJD is the most common form and accounts for about 85% of all cases. It occurs spontaneously with no known cause. Inherited CJD is caused by a genetic mutation that is passed down from parents to their children. Acquired CJD is caused by exposure to contaminated tissue or bodily fluids, such as through a medical procedure or eating contaminated beef (variant CJD).

There is no cure for Creutzfeldt-Jakob syndrome and it is fatal, usually within a year of onset of symptoms. Treatment focuses on managing the symptoms and making the patient as comfortable as possible.

"Podospora" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a genus of fungi in the order of Hypocreales, which are commonly found in soil and decaying organic matter. Some species of Podospora are known to produce perithecia, a type of sexual fruiting body, and ascospores, which are used for reproduction.

While Podospora fungi themselves do not have direct medical relevance, it is worth noting that some fungi can cause infections in humans, particularly in individuals with weakened immune systems. However, Podospora species are not typically associated with human disease.

Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), also known as "mad cow disease," is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that affects cattle. It is caused by prions, which are misfolded proteins that can cause other proteins in the brain to also misfold and accumulate, leading to brain damage and degeneration. The disease is named for the sponge-like appearance of the brain tissue that results from this degenerative process.

BSE is a zoonotic disease, which means that it can be transmitted from animals to humans. In humans, BSE is known as variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) and is caused by consuming contaminated beef products. The symptoms of vCJD include rapidly progressing dementia, neurological symptoms such as muscle spasms and difficulty coordinating movements, and physical deterioration leading to death.

It's important to note that the use of certain growth promoters in cattle feed and the practice of feeding cattle meat and bone meal have been banned in many countries in order to prevent the spread of BSE. Additionally, strict controls on the inspection and testing of beef products have been implemented to ensure their safety.

Amyloid is a term used in medicine to describe abnormally folded protein deposits that can accumulate in various tissues and organs of the body. These misfolded proteins can form aggregates known as amyloid fibrils, which have a characteristic beta-pleated sheet structure. Amyloid deposits can be composed of different types of proteins, depending on the specific disease associated with the deposit.

In some cases, amyloid deposits can cause damage to organs and tissues, leading to various clinical symptoms. Some examples of diseases associated with amyloidosis include Alzheimer's disease (where amyloid-beta protein accumulates in the brain), systemic amyloidosis (where amyloid fibrils deposit in various organs such as the heart, kidneys, and liver), and type 2 diabetes (where amyloid deposits form in the pancreas).

It's important to note that not all amyloid deposits are harmful or associated with disease. However, when they do cause problems, treatment typically involves managing the underlying condition that is leading to the abnormal protein accumulation.

I apologize for any confusion, but "deer" is not a medical term. It is a common name used to refer to various species of hooved mammals belonging to the family Cervidae. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help answer them.

"Mesocricetus" is a genus of rodents, more commonly known as hamsters. It includes several species of hamsters that are native to various parts of Europe and Asia. The best-known member of this genus is the Syrian hamster, also known as the golden hamster or Mesocricetus auratus, which is a popular pet due to its small size and relatively easy care. These hamsters are burrowing animals and are typically solitary in the wild.

The incubation period of an infectious disease is the time interval between when a person is infected with a pathogen and when they start showing symptoms of the disease. This period can vary widely depending on the specific type of infectious agent, ranging from just a few hours to several weeks or even months.

The incubation period is an important factor in understanding the epidemiology of infectious diseases, as it can influence the strategy for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention measures such as quarantine and contact tracing. It's also worth noting that not all infected individuals will develop symptoms, and some may still be able to transmit the infection to others during the incubation period or even after symptoms have resolved.

Transgenic mice are genetically modified rodents that have incorporated foreign DNA (exogenous DNA) into their own genome. This is typically done through the use of recombinant DNA technology, where a specific gene or genetic sequence of interest is isolated and then introduced into the mouse embryo. The resulting transgenic mice can then express the protein encoded by the foreign gene, allowing researchers to study its function in a living organism.

The process of creating transgenic mice usually involves microinjecting the exogenous DNA into the pronucleus of a fertilized egg, which is then implanted into a surrogate mother. The offspring that result from this procedure are screened for the presence of the foreign DNA, and those that carry the desired genetic modification are used to establish a transgenic mouse line.

Transgenic mice have been widely used in biomedical research to model human diseases, study gene function, and test new therapies. They provide a valuable tool for understanding complex biological processes and developing new treatments for a variety of medical conditions.

The brain is the central organ of the nervous system, responsible for receiving and processing sensory information, regulating vital functions, and controlling behavior, movement, and cognition. It is divided into several distinct regions, each with specific functions:

1. Cerebrum: The largest part of the brain, responsible for higher cognitive functions such as thinking, learning, memory, language, and perception. It is divided into two hemispheres, each controlling the opposite side of the body.
2. Cerebellum: Located at the back of the brain, it is responsible for coordinating muscle movements, maintaining balance, and fine-tuning motor skills.
3. Brainstem: Connects the cerebrum and cerebellum to the spinal cord, controlling vital functions such as breathing, heart rate, and blood pressure. It also serves as a relay center for sensory information and motor commands between the brain and the rest of the body.
4. Diencephalon: A region that includes the thalamus (a major sensory relay station) and hypothalamus (regulates hormones, temperature, hunger, thirst, and sleep).
5. Limbic system: A group of structures involved in emotional processing, memory formation, and motivation, including the hippocampus, amygdala, and cingulate gyrus.

The brain is composed of billions of interconnected neurons that communicate through electrical and chemical signals. It is protected by the skull and surrounded by three layers of membranes called meninges, as well as cerebrospinal fluid that provides cushioning and nutrients.

Bentonite is not a medical term, but a geological one. It refers to a type of clay that is composed primarily of montmorillonite, a soft phyllosilicate mineral. Bentonite has a wide range of uses, including as a binding agent in the manufacture of medicines, as an absorbent in cat litter and personal care products, and as a component in drilling muds and cement mixtures.

In medical contexts, bentonite is sometimes used as a bulk-forming laxative to treat constipation or irregularity. It works by absorbing water and increasing the size and weight of stool, which stimulates bowel movements. However, it's important to note that bentonite should only be used under the guidance of a healthcare professional, as it can interfere with the absorption of certain medications and may cause side effects such as bloating, gas, and diarrhea.

Endopeptidase K is a type of enzyme that belongs to the family of peptidases, which are proteins that help break down other proteins into smaller molecules called peptides or individual amino acids. Specifically, endopeptidase K is an intracellular serine protease that cleaves peptide bonds within a protein's interior, rather than at its ends.

Endopeptidase K was initially identified as a component of the proteasome, a large protein complex found in the nucleus and cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. The proteasome plays a critical role in regulating protein turnover and degrading damaged or misfolded proteins. Endopeptidase K is one of several enzymes that make up the proteasome's catalytic core, where it helps cleave proteins into smaller peptides for further processing and eventual destruction.

Endopeptidase K has also been found to be involved in other cellular processes, such as regulating the activity of certain signaling molecules and contributing to the immune response. However, its precise functions and substrates are still being studied and elucidated.

Phosphotungstic acid is not typically defined in a medical context as it is a chemical compound with the formula H3PW12O40. It is a complex polyoxometalate anion consisting of 12 tungsten atoms and one phosphorus atom, all in the +5 or +6 oxidation state, surrounded by 40 oxygen atoms.

In medicine, phosphotungstic acid is sometimes used as a negative stain for electron microscopy to enhance contrast and visualization of biological specimens. However, it is not a medication or a therapeutic agent, so it does not have a medical definition per se.

Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins are the proteins that are produced by the budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This organism is a single-celled eukaryote that has been widely used as a model organism in scientific research for many years due to its relatively simple genetic makeup and its similarity to higher eukaryotic cells.

The genome of Saccharomyces cerevisiae has been fully sequenced, and it is estimated to contain approximately 6,000 genes that encode proteins. These proteins play a wide variety of roles in the cell, including catalyzing metabolic reactions, regulating gene expression, maintaining the structure of the cell, and responding to environmental stimuli.

Many Saccharomyces cerevisiae proteins have human homologs and are involved in similar biological processes, making this organism a valuable tool for studying human disease. For example, many of the proteins involved in DNA replication, repair, and recombination in yeast have human counterparts that are associated with cancer and other diseases. By studying these proteins in yeast, researchers can gain insights into their function and regulation in humans, which may lead to new treatments for disease.

Cricetinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes hamsters, gerbils, and relatives. These small mammals are characterized by having short limbs, compact bodies, and cheek pouches for storing food. They are native to various parts of the world, particularly in Europe, Asia, and Africa. Some species are popular pets due to their small size, easy care, and friendly nature. In a medical context, understanding the biology and behavior of Cricetinae species can be important for individuals who keep them as pets or for researchers studying their physiology.

Protein folding is the process by which a protein molecule naturally folds into its three-dimensional structure, following the synthesis of its amino acid chain. This complex process is determined by the sequence and properties of the amino acids, as well as various environmental factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of molecular chaperones. The final folded conformation of a protein is crucial for its proper function, as it enables the formation of specific interactions between different parts of the molecule, which in turn define its biological activity. Protein misfolding can lead to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease.

Ruminants are a category of hooved mammals that are known for their unique digestive system, which involves a process called rumination. This group includes animals such as cattle, deer, sheep, goats, and giraffes, among others. The digestive system of ruminants consists of a specialized stomach with multiple compartments (the rumen, reticulum, omasum, and abomasum).

Ruminants primarily consume plant-based diets, which are high in cellulose, a complex carbohydrate that is difficult for many animals to digest. In the rumen, microbes break down the cellulose into simpler compounds, producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) that serve as a major energy source for ruminants. The animal then regurgitates the partially digested plant material (known as cud), chews it further to mix it with saliva and additional microbes, and swallows it again for further digestion in the rumen. This process of rumination allows ruminants to efficiently extract nutrients from their fibrous diets.

I apologize, but "sheep" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a common animal with the scientific name Ovis aries. If you have any medical or health-related questions, I would be happy to try and help answer those for you.

"Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is not typically considered a medical term, but it is a scientific name used in the field of microbiology. It refers to a species of yeast that is commonly used in various industrial processes, such as baking and brewing. It's also widely used in scientific research due to its genetic tractability and eukaryotic cellular organization.

However, it does have some relevance to medical fields like medicine and nutrition. For example, certain strains of S. cerevisiae are used as probiotics, which can provide health benefits when consumed. They may help support gut health, enhance the immune system, and even assist in the digestion of certain nutrients.

In summary, "Saccharomyces cerevisiae" is a species of yeast with various industrial and potential medical applications.

Swainsonine is not a medical condition or disease, but rather a toxin that can cause a medical condition known as "locoism" in animals. Swainsonine is produced by certain plants, including some species of the genera Swainsona and Astragalus, which are commonly known as locoweeds.

Swainsonine inhibits an enzyme called alpha-mannosidase, leading to abnormal accumulation of mannose-rich oligosaccharides in various tissues and organs. This can result in a range of clinical signs, including neurological symptoms such as tremors, ataxia (loss of coordination), and behavioral changes; gastrointestinal symptoms such as diarrhea, weight loss, and decreased appetite; and reproductive problems.

Locoism is most commonly seen in grazing animals such as cattle, sheep, and horses that consume large quantities of locoweeds over an extended period. It can be difficult to diagnose and treat, and prevention through management practices such as rotational grazing and avoiding the introduction of toxic plants into pastures is often the best approach.

Kuru is a rare, fatal neurological disorder that was identified in the Fore people of Papua New Guinea. It is primarily caused by an abnormal form of protein called prion and is transmitted through cannibalistic practices where infected human tissues are consumed. The disease is characterized by progressive deterioration of the brain, leading to symptoms such as tremors, difficulty coordinating movements, slurred speech, and uncontrollable laughter. There is currently no known cure for kuru, and it has become extremely rare due to the cessation of cannibalistic rituals in the affected population.

A biological assay is a method used in biology and biochemistry to measure the concentration or potency of a substance (like a drug, hormone, or enzyme) by observing its effect on living cells or tissues. This type of assay can be performed using various techniques such as:

1. Cell-based assays: These involve measuring changes in cell behavior, growth, or viability after exposure to the substance being tested. Examples include proliferation assays, apoptosis assays, and cytotoxicity assays.
2. Protein-based assays: These focus on measuring the interaction between the substance and specific proteins, such as enzymes or receptors. Examples include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs), radioimmunoassays (RIAs), and pull-down assays.
3. Genetic-based assays: These involve analyzing the effects of the substance on gene expression, DNA structure, or protein synthesis. Examples include quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, reporter gene assays, and northern blotting.

Biological assays are essential tools in research, drug development, and diagnostic applications to understand biological processes and evaluate the potential therapeutic efficacy or toxicity of various substances.

Species specificity is a term used in the field of biology, including medicine, to refer to the characteristic of a biological entity (such as a virus, bacterium, or other microorganism) that allows it to interact exclusively or preferentially with a particular species. This means that the biological entity has a strong affinity for, or is only able to infect, a specific host species.

For example, HIV is specifically adapted to infect human cells and does not typically infect other animal species. Similarly, some bacterial toxins are species-specific and can only affect certain types of animals or humans. This concept is important in understanding the transmission dynamics and host range of various pathogens, as well as in developing targeted therapies and vaccines.

Brain chemistry refers to the chemical processes that occur within the brain, particularly those involving neurotransmitters, neuromodulators, and neuropeptides. These chemicals are responsible for transmitting signals between neurons (nerve cells) in the brain, allowing for various cognitive, emotional, and physical functions.

Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that transmit signals across the synapse (the tiny gap between two neurons). Examples of neurotransmitters include dopamine, serotonin, norepinephrine, GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid), and glutamate. Each neurotransmitter has a specific role in brain function, such as regulating mood, motivation, attention, memory, and movement.

Neuromodulators are chemicals that modify the effects of neurotransmitters on neurons. They can enhance or inhibit the transmission of signals between neurons, thereby modulating brain activity. Examples of neuromodulators include acetylcholine, histamine, and substance P.

Neuropeptides are small protein-like molecules that act as neurotransmitters or neuromodulators. They play a role in various physiological functions, such as pain perception, stress response, and reward processing. Examples of neuropeptides include endorphins, enkephalins, and oxytocin.

Abnormalities in brain chemistry can lead to various neurological and psychiatric conditions, such as depression, anxiety disorders, schizophrenia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease. Understanding brain chemistry is crucial for developing effective treatments for these conditions.

Sordariales is an order of fungi in the class Sordariomycetes, which are characterized by their perithecial ascomata (sexual fruiting bodies) with cylindrical to allantoid (sausage-shaped) asci (ascus = sac-like structure containing ascospores). The order includes both saprobic and pathogenic species. Some notable members of Sordariales are:

1. Neurospora crassa - A model organism used in genetics, molecular biology, and biochemistry research. It is a filamentous ascomycete fungus with a worldwide distribution and is commonly found on decaying plant material.
2. Sordaria fimicola - Another model organism for genetic studies, particularly in the field of meiosis and genetics of sexual reproduction.
3. Chaetomium globosum - A saprobic fungus that can be isolated from various substrates such as soil, dung, and decaying plant material. It is also known to cause opportunistic infections in humans.
4. Xylaria hypoxylon - A wood-decay fungus commonly found on dead or dying trees and branches. Some species are capable of causing rot in living plants.
5. Graphostroma platystomum - A pathogenic fungus that causes canker diseases in various tree species, such as oak, beech, and chestnut.

The order Sordariales is primarily defined by its unique ascus morphology and the presence of certain molecular markers, such as specific genes related to the sexual reproduction process.

Heat-shock proteins (HSPs) are a group of conserved proteins that are produced by cells in response to stressful conditions, such as increased temperature, exposure to toxins, or infection. They play an essential role in protecting cells and promoting their survival under stressful conditions by assisting in the proper folding and assembly of other proteins, preventing protein aggregation, and helping to refold or degrade damaged proteins. HSPs are named according to their molecular weight, for example, HSP70 and HSP90. They are found in all living organisms, from bacteria to humans, indicating their fundamental importance in cellular function and survival.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "soil" is not a term that has a medical definition. Soil is defined as the top layer of earth in which plants grow, a mixture of organic material, clay, sand, and silt. If you have any questions related to medicine or health, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you.

Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs) are a specialized type of dendritic cell that reside in the germinal centers of secondary lymphoid organs, such as the spleen, lymph nodes, and Peyer's patches. They play a critical role in the adaptive immune response by presenting antigens to B cells and helping to regulate their activation, differentiation, and survival.

FDCs are characterized by their extensive network of dendrites, which can trap and retain antigens on their surface for extended periods. They also express a variety of surface receptors that allow them to interact with other immune cells, including complement receptors, Fc receptors, and cytokine receptors.

FDCs are derived from mesenchymal stem cells and are distinct from classical dendritic cells, which are derived from hematopoietic stem cells. They are long-lived cells that can survive for months or even years in the body, making them important players in the maintenance of immune memory.

Overall, follicular dendritic cells play a critical role in the adaptive immune response by helping to regulate B cell activation and differentiation, and by contributing to the development of immune memory.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "steel" is not a medical term. It is a term used to describe an alloy made primarily of iron and carbon. If you have any medical questions or terms you would like defined, I'd be happy to help!

Infectious disease transmission refers to the spread of an infectious agent or pathogen from an infected person, animal, or contaminated object to another susceptible host. This can occur through various routes, including:

1. Contact transmission: Direct contact with an infected person or animal, such as through touching, kissing, or sexual contact.
2. Droplet transmission: Inhalation of respiratory droplets containing the pathogen, which are generated when an infected person coughs, sneezes, talks, or breathes heavily.
3. Airborne transmission: Inhalation of smaller particles called aerosols that can remain suspended in the air for longer periods and travel farther distances than droplets.
4. Fecal-oral transmission: Consuming food or water contaminated with fecal matter containing the pathogen, often through poor hygiene practices.
5. Vector-borne transmission: Transmission via an intermediate vector, such as a mosquito or tick, that becomes infected after feeding on an infected host and then transmits the pathogen to another host during a subsequent blood meal.
6. Vehicle-borne transmission: Consuming food or water contaminated with the pathogen through vehicles like soil, water, or fomites (inanimate objects).

Preventing infectious disease transmission is crucial in controlling outbreaks and epidemics. Measures include good personal hygiene, vaccination, use of personal protective equipment (PPE), safe food handling practices, and environmental disinfection.

Gerstmann-Straussler-Scheinker disease (GSS) is a rare, inherited, progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cerebellar ataxia, pyramidal signs, and distinctive histopathological features in the brain. It is caused by mutations in the PRNP gene, which encodes the prion protein. The disease is transmitted in an autosomal dominant pattern, meaning that a single copy of the mutated gene from either parent is sufficient to cause the disorder.

GSS typically begins in mid-adulthood and progresses over several years to a decade, leading to severe disability and death. The symptoms of GSS include cerebellar ataxia (difficulty with coordination and balance), pyramidal signs (stiffness, spasticity, and hyperreflexia in the limbs), and various other neurological features such as dementia, visual disturbances, and speech difficulties.

Histopathologically, GSS is characterized by the accumulation of abnormal prion protein aggregates in the brain, which can be detected using special staining techniques. These aggregates are thought to be responsible for the neurodegeneration and clinical symptoms of the disease. Currently, there is no cure for GSS and treatment is focused on managing the symptoms of the disorder.

Protein conformation refers to the specific three-dimensional shape that a protein molecule assumes due to the spatial arrangement of its constituent amino acid residues and their associated chemical groups. This complex structure is determined by several factors, including covalent bonds (disulfide bridges), hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and ionic bonds, which help stabilize the protein's unique conformation.

Protein conformations can be broadly classified into two categories: primary, secondary, tertiary, and quaternary structures. The primary structure represents the linear sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide chain. The secondary structure arises from local interactions between adjacent amino acid residues, leading to the formation of recurring motifs such as α-helices and β-sheets. Tertiary structure refers to the overall three-dimensional folding pattern of a single polypeptide chain, while quaternary structure describes the spatial arrangement of multiple folded polypeptide chains (subunits) that interact to form a functional protein complex.

Understanding protein conformation is crucial for elucidating protein function, as the specific three-dimensional shape of a protein directly influences its ability to interact with other molecules, such as ligands, nucleic acids, or other proteins. Any alterations in protein conformation due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or chemical modifications can lead to loss of function, misfolding, aggregation, and disease states like neurodegenerative disorders and cancer.

"Cattle" is a term used in the agricultural and veterinary fields to refer to domesticated animals of the genus *Bos*, primarily *Bos taurus* (European cattle) and *Bos indicus* (Zebu). These animals are often raised for meat, milk, leather, and labor. They are also known as bovines or cows (for females), bulls (intact males), and steers/bullocks (castrated males). However, in a strict medical definition, "cattle" does not apply to humans or other animals.

HSP40, also known as heat shock protein 40 or DNAJ proteins, are a family of chaperone proteins that play a crucial role in the folding and assembly of other proteins. They are named after their ability to be upregulated in response to heat shock and other stress conditions that can cause protein misfolding and aggregation.

HSP40 proteins function as co-chaperones, working together with HSP70 chaperone proteins to facilitate the folding of nascent polypeptides or the refolding of denatured proteins. They contain a highly conserved J-domain that interacts with the ATPase domain of HSP70, stimulating its ATP hydrolysis activity and promoting the binding of HSP70 to client proteins.

HSP40 proteins can also play a role in protein degradation by targeting misfolded or aggregated proteins for destruction by the proteasome or autophagy pathways. Additionally, they have been implicated in various cellular processes such as transcription regulation, DNA repair, and apoptosis.

There are several subfamilies of HSP40 proteins, classified based on their structural features and functions. These include the DNAJA, DNAJB, and DNAJC subfamilies, each with distinct domains and cellular localization patterns. Dysregulation of HSP40 proteins has been linked to various diseases, including neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and infectious diseases.

Decontamination is the process of removing, inactivating or destroying harmful contaminants from a person, object, environment or substance. In a medical context, decontamination typically refers to the removal of pathogens, toxic chemicals, or radioactive substances from patients, equipment, or surfaces in order to prevent infection or illness.

There are different methods and techniques for decontamination depending on the type and extent of contamination. For example, mechanical cleaning (such as washing with soap and water), chemical disinfection (using antimicrobial agents), radiation sterilization (using ionizing radiation), and heat sterilization (using steam or dry heat) are some common methods used in medical settings to decontaminate surfaces, equipment, and supplies.

Decontamination is an important process in healthcare settings, such as hospitals and clinics, as well as in emergency response situations involving hazardous materials or bioterrorism incidents. Proper decontamination procedures can help prevent the spread of infectious diseases, reduce the risk of chemical or radiation exposure, and protect the health and safety of patients, healthcare workers, and the public.

Fungal proteins are a type of protein that is specifically produced and present in fungi, which are a group of eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds. These proteins play various roles in the growth, development, and survival of fungi. They can be involved in the structure and function of fungal cells, metabolism, pathogenesis, and other cellular processes. Some fungal proteins can also have important implications for human health, both in terms of their potential use as therapeutic targets and as allergens or toxins that can cause disease.

Fungal proteins can be classified into different categories based on their functions, such as enzymes, structural proteins, signaling proteins, and toxins. Enzymes are proteins that catalyze chemical reactions in fungal cells, while structural proteins provide support and protection for the cell. Signaling proteins are involved in communication between cells and regulation of various cellular processes, and toxins are proteins that can cause harm to other organisms, including humans.

Understanding the structure and function of fungal proteins is important for developing new treatments for fungal infections, as well as for understanding the basic biology of fungi. Research on fungal proteins has led to the development of several antifungal drugs that target specific fungal enzymes or other proteins, providing effective treatment options for a range of fungal diseases. Additionally, further study of fungal proteins may reveal new targets for drug development and help improve our ability to diagnose and treat fungal infections.

Disinfection is the process of eliminating or reducing harmful microorganisms from inanimate objects and surfaces through the use of chemicals, heat, or other methods. The goal of disinfection is to reduce the number of pathogens to a level that is considered safe for human health. Disinfection is an important step in preventing the spread of infectious diseases in healthcare settings, food processing facilities, and other environments where there is a risk of infection transmission.

It's important to note that disinfection is not the same as sterilization, which is the complete elimination of all microorganisms, including spores. Disinfection is generally less effective than sterilization but is often sufficient for most non-critical surfaces and objects. The choice between disinfection and sterilization depends on the level of risk associated with the item or surface being treated and the intended use of that item or surface.

Quinacrine is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called antimalarials. It is primarily used in the treatment and prevention of malaria caused by Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax parasites. Quinacrine works by inhibiting the growth of the malarial parasites in the red blood cells.

In addition to its antimalarial properties, quinacrine has been used off-label for various other medical conditions, including the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis and discoid lupus erythematosus (DLE), a type of skin lupus. However, its use in these conditions is not approved by regulatory authorities such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) due to limited evidence and potential side effects.

Quinacrine has several known side effects, including gastrointestinal disturbances, skin rashes, headache, dizziness, and potential neuropsychiatric symptoms like depression, anxiety, or confusion. Long-term use of quinacrine may also lead to yellowing of the skin and eyes (known as quinacrine jaundice) and other eye-related issues. It is essential to consult a healthcare professional before starting quinacrine or any other medication for appropriate dosage, duration, and potential side effects.

Aluminum silicates are a type of mineral compound that consist of aluminum, silicon, and oxygen in their chemical structure. They are often found in nature and can be categorized into several groups, including kaolinite, illite, montmorillonite, and bentonite. These minerals have various industrial and commercial uses, including as fillers and extenders in products like paper, paint, and rubber. In the medical field, certain types of aluminum silicates (like bentonite) have been used in some medicinal and therapeutic applications, such as detoxification and gastrointestinal disorders. However, it's important to note that the use of these minerals in medical treatments is not widely accepted or supported by extensive scientific evidence.

Yeasts are single-celled microorganisms that belong to the fungus kingdom. They are characterized by their ability to reproduce asexually through budding or fission, and they obtain nutrients by fermenting sugars and other organic compounds. Some species of yeast can cause infections in humans, known as candidiasis or "yeast infections." These infections can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, mouth, genitals, and internal organs. Common symptoms of a yeast infection may include itching, redness, irritation, and discharge. Yeast infections are typically treated with antifungal medications.

Amyloidogenic proteins are misfolded proteins that can form amyloid fibrils, which are insoluble protein aggregates with a characteristic cross-beta sheet quaternary structure. These amyloid fibrils can accumulate in various tissues and organs, leading to the formation of amyloid deposits. The accumulation of amyloidogenic proteins and the resulting amyloid deposits have been associated with several neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease, as well as systemic amyloidoses.

In Alzheimer's disease, for example, the amyloidogenic protein is beta-amyloid, which is produced from the proteolytic processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP). In Parkinson's disease, the amyloidogenic protein is alpha-synuclein, which forms the main component of Lewy bodies.

It's important to note that not all misfolded proteins are necessarily amyloidogenic, and not all amyloid fibrils are associated with disease. Some amyloid fibrils can have functional roles in normal physiological processes.

Proteostasis is the process by which cells regulate the proper functioning and folding of proteins within the body to maintain cellular homeostasis. A deficiency in proteostasis refers to an impairment in this regulatory process, leading to the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins. This can result in various diseases, such as neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Proteostasis deficiencies can occur due to genetic mutations, environmental factors, or aging, which can affect the function of protein quality control systems, including chaperones, the ubiquitin-proteasome system, and autophagy. These systems are responsible for recognizing and disposing of misfolded proteins, preventing their accumulation and subsequent toxicity.

In summary, proteostasis deficiencies refer to impairments in the regulation of protein homeostasis within cells, leading to the accumulation of misfolded or aggregated proteins and contributing to various diseases.

Tissue extracts refer to the substances or compounds that are extracted from various types of biological tissues, such as plants, animals, or microorganisms. These extracts contain bioactive molecules, including proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates, nucleic acids, and other small molecules, which can have therapeutic or diagnostic potential. The process of tissue extraction involves homogenizing the tissue, followed by separation and purification of the desired components using various techniques such as centrifugation, filtration, chromatography, or precipitation.

In medical research and clinical settings, tissue extracts are often used to study the biochemical and molecular properties of cells and tissues, investigate disease mechanisms, develop diagnostic tests, and identify potential drug targets. Examples of tissue extracts include cell lysates, subcellular fractions, organelle preparations, plasma membrane extracts, nuclear extracts, and various types of protein or nucleic acid extracts. It is important to note that the quality and purity of tissue extracts can significantly impact the accuracy and reproducibility of experimental results, and appropriate controls and validation methods should be employed to ensure their proper use.

Amyloid plaque is a pathological hallmark of several degenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. It refers to extracellular deposits of misfolded proteins that accumulate in various tissues and organs, but are most commonly found in the brain. The main component of these plaques is an abnormally folded form of a protein called amyloid-beta (Aβ). This protein is produced through the normal processing of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), but in amyloid plaques, it aggregates into insoluble fibrils that form the core of the plaque.

The accumulation of amyloid plaques is thought to contribute to neurodegeneration and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease and other related disorders. The exact mechanisms by which this occurs are not fully understood, but it is believed that the aggregation of Aβ into plaques leads to the disruption of neuronal function and viability, as well as the activation of inflammatory responses that can further damage brain tissue.

It's important to note that while amyloid plaques are a key feature of Alzheimer's disease, they are not exclusive to this condition. Amyloid plaques have also been found in other neurodegenerative disorders, as well as in some normal aging brains, although their significance in these contexts is less clear.

I am not aware of a medical term specifically referred to as "crows." The term "crows" is commonly used to refer to the bird species Corvus corone or Corvus brachyrhynchos, which are known for their black feathers and intelligent behavior. However, in a medical context, "crows feet" is a slang term that refers to the fine lines and wrinkles that can form around the outer corners of the eyes, often due to aging or repeated facial expressions.

If you meant something else by "Crows," please provide more context so I can give a more accurate answer.

Molecular chaperones are a group of proteins that assist in the proper folding and assembly of other protein molecules, helping them achieve their native conformation. They play a crucial role in preventing protein misfolding and aggregation, which can lead to the formation of toxic species associated with various neurodegenerative diseases. Molecular chaperones are also involved in protein transport across membranes, degradation of misfolded proteins, and protection of cells under stress conditions. Their function is generally non-catalytic and ATP-dependent, and they often interact with their client proteins in a transient manner.

Guanidine is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather, it is a chemical compound with the formula NH2(C=NH)NH2. However, guanidine and its derivatives do have medical relevance:

1. Guanidine is used as a medication in some neurological disorders, such as stiff-person syndrome, to reduce muscle spasms and rigidity. It acts on the central nervous system to decrease abnormal nerve impulses that cause muscle spasticity.

2. Guanidine derivatives are found in various medications used for treating diabetes, like metformin. These compounds help lower glucose production in the liver and improve insulin sensitivity in muscle cells.

3. In some cases, guanidine is used as a skin penetration enhancer in transdermal drug delivery systems to increase the absorption of certain medications through the skin.

It is essential to note that guanidine itself has limited medical use due to its potential toxicity and narrow therapeutic window. Its derivatives, like metformin, are more commonly used in medical practice.

Tertiary protein structure refers to the three-dimensional arrangement of all the elements (polypeptide chains) of a single protein molecule. It is the highest level of structural organization and results from interactions between various side chains (R groups) of the amino acids that make up the protein. These interactions, which include hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, van der Waals forces, and disulfide bridges, give the protein its unique shape and stability, which in turn determines its function. The tertiary structure of a protein can be stabilized by various factors such as temperature, pH, and the presence of certain ions. Any changes in these factors can lead to denaturation, where the protein loses its tertiary structure and thus its function.

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is not primarily used in medical contexts, but it is widely used in scientific research and laboratory settings within the field of biochemistry and molecular biology. Therefore, I will provide a definition related to its chemical and laboratory usage:

Sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) is an anionic surfactant, which is a type of detergent or cleansing agent. Its chemical formula is C12H25NaO4S. SDS is often used in the denaturation and solubilization of proteins for various analytical techniques such as sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), a method used to separate and analyze protein mixtures based on their molecular weights.

When SDS interacts with proteins, it binds to the hydrophobic regions of the molecule, causing the protein to unfold or denature. This process disrupts the natural structure of the protein, exposing its constituent amino acids and creating a more uniform, negatively charged surface. The negative charge results from the sulfate group in SDS, which allows proteins to migrate through an electric field during electrophoresis based on their size rather than their native charge or conformation.

While not a medical definition per se, understanding the use of SDS and its role in laboratory techniques is essential for researchers working in biochemistry, molecular biology, and related fields.

HSP70 heat-shock proteins are a family of highly conserved molecular chaperones that play a crucial role in protein folding and protection against stress-induced damage. They are named after the fact that they were first discovered in response to heat shock, but they are now known to be produced in response to various stressors, such as oxidative stress, inflammation, and exposure to toxins.

HSP70 proteins bind to exposed hydrophobic regions of unfolded or misfolded proteins, preventing their aggregation and assisting in their proper folding. They also help target irreversibly damaged proteins for degradation by the proteasome. In addition to their role in protein homeostasis, HSP70 proteins have been shown to have anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory effects, making them a subject of interest in various therapeutic contexts.

The lymphatic system is a complex network of organs, tissues, vessels, and cells that work together to defend the body against infectious diseases and also play a crucial role in the immune system. It is made up of:

1. Lymphoid Organs: These include the spleen, thymus, lymph nodes, tonsils, adenoids, and Peyer's patches (in the intestines). They produce and mature immune cells.

2. Lymphatic Vessels: These are thin tubes that carry clear fluid called lymph towards the heart.

3. Lymph: This is a clear-to-white fluid that contains white blood cells, mainly lymphocytes, which help fight infections.

4. Other tissues and cells: These include bone marrow where immune cells are produced, and lymphocytes (T cells and B cells) which are types of white blood cells that help protect the body from infection and disease.

The primary function of the lymphatic system is to transport lymph throughout the body, collecting waste products, bacteria, viruses, and other foreign substances from the tissues, and filtering them out through the lymph nodes. The lymphatic system also helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food in the digestive tract.

Quaternary protein structure refers to the arrangement and interaction of multiple folded protein molecules in a multi-subunit complex. These subunits can be identical or different forms of the same protein or distinctly different proteins that associate to form a functional complex. The quaternary structure is held together by non-covalent interactions, such as hydrogen bonds, ionic bonds, and van der Waals forces. Understanding quaternary structure is crucial for comprehending the function, regulation, and assembly of many protein complexes involved in various cellular processes.

Secondary protein structure refers to the local spatial arrangement of amino acid chains in a protein, typically described as regular repeating patterns held together by hydrogen bonds. The two most common types of secondary structures are the alpha-helix (α-helix) and the beta-pleated sheet (β-sheet). In an α-helix, the polypeptide chain twists around itself in a helical shape, with each backbone atom forming a hydrogen bond with the fourth amino acid residue along the chain. This forms a rigid rod-like structure that is resistant to bending or twisting forces. In β-sheets, adjacent segments of the polypeptide chain run parallel or antiparallel to each other and are connected by hydrogen bonds, forming a pleated sheet-like arrangement. These secondary structures provide the foundation for the formation of tertiary and quaternary protein structures, which determine the overall three-dimensional shape and function of the protein.

Biological models, also known as physiological models or organismal models, are simplified representations of biological systems, processes, or mechanisms that are used to understand and explain the underlying principles and relationships. These models can be theoretical (conceptual or mathematical) or physical (such as anatomical models, cell cultures, or animal models). They are widely used in biomedical research to study various phenomena, including disease pathophysiology, drug action, and therapeutic interventions.

Examples of biological models include:

1. Mathematical models: These use mathematical equations and formulas to describe complex biological systems or processes, such as population dynamics, metabolic pathways, or gene regulation networks. They can help predict the behavior of these systems under different conditions and test hypotheses about their underlying mechanisms.
2. Cell cultures: These are collections of cells grown in a controlled environment, typically in a laboratory dish or flask. They can be used to study cellular processes, such as signal transduction, gene expression, or metabolism, and to test the effects of drugs or other treatments on these processes.
3. Animal models: These are living organisms, usually vertebrates like mice, rats, or non-human primates, that are used to study various aspects of human biology and disease. They can provide valuable insights into the pathophysiology of diseases, the mechanisms of drug action, and the safety and efficacy of new therapies.
4. Anatomical models: These are physical representations of biological structures or systems, such as plastic models of organs or tissues, that can be used for educational purposes or to plan surgical procedures. They can also serve as a basis for developing more sophisticated models, such as computer simulations or 3D-printed replicas.

Overall, biological models play a crucial role in advancing our understanding of biology and medicine, helping to identify new targets for therapeutic intervention, develop novel drugs and treatments, and improve human health.

PrP 27-30 protein is the protease-resistant core fragment of the prion protein (PrP), which is associated with transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), also known as prion diseases. PrP is a normal cellular protein found in many tissues, including the brain, but in TSEs, it undergoes a conformational change and forms aggregates of an abnormal isoform called PrP scrapie (PrPSc). The PrP 27-30 fragment is resistant to protease digestion and has been used as a biochemical marker for prion diseases. It is typically detected in brain tissue from infected individuals or animals, and its presence is indicative of the accumulation of PrPSc in the central nervous system.

Iatrogenic disease refers to any condition or illness that is caused, directly or indirectly, by medical treatment or intervention. This can include adverse reactions to medications, infections acquired during hospitalization, complications from surgical procedures, or injuries caused by medical equipment. It's important to note that iatrogenic diseases are unintended and often preventable with proper care and precautions.

Disease susceptibility, also known as genetic predisposition or genetic susceptibility, refers to the increased likelihood or risk of developing a particular disease due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations. These genetic factors can make an individual more vulnerable to certain diseases compared to those who do not have these genetic changes.

It is important to note that having a genetic predisposition does not guarantee that a person will definitely develop the disease. Other factors, such as environmental exposures, lifestyle choices, and additional genetic variations, can influence whether or not the disease will manifest. In some cases, early detection and intervention may help reduce the risk or delay the onset of the disease in individuals with a known genetic susceptibility.

Asparagine is an organic compound that is classified as a naturally occurring amino acid. It contains an amino group, a carboxylic acid group, and a side chain consisting of a single carbon atom bonded to a nitrogen atom, making it a neutral amino acid. Asparagine is encoded by the genetic codon AAU or AAC in the DNA sequence.

In the human body, asparagine plays important roles in various biological processes, including serving as a building block for proteins and participating in the synthesis of other amino acids. It can also act as a neurotransmitter and is involved in the regulation of cellular metabolism. Asparagine can be found in many foods, particularly in high-protein sources such as meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products.

Arvicolinae is a subfamily of rodents that includes voles, lemmings, and muskrats. These small mammals are characterized by their short legs, rounded bodies, and short tails. They are primarily found in the northern hemisphere, with the majority of species living in North America and Eurasia.

Arvicolines are known for their high reproductive rate and ability to survive in a variety of habitats, including grasslands, forests, tundra, and wetlands. They have a unique set of teeth called hypsodont teeth, which continue to grow throughout their lives. This adaptation allows them to wear down their teeth as they gnaw on tough plant material.

Many arvicoline species are important prey animals for larger predators, such as hawks, owls, and foxes. Some species, like the muskrat, are also hunted by humans for their fur or meat. In recent years, some arvicoline populations have experienced dramatic fluctuations in size due to changes in their habitats and food supplies, leading to concerns about their conservation status.

Western blotting is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology to detect and quantify specific proteins in a mixture of many different proteins. This technique is commonly used to confirm the expression of a protein of interest, determine its size, and investigate its post-translational modifications. The name "Western" blotting distinguishes this technique from Southern blotting (for DNA) and Northern blotting (for RNA).

The Western blotting procedure involves several steps:

1. Protein extraction: The sample containing the proteins of interest is first extracted, often by breaking open cells or tissues and using a buffer to extract the proteins.
2. Separation of proteins by electrophoresis: The extracted proteins are then separated based on their size by loading them onto a polyacrylamide gel and running an electric current through the gel (a process called sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis or SDS-PAGE). This separates the proteins according to their molecular weight, with smaller proteins migrating faster than larger ones.
3. Transfer of proteins to a membrane: After separation, the proteins are transferred from the gel onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric current in a process called blotting. This creates a replica of the protein pattern on the gel but now immobilized on the membrane for further analysis.
4. Blocking: The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent, such as non-fat dry milk or bovine serum albumin (BSA), to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies in subsequent steps.
5. Primary antibody incubation: A primary antibody that specifically recognizes the protein of interest is added and allowed to bind to its target protein on the membrane. This step may be performed at room temperature or 4°C overnight, depending on the antibody's properties.
6. Washing: The membrane is washed with a buffer to remove unbound primary antibodies.
7. Secondary antibody incubation: A secondary antibody that recognizes the primary antibody (often coupled to an enzyme or fluorophore) is added and allowed to bind to the primary antibody. This step may involve using a horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-conjugated or alkaline phosphatase (AP)-conjugated secondary antibody, depending on the detection method used later.
8. Washing: The membrane is washed again to remove unbound secondary antibodies.
9. Detection: A detection reagent is added to visualize the protein of interest by detecting the signal generated from the enzyme-conjugated or fluorophore-conjugated secondary antibody. This can be done using chemiluminescent, colorimetric, or fluorescent methods.
10. Analysis: The resulting image is analyzed to determine the presence and quantity of the protein of interest in the sample.

Western blotting is a powerful technique for identifying and quantifying specific proteins within complex mixtures. It can be used to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and more. However, it requires careful optimization and validation to ensure accurate and reproducible results.

Zoonoses are infectious diseases that can be transmitted from animals to humans. They are caused by pathogens such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, or fungi that naturally infect non-human animals and can sometimes infect and cause disease in humans through various transmission routes like direct contact with infected animals, consumption of contaminated food or water, or vectors like insects. Some well-known zoonotic diseases include rabies, Lyme disease, salmonellosis, and COVID-19 (which is believed to have originated from bats). Public health officials work to prevent and control zoonoses through various measures such as surveillance, education, vaccination, and management of animal populations.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by progressive and persistent loss of neuronal structure and function, often leading to cognitive decline, functional impairment, and ultimately death. These conditions are associated with the accumulation of abnormal protein aggregates, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, chronic inflammation, and genetic mutations in the brain. Examples of neurodegenerative diseases include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Spinal Muscular Atrophy (SMA). The underlying causes and mechanisms of these diseases are not fully understood, and there is currently no cure for most neurodegenerative disorders. Treatment typically focuses on managing symptoms and slowing disease progression.

Phthalimides are organic compounds that contain a phthalimide functional group. The phthalimide group consists of a pair of fused rings, a benzene ring and a five-membered ring containing two nitrogen atoms, with one of the nitrogen atoms being part of a carbonyl group.

Phthalimides are commonly used as intermediates in the synthesis of other organic compounds, including pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and dyes. They can also exhibit various biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antiviral, and anticancer properties. However, some phthalimides have been found to have toxic effects and may pose environmental and health concerns.

Surgical instruments are specialized tools or devices that are used by medical professionals during surgical procedures to assist in various tasks such as cutting, dissecting, grasping, holding, retracting, clamping, and suturing body tissues. These instruments are designed to be safe, precise, and effective, with a variety of shapes, sizes, and materials used depending on the specific surgical application. Some common examples of surgical instruments include scalpels, forceps, scissors, hemostats, retractors, and needle holders. Proper sterilization and maintenance of these instruments are crucial to ensure patient safety and prevent infection.

Wild animals are those species of animals that are not domesticated or tamed by humans and live in their natural habitats without regular human intervention. They can include a wide variety of species, ranging from mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, fish, to insects and other invertebrates.

Wild animals are adapted to survive in specific environments and have behaviors, physical traits, and social structures that enable them to find food, shelter, and mates. They can be found in various habitats such as forests, grasslands, deserts, oceans, rivers, and mountains. Some wild animals may come into contact with human populations, particularly in urban areas where their natural habitats have been destroyed or fragmented.

It is important to note that the term "wild" does not necessarily mean that an animal is aggressive or dangerous. While some wild animals can be potentially harmful to humans if provoked or threatened, many are generally peaceful and prefer to avoid contact with people. However, it is essential to respect their natural behaviors and habitats and maintain a safe distance from them to prevent any potential conflicts or harm to either party.

Host specificity, in the context of medical and infectious diseases, refers to the tendency of a pathogen (such as a virus, bacterium, or parasite) to infect and cause disease only in specific host species or individuals with certain genetic characteristics. This means that the pathogen is not able to establish infection or cause illness in other types of hosts. Host specificity can be determined by various factors such as the ability of the pathogen to attach to and enter host cells, replicate within the host, evade the host's immune response, and obtain necessary nutrients from the host. Understanding host specificity is important for developing effective strategies to prevent and control infectious diseases.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Protein denaturation is a process in which the native structure of a protein is altered, leading to loss of its biological activity. This can be caused by various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or exposure to chemicals or radiation. The three-dimensional shape of a protein is crucial for its function, and denaturation causes the protein to lose this shape, resulting in impaired or complete loss of function. Denaturation is often irreversible and can lead to the aggregation of proteins, which can have negative effects on cellular function and can contribute to diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's.

A phenotype is the physical or biochemical expression of an organism's genes, or the observable traits and characteristics resulting from the interaction of its genetic constitution (genotype) with environmental factors. These characteristics can include appearance, development, behavior, and resistance to disease, among others. Phenotypes can vary widely, even among individuals with identical genotypes, due to differences in environmental influences, gene expression, and genetic interactions.

Sonication is a medical and laboratory term that refers to the use of ultrasound waves to agitate particles in a liquid. This process is often used in medical and scientific research to break down or disrupt cells, tissue, or other substances that are being studied. The high-frequency sound waves create standing waves that cause the particles in the liquid to vibrate, which can lead to cavitation (the formation and collapse of bubbles) and ultimately result in the disruption of the cell membranes or other structures. This technique is commonly used in procedures such as sonication of blood cultures to release microorganisms from clots, enhancing their growth in culture media and facilitating their identification.

The Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) is that part of the nervous system which lies outside of the brain and spinal cord. It includes all the nerves and ganglia ( clusters of neurons) outside of the central nervous system (CNS). The PNS is divided into two components: the somatic nervous system and the autonomic nervous system.

The somatic nervous system is responsible for transmitting sensory information from the skin, muscles, and joints to the CNS, and for controlling voluntary movements of the skeletal muscles.

The autonomic nervous system, on the other hand, controls involuntary actions, such as heart rate, digestion, respiratory rate, salivation, perspiration, pupillary dilation, and sexual arousal. It is further divided into the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems, which generally have opposing effects and maintain homeostasis in the body.

Damage to the peripheral nervous system can result in various medical conditions such as neuropathies, neuritis, plexopathies, and radiculopathies, leading to symptoms like numbness, tingling, pain, weakness, or loss of reflexes in the affected area.

An amino acid sequence is the specific order of amino acids in a protein or peptide molecule, formed by the linking of the amino group (-NH2) of one amino acid to the carboxyl group (-COOH) of another amino acid through a peptide bond. The sequence is determined by the genetic code and is unique to each type of protein or peptide. It plays a crucial role in determining the three-dimensional structure and function of proteins.

Molecular sequence data refers to the specific arrangement of molecules, most commonly nucleotides in DNA or RNA, or amino acids in proteins, that make up a biological macromolecule. This data is generated through laboratory techniques such as sequencing, and provides information about the exact order of the constituent molecules. This data is crucial in various fields of biology, including genetics, evolution, and molecular biology, allowing for comparisons between different organisms, identification of genetic variations, and studies of gene function and regulation.

Animal disease models are specialized animals, typically rodents such as mice or rats, that have been genetically engineered or exposed to certain conditions to develop symptoms and physiological changes similar to those seen in human diseases. These models are used in medical research to study the pathophysiology of diseases, identify potential therapeutic targets, test drug efficacy and safety, and understand disease mechanisms.

The genetic modifications can include knockout or knock-in mutations, transgenic expression of specific genes, or RNA interference techniques. The animals may also be exposed to environmental factors such as chemicals, radiation, or infectious agents to induce the disease state.

Examples of animal disease models include:

1. Mouse models of cancer: Genetically engineered mice that develop various types of tumors, allowing researchers to study cancer initiation, progression, and metastasis.
2. Alzheimer's disease models: Transgenic mice expressing mutant human genes associated with Alzheimer's disease, which exhibit amyloid plaque formation and cognitive decline.
3. Diabetes models: Obese and diabetic mouse strains like the NOD (non-obese diabetic) or db/db mice, used to study the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes, respectively.
4. Cardiovascular disease models: Atherosclerosis-prone mice, such as ApoE-deficient or LDLR-deficient mice, that develop plaque buildup in their arteries when fed a high-fat diet.
5. Inflammatory bowel disease models: Mice with genetic mutations affecting intestinal barrier function and immune response, such as IL-10 knockout or SAMP1/YitFc mice, which develop colitis.

Animal disease models are essential tools in preclinical research, but it is important to recognize their limitations. Differences between species can affect the translatability of results from animal studies to human patients. Therefore, researchers must carefully consider the choice of model and interpret findings cautiously when applying them to human diseases.

A mutation is a permanent change in the DNA sequence of an organism's genome. Mutations can occur spontaneously or be caused by environmental factors such as exposure to radiation, chemicals, or viruses. They may have various effects on the organism, ranging from benign to harmful, depending on where they occur and whether they alter the function of essential proteins. In some cases, mutations can increase an individual's susceptibility to certain diseases or disorders, while in others, they may confer a survival advantage. Mutations are the driving force behind evolution, as they introduce new genetic variability into populations, which can then be acted upon by natural selection.

The Lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTβR) is a type III transmembrane protein and a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily (TNFRSF). It is primarily expressed on the surface of various cell types, including immune cells such as lymphocytes, dendritic cells, and stromal cells in lymphoid organs.

LTβR binds to its ligands, Lymphotoxin-alpha (LTα) and Lymphotoxin-beta (LTβ), which are primarily produced by activated T-cells and B-cells. The binding of LTα/LTβ to LTβR triggers a signaling cascade that leads to the activation of various downstream signaling pathways, including NF-κB and MAPK pathways.

The activation of LTβR plays critical roles in the development and organization of lymphoid tissues, immune responses, and inflammation. Dysregulation of LTβR signaling has been implicated in various autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, inflammatory bowel disease, and multiple sclerosis.

Adsorption is a process in which atoms, ions, or molecules from a gas, liquid, or dissolved solid accumulate on the surface of a material. This occurs because the particles in the adsorbate (the substance being adsorbed) have forces that attract them to the surface of the adsorbent (the material that the adsorbate is adhering to).

In medical terms, adsorption can refer to the use of materials with adsorptive properties to remove harmful substances from the body. For example, activated charcoal is sometimes used in the treatment of poisoning because it can adsorb a variety of toxic substances and prevent them from being absorbed into the bloodstream.

It's important to note that adsorption is different from absorption, which refers to the process by which a substance is taken up and distributed throughout a material or tissue.

Peptide hydrolases, also known as proteases or peptidases, are a group of enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide bonds in proteins and peptides. They play a crucial role in various biological processes such as protein degradation, digestion, cell signaling, and regulation of various physiological functions. Based on their catalytic mechanism and the specificity for the peptide bond, they are classified into several types, including serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases. These enzymes have important clinical applications in the diagnosis and treatment of various diseases, such as cancer, viral infections, and inflammatory disorders.

C57BL/6 (C57 Black 6) is an inbred strain of laboratory mouse that is widely used in biomedical research. The term "inbred" refers to a strain of animals where matings have been carried out between siblings or other closely related individuals for many generations, resulting in a population that is highly homozygous at most genetic loci.

The C57BL/6 strain was established in 1920 by crossing a female mouse from the dilute brown (DBA) strain with a male mouse from the black strain. The resulting offspring were then interbred for many generations to create the inbred C57BL/6 strain.

C57BL/6 mice are known for their robust health, longevity, and ease of handling, making them a popular choice for researchers. They have been used in a wide range of biomedical research areas, including studies of cancer, immunology, neuroscience, cardiovascular disease, and metabolism.

One of the most notable features of the C57BL/6 strain is its sensitivity to certain genetic modifications, such as the introduction of mutations that lead to obesity or impaired glucose tolerance. This has made it a valuable tool for studying the genetic basis of complex diseases and traits.

Overall, the C57BL/6 inbred mouse strain is an important model organism in biomedical research, providing a valuable resource for understanding the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying human health and disease.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Mink" is not a medical term. It refers to a species of small, semiaquatic carnivorous mammals that are known for their sleek fur. They belong to the family Mustelidae, which also includes otters, weasels, and ferrets. If you have any questions about medical terminology or health-related topics, I'd be happy to help!

Protein stability refers to the ability of a protein to maintain its native structure and function under various physiological conditions. It is determined by the balance between forces that promote a stable conformation, such as intramolecular interactions (hydrogen bonds, van der Waals forces, and hydrophobic effects), and those that destabilize it, such as thermal motion, chemical denaturation, and environmental factors like pH and salt concentration. A protein with high stability is more resistant to changes in its structure and function, even under harsh conditions, while a protein with low stability is more prone to unfolding or aggregation, which can lead to loss of function or disease states, such as protein misfolding diseases.

Recombinant fusion proteins are artificially created biomolecules that combine the functional domains or properties of two or more different proteins into a single protein entity. They are generated through recombinant DNA technology, where the genes encoding the desired protein domains are linked together and expressed as a single, chimeric gene in a host organism, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells.

The resulting fusion protein retains the functional properties of its individual constituent proteins, allowing for novel applications in research, diagnostics, and therapeutics. For instance, recombinant fusion proteins can be designed to enhance protein stability, solubility, or immunogenicity, making them valuable tools for studying protein-protein interactions, developing targeted therapies, or generating vaccines against infectious diseases or cancer.

Examples of recombinant fusion proteins include:

1. Etaglunatide (ABT-523): A soluble Fc fusion protein that combines the heavy chain fragment crystallizable region (Fc) of an immunoglobulin with the extracellular domain of the human interleukin-6 receptor (IL-6R). This fusion protein functions as a decoy receptor, neutralizing IL-6 and its downstream signaling pathways in rheumatoid arthritis.
2. Etanercept (Enbrel): A soluble TNF receptor p75 Fc fusion protein that binds to tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and inhibits its proinflammatory activity, making it a valuable therapeutic option for treating autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and psoriasis.
3. Abatacept (Orencia): A fusion protein consisting of the extracellular domain of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen 4 (CTLA-4) linked to the Fc region of an immunoglobulin, which downregulates T-cell activation and proliferation in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
4. Belimumab (Benlysta): A monoclonal antibody that targets B-lymphocyte stimulator (BLyS) protein, preventing its interaction with the B-cell surface receptor and inhibiting B-cell activation in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).
5. Romiplostim (Nplate): A fusion protein consisting of a thrombopoietin receptor agonist peptide linked to an immunoglobulin Fc region, which stimulates platelet production in patients with chronic immune thrombocytopenia (ITP).
6. Darbepoetin alfa (Aranesp): A hyperglycosylated erythropoiesis-stimulating protein that functions as a longer-acting form of recombinant human erythropoietin, used to treat anemia in patients with chronic kidney disease or cancer.
7. Palivizumab (Synagis): A monoclonal antibody directed against the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), which prevents RSV infection and is administered prophylactically to high-risk infants during the RSV season.
8. Ranibizumab (Lucentis): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody fragment that binds and inhibits vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGF-A), used in the treatment of age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and other ocular disorders.
9. Cetuximab (Erbitux): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), used in the treatment of colorectal cancer and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.
10. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully humanized monoclonal antibody that targets tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, and Crohn's disease.
11. Bevacizumab (Avastin): A recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to VEGF-A, used in the treatment of various cancers, including colorectal, lung, breast, and kidney cancer.
12. Trastuzumab (Herceptin): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets HER2/neu receptor, used in the treatment of breast cancer.
13. Rituximab (Rituxan): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that binds to CD20 antigen on B cells, used in the treatment of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and rheumatoid arthritis.
14. Palivizumab (Synagis): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to the F protein of respiratory syncytial virus, used in the prevention of respiratory syncytial virus infection in high-risk infants.
15. Infliximab (Remicade): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
16. Natalizumab (Tysabri): A humanized monoclonal antibody that binds to α4β1 integrin, used in the treatment of multiple sclerosis and Crohn's disease.
17. Adalimumab (Humira): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, Crohn's disease, and ulcerative colitis.
18. Golimumab (Simponi): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and ulcerative colitis.
19. Certolizumab pegol (Cimzia): A PEGylated Fab' fragment of a humanized monoclonal antibody that targets TNF-α, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and Crohn's disease.
20. Ustekinumab (Stelara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-12 and IL-23, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and Crohn's disease.
21. Secukinumab (Cosentyx): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, and ankylosing spondylitis.
22. Ixekizumab (Taltz): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17A, used in the treatment of psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis.
23. Brodalumab (Siliq): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-17 receptor A, used in the treatment of psoriasis.
24. Sarilumab (Kevzara): A fully human monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
25. Tocilizumab (Actemra): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets the IL-6 receptor, used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, polyarticular juvenile idiopathic arthritis, giant cell arteritis, and chimeric antigen receptor T-cell-induced cytokine release syndrome.
26. Siltuximab (Sylvant): A chimeric monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment of multicentric Castleman disease.
27. Satralizumab (Enspryng): A humanized monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6 receptor alpha, used in the treatment of neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorder.
28. Sirukumab (Plivensia): A human monoclonal antibody that targets IL-6, used in the treatment

Saliva is a complex mixture of primarily water, but also electrolytes, enzymes, antibacterial compounds, and various other substances. It is produced by the salivary glands located in the mouth. Saliva plays an essential role in maintaining oral health by moistening the mouth, helping to digest food, and protecting the teeth from decay by neutralizing acids produced by bacteria.

The medical definition of saliva can be stated as:

"A clear, watery, slightly alkaline fluid secreted by the salivary glands, consisting mainly of water, with small amounts of electrolytes, enzymes (such as amylase), mucus, and antibacterial compounds. Saliva aids in digestion, lubrication of oral tissues, and provides an oral barrier against microorganisms."

Temperature, in a medical context, is a measure of the degree of hotness or coldness of a body or environment. It is usually measured using a thermometer and reported in degrees Celsius (°C), degrees Fahrenheit (°F), or kelvin (K). In the human body, normal core temperature ranges from about 36.5-37.5°C (97.7-99.5°F) when measured rectally, and can vary slightly depending on factors such as time of day, physical activity, and menstrual cycle. Elevated body temperature is a common sign of infection or inflammation, while abnormally low body temperature can indicate hypothermia or other medical conditions.

Protein binding, in the context of medical and biological sciences, refers to the interaction between a protein and another molecule (known as the ligand) that results in a stable complex. This process is often reversible and can be influenced by various factors such as pH, temperature, and concentration of the involved molecules.

In clinical chemistry, protein binding is particularly important when it comes to drugs, as many of them bind to proteins (especially albumin) in the bloodstream. The degree of protein binding can affect a drug's distribution, metabolism, and excretion, which in turn influence its therapeutic effectiveness and potential side effects.

Protein-bound drugs may be less available for interaction with their target tissues, as only the unbound or "free" fraction of the drug is active. Therefore, understanding protein binding can help optimize dosing regimens and minimize adverse reactions.

Lymphoid tissue is a specialized type of connective tissue that is involved in the immune function of the body. It is composed of lymphocytes (a type of white blood cell), which are responsible for producing antibodies and destroying infected or cancerous cells. Lymphoid tissue can be found throughout the body, but it is particularly concentrated in certain areas such as the lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, and Peyer's patches in the small intestine.

Lymphoid tissue provides a site for the activation, proliferation, and differentiation of lymphocytes, which are critical components of the adaptive immune response. It also serves as a filter for foreign particles, such as bacteria and viruses, that may enter the body through various routes. The lymphatic system, which includes lymphoid tissue, helps to maintain the health and integrity of the body by protecting it from infection and disease.

Fungal genes refer to the genetic material present in fungi, which are eukaryotic organisms that include microorganisms such as yeasts and molds, as well as larger organisms like mushrooms. The genetic material of fungi is composed of DNA, just like in other eukaryotes, and is organized into chromosomes located in the nucleus of the cell.

Fungal genes are segments of DNA that contain the information necessary to produce proteins and RNA molecules required for various cellular functions. These genes are transcribed into messenger RNA (mRNA) molecules, which are then translated into proteins by ribosomes in the cytoplasm.

Fungal genomes have been sequenced for many species, revealing a diverse range of genes that encode proteins involved in various cellular processes such as metabolism, signaling, and regulation. Comparative genomic analyses have also provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among different fungal lineages and have helped to identify unique genetic features that distinguish fungi from other eukaryotes.

Understanding fungal genes and their functions is essential for advancing our knowledge of fungal biology, as well as for developing new strategies to control fungal pathogens that can cause diseases in humans, animals, and plants.

I'm happy to help, but I want to clarify that the term "sheep diseases" refers to a wide range of health issues that can affect sheep populations. It's not a single medical condition with a specific definition. Here are some examples of common diseases that can affect sheep:

1. Ovine Johne's Disease (OJD): A chronic, infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis. It affects the intestines and can cause weight loss, diarrhea, and death.
2. Footrot: A highly contagious bacterial infection that affects the feet of sheep, causing lameness, swelling, and pain. It's caused by the bacteria Dichelobacter nodosus.
3. Caseous Lymphadenitis (CL): A chronic infectious disease caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis. It affects the lymph nodes and can cause abscesses, weight loss, and death.
4. Contagious Ecthyma (Orf): A highly contagious viral infection that affects the skin and mucous membranes of sheep, causing sores and lesions.
5. Mastitis: An inflammation of the mammary gland in sheep, usually caused by a bacterial infection. It can cause decreased milk production, fever, and loss of appetite.
6. Pneumonia: A respiratory infection that can affect sheep, causing coughing, difficulty breathing, and fever. It can be caused by various bacteria or viruses.
7. Enterotoxemia: A potentially fatal disease caused by the overproduction of toxins in the intestines of sheep, usually due to a bacterial infection with Clostridium perfringens.
8. Polioencephalomalacia (PEM): A neurological disorder that affects the brain of sheep, causing symptoms such as blindness, circling, and seizures. It's often caused by a thiamine deficiency or excessive sulfur intake.
9. Toxoplasmosis: A parasitic infection that can affect sheep, causing abortion, stillbirth, and neurological symptoms.
10. Blue tongue: A viral disease that affects sheep, causing fever, respiratory distress, and mouth ulcers. It's transmitted by insect vectors and is often associated with climate change.

A cell line is a culture of cells that are grown in a laboratory for use in research. These cells are usually taken from a single cell or group of cells, and they are able to divide and grow continuously in the lab. Cell lines can come from many different sources, including animals, plants, and humans. They are often used in scientific research to study cellular processes, disease mechanisms, and to test new drugs or treatments. Some common types of human cell lines include HeLa cells (which come from a cancer patient named Henrietta Lacks), HEK293 cells (which come from embryonic kidney cells), and HUVEC cells (which come from umbilical vein endothelial cells). It is important to note that cell lines are not the same as primary cells, which are cells that are taken directly from a living organism and have not been grown in the lab.

Mammals are a group of warm-blooded vertebrates constituting the class Mammalia, characterized by the presence of mammary glands (which produce milk to feed their young), hair or fur, three middle ear bones, and a neocortex region in their brain. They are found in a diverse range of habitats and come in various sizes, from tiny shrews to large whales. Examples of mammals include humans, apes, monkeys, dogs, cats, bats, mice, raccoons, seals, dolphins, horses, and elephants.

Glutamine is defined as a conditionally essential amino acid in humans, which means that it can be produced by the body under normal circumstances, but may become essential during certain conditions such as stress, illness, or injury. It is the most abundant free amino acid found in the blood and in the muscles of the body.

Glutamine plays a crucial role in various biological processes, including protein synthesis, energy production, and acid-base balance. It serves as an important fuel source for cells in the intestines, immune system, and skeletal muscles. Glutamine has also been shown to have potential benefits in wound healing, gut function, and immunity, particularly during times of physiological stress or illness.

In summary, glutamine is a vital amino acid that plays a critical role in maintaining the health and function of various tissues and organs in the body.

Disinfectants are antimicrobial agents that are applied to non-living objects to destroy or irreversibly inactivate microorganisms, but not necessarily their spores. They are different from sterilizers, which kill all forms of life, and from antiseptics, which are used on living tissue. Disinfectants work by damaging the cell wall or membrane of the microorganism, disrupting its metabolism, or interfering with its ability to reproduce. Examples of disinfectants include alcohol, bleach, hydrogen peroxide, and quaternary ammonium compounds. They are commonly used in hospitals, laboratories, and other settings where the elimination of microorganisms is important for infection control. It's important to use disinfectants according to the manufacturer's instructions, as improper use can reduce their effectiveness or even increase the risk of infection.

A disease reservoir refers to a population or group of living organisms, including humans, animals, and even plants, that can naturally carry and transmit a particular pathogen (disease-causing agent) without necessarily showing symptoms of the disease themselves. These hosts serve as a source of infection for other susceptible individuals, allowing the pathogen to persist and circulate within a community or environment.

Disease reservoirs can be further classified into:

1. **Primary (or Main) Reservoir**: This refers to the species that primarily harbors and transmits the pathogen, contributing significantly to its natural ecology and maintaining its transmission cycle. For example, mosquitoes are the primary reservoirs for many arboviruses like dengue, Zika, and chikungunya viruses.

2. **Amplifying Hosts**: These hosts can become infected with the pathogen and experience a high rate of replication, leading to an increased concentration of the pathogen in their bodies. This allows for efficient transmission to other susceptible hosts or vectors. For instance, birds are amplifying hosts for West Nile virus, as they can become viremic (have high levels of virus in their blood) and infect feeding mosquitoes that then transmit the virus to other animals and humans.

3. **Dead-end Hosts**: These hosts may become infected with the pathogen but do not contribute significantly to its transmission cycle, as they either do not develop sufficient quantities of the pathogen to transmit it or do not come into contact with potential vectors or susceptible hosts. For example, humans are dead-end hosts for many zoonotic diseases like rabies, as they cannot transmit the virus to other humans.

Understanding disease reservoirs is crucial in developing effective strategies for controlling and preventing infectious diseases, as it helps identify key species and environments that contribute to their persistence and transmission.

Recombinant proteins are artificially created proteins produced through the use of recombinant DNA technology. This process involves combining DNA molecules from different sources to create a new set of genes that encode for a specific protein. The resulting recombinant protein can then be expressed, purified, and used for various applications in research, medicine, and industry.

Recombinant proteins are widely used in biomedical research to study protein function, structure, and interactions. They are also used in the development of diagnostic tests, vaccines, and therapeutic drugs. For example, recombinant insulin is a common treatment for diabetes, while recombinant human growth hormone is used to treat growth disorders.

The production of recombinant proteins typically involves the use of host cells, such as bacteria, yeast, or mammalian cells, which are engineered to express the desired protein. The host cells are transformed with a plasmid vector containing the gene of interest, along with regulatory elements that control its expression. Once the host cells are cultured and the protein is expressed, it can be purified using various chromatography techniques.

Overall, recombinant proteins have revolutionized many areas of biology and medicine, enabling researchers to study and manipulate proteins in ways that were previously impossible.

Molecular models are three-dimensional representations of molecular structures that are used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to visualize and understand the spatial arrangement of atoms and bonds within a molecule. These models can be physical or computer-generated and allow researchers to study the shape, size, and behavior of molecules, which is crucial for understanding their function and interactions with other molecules.

Physical molecular models are often made up of balls (representing atoms) connected by rods or sticks (representing bonds). These models can be constructed manually using materials such as plastic or wooden balls and rods, or they can be created using 3D printing technology.

Computer-generated molecular models, on the other hand, are created using specialized software that allows researchers to visualize and manipulate molecular structures in three dimensions. These models can be used to simulate molecular interactions, predict molecular behavior, and design new drugs or chemicals with specific properties. Overall, molecular models play a critical role in advancing our understanding of molecular structures and their functions.

Food contamination is the presence of harmful microorganisms, chemicals, or foreign substances in food or water that can cause illness or injury to individuals who consume it. This can occur at any stage during production, processing, storage, or preparation of food, and can result from various sources such as:

1. Biological contamination: This includes the presence of harmful bacteria, viruses, parasites, or fungi that can cause foodborne illnesses. Examples include Salmonella, E. coli, Listeria, and norovirus.

2. Chemical contamination: This involves the introduction of hazardous chemicals into food, which may occur due to poor handling practices, improper storage, or exposure to environmental pollutants. Common sources of chemical contamination include pesticides, cleaning solvents, heavy metals, and natural toxins produced by certain plants or fungi.

3. Physical contamination: This refers to the presence of foreign objects in food, such as glass, plastic, hair, or insects, which can pose a choking hazard or introduce harmful substances into the body.

Preventing food contamination is crucial for ensuring food safety and protecting public health. Proper hygiene practices, temperature control, separation of raw and cooked foods, and regular inspections are essential measures to minimize the risk of food contamination.

Immunoblotting, also known as western blotting, is a laboratory technique used in molecular biology and immunogenetics to detect and quantify specific proteins in a complex mixture. This technique combines the electrophoretic separation of proteins by gel electrophoresis with their detection using antibodies that recognize specific epitopes (protein fragments) on the target protein.

The process involves several steps: first, the protein sample is separated based on size through sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Next, the separated proteins are transferred onto a nitrocellulose or polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF) membrane using an electric field. The membrane is then blocked with a blocking agent to prevent non-specific binding of antibodies.

After blocking, the membrane is incubated with a primary antibody that specifically recognizes the target protein. Following this, the membrane is washed to remove unbound primary antibodies and then incubated with a secondary antibody conjugated to an enzyme such as horseradish peroxidase (HRP) or alkaline phosphatase (AP). The enzyme catalyzes a colorimetric or chemiluminescent reaction that allows for the detection of the target protein.

Immunoblotting is widely used in research and clinical settings to study protein expression, post-translational modifications, protein-protein interactions, and disease biomarkers. It provides high specificity and sensitivity, making it a valuable tool for identifying and quantifying proteins in various biological samples.

Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a technique used in pathology and laboratory medicine to identify specific proteins or antigens in tissue sections. It combines the principles of immunology and histology to detect the presence and location of these target molecules within cells and tissues. This technique utilizes antibodies that are specific to the protein or antigen of interest, which are then tagged with a detection system such as a chromogen or fluorophore. The stained tissue sections can be examined under a microscope, allowing for the visualization and analysis of the distribution and expression patterns of the target molecule in the context of the tissue architecture. Immunohistochemistry is widely used in diagnostic pathology to help identify various diseases, including cancer, infectious diseases, and immune-mediated disorders.

"Endpoint determination" is a medical term that refers to the process of deciding when a clinical trial or study should be stopped or concluded based on the outcomes or results that have been observed. The endpoint of a study is the primary outcome or result that the study is designed to investigate and measure.

In endpoint determination, researchers use pre-specified criteria, such as statistical significance levels or safety concerns, to evaluate whether the study has met its objectives or if there are any significant benefits or risks associated with the intervention being studied. The decision to end a study early can be based on various factors, including the achievement of a predefined level of efficacy, the emergence of unexpected safety issues, or the realization that the study is unlikely to achieve its intended goals.

Endpoint determination is an important aspect of clinical trial design and conduct, as it helps ensure that studies are conducted in an ethical and scientifically rigorous manner, and that their results can be used to inform medical practice and policy.

Glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) are complex glycolipids that are attached to the outer leaflet of the cell membrane. They play a role in anchoring proteins to the cell surface by serving as a post-translational modification site for certain proteins, known as GPI-anchored proteins.

The structure of GPIs consists of a core glycan backbone made up of three mannose and one glucosamine residue, which is linked to a phosphatidylinositol (PI) anchor via a glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor addition site. The PI anchor is composed of a diacylglycerol moiety and a phosphatidylinositol headgroup.

GPIs are involved in various cellular processes, including signal transduction, protein targeting, and cell adhesion. They have also been implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative disorders.

Neuroblastoma is defined as a type of cancer that develops from immature nerve cells found in the fetal or early postnatal period, called neuroblasts. It typically occurs in infants and young children, with around 90% of cases diagnosed before age five. The tumors often originate in the adrenal glands but can also arise in the neck, chest, abdomen, or spine. Neuroblastoma is characterized by its ability to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, including bones, bone marrow, lymph nodes, and skin. The severity and prognosis of neuroblastoma can vary widely, depending on factors such as the patient's age at diagnosis, stage of the disease, and specific genetic features of the tumor.

Nucleic acids are biological macromolecules composed of linear chains of nucleotides. They play crucial roles in the structure and function of cells, serving as the primary information-carrying molecules in all known forms of life. The two main types of nucleic acids are deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and ribonucleic acid (RNA). DNA is responsible for storing genetic information in a stable form that can be passed down from generation to generation, while RNA plays a key role in translating the genetic code stored in DNA into functional proteins.

Each nucleotide consists of a sugar molecule, a phosphate group, and a nitrogenous base. The sugar in DNA is deoxyribose, while in RNA it is ribose. The nitrogenous bases found in both DNA and RNA include adenine (A), guanine (G), and cytosine (C). Thymine (T) is found in DNA, but uracil (U) takes its place in RNA. These nucleotides are linked together by phosphodiester bonds between the sugar of one nucleotide and the phosphate group of another, forming a long, helical structure with backbones made up of alternating sugar and phosphate groups.

The sequence of these nitrogenous bases along the nucleic acid chain encodes genetic information in the form of codons, which are sets of three consecutive bases that specify particular amino acids or signals for protein synthesis. This information is used to direct the synthesis of proteins through a process called transcription (converting DNA to RNA) and translation (converting RNA to protein).

In summary, nucleic acids are essential biomolecules composed of chains of nucleotides that store, transmit, and express genetic information in cells. They consist of two main types: DNA and RNA, which differ in their sugar type, nitrogenous bases, and functions.

The term "asymptomatic disease" refers to a medical condition or infection that does not cause any obvious symptoms in an affected individual. Some people with asymptomatic diseases may never develop any signs or symptoms throughout their lives, while others may eventually go on to develop symptoms at a later stage. In some cases, asymptomatic diseases may still be detected through medical testing or screening, even if the person feels completely well. A classic example of an asymptomatic disease is a person who has a positive blood test for a latent viral infection, such as HIV or HSV (herpes simplex virus), but does not have any symptoms related to the infection at that time.

The spleen is an organ in the upper left side of the abdomen, next to the stomach and behind the ribs. It plays multiple supporting roles in the body:

1. It fights infection by acting as a filter for the blood. Old red blood cells are recycled in the spleen, and platelets and white blood cells are stored there.
2. The spleen also helps to control the amount of blood in the body by removing excess red blood cells and storing platelets.
3. It has an important role in immune function, producing antibodies and removing microorganisms and damaged red blood cells from the bloodstream.

The spleen can be removed without causing any significant problems, as other organs take over its functions. This is known as a splenectomy and may be necessary if the spleen is damaged or diseased.

Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is a type of microscopy in which an electron beam is transmitted through a ultra-thin specimen, interacting with it as it passes through. An image is formed from the interaction of the electrons with the specimen; the image is then magnified and visualized on a fluorescent screen or recorded on an electronic detector (or photographic film in older models).

TEM can provide high-resolution, high-magnification images that can reveal the internal structure of specimens including cells, viruses, and even molecules. It is widely used in biological and materials science research to investigate the ultrastructure of cells, tissues and materials. In medicine, TEM is used for diagnostic purposes in fields such as virology and bacteriology.

It's important to note that preparing a sample for TEM is a complex process, requiring specialized techniques to create thin (50-100 nm) specimens. These include cutting ultrathin sections of embedded samples using an ultramicrotome, staining with heavy metal salts, and positive staining or negative staining methods.

Peripheral nerves are nerve fibers that transmit signals between the central nervous system (CNS, consisting of the brain and spinal cord) and the rest of the body. These nerves convey motor, sensory, and autonomic information, enabling us to move, feel, and respond to changes in our environment. They form a complex network that extends from the CNS to muscles, glands, skin, and internal organs, allowing for coordinated responses and functions throughout the body. Damage or injury to peripheral nerves can result in various neurological symptoms, such as numbness, weakness, or pain, depending on the type and severity of the damage.

The Central Nervous System (CNS) is the part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord. It is called the "central" system because it receives information from, and sends information to, the rest of the body through peripheral nerves, which make up the Peripheral Nervous System (PNS).

The CNS is responsible for processing sensory information, controlling motor functions, and regulating various autonomic processes like heart rate, respiration, and digestion. The brain, as the command center of the CNS, interprets sensory stimuli, formulates thoughts, and initiates actions. The spinal cord serves as a conduit for nerve impulses traveling to and from the brain and the rest of the body.

The CNS is protected by several structures, including the skull (which houses the brain) and the vertebral column (which surrounds and protects the spinal cord). Despite these protective measures, the CNS remains vulnerable to injury and disease, which can have severe consequences due to its crucial role in controlling essential bodily functions.

Glycosylation is the enzymatic process of adding a sugar group, or glycan, to a protein, lipid, or other organic molecule. This post-translational modification plays a crucial role in modulating various biological functions, such as protein stability, trafficking, and ligand binding. The structure and composition of the attached glycans can significantly influence the functional properties of the modified molecule, contributing to cell-cell recognition, signal transduction, and immune response regulation. Abnormal glycosylation patterns have been implicated in several disease states, including cancer, diabetes, and neurodegenerative disorders.

Protein isoforms are different forms or variants of a protein that are produced from a single gene through the process of alternative splicing, where different exons (or parts of exons) are included in the mature mRNA molecule. This results in the production of multiple, slightly different proteins that share a common core structure but have distinct sequences and functions. Protein isoforms can also arise from genetic variations such as single nucleotide polymorphisms or mutations that alter the protein-coding sequence of a gene. These differences in protein sequence can affect the stability, localization, activity, or interaction partners of the protein isoform, leading to functional diversity and specialization within cells and organisms.

Salivary proteins and peptides refer to the diverse group of molecules that are present in saliva, which is the clear, slightly alkaline fluid produced by the salivary glands in the mouth. These proteins and peptides play a crucial role in maintaining oral health and contributing to various physiological functions.

Some common types of salivary proteins and peptides include:

1. **Mucins**: These are large, heavily glycosylated proteins that give saliva its viscous quality. They help to lubricate the oral cavity, protect the mucosal surfaces, and aid in food bolus formation.
2. **Amylases**: These enzymes break down carbohydrates into simpler sugars, initiating the digestive process even before food reaches the stomach.
3. **Proline-rich proteins (PRPs)**: PRPs contribute to the buffering capacity of saliva and help protect against tooth erosion by forming a protective layer on tooth enamel.
4. **Histatins**: These are small cationic peptides with antimicrobial properties, playing a significant role in maintaining oral microbial homeostasis and preventing dental caries.
5. **Lactoferrin**: An iron-binding protein that exhibits antibacterial, antifungal, and anti-inflammatory activities, contributing to the overall oral health.
6. **Statherin and Cystatins**: These proteins regulate calcium phosphate precipitation, preventing dental calculus formation and maintaining tooth mineral homeostasis.

Salivary proteins and peptides have attracted significant interest in recent years due to their potential diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Alterations in the composition of these molecules can provide valuable insights into various oral and systemic diseases, making them promising biomarkers for disease detection and monitoring.

A "knockout" mouse is a genetically engineered mouse in which one or more genes have been deleted or "knocked out" using molecular biology techniques. This allows researchers to study the function of specific genes and their role in various biological processes, as well as potential associations with human diseases. The mice are generated by introducing targeted DNA modifications into embryonic stem cells, which are then used to create a live animal. Knockout mice have been widely used in biomedical research to investigate gene function, disease mechanisms, and potential therapeutic targets.

Peptides are short chains of amino acid residues linked by covalent bonds, known as peptide bonds. They are formed when two or more amino acids are joined together through a condensation reaction, which results in the elimination of a water molecule and the formation of an amide bond between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another.

Peptides can vary in length from two to about fifty amino acids, and they are often classified based on their size. For example, dipeptides contain two amino acids, tripeptides contain three, and so on. Oligopeptides typically contain up to ten amino acids, while polypeptides can contain dozens or even hundreds of amino acids.

Peptides play many important roles in the body, including serving as hormones, neurotransmitters, enzymes, and antibiotics. They are also used in medical research and therapeutic applications, such as drug delivery and tissue engineering.

Drug resistance, also known as antimicrobial resistance, is the ability of a microorganism (such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, or parasites) to withstand the effects of a drug that was originally designed to inhibit or kill it. This occurs when the microorganism undergoes genetic changes that allow it to survive in the presence of the drug. As a result, the drug becomes less effective or even completely ineffective at treating infections caused by these resistant organisms.

Drug resistance can develop through various mechanisms, including mutations in the genes responsible for producing the target protein of the drug, alteration of the drug's target site, modification or destruction of the drug by enzymes produced by the microorganism, and active efflux of the drug from the cell.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms pose significant challenges in medical treatment, as they can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. The overuse and misuse of antimicrobial agents, as well as poor infection control practices, contribute to the development and dissemination of drug-resistant strains. To address this issue, it is crucial to promote prudent use of antimicrobials, enhance surveillance and monitoring of resistance patterns, invest in research and development of new antimicrobial agents, and strengthen infection prevention and control measures.

A codon is a sequence of three adjacent nucleotides in DNA or RNA that specifies the insertion of a particular amino acid during protein synthesis, or signals the beginning or end of translation. In DNA, these triplets are read during transcription to produce a complementary mRNA molecule, which is then translated into a polypeptide chain during translation. There are 64 possible codons in the standard genetic code, with 61 encoding for specific amino acids and three serving as stop codons that signal the termination of protein synthesis.

In the context of medical definitions, polymers are large molecules composed of repeating subunits called monomers. These long chains of monomers can have various structures and properties, depending on the type of monomer units and how they are linked together. In medicine, polymers are used in a wide range of applications, including drug delivery systems, medical devices, and tissue engineering scaffolds. Some examples of polymers used in medicine include polyethylene, polypropylene, polystyrene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC), and biodegradable polymers such as polylactic acid (PLA) and polycaprolactone (PCL).

Neurons, also known as nerve cells or neurocytes, are specialized cells that constitute the basic unit of the nervous system. They are responsible for receiving, processing, and transmitting information and signals within the body. Neurons have three main parts: the dendrites, the cell body (soma), and the axon. The dendrites receive signals from other neurons or sensory receptors, while the axon transmits these signals to other neurons, muscles, or glands. The junction between two neurons is called a synapse, where neurotransmitters are released to transmit the signal across the gap (synaptic cleft) to the next neuron. Neurons vary in size, shape, and structure depending on their function and location within the nervous system.

An amino acid substitution is a type of mutation in which one amino acid in a protein is replaced by another. This occurs when there is a change in the DNA sequence that codes for a particular amino acid in a protein. The genetic code is redundant, meaning that most amino acids are encoded by more than one codon (a sequence of three nucleotides). As a result, a single base pair change in the DNA sequence may not necessarily lead to an amino acid substitution. However, if a change does occur, it can have a variety of effects on the protein's structure and function, depending on the nature of the substituted amino acids. Some substitutions may be harmless, while others may alter the protein's activity or stability, leading to disease.

Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP) is not a medical term per se, but a scientific term used in the field of molecular biology. GFP is a protein that exhibits bright green fluorescence when exposed to light, particularly blue or ultraviolet light. It was originally discovered in the jellyfish Aequorea victoria.

In medical and biological research, scientists often use recombinant DNA technology to introduce the gene for GFP into other organisms, including bacteria, plants, and animals, including humans. This allows them to track the expression and localization of specific genes or proteins of interest in living cells, tissues, or even whole organisms.

The ability to visualize specific cellular structures or processes in real-time has proven invaluable for a wide range of research areas, from studying the development and function of organs and organ systems to understanding the mechanisms of diseases and the effects of therapeutic interventions.

Gene expression regulation in fungi refers to the complex cellular processes that control the production of proteins and other functional gene products in response to various internal and external stimuli. This regulation is crucial for normal growth, development, and adaptation of fungal cells to changing environmental conditions.

In fungi, gene expression is regulated at multiple levels, including transcriptional, post-transcriptional, translational, and post-translational modifications. Key regulatory mechanisms include:

1. Transcription factors (TFs): These proteins bind to specific DNA sequences in the promoter regions of target genes and either activate or repress their transcription. Fungi have a diverse array of TFs that respond to various signals, such as nutrient availability, stress, developmental cues, and quorum sensing.
2. Chromatin remodeling: The organization and compaction of DNA into chromatin can influence gene expression. Fungi utilize ATP-dependent chromatin remodeling complexes and histone modifying enzymes to alter chromatin structure, thereby facilitating or inhibiting the access of transcriptional machinery to genes.
3. Non-coding RNAs: Small non-coding RNAs (sncRNAs) play a role in post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression in fungi. These sncRNAs can guide RNA-induced transcriptional silencing (RITS) complexes to specific target loci, leading to the repression of gene expression through histone modifications and DNA methylation.
4. Alternative splicing: Fungi employ alternative splicing mechanisms to generate multiple mRNA isoforms from a single gene, thereby increasing proteome diversity. This process can be regulated by RNA-binding proteins that recognize specific sequence motifs in pre-mRNAs and promote or inhibit splicing events.
5. Protein stability and activity: Post-translational modifications (PTMs) of proteins, such as phosphorylation, ubiquitination, and sumoylation, can influence their stability, localization, and activity. These PTMs play a crucial role in regulating various cellular processes, including signal transduction, stress response, and cell cycle progression.

Understanding the complex interplay between these regulatory mechanisms is essential for elucidating the molecular basis of fungal development, pathogenesis, and drug resistance. This knowledge can be harnessed to develop novel strategies for combating fungal infections and improving agricultural productivity.

Protein multimerization refers to the process where multiple protein subunits assemble together to form a complex, repetitive structure called a multimer or oligomer. This can involve the association of identical or similar protein subunits through non-covalent interactions such as hydrogen bonding, ionic bonding, and van der Waals forces. The resulting multimeric structures can have various shapes, sizes, and functions, including enzymatic activity, transport, or structural support. Protein multimerization plays a crucial role in many biological processes and is often necessary for the proper functioning of proteins within cells.

Fluorescence microscopy is a type of microscopy that uses fluorescent dyes or proteins to highlight and visualize specific components within a sample. In this technique, the sample is illuminated with high-energy light, typically ultraviolet (UV) or blue light, which excites the fluorescent molecules causing them to emit lower-energy, longer-wavelength light, usually visible light in the form of various colors. This emitted light is then collected by the microscope and detected to produce an image.

Fluorescence microscopy has several advantages over traditional brightfield microscopy, including the ability to visualize specific structures or molecules within a complex sample, increased sensitivity, and the potential for quantitative analysis. It is widely used in various fields of biology and medicine, such as cell biology, neuroscience, and pathology, to study the structure, function, and interactions of cells and proteins.

There are several types of fluorescence microscopy techniques, including widefield fluorescence microscopy, confocal microscopy, two-photon microscopy, and total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF) microscopy, each with its own strengths and limitations. These techniques can provide valuable insights into the behavior of cells and proteins in health and disease.

Silicon dioxide is not a medical term, but a chemical compound with the formula SiO2. It's commonly known as quartz or sand and is not something that would typically have a medical definition. However, in some cases, silicon dioxide can be used in pharmaceutical preparations as an excipient (an inactive substance that serves as a vehicle or medium for a drug) or as a food additive, often as an anti-caking agent.

In these contexts, it's important to note that silicon dioxide is considered generally recognized as safe (GRAS) by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). However, exposure to very high levels of respirable silica dust, such as in certain industrial settings, can increase the risk of lung disease, including silicosis.

A plasmid is a small, circular, double-stranded DNA molecule that is separate from the chromosomal DNA of a bacterium or other organism. Plasmids are typically not essential for the survival of the organism, but they can confer beneficial traits such as antibiotic resistance or the ability to degrade certain types of pollutants.

Plasmids are capable of replicating independently of the chromosomal DNA and can be transferred between bacteria through a process called conjugation. They often contain genes that provide resistance to antibiotics, heavy metals, and other environmental stressors. Plasmids have also been engineered for use in molecular biology as cloning vectors, allowing scientists to replicate and manipulate specific DNA sequences.

Plasmids are important tools in genetic engineering and biotechnology because they can be easily manipulated and transferred between organisms. They have been used to produce vaccines, diagnostic tests, and genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for various applications, including agriculture, medicine, and industry.

A transgene is a segment of DNA that has been artificially transferred from one organism to another, typically between different species, to introduce a new trait or characteristic. The term "transgene" specifically refers to the genetic material that has been transferred and has become integrated into the host organism's genome. This technology is often used in genetic engineering and biomedical research, including the development of genetically modified organisms (GMOs) for agricultural purposes or the creation of animal models for studying human diseases.

Transgenes can be created using various techniques, such as molecular cloning, where a desired gene is isolated, manipulated, and then inserted into a vector (a small DNA molecule, such as a plasmid) that can efficiently enter the host organism's cells. Once inside the cell, the transgene can integrate into the host genome, allowing for the expression of the new trait in the resulting transgenic organism.

It is important to note that while transgenes can provide valuable insights and benefits in research and agriculture, their use and release into the environment are subjects of ongoing debate due to concerns about potential ecological impacts and human health risks.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Nerve degeneration, also known as neurodegeneration, is the progressive loss of structure and function of neurons, which can lead to cognitive decline, motor impairment, and various other symptoms. This process occurs due to a variety of factors, including genetics, environmental influences, and aging. It is a key feature in several neurological disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The degeneration can affect any part of the nervous system, leading to different symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Vacuoles are membrane-bound organelles found in the cells of most eukaryotic organisms. They are essentially fluid-filled sacs that store various substances, such as enzymes, waste products, and nutrients. In plants, vacuoles often contain water, ions, and various organic compounds, while in fungi, they may store lipids or pigments. Vacuoles can also play a role in maintaining the turgor pressure of cells, which is critical for cell shape and function.

In animal cells, vacuoles are typically smaller and less numerous than in plant cells. Animal cells have lysosomes, which are membrane-bound organelles that contain digestive enzymes and break down waste materials, cellular debris, and foreign substances. Lysosomes can be considered a type of vacuole, but they are more specialized in their function.

Overall, vacuoles are essential for maintaining the health and functioning of cells by providing a means to store and dispose of various substances.

Protein engineering is a branch of molecular biology that involves the modification of proteins to achieve desired changes in their structure and function. This can be accomplished through various techniques, including site-directed mutagenesis, gene shuffling, directed evolution, and rational design. The goal of protein engineering may be to improve the stability, activity, specificity, or other properties of a protein for therapeutic, diagnostic, industrial, or research purposes. It is an interdisciplinary field that combines knowledge from genetics, biochemistry, structural biology, and computational modeling.

Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) is a type of microscopy that allows visualization and measurement of surfaces at the atomic level. It works by using a sharp probe, called a tip, that is mounted on a flexible cantilever. The tip is brought very close to the surface of the sample and as the sample is scanned, the forces between the tip and the sample cause the cantilever to deflect. This deflection is measured and used to generate a topographic map of the surface with extremely high resolution, often on the order of fractions of a nanometer. AFM can be used to study both conductive and non-conductive samples, and can operate in various environments, including air and liquid. It has applications in fields such as materials science, biology, and chemistry.

Thiazoles are organic compounds that contain a heterocyclic ring consisting of a nitrogen atom and a sulfur atom, along with two carbon atoms and two hydrogen atoms. They have the chemical formula C3H4NS. Thiazoles are present in various natural and synthetic substances, including some vitamins, drugs, and dyes. In the context of medicine, thiazole derivatives have been developed as pharmaceuticals for their diverse biological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antifungal, antibacterial, and antihypertensive properties. Some well-known examples include thiazide diuretics (e.g., hydrochlorothiazide) used to treat high blood pressure and edema, and the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone.

Genotype, in genetics, refers to the complete heritable genetic makeup of an individual organism, including all of its genes. It is the set of instructions contained in an organism's DNA for the development and function of that organism. The genotype is the basis for an individual's inherited traits, and it can be contrasted with an individual's phenotype, which refers to the observable physical or biochemical characteristics of an organism that result from the expression of its genes in combination with environmental influences.

It is important to note that an individual's genotype is not necessarily identical to their genetic sequence. Some genes have multiple forms called alleles, and an individual may inherit different alleles for a given gene from each parent. The combination of alleles that an individual inherits for a particular gene is known as their genotype for that gene.

Understanding an individual's genotype can provide important information about their susceptibility to certain diseases, their response to drugs and other treatments, and their risk of passing on inherited genetic disorders to their offspring.

Genetic transformation is the process by which an organism's genetic material is altered or modified, typically through the introduction of foreign DNA. This can be achieved through various techniques such as:

* Gene transfer using vectors like plasmids, phages, or artificial chromosomes
* Direct uptake of naked DNA using methods like electroporation or chemically-mediated transfection
* Use of genome editing tools like CRISPR-Cas9 to introduce precise changes into the organism's genome.

The introduced DNA may come from another individual of the same species (cisgenic), from a different species (transgenic), or even be synthetically designed. The goal of genetic transformation is often to introduce new traits, functions, or characteristics that do not exist naturally in the organism, or to correct genetic defects.

This technique has broad applications in various fields, including molecular biology, biotechnology, and medical research, where it can be used to study gene function, develop genetically modified organisms (GMOs), create cell lines for drug screening, and even potentially treat genetic diseases through gene therapy.

Epigenetics is the study of heritable changes in gene function that occur without a change in the underlying DNA sequence. These changes can be caused by various mechanisms such as DNA methylation, histone modification, and non-coding RNA molecules. Epigenetic changes can be influenced by various factors including age, environment, lifestyle, and disease state.

Genetic epigenesis specifically refers to the study of how genetic factors influence these epigenetic modifications. Genetic variations between individuals can lead to differences in epigenetic patterns, which in turn can contribute to phenotypic variation and susceptibility to diseases. For example, certain genetic variants may predispose an individual to develop cancer, and environmental factors such as smoking or exposure to chemicals can interact with these genetic variants to trigger epigenetic changes that promote tumor growth.

Overall, the field of genetic epigenesis aims to understand how genetic and environmental factors interact to regulate gene expression and contribute to disease susceptibility.

Luminescent measurements refer to the quantitative assessment of the emission of light from a substance that has been excited, typically through some form of energy input such as electrical energy or radiation. In the context of medical diagnostics and research, luminescent measurements can be used in various applications, including bioluminescence imaging, which is used to study biological processes at the cellular and molecular level.

Bioluminescence occurs when a chemical reaction produces light within a living organism, often through the action of enzymes such as luciferase. By introducing a luciferase gene into cells or organisms, researchers can use bioluminescent measurements to track cellular processes and monitor gene expression in real time.

Luminescent measurements may also be used in medical research to study the properties of materials used in medical devices, such as LEDs or optical fibers, or to develop new diagnostic tools based on light-emitting nanoparticles or other luminescent materials.

In summary, luminescent measurements are a valuable tool in medical research and diagnostics, providing a non-invasive way to study biological processes and develop new technologies for disease detection and treatment.

Organ specificity, in the context of immunology and toxicology, refers to the phenomenon where a substance (such as a drug or toxin) or an immune response primarily affects certain organs or tissues in the body. This can occur due to various reasons such as:

1. The presence of specific targets (like antigens in the case of an immune response or receptors in the case of drugs) that are more abundant in these organs.
2. The unique properties of certain cells or tissues that make them more susceptible to damage.
3. The way a substance is metabolized or cleared from the body, which can concentrate it in specific organs.

For example, in autoimmune diseases, organ specificity describes immune responses that are directed against antigens found only in certain organs, such as the thyroid gland in Hashimoto's disease. Similarly, some toxins or drugs may have a particular affinity for liver cells, leading to liver damage or specific drug interactions.

Amyloid beta-peptides (Aβ) are small protein fragments that are crucially involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease. They are derived from a larger transmembrane protein called the amyloid precursor protein (APP) through a series of proteolytic cleavage events.

The two primary forms of Aβ peptides are Aβ40 and Aβ42, which differ in length by two amino acids. While both forms can be harmful, Aβ42 is more prone to aggregation and is considered to be the more pathogenic form. These peptides have the tendency to misfold and accumulate into oligomers, fibrils, and eventually insoluble plaques that deposit in various areas of the brain, most notably the cerebral cortex and hippocampus.

The accumulation of Aβ peptides is believed to initiate a cascade of events leading to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, synaptic dysfunction, and neuronal death, which are all hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact role of Aβ in the onset and progression of Alzheimer's is still under investigation, it is widely accepted that they play a central part in the development of this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder.

A peptide fragment is a short chain of amino acids that is derived from a larger peptide or protein through various biological or chemical processes. These fragments can result from the natural breakdown of proteins in the body during regular physiological processes, such as digestion, or they can be produced experimentally in a laboratory setting for research or therapeutic purposes.

Peptide fragments are often used in research to map the structure and function of larger peptides and proteins, as well as to study their interactions with other molecules. In some cases, peptide fragments may also have biological activity of their own and can be developed into drugs or diagnostic tools. For example, certain peptide fragments derived from hormones or neurotransmitters may bind to receptors in the body and mimic or block the effects of the full-length molecule.

Endopeptidases are a type of enzyme that breaks down proteins by cleaving peptide bonds inside the polypeptide chain. They are also known as proteinases or endoproteinases. These enzymes work within the interior of the protein molecule, cutting it at specific points along its length, as opposed to exopeptidases, which remove individual amino acids from the ends of the protein chain.

Endopeptidases play a crucial role in various biological processes, such as digestion, blood coagulation, and programmed cell death (apoptosis). They are classified based on their catalytic mechanism and the structure of their active site. Some examples of endopeptidase families include serine proteases, cysteine proteases, aspartic proteases, and metalloproteases.

It is important to note that while endopeptidases are essential for normal physiological functions, they can also contribute to disease processes when their activity is unregulated or misdirected. For instance, excessive endopeptidase activity has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders, cancer, and inflammatory conditions.

Solubility is a fundamental concept in pharmaceutical sciences and medicine, which refers to the maximum amount of a substance (solute) that can be dissolved in a given quantity of solvent (usually water) at a specific temperature and pressure. Solubility is typically expressed as mass of solute per volume or mass of solvent (e.g., grams per liter, milligrams per milliliter). The process of dissolving a solute in a solvent results in a homogeneous solution where the solute particles are dispersed uniformly throughout the solvent.

Understanding the solubility of drugs is crucial for their formulation, administration, and therapeutic effectiveness. Drugs with low solubility may not dissolve sufficiently to produce the desired pharmacological effect, while those with high solubility might lead to rapid absorption and short duration of action. Therefore, optimizing drug solubility through various techniques like particle size reduction, salt formation, or solubilization is an essential aspect of drug development and delivery.

A cell-free system is a biochemical environment in which biological reactions can occur outside of an intact living cell. These systems are often used to study specific cellular processes or pathways, as they allow researchers to control and manipulate the conditions in which the reactions take place. In a cell-free system, the necessary enzymes, substrates, and cofactors for a particular reaction are provided in a test tube or other container, rather than within a whole cell.

Cell-free systems can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, yeast, and mammalian cells. They can be used to study a wide range of cellular processes, such as transcription, translation, protein folding, and metabolism. For example, a cell-free system might be used to express and purify a specific protein, or to investigate the regulation of a particular metabolic pathway.

One advantage of using cell-free systems is that they can provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of cellular processes without the need for time-consuming and resource-intensive cell culture or genetic manipulation. Additionally, because cell-free systems are not constrained by the limitations of a whole cell, they offer greater flexibility in terms of reaction conditions and the ability to study complex or transient interactions between biological molecules.

Overall, cell-free systems are an important tool in molecular biology and biochemistry, providing researchers with a versatile and powerful means of investigating the fundamental processes that underlie life at the cellular level.

Gene expression is the process by which the information encoded in a gene is used to synthesize a functional gene product, such as a protein or RNA molecule. This process involves several steps: transcription, RNA processing, and translation. During transcription, the genetic information in DNA is copied into a complementary RNA molecule, known as messenger RNA (mRNA). The mRNA then undergoes RNA processing, which includes adding a cap and tail to the mRNA and splicing out non-coding regions called introns. The resulting mature mRNA is then translated into a protein on ribosomes in the cytoplasm through the process of translation.

The regulation of gene expression is a complex and highly controlled process that allows cells to respond to changes in their environment, such as growth factors, hormones, and stress signals. This regulation can occur at various stages of gene expression, including transcriptional activation or repression, RNA processing, mRNA stability, and translation. Dysregulation of gene expression has been implicated in many diseases, including cancer, genetic disorders, and neurological conditions.

In the context of medicine and pharmacology, "kinetics" refers to the study of how a drug moves throughout the body, including its absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (often abbreviated as ADME). This field is called "pharmacokinetics."

1. Absorption: This is the process of a drug moving from its site of administration into the bloodstream. Factors such as the route of administration (e.g., oral, intravenous, etc.), formulation, and individual physiological differences can affect absorption.

2. Distribution: Once a drug is in the bloodstream, it gets distributed throughout the body to various tissues and organs. This process is influenced by factors like blood flow, protein binding, and lipid solubility of the drug.

3. Metabolism: Drugs are often chemically modified in the body, typically in the liver, through processes known as metabolism. These changes can lead to the formation of active or inactive metabolites, which may then be further distributed, excreted, or undergo additional metabolic transformations.

4. Excretion: This is the process by which drugs and their metabolites are eliminated from the body, primarily through the kidneys (urine) and the liver (bile).

Understanding the kinetics of a drug is crucial for determining its optimal dosing regimen, potential interactions with other medications or foods, and any necessary adjustments for special populations like pediatric or geriatric patients, or those with impaired renal or hepatic function.

Adenosine triphosphatases (ATPases) are a group of enzymes that catalyze the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) into adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and inorganic phosphate. This reaction releases energy, which is used to drive various cellular processes such as muscle contraction, transport of ions across membranes, and synthesis of proteins and nucleic acids.

ATPases are classified into several types based on their structure, function, and mechanism of action. Some examples include:

1. P-type ATPases: These ATPases form a phosphorylated intermediate during the reaction cycle and are involved in the transport of ions across membranes, such as the sodium-potassium pump and calcium pumps.
2. F-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in mitochondria, chloroplasts, and bacteria, and are responsible for generating a proton gradient across the membrane, which is used to synthesize ATP.
3. V-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in vacuolar membranes and endomembranes, and are involved in acidification of intracellular compartments.
4. A-type ATPases: These ATPases are found in the plasma membrane and are involved in various functions such as cell signaling and ion transport.

Overall, ATPases play a crucial role in maintaining the energy balance of cells and regulating various physiological processes.

Tissue distribution, in the context of pharmacology and toxicology, refers to the way that a drug or xenobiotic (a chemical substance found within an organism that is not naturally produced by or expected to be present within that organism) is distributed throughout the body's tissues after administration. It describes how much of the drug or xenobiotic can be found in various tissues and organs, and is influenced by factors such as blood flow, lipid solubility, protein binding, and the permeability of cell membranes. Understanding tissue distribution is important for predicting the potential effects of a drug or toxin on different parts of the body, and for designing drugs with improved safety and efficacy profiles.

Hydrogen-ion concentration, also known as pH, is a measure of the acidity or basicity of a solution. It is defined as the negative logarithm (to the base 10) of the hydrogen ion activity in a solution. The standard unit of measurement is the pH unit. A pH of 7 is neutral, less than 7 is acidic, and greater than 7 is basic.

In medical terms, hydrogen-ion concentration is important for maintaining homeostasis within the body. For example, in the stomach, a high hydrogen-ion concentration (low pH) is necessary for the digestion of food. However, in other parts of the body such as blood, a high hydrogen-ion concentration can be harmful and lead to acidosis. Conversely, a low hydrogen-ion concentration (high pH) in the blood can lead to alkalosis. Both acidosis and alkalosis can have serious consequences on various organ systems if not corrected.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Protein transport, in the context of cellular biology, refers to the process by which proteins are actively moved from one location to another within or between cells. This is a crucial mechanism for maintaining proper cell function and regulation.

Intracellular protein transport involves the movement of proteins within a single cell. Proteins can be transported across membranes (such as the nuclear envelope, endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus, or plasma membrane) via specialized transport systems like vesicles and transport channels.

Intercellular protein transport refers to the movement of proteins from one cell to another, often facilitated by exocytosis (release of proteins in vesicles) and endocytosis (uptake of extracellular substances via membrane-bound vesicles). This is essential for communication between cells, immune response, and other physiological processes.

It's important to note that any disruption in protein transport can lead to various diseases, including neurological disorders, cancer, and metabolic conditions.

Genetic variation refers to the differences in DNA sequences among individuals and populations. These variations can result from mutations, genetic recombination, or gene flow between populations. Genetic variation is essential for evolution by providing the raw material upon which natural selection acts. It can occur within a single gene, between different genes, or at larger scales, such as differences in the number of chromosomes or entire sets of chromosomes. The study of genetic variation is crucial in understanding the genetic basis of diseases and traits, as well as the evolutionary history and relationships among species.

Nerve tissue proteins are specialized proteins found in the nervous system that provide structural and functional support to nerve cells, also known as neurons. These proteins include:

1. Neurofilaments: These are type IV intermediate filaments that provide structural support to neurons and help maintain their shape and size. They are composed of three subunits - NFL (light), NFM (medium), and NFH (heavy).

2. Neuronal Cytoskeletal Proteins: These include tubulins, actins, and spectrins that provide structural support to the neuronal cytoskeleton and help maintain its integrity.

3. Neurotransmitter Receptors: These are specialized proteins located on the postsynaptic membrane of neurons that bind neurotransmitters released by presynaptic neurons, triggering a response in the target cell.

4. Ion Channels: These are transmembrane proteins that regulate the flow of ions across the neuronal membrane and play a crucial role in generating and transmitting electrical signals in neurons.

5. Signaling Proteins: These include enzymes, receptors, and adaptor proteins that mediate intracellular signaling pathways involved in neuronal development, differentiation, survival, and death.

6. Adhesion Proteins: These are cell surface proteins that mediate cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, playing a crucial role in the formation and maintenance of neural circuits.

7. Extracellular Matrix Proteins: These include proteoglycans, laminins, and collagens that provide structural support to nerve tissue and regulate neuronal migration, differentiation, and survival.

Genetic selection, also known as natural selection, is a fundamental mechanism of evolution. It refers to the process by which certain heritable traits become more or less common in a population over successive generations due to differential reproduction of organisms with those traits.

In genetic selection, traits that increase an individual's fitness (its ability to survive and reproduce) are more likely to be passed on to the next generation, while traits that decrease fitness are less likely to be passed on. This results in a gradual change in the distribution of traits within a population over time, leading to adaptation to the environment and potentially speciation.

Genetic selection can occur through various mechanisms, including viability selection (differential survival), fecundity selection (differences in reproductive success), and sexual selection (choices made by individuals during mating). The process of genetic selection is driven by environmental pressures, such as predation, competition for resources, and changes in the availability of food or habitat.

Catalysis is the process of increasing the rate of a chemical reaction by adding a substance known as a catalyst, which remains unchanged at the end of the reaction. A catalyst lowers the activation energy required for the reaction to occur, thereby allowing the reaction to proceed more quickly and efficiently. This can be particularly important in biological systems, where enzymes act as catalysts to speed up metabolic reactions that are essential for life.

Inbred strains of mice are defined as lines of mice that have been brother-sister mated for at least 20 consecutive generations. This results in a high degree of homozygosity, where the mice of an inbred strain are genetically identical to one another, with the exception of spontaneous mutations.

Inbred strains of mice are widely used in biomedical research due to their genetic uniformity and stability, which makes them useful for studying the genetic basis of various traits, diseases, and biological processes. They also provide a consistent and reproducible experimental system, as compared to outbred or genetically heterogeneous populations.

Some commonly used inbred strains of mice include C57BL/6J, BALB/cByJ, DBA/2J, and 129SvEv. Each strain has its own unique genetic background and phenotypic characteristics, which can influence the results of experiments. Therefore, it is important to choose the appropriate inbred strain for a given research question.

Alzheimer's disease is a progressive disorder that causes brain cells to waste away (degenerate) and die. It's the most common cause of dementia — a continuous decline in thinking, behavioral and social skills that disrupts a person's ability to function independently.

The early signs of the disease include forgetting recent events or conversations. As the disease progresses, a person with Alzheimer's disease will develop severe memory impairment and lose the ability to carry out everyday tasks.

Currently, there's no cure for Alzheimer's disease. However, treatments can temporarily slow the worsening of dementia symptoms and improve quality of life.

In genetics, sequence alignment is the process of arranging two or more DNA, RNA, or protein sequences to identify regions of similarity or homology between them. This is often done using computational methods to compare the nucleotide or amino acid sequences and identify matching patterns, which can provide insight into evolutionary relationships, functional domains, or potential genetic disorders. The alignment process typically involves adjusting gaps and mismatches in the sequences to maximize the similarity between them, resulting in an aligned sequence that can be visually represented and analyzed.

An allele is a variant form of a gene that is located at a specific position on a specific chromosome. Alleles are alternative forms of the same gene that arise by mutation and are found at the same locus or position on homologous chromosomes.

Each person typically inherits two copies of each gene, one from each parent. If the two alleles are identical, a person is said to be homozygous for that trait. If the alleles are different, the person is heterozygous.

For example, the ABO blood group system has three alleles, A, B, and O, which determine a person's blood type. If a person inherits two A alleles, they will have type A blood; if they inherit one A and one B allele, they will have type AB blood; if they inherit two B alleles, they will have type B blood; and if they inherit two O alleles, they will have type O blood.

Alleles can also influence traits such as eye color, hair color, height, and other physical characteristics. Some alleles are dominant, meaning that only one copy of the allele is needed to express the trait, while others are recessive, meaning that two copies of the allele are needed to express the trait.

Electrophoresis, polyacrylamide gel (EPG) is a laboratory technique used to separate and analyze complex mixtures of proteins or nucleic acids (DNA or RNA) based on their size and electrical charge. This technique utilizes a matrix made of cross-linked polyacrylamide, a type of gel, which provides a stable and uniform environment for the separation of molecules.

In this process:

1. The polyacrylamide gel is prepared by mixing acrylamide monomers with a cross-linking agent (bis-acrylamide) and a catalyst (ammonium persulfate) in the presence of a buffer solution.
2. The gel is then poured into a mold and allowed to polymerize, forming a solid matrix with uniform pore sizes that depend on the concentration of acrylamide used. Higher concentrations result in smaller pores, providing better resolution for separating smaller molecules.
3. Once the gel has set, it is placed in an electrophoresis apparatus containing a buffer solution. Samples containing the mixture of proteins or nucleic acids are loaded into wells on the top of the gel.
4. An electric field is applied across the gel, causing the negatively charged molecules to migrate towards the positive electrode (anode) while positively charged molecules move toward the negative electrode (cathode). The rate of migration depends on the size, charge, and shape of the molecules.
5. Smaller molecules move faster through the gel matrix and will migrate farther from the origin compared to larger molecules, resulting in separation based on size. Proteins and nucleic acids can be selectively stained after electrophoresis to visualize the separated bands.

EPG is widely used in various research fields, including molecular biology, genetics, proteomics, and forensic science, for applications such as protein characterization, DNA fragment analysis, cloning, mutation detection, and quality control of nucleic acid or protein samples.

Electron microscopy (EM) is a type of microscopy that uses a beam of electrons to create an image of the sample being examined, resulting in much higher magnification and resolution than light microscopy. There are several types of electron microscopy, including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and reflection electron microscopy (REM).

In TEM, a beam of electrons is transmitted through a thin slice of the sample, and the electrons that pass through the sample are focused to form an image. This technique can provide detailed information about the internal structure of cells, viruses, and other biological specimens, as well as the composition and structure of materials at the atomic level.

In SEM, a beam of electrons is scanned across the surface of the sample, and the electrons that are scattered back from the surface are detected to create an image. This technique can provide information about the topography and composition of surfaces, as well as the structure of materials at the microscopic level.

REM is a variation of SEM in which the beam of electrons is reflected off the surface of the sample, rather than scattered back from it. This technique can provide information about the surface chemistry and composition of materials.

Electron microscopy has a wide range of applications in biology, medicine, and materials science, including the study of cellular structure and function, disease diagnosis, and the development of new materials and technologies.

Transcription factors are proteins that play a crucial role in regulating gene expression by controlling the transcription of DNA to messenger RNA (mRNA). They function by binding to specific DNA sequences, known as response elements, located in the promoter region or enhancer regions of target genes. This binding can either activate or repress the initiation of transcription, depending on the properties and interactions of the particular transcription factor. Transcription factors often act as part of a complex network of regulatory proteins that determine the precise spatiotemporal patterns of gene expression during development, differentiation, and homeostasis in an organism.

"Cells, cultured" is a medical term that refers to cells that have been removed from an organism and grown in controlled laboratory conditions outside of the body. This process is called cell culture and it allows scientists to study cells in a more controlled and accessible environment than they would have inside the body. Cultured cells can be derived from a variety of sources, including tissues, organs, or fluids from humans, animals, or cell lines that have been previously established in the laboratory.

Cell culture involves several steps, including isolation of the cells from the tissue, purification and characterization of the cells, and maintenance of the cells in appropriate growth conditions. The cells are typically grown in specialized media that contain nutrients, growth factors, and other components necessary for their survival and proliferation. Cultured cells can be used for a variety of purposes, including basic research, drug development and testing, and production of biological products such as vaccines and gene therapies.

It is important to note that cultured cells may behave differently than they do in the body, and results obtained from cell culture studies may not always translate directly to human physiology or disease. Therefore, it is essential to validate findings from cell culture experiments using additional models and ultimately in clinical trials involving human subjects.

Monoclonal antibodies are a type of antibody that are identical because they are produced by a single clone of cells. They are laboratory-produced molecules that act like human antibodies in the immune system. They can be designed to attach to specific proteins found on the surface of cancer cells, making them useful for targeting and treating cancer. Monoclonal antibodies can also be used as a therapy for other diseases, such as autoimmune disorders and inflammatory conditions.

Monoclonal antibodies are produced by fusing a single type of immune cell, called a B cell, with a tumor cell to create a hybrid cell, or hybridoma. This hybrid cell is then able to replicate indefinitely, producing a large number of identical copies of the original antibody. These antibodies can be further modified and engineered to enhance their ability to bind to specific targets, increase their stability, and improve their effectiveness as therapeutic agents.

Monoclonal antibodies have several mechanisms of action in cancer therapy. They can directly kill cancer cells by binding to them and triggering an immune response. They can also block the signals that promote cancer growth and survival. Additionally, monoclonal antibodies can be used to deliver drugs or radiation directly to cancer cells, increasing the effectiveness of these treatments while minimizing their side effects on healthy tissues.

Monoclonal antibodies have become an important tool in modern medicine, with several approved for use in cancer therapy and other diseases. They are continuing to be studied and developed as a promising approach to treating a wide range of medical conditions.

A base sequence in the context of molecular biology refers to the specific order of nucleotides in a DNA or RNA molecule. In DNA, these nucleotides are adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). In RNA, uracil (U) takes the place of thymine. The base sequence contains genetic information that is transcribed into RNA and ultimately translated into proteins. It is the exact order of these bases that determines the genetic code and thus the function of the DNA or RNA molecule.

Actin is a type of protein that forms part of the contractile apparatus in muscle cells, and is also found in various other cell types. It is a globular protein that polymerizes to form long filaments, which are important for many cellular processes such as cell division, cell motility, and the maintenance of cell shape. In muscle cells, actin filaments interact with another type of protein called myosin to enable muscle contraction. Actins can be further divided into different subtypes, including alpha-actin, beta-actin, and gamma-actin, which have distinct functions and expression patterns in the body.

Sequence homology, amino acid, refers to the similarity in the order of amino acids in a protein or a portion of a protein between two or more species. This similarity can be used to infer evolutionary relationships and functional similarities between proteins. The higher the degree of sequence homology, the more likely it is that the proteins are related and have similar functions. Sequence homology can be determined through various methods such as pairwise alignment or multiple sequence alignment, which compare the sequences and calculate a score based on the number and type of matching amino acids.

An Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) is a type of analytical biochemistry assay used to detect and quantify the presence of a substance, typically a protein or peptide, in a liquid sample. It takes its name from the enzyme-linked antibodies used in the assay.

In an ELISA, the sample is added to a well containing a surface that has been treated to capture the target substance. If the target substance is present in the sample, it will bind to the surface. Next, an enzyme-linked antibody specific to the target substance is added. This antibody will bind to the captured target substance if it is present. After washing away any unbound material, a substrate for the enzyme is added. If the enzyme is present due to its linkage to the antibody, it will catalyze a reaction that produces a detectable signal, such as a color change or fluorescence. The intensity of this signal is proportional to the amount of target substance present in the sample, allowing for quantification.

ELISAs are widely used in research and clinical settings to detect and measure various substances, including hormones, viruses, and bacteria. They offer high sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility, making them a reliable choice for many applications.

A dose-response relationship in the context of drugs refers to the changes in the effects or symptoms that occur as the dose of a drug is increased or decreased. Generally, as the dose of a drug is increased, the severity or intensity of its effects also increases. Conversely, as the dose is decreased, the effects of the drug become less severe or may disappear altogether.

The dose-response relationship is an important concept in pharmacology and toxicology because it helps to establish the safe and effective dosage range for a drug. By understanding how changes in the dose of a drug affect its therapeutic and adverse effects, healthcare providers can optimize treatment plans for their patients while minimizing the risk of harm.

The dose-response relationship is typically depicted as a curve that shows the relationship between the dose of a drug and its effect. The shape of the curve may vary depending on the drug and the specific effect being measured. Some drugs may have a steep dose-response curve, meaning that small changes in the dose can result in large differences in the effect. Other drugs may have a more gradual dose-response curve, where larger changes in the dose are needed to produce significant effects.

In addition to helping establish safe and effective dosages, the dose-response relationship is also used to evaluate the potential therapeutic benefits and risks of new drugs during clinical trials. By systematically testing different doses of a drug in controlled studies, researchers can identify the optimal dosage range for the drug and assess its safety and efficacy.

Genetic predisposition to disease refers to an increased susceptibility or vulnerability to develop a particular illness or condition due to inheriting specific genetic variations or mutations from one's parents. These genetic factors can make it more likely for an individual to develop a certain disease, but it does not guarantee that the person will definitely get the disease. Environmental factors, lifestyle choices, and interactions between genes also play crucial roles in determining if a genetically predisposed person will actually develop the disease. It is essential to understand that having a genetic predisposition only implies a higher risk, not an inevitable outcome.

Pachyptila turtur, fairy prion breeds on subtropical and subantarctic islands Pachyptila belcheri, slender-billed prion breeds ... broad-billed prion breeds on islands off of New Zealand and Tristan da Cunha group Pachyptila desolata, Antarctic prion breeds ... Salvin's prion breeds on Prince Edward Islands and Crozet Island Pachyptila macgillivrayi, MacGillivray's prion breeds on St. ... This is a list of the genera, species, and subspecies belonging to the prions, which belong to the Procellariiformes. ...
All known mammalian prion diseases were caused by the prion protein (PrP) until 2015, when a prion form of alpha-synuclein was ... Fungal prions have helped to suggest mechanisms of conversion that may apply to all prions, though fungal prions appear ... Similarly, removing the prion domain from a fungal prion protein inhibits prionogenesis. This modular view of prion behaviour ... For their mechanistic similarity to mammalian prions, they were termed yeast prions. Subsequent to this, a prion has also been ...
... was formerly considered to be conspecific with Salvin's prion but is now considered to be a separate ... MacGillivray's prions moult for longer than other prion species. Their diet and foraging habits are generally unknown, but they ... MacGillivray's prion (Pachyptila macgillivrayi) is a species of small petrels of the Southern Ocean. It is found on Roche ... "At-sea behavioural ecology of the endangered MacGillivray's prion from Saint Paul Island: combining tracking and stable ...
A fungal prion is a prion that infects hosts which are fungi. Fungal prions are naturally occurring proteins that can switch ... Fungal prions have provided a model for the understanding of disease-forming mammalian prions. Study of fungal prions has led ... Derkatch IL, Liebman SW (2007). "Prion-prion interactions". Prion. 1 (3): 161-9. doi:10.4161/pri.1.3.4837. PMC 2634589. PMID ... can convert from non-prion to prion forms. For this reason, yeast prions are good models for studying factors like chaperones ...
The prion pseudoknot is predicted RNA pseudoknot structure found in prion protein mRNA. It has been suggested that this element ... Page for Prion pseudoknot at Rfam v t e (Cis-regulatory RNA elements, All stub articles, Molecular and cellular biology stubs) ... The human prion protein gene contains 5 copies of a 24 nucleotide repeat that contains this structure. The number of nucleotide ... Each species has a set number of nucleotide repeats, but when the organism deviates from this number, mutations in the prion ...
Like all prions, fulmar prions eat predominantly zooplankton, which they strain through their upper bill. The fulmar prion is ... Fulmar prions have a very large range. Their population - while lower than most other prions - is still substantial, at between ... The fulmar prion is a member of the genus Pachyptila - and along with the blue petrel - makes up the prions. They in turn are ... Its common name "prion" (not to be confused with the misfolded proteins of the same name) means "saw", referring to the bill; " ...
Prion may also refer to: Fungal prion, a prion that infects fungal hosts Prion protein, the human gene encoding for the major ... List of prions Prion Humour Classics, a series of novels published by Prion Books in the UK Prion Island, located in the Bay of ... prion protein PrP (for prion protein) Prion diseases, a group of progressive and invariably fatal symptoms affecting the brain ... Isles, South Georgia National Prion Clinic (UK), a British specialist prion disease clinic Eran Prion (born 1974), Israeli ...
The fairy prion (Pachyptila turtur) is a small seabird with the standard prion plumage of blue-grey upperparts with a prominent ... It is a small prion which frequents the low subantarctic and subtropic seas. The fairy prion was formally described in 1820 by ... The fairy prion is around 25 cm (9.8 in) in length, with a wingspan of 56 cm (22 in). The plumage is blue-grey on its ... The fairy prion is a member of the genus Pachyptila and of the subgenus Pseudoprion Coues, 1866. Along with the blue petrel, ...
... is an island 2.4 km (1.5 mi) north-northeast of Luck Point, lying in the Bay of Isles, South Georgia. It was ... "Prion Island". Geographic Names Information System. United States Geological Survey. 54°1′S 37°15′W / 54.017°S 37.250°W / - ... and so named because he observed prions on the island. The island has been designated as a Specially Protected Area by the ... with two viewing platforms was built in February/March 2008 to prevent erosion of the access gully and trampling of prion ...
... is the intense itching during the prodromal period of the Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease. Pruritus Freedberg IM, ...
... fulmar prion Pachyptila vittata, broad-billed prion Pachyptila desolata, Antarctic prion Pachyptila salvini, Salvin's prion ... Prions grow 20 to 27 cm (7.9-10.6 in) long, and have blue-grey upper parts and white underparts. Three species of prion have ... Pachyptila Pachyptila turtur, fairy prion Pachyptila belcheri, slender-billed prion Pachyptila crassirostris, ... All prions are marine and feed on small crustacea such as copepods, ostracods, decapods, and krill, as well as some fish such ...
"Prion Music". The company headed by Prion had produced and written a large number of musical scores for television commercials ... Prion was born and raised in Tel Aviv, Israel. At the age of 16 he formed the punk metal band "Scaffold", having a debut ... Prion was born in Tel Aviv and played in a number of bands during the 90's, most notably Hayevaniya releasing the hit song ... In 1999, Prion moved to the United States and begun producing records for local Hip-Hop artists, sharing a studio with producer ...
... (Pachyptila salvini), also known as the medium-billed prion, is a species of seabird in the petrel family ... Like the broad-billed prion it has lamellae in its bill in order to filter seawater for food.[citation needed] This small prion ... Salvin's prion is a member of the genus Pachyptila and of the subgenus Salviprion Mathews, 1943. Along with the blue petrel, ... they make up the prions. They in turn are members of the family Procellariidae, and the order Procellariiformes. The prions are ...
The Antarctic prion (Pachyptila desolata) also known as the dove prion, or totorore in Māori, is the largest of the prions, a ... The Antarctic prion is now one of seven prions placed in the genus Pachyptila that was introduced in 1811 by the German ... Prions are members of the family Procellariidae, and the order Procellariiformes. The prions are small and typically eat just ... Like all prions, the Antarctic prion eats primarily zooplankton, which it obtains by filtering water through its upper bill. ...
... are a series of small-format hardback novels published by Prion Books in the UK published by Barry ... Prion Humour Classics): Mark Twain: 9781853753695: Amazon.com: Books. ISBN 1853753696. A Melon for Ecstasy (Prion humour ... Three Men in a Boat: To Say Nothing of the Dog Prion Humour Classics: Amazon.co.uk: Jerome K. Jerome, Nigel Williams: Books. ... The Eliza Stories (Prion Humour Classics): Amazon.co.uk: Barry Pain, Terry Jones: Books. ASIN 1853754722. Perelman, Sidney ...
The broad-billed prion has the usual prion colours: blue-grey upperparts, white underparts, and the ever present dark "M" ... Its bill has the best developed lamellae of all the prions, allowing it to feed on tiny animals. This is a large prion ... common prion, icebird, and whalebird. The broad-billed prion was described in 1777 by the German naturalist Georg Forster in ... The broad-billed prion is now placed in the genus Pachyptila that was introduced in 1811 by the German zoologist Johann Karl ...
... a prion disease with a mutation at codon 178 of the prion protein gene". N. Engl. J. Med. 326 (7): 444-9. doi:10.1056/ ... "The prion 2018 round tables (I): the structure of PrPSc". Prion. 13 (1): 46-52. doi:10.1080/19336896.2019.1569450. ISSN 1933- ... Major prion protein (PrP) is encoded in the human body by the PRNP gene also known as CD230 (cluster of differentiation 230). ... Prion protein contains five octapeptide repeats with sequence PHGGGWGQ (though the first repeat has the slightly-modified, ...
The prion is now placed with the other prions in the genus Pachyptila that was introduced in 1811 by the German zoologist ... The slender-billed prion (Pachyptila belcheri) or thin-billed prion, is a species of petrel, a seabird in the family ... under Etymology that the name prion within this order connotes a saw-like serrated edge to the bill. Prions produce a stomach ... makes up the polyphyletic traditional tribe of prions (or whalebirds). Prions are small petrels in the order Procellariiformes ...
The National Prion Clinic (UK) is part of the University College London Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust. Its aim is to diagnose ... A specialist prion disease clinic was established by Professor John Collinge at St Mary's Hospital, London, in 1997. This was ... In addition to providing a national NHS centre of expertise for the management of all forms of CJD and other prion diseases, ... Prion diseases comprise Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia and ...
The 2021 French moratorium on prion research was a three-month moratorium on research on prions in France. The moratorium was ... The lawsuit alleged that she had not received proper training for handling prions, that she had not been supplied with cut- ... A 2020 paper in the New England Journal of Medicine that reviewed her case found that "percutaneous exposure to prion- ... A 2020 government inspection on safety conditions in prion research in France found that labs in France conformed to safety ...
The often fatal prion diseases is among the most significant. A prion (PrP) is a transmembrane cellular protein found widely in ... There are more than twenty mutations of the prion protein gene (PRNP) that are known to be associated with or that are directly ... Ziegler, J; Sticht, H; Marx, UC; Müller, W; Rösch, P; Schwarzinger, S (2003). "CD and NMR studies of prion protein (PrP) helix1 ... Brusiner, Stanley (1998). "Prions". Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. National Academy of Sciences. 95 (23): 13363-83. Bibcode:1998PNAS ...
According to the prion paradigm, certain proteins misfold into shapes that are rich in beta-sheet secondary structure. In this ... Prusiner SB (1998). "Prions". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences USA. 95 (23): 13363-13383. Bibcode:1998PNAS... ... Walker LC; Jucker M (2015). "Neurodegenerative diseases: Expanding the prion concept". Annual Review of Neuroscience. 38: 87- ... have likened this process to the formation and spread of prions in diseases known as spongiform encephalopathies or prion ...
Cohen, F. E.; Pan, K. M.; Huang, Z.; Baldwin, M.; Fletterick, R. J.; Prusiner, S. B. (1994-04-22). "Structural clues to prion ... Spongiform encephalopathies Prion Disease (Kuru, CJD, GSS, BSE) Alzheimer's disease Sickle cell anemia Parkinson's disease ... Weissmann, C.; Enari, M.; Klöhn, P‐C.; Rossi, D.; Flechsig, E. (2002-12-01). "Transmission of Prions". The Journal of ... Multiple models illustrating this recruitment function exist, including the PrP protein in prion disease. The PrP protein is ...
2020). "Slow Viruses & Prions.". Medical Microbiology & Immunology: A Guide to Clinical Infectious Diseases (16th ed.). McGraw ... Bradford BM, Mabbott NA (December 2012). "Prion disease and the innate immune system". Viruses. 4 (12): 3389-3419. doi:10.3390/ ... in the case of prions, the identity of the agent involved. Slow viruses cause a variety of diseases, including cancer. §JC ... disease in immunocompromised patients Was once thought to be due to a slow virus but is now known to be the result of Prion ...
Fungal prions are considered by some to be epigenetic because the infectious phenotype caused by the prion can be inherited ... PSI+ and URE3, discovered in yeast in 1965 and 1971, are the two best studied of this type of prion. Prions can have a ... The yeast prion PSI is generated by a conformational change of a translation termination factor, which is then inherited by ... Prions can be viewed as epigenetic agents capable of inducing a phenotypic change without modification of the genome. Direct ...
Foster PR (October 2000). "Prions and blood products". Annals of Medicine. 32 (7): 501-13. doi:10.3109/07853890009002026. PMID ...
How the prions that cause CWD spread is unknown, but recent research indicates that prions can be excreted by deer and elk, and ... Researchers in July 2019 stated that "with all the research on the malignity of prions, and the permanence of prions in the ... when the prions were mixed with clay. This was important because the prions had already been shown by 2006 to bind with sandy ... while the longevity of CWD prion is unknown, the scrapie prion has been measured to endure for 16 years. The PrPCWD protein is ...
Ornithologist Brian Bell found that prions were confined to cliff faces at Crozier Point in 1962 and noted "any bird landing ... "Cat among the prions". Forest & Bird. 373: 24-25. Harper, Grant (2010). "Diet of feral cats on Subantarctic Auckland Island". ... the Ranui Station cats were recorded to kill 60 Antarctic prions over three months in 1942. ...
Prion; 2004), Diamonds to Dust: The Life and Death of Jayne Mansfield (Frank Ferruccio; Outskirts Press; 2007, and Did Success ...
ISBN 0-425-18212-6. Cawthorne, Nigel (2004). Sex Lives of the Hollywood Goddesses Part 2. Prion. p. 271. ISBN 1-85375-514-1. " ...
Pachyptila turtur, fairy prion breeds on subtropical and subantarctic islands Pachyptila belcheri, slender-billed prion breeds ... broad-billed prion breeds on islands off of New Zealand and Tristan da Cunha group Pachyptila desolata, Antarctic prion breeds ... Salvins prion breeds on Prince Edward Islands and Crozet Island Pachyptila macgillivrayi, MacGillivrays prion breeds on St. ... This is a list of the genera, species, and subspecies belonging to the prions, which belong to the Procellariiformes. ...
The demonstration of prion secretion in sheep in a variety of matrices including milk (Maddison et al. (2009) J. Virol. 83:8293 ... Prions Research Group. The University of Nottingham. School of Veterinary Medicine and Science. Sutton Bonington Campus, ... In addition we have shown that prions are found in a wide range of farm locations including metal, wood, concrete and plastic ... Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurological disorders with long incubation ...
appear to be the tip of the iceberg of controversial Prion infections Prions are not my expertise, but what Ive read in the ... Prions. John Cherwonogrodzky jcherwon at dres.dnd.ca Fri Dec 9 16:48:03 EST 1994 *Previous message: angiotensin II standard ... Might a prion be a nucleic acid that is sensitive to the side reactions of proteases? If it was a short snip of infectious ... Dear Colleagues: The subject of prions has come up and I think it is a very important topic. If you look at the history of ...
Prion disease represents a group of conditions that affect the nervous system in humans and animals. Explore symptoms, ... The other 85 to 90 percent of cases of prion disease are classified as either sporadic or acquired. People with sporadic prion ... Because they can run in families, these forms of prion disease are classified as familial. Familial prion diseases, which have ... is a type of acquired prion disease in humans that results from eating beef products containing PrPSc from cattle with prion ...
Edmonton Journal Prion 2019 Article. The conference took place from May 21-24, 2019 in Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. With over 350 ... We would like to thank everyone that attended and supported Prion 2019! ... and in the laboratories affiliated with the Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases. Click here to read more. ...
A prion is an abnormal, transmissible agent that is able to induce abnormal folding of normal cellular prion proteins in the ... Prion and Public Health Office. *Bacterial Special Pathogens Branchplus icon *Laboratory Submissionsplus icon *Special ... The Prion and Public Health Office within DHCPP fulfills CDCs responsibilities as the lead agency for monitoring the ... Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative ...
Some individuals diagnosed with genetic prion disease may have a parent who is heterozygous for a ,i,PRNP,/i, pathogenic ... variant (some of whom may be asymptomatic because of reduced penetrance). Other individuals with genetic prion … ... Genetic prion disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. ... Management: Treatment of manifestations: No treatment of the underlying cause of genetic prion disease is available. Supportive ...
... is the largest of the prions, a genus of small petrels of the Southern Ocean. ... The Antarctic Prions also known as the Totorore in Maori, ... Like all prions, the Antarctic Prion eat primarily zooplankton ... Antarctic Prions. September 16, 2023. July 12, 2023. by Gordon Ramel The Antarctic Prions, Pachyptila desolata, also known as ... The Antarctic Prion is a member of the Pachyptila genus, and along with the Pachyptila makes up the Prions. They in turn are ...
Classic CJD is a human prion disease. It is a neurodegenerative disorder with characteristic clinical and diagnostic features. ... Classic CJD also is distinct from "variant CJD", another prion disease that is related to BSE. ... fatal neurodegenerative disorder believed to be caused by an abnormal isoform of a cellular glycoprotein known as the prion ...
Science reports that a moratorium on prion research has been imposed at French public research institutions. ... She died 10 years after pricking her thumb while working with prion-infected mice, it adds, noting that the link between her ... A three-month moratorium on prion research has been instituted at public research institutions in France after a retired lab ... Science adds that Jaumains death led to the tightening of safety rules at prion labs. ...
The prion diseases are a large group of related neurodegenerative conditions, which affect both animals and humans. Included ... Surveillance of prion disease in humans. HF Baker, Ridley RM, eds. Methods in Molecular Medicine: Prion Diseases. Totowa, NJ: ... Prion strains and the species barrier. Many lines of evidence support the protein only hypothesis of prion propagation; however ... Anti-prion antibodies for prophylaxis following prion exposure in mice. Neurosci Lett. 2003 Jan 23. 336(3):185-7. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
For example, prions originating from sheep appear to be, as far as we know, innocuous for humans, whereas BSE prions are highly ... Prions in the Urine of Patients with Variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Prions, the infectious agents responsible for ... Studies show digestive tracts of predatory cats destroy CWD prions Chronic wasting disease prions are the Chuck Norris of ... Shrinking prions: new folds to old questions That expression of a molecule as truncated as PrP106 restores susceptibility of ...
Prions play key role. In this study, the researchers found that the glucose repression circuit is sometimes interrupted when ... "This type of prion-based inheritance is useful to organisms when they need to adapt to environmental conditions but not ... Prions can trigger stuck wine fermentations, researchers find. August 29, 2014. ScienceBlog.com ... Working through a prion - an abnormally shaped protein that can reproduce itself - the system enables bacteria in fermenting ...
Prion disease occurs when the normal cellular form of prion-related protein converts or conformationally changes to the disease ... Because these proteins are concentrated in brain tissue, brain damage is characteristic of prion diseases. Prion diseases ... from normal cellular form to prion form) by a combination of statistical analyses to obtain a prion-detecting ASA with a known ... The tASA is an in vitro method that mimics the conjectured mechanism of prion propagation in vivo. It is a conversion assay ...
Most of the New Zealand population of fulmar prions is on the Bounty Islands, where the birds nest in crevices and under rock ... If they are bothered by skuas or gulls, dozens of prions will flock together and mob the intruders. ... www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/8590/fulmar-prions (accessed 5 October 2023) ... Kerry-Jayne Wilson, Petrels - Prions, gadfly, storm and diving petrels, Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand, http:// ...
Prions are proteins that have become bent out of shape. Their chain of amino acids folds up in an abnormal ways, and they can ... I dont recall hearing about prions afflicting mountain lions. I wonder if they have some mechanism to keep prey prions away ... but leave prions unharmed. They then injected the liquid into the brains of mice (the prion protein differs by just one amino ... How do the prions get from their brains to their feces? It seems several steps must be involved, first to get out of the brain ...
Fairy prions and other petrels return to their colonies each year to court and establish a nest site. They often mate with the ... www.TeAra.govt.nz/en/photograph/8577/nesting-fairy-prions (accessed 1 December 2023) ...
Associate Conservation Minister Nicky Wagner today welcomed the successful introduction of 100 fairy prion chicks to Mana ... "Fairy prions are a keystone species for island ecosystems. The fairy prions will provide a crucial boost to Mana Islands ... Community brings fairy prions to Mana Island * Nicky Wagner Conservation Associate Conservation Minister Nicky Wagner today ... The fairy prion is one of New Zealands most abundant seabirds. They are commonly seen in exposed coastal waters in New Zealand ...
Over Prion-Contaminated. Reusable Surgical Instruments. 3-5-00. Because Mad Cow/CJD prions can withstand temperatures of ... In other words, no normal sterilization procedure, even if done letter-perfectly, can destroy CJD prions. And how many prions ... the rogue prion. Different progression Tonsil biopsies of living patients found the tissue was positive for the prion in the ... of suspected prion disease. An abnormal form of the protease-resistant prion protein is thought to cause the breakdown of brain ...
As many mouse models of prion diseases have recently been developed and the knowledge about the proteases responsible for the ... Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the neurotoxicity caused by prion proteins and the blockade of their normal ... while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of PrPC and their possible role in prion biology has ... even in the absence of infectious prions, suggesting that PrPC proteolysis is physiologically and pathologically important. ...
Central to prion diseases like mad cow disease and to many other diseases is the phenomenon known as protein misfolding, Dr. ... In the case of prion diseases, the culprit protein that misfolds and causes brain cell damage is PrP. Normally, PrP is found on ... "The similarity in brain pathology between the Mahogunin mutant mice and that seen in prion diseases suggested to us that there ... "This advance sets the stage for future efforts to develop potential treatments for prion diseases or perhaps to prevent them ...
Prion-like propagation of cytosolic protein aggregates: insights from cell culture models. Prion. 2009 Oct-Dec;3(4):206-12. ... Prions-contagious, agglutinating proteins-have similar domains, Baloh noted. "That does not mean that TDP-43 is a prion," he ... Even if that is the case, Baloh wrote in an e-mail to ARF, the prion-like region of TDP-43 may be important for its function in ... Prion-like disorders: blurring the divide between transmissibility and infectivity. J Cell Sci. 2010 Apr 15;123(Pt 8):1191-201 ...
MECHANISMS OF PRION SPREAD AND ESTABLISHMENT OF INFECTION MECHANISMS OF PRION SPREAD AND ESTABLISHMENT OF INFECTION. Objective ... Prions are comprised largely, if not entirely, of PrPSc, a misfolded form of thenormal non-infectious prion protein PrPC. ... Although the details of how prions enter the nervous system andcause disease are not known the current model consists of prion ... The results of these aims will determinethe early events in prion pathogenesis and if prion conversion is required for ...
Prion in flight. Pachyptila photograph. Photograph #24708 by Phillip Colla / Oceanlight.com. ... Prion in flight. Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean. Species: Prion, Pachyptila. Location: Scotia Sea, Southern Ocean. Image ID: 24708 ... Keywords: animalia, aves, bird, chordata, oceans, pachyptila, petrel, prion, procellariidae, procellariiformes, scotia sea, ...
Nevertheless, virologists have always been fascinated by prions - they appear ... ... Prions are not viruses - they are infectious proteins that lack nucleic acids. ... Thats why the newly solved structure of an infectious prion protein is the topic of the sixth prion article at virology blog. ... but how this property would lead to prion replication was unknown. Clearly solving the structure of prion protein was needed to ...
Human diseases caused by misfolded proteins known as prions are some of most rare yet terrifying on the planetincurable with ... However, astemizole is an antihistamine that has potential for use as an anti-prion drug. While withdrawn voluntarily from the ... So future studies on the mode of action of astemizole may uncover potentially new therapeutic targets for prion diseases and ... The first author of the study, Unique Drug Screening Approach for Prion Diseases Identifies Tacrolimus and Astemizole as ...
The One Health Initiative is a movement to forge co-equal, all inclusive collaborations between physicians, osteopathic physicians, veterinarians, dentists, nurses, and other scientific-health and environmentally related disciplines.
His latest study showed how prion-like proteins, which are similar to the prions behind bovine spongiform encephalopathy and ... Exploring the role of prion-like proteins in memory disorders. Author Lia SteakleyPublished on August 14, 2015. March 1, 2023. ...
All the latest news about prion protein from Medical Xpress ... Prion diseases: New clues in the structure of prion proteins. ... Discovery illuminates how brain cells die in prion diseases. Prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), are fast- ... Scientists identify locations of early prion protein deposition in retina. The earliest eye damage from prion disease takes ... Naturally occurring antibodies against prion proteins found in humans. Antibodies targeting the normal PrP version of the prion ...
  • One is that prions are infectious protein particles, not having associated DNA/RNA (evidence is sensitivity to proteases, insensitivity to nucleases), the other is prions are a name for something no-one has a clue about. (bio.net)
  • The PRNP gene provides instructions for making a protein called prion protein (PrP). (medlineplus.gov)
  • This new CFI funding will support the activity of researchers both in the Neuroscience and Mental Health Institute (NMHI) and in the laboratories affiliated with the Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases. (ualberta.ca)
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a rapidly progressive, invariably fatal neurodegenerative disorder believed to be caused by an abnormal isoform of a cellular glycoprotein known as the prion protein. (cdc.gov)
  • The infectious agent in the prion disease is composed mainly or entirely of an abnormal conformation of a host-encoded glycoprotein called the prion protein. (medscape.com)
  • The replication of prions involves the recruitment of the normally expressed prion protein, which has mainly an alpha-helical structure, into a disease-specific conformation that is rich in beta-sheet. (medscape.com)
  • These amyloid plaques are immunoreactive with antibodies to the prion protein and do not immunoreact with antibodies to other amyloidogenic proteins, such as the amyloid-beta (which is deposited in Alzheimer disease). (medscape.com)
  • Highly divergent hypotheses have been put forward regarding the makeup of the prions, including that they consist of nucleic acid only or protein only, are lacking both protein and nucleic acid, or are a polysaccharide. (medscape.com)
  • Working through a prion - an abnormally shaped protein that can reproduce itself - the system enables bacteria in fermenting wine to switch yeast from sugar to other food sources without altering the yeast's DNA. (scienceblog.com)
  • Addressing the need to define steadfast analytical performance criteria for prion amyloid seeding assays (ASAs), researchers developed a method to measure prion protein conversion time (from normal cellular form to prion form) by a combination of statistical analyses to obtain a prion-detecting ASA with a known degree of confidence. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is a conversion assay that uses recombinant prion-related protein as a substrate and detects conversion via changes in fluorescence. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This study represents an important first step for the tASA diagnostic protocol to gain regulatory approval for its use in TSE surveillance programs targeting CWD in cervids,' commented noted authority Holger Wille, PhD, of the University of Alberta Department of Biochemistry and Centre for Prions and Protein Folding Diseases in Edmonton, Alberta (Canada). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prion disease occurs when the normal cellular form of prion-related protein converts or conformationally changes to the disease form. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • They then injected the liquid into the brains of mice (the prion protein differs by just one amino acid between mice and deer, and proteins from one species can successfully infect the other). (scienceblogs.com)
  • Statistics show that nine people died last year from the new variant of CJD, which occurs when a brain protein called a prion changes and folds in an unusual way. (rense.com)
  • The human cellular prion protein (PrP C ) is a glycosylphosphatidylinositol (GPI) anchored membrane glycoprotein with two N-glycosylation sites at residues 181 and 197. (mdpi.com)
  • The researchers discovered that the protein responsible for these disorders, known as prion protein (PrP), can sometimes wind up in the wrong part of a cell. (nih.gov)
  • Central to prion diseases like mad cow disease and to many other diseases is the phenomenon known as protein misfolding, Dr. Hegde explained. (nih.gov)
  • In the case of prion diseases, the culprit protein that misfolds and causes brain cell damage is PrP. (nih.gov)
  • Both have prion-like, protein-protein interaction domains, he noted, by which they could potentially join the same complex. (alzforum.org)
  • Prions are comprised largely, if not entirely, of PrPSc, a misfolded form of thenormal non-infectious prion protein PrPC. (usda.gov)
  • That's why the newly solved structure of an infectious prion protein is the topic of the sixth prion article at virology blog. (virology.ws)
  • It has been suggested that the PrP Sc protein has more beta-strand content than the normal protein, but how this property would lead to prion replication was unknown. (virology.ws)
  • Clearly solving the structure of prion protein was needed to fully understand the biology of this unusual pathogen. (virology.ws)
  • The structure of PrP Sc protein provides a mechanism for prion replication by incorporation of additional molecules into a growing beta-solenoid. (virology.ws)
  • The new study used an innovative high-throughput screening technique to uncover compounds that decrease the amount of the normal form of the prion protein (PrP, which becomes distorted by the disease) at the cell surface. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Scientists in Cambridge and Berlin have used a form of gene therapy to increase levels of the so-called "cold shock protein" in the brains of mice, protecting them against the potentially devastating impact of prion disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Prion diseases, such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD), are fast-moving, fatal dementia syndromes associated with the formation of aggregates of the prion protein, PrP. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Antibodies targeting the normal PrP version of the prion protein have been found in humans selected at random with no history of any associated transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. (medicalxpress.com)
  • PRNP ( PRioN Protein (Creutzfeld-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia) ) is a gene that codes for a protein called the prion protein (PrP), which is expressed in the brain and several other tissues. (medicalxpress.com)
  • They have become an intense area of biomedical research activity for two reasons: Firstly, the transmissible agent or prion appears to be devoid of nucleic acid and consists essentially of a modified form of a host derived protein. (europa.eu)
  • Persons with known prion protein gene, PRNP , mutations, persons from a family with gPrD who do not carry a PRNP mutation, and persons at-risk for gPrD (no PRNP genetic testing, but come from a family with gPrD). (ucsf.edu)
  • I'll be talking today about the use of the cyclic amplification of protein misfolding for the generation and propagation of infectious prions. (hstalks.com)
  • One of the unique characteristic of prion diseases is that the prion protein can exist in two different stages. (hstalks.com)
  • One is the normal prion protein that we call PrPc, 'c' stands for cellular. (hstalks.com)
  • This is the so-called abnormal prion protein, and we call it PrPSc. (hstalks.com)
  • The infectious agent associated to prion diseases, is supposed to be composed exclusively by the misfolded form of the prion protein, PrPSc, here in the figure represented in red squares. (hstalks.com)
  • The way that the misfolded prion protein propagates a disease is by transforming the normal version of the protein PrPc, represented in the figure in green circles, gradually into its own. (hstalks.com)
  • He has recently succeeded in using an anti-prion protein as an immunization against the disease, Walter Wenninger, a member of the Robert Koch Foundation's board of directors, told us. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The principal mechanism of these diseases involves the misfolding the host-encoded cellular prion protein, PrP(C), into the disease-associated isoform, PrP(Sc). (nih.gov)
  • Prions are comprised of an abnormally folded form of the prion protein (PrP) that is normally resistant to enzymes called proteases. (nih.gov)
  • In humans, prion disease can occur in individuals who inherited mutations in the prion protein gene. (nih.gov)
  • This study highlights a certain region of the prion protein as being involved in this effect and demonstrates that prions are not always resistant to protease treatment. (nih.gov)
  • A family of rare but all fatal neurodegenerative diseases which affect not only humans but also various animal species is related to the prion protein (PrP). (unina.it)
  • The unique feature of these diseases is that, in addition to sporadic and inherited forms, they may be acquired by transmission of an infectious agent, which is represented by a misfolded form of prion protein, called PrPSc. (unina.it)
  • The nucleic acids (NA) correlation with prion protein has ever been an issue of debate since the "protein only" hypothesis brought a new biological paradigm. (unina.it)
  • PrP C , the cellular isoform of the prion protein, serves to transduce the neurotoxic effects of PrP Sc , the infectious isoform, but how this occurs is mysterious. (elifesciences.org)
  • Prion diseases are a group of degenerative illnesses of the brain caused when a molecule called the prion protein (PrP for short) adopts the wrong shape. (elifesciences.org)
  • These diseases are caused by refolding of the cellular prion protein (PrP C ) into an infectious isoform (PrP Sc ) that catalytically templates its abnormal conformation onto additional molecules of PrP C ( Prusiner, 1998 ). (elifesciences.org)
  • In pursuit of anti-TSE drugs, we and others have focused primarily on blocking conversion of normal prion protein, PrP^C, to the TSE-associated isoform, PrP^Sc. (usu.edu)
  • Right) Staining shows intense misfolded prion protein. (case.edu)
  • The study compared two highly-sensitive prion detection methods: RT-QuIC (real-time quaking-induced conversion) and sPMCA (serial protein misfolding cyclic amplification). (case.edu)
  • Both assays were able to efficiently amplify trace amounts of disease-associated prion protein found in the skin tissues of infected animals," said the study's first author Zerui Wang, MD, a PhD student from the First Hospital of Jilin University, China, working in the Zou laboratory. (case.edu)
  • The tests use prions in tissue samples as a template and either normal brain tissue or synthetic prion protein as "building blocks" to dramatically amplify minute amounts of prions to detectable levels. (case.edu)
  • It is now generally accepted that the same amyloidogenic protein can adopt multiple self-perpetuating conformations, which are referred to as prion strains. (wustl.edu)
  • Here, I use yeast prion [PSI+] as a model to explore the protein sequence requirement for de novo prion generation and prion propagation, as well as investigate how such requirements differ between distinct strains. (wustl.edu)
  • These data show that the M domain of Sup35, and thus the protein sequence flanking the PFD of amyloidogenic protein, is crucial in prion formation and propagation, as well as in dictating prion strain polymorphism. (wustl.edu)
  • Mammalian prions cause lethal neurodegenerative diseases such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) and consist of multi-chain assemblies of misfolded cellular prion protein (PrPC). (londonmet.ac.uk)
  • Prions are the protein-based infectious agents responsible for a group of diseases called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, which includes bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease) in cattle, scrapie in sheep, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease in humans and chronic wasting disease (CWD) in deer, elk and moose. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Here we show that clinically ill transgenic mice overexpressing hamster prion protein (Tg7) infected with the hamster prion strain 263K suffer from a severe deficit in mitochondrial oxygen consumption in response to the respiratory complex II substrate succinate . (bvsalud.org)
  • Here we show that hamster prion -infected transgenic mice overexpressing the hamster prion protein (Tg7 mice ) suffer from mitochondrial respiratory deficits. (bvsalud.org)
  • These results suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction, possibly exacerbated by prion protein overexpression, occurs at late stages during 263K prion disease and that this dysfunction may be the result of dysregulation of mitochondrial proteins . (bvsalud.org)
  • Discrimination between scrapie and bovine spongiform encephalopathy in sheep by molecular size, immunoreactivity, and glycoprofile of prion protein. (bvsalud.org)
  • A prion is an abnormal, transmissible agent that is able to induce abnormal folding of normal cellular prion proteins in the brain, leading to brain damage and the characteristics signs and symptoms of the disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Prions are abnormal, transmissible pathogenic agents that induce abnormal folding of specific, normal cellular proteins. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because these proteins are concentrated in brain tissue, brain damage is characteristic of prion diseases. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prions are proteins that have become bent out of shape. (scienceblogs.com)
  • By directly searching for the prion proteins, and looking at the infected brains under the microscope, Tamguney confirmed that these prions collected from the droppings of deer could infect fresh brains. (scienceblogs.com)
  • I wonder if they have some mechanism to keep prey prions away from their own precursor proteins, or if their proteins can no longer be persuaded to fold that way, or to stay folded. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Nevertheless, there is a strong correlation between the neurotoxicity caused by prion proteins and the blockade of their normal proteolysis. (mdpi.com)
  • Prions are not viruses - they are infectious proteins that lack nucleic acids. (virology.ws)
  • Spongiform encephalopathies are neurodegenerative diseases caused by misfolding of normal cellular prion proteins. (virology.ws)
  • Human diseases caused by misfolded proteins known as prions are some of most rare yet terrifying on the planetincurable with disturbing symptoms that include dementia, personality shifts, hallucinations and coordination problems. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • His latest study showed how prion-like proteins, which are similar to the prions behind bovine spongiform encephalopathy and Creutzfeld-Jakob disease , are key for maintaining long-term memories in mice - and likely other mammals. (stanford.edu)
  • The Koch Foundation's scientific advisory board said it was honoring Aguzzi in recognition of his pioneering discoveries in the field of transmissable spongiform encephalopathies, degenerative brain disorders caused by malformed prion proteins. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Then, they collected skin and brain samples at different time points, and used two different methods to detect disease-associated prion proteins in the tissues. (case.edu)
  • Interestingly, this strain feature has also been recently correlated to the variation in pathology of neurodegenerative diseases caused by "prion-like" proteins, such as different tauopathies and synucleinopathies caused by distinct Tau and α-synuclein strains, respectively. (wustl.edu)
  • Prion diseases manifest in the presence of prions that cause normal proteins to fold abnormally and thus destroys their normal function. (substack.com)
  • Our results suggest that at clinical stages of prion infection , dysregulation of respiratory chain proteins may lead to impairment of mitochondrial respiration in the brain .IMPORTANCE Mitochondrial dysfunction is present in most major neurodegenerative diseases , and some studies have suggested that mitochondrial processes may be altered during prion disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • Excretion/secretion occurs through long asymptomatic periods of disease development and from sheep with a range of PRNP genotypes, including those with limited lymphoreticular involvement in prion replication (Gough et al. (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Prion disease represents a group of conditions that affect the nervous system in humans and animals. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The signs and symptoms of prion disease typically begin in adulthood and worsen with time, leading to death within a few months to several years. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Although the exact prevalence of prion disease is unknown, studies suggest that this group of conditions affects about one person per million worldwide each year. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Between 10 and 15 percent of all cases of prion disease are caused by mutations in the PRNP gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Because they can run in families, these forms of prion disease are classified as familial. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Familial prion diseases, which have overlapping signs and symptoms, include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), and fatal familial insomnia (FFI). (medlineplus.gov)
  • The loss of these cells creates microscopic sponge-like holes (vacuoles) in the brain, which leads to the signs and symptoms of prion disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The other 85 to 90 percent of cases of prion disease are classified as either sporadic or acquired. (medlineplus.gov)
  • People with sporadic prion disease have no family history of the disease and no identified mutation in the PRNP gene. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Sporadic forms of prion disease include sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD), sporadic fatal insomnia (sFI), and variably protease-sensitive prionopathy (VPSPr). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Acquired prion disease results from exposure to PrP Sc from an outside source. (medlineplus.gov)
  • For example, variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) is a type of acquired prion disease in humans that results from eating beef products containing PrP Sc from cattle with prion disease. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Another example of an acquired human prion disease is kuru, which was identified in the South Fore population in Papua New Guinea. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Rarely, prion disease can be transmitted by accidental exposure to PrP Sc -contaminated tissues during a medical procedure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • This type of prion disease, which accounts for 1 to 2 percent of all cases, is classified as iatrogenic. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Familial forms of prion disease are inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered PRNP gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The sporadic, acquired, and iatrogenic forms of prion disease, including kuru and variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, are not inherited. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Genetic prion disease generally manifests with cognitive difficulties, ataxia, and myoclonus (abrupt jerking movements of muscle groups and/or entire limbs). (nih.gov)
  • The three major phenotypes of genetic prion disease are genetic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (gCJD), fatal familial insomnia (FFI), and Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker (GSS) syndrome. (nih.gov)
  • The diagnosis of genetic prion disease is established in a proband with suggestive findings and a heterozygous PRNP pathogenic variant identified by molecular genetic testing. (nih.gov)
  • No treatment of the underlying cause of genetic prion disease is available. (nih.gov)
  • Genetic prion disease is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner. (nih.gov)
  • Some individuals diagnosed with genetic prion disease may have a parent who is heterozygous for a PRNP pathogenic variant (some of whom may be asymptomatic because of reduced penetrance). (nih.gov)
  • Other individuals with genetic prion disease may have the disorder as the result of a de novo PRNP pathogenic variant. (nih.gov)
  • Classic CJD is a human prion disease. (cdc.gov)
  • Classic CJD also is distinct from " variant CJD ", another prion disease that is related to BSE. (cdc.gov)
  • Spongiform change in prion disease. (medscape.com)
  • A study in The Journal of Molecular Diagnostics describes an advanced assay that offers better sensitivity than currently available tests for detecting a prion disease affecting elk. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The test samples came from elk brains infected experimentally with chronic wasting disease (CWD), a prion disease that affects cervids (hoofed ruminant mammals in the deer family). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • But other mammals suffer from prion diseases too - the deer equivalent is called chronic wasting disease or CWD and it is shedding light on how prions are transmitted in the wild. (scienceblogs.com)
  • The authors report that TDP-43 possesses a prion-like domain that allows it to bind polyglutamate inclusions, such as those found in Huntington disease. (alzforum.org)
  • Although the details of how prions enter the nervous system andcause disease are not known the current model consists of prion trafficking to lymphoreticular tissues (LRS),replication/accumulation in these tissues and subsequent transport into the central nervous system (CNS).Neuroinvasion is thought to occur via sympathetic nerves that innervate LRS tissue and parasympatheticnerves that innervate the enteric nervous system in the gut wall. (usda.gov)
  • Recent work from our group and others hasshown that prions that come into contact with mucosal surfaces spread to blood within minutes and can bedetected in blood for the duration of disease. (usda.gov)
  • Finally, we have data indicating that a lymphoreticular system (LRS) replication-deficient prionstrain is transported along known prion pathways but fails to establish disease. (usda.gov)
  • A new study in Nucleic Acids Research, published by Oxford University Press, suggests a possible effective treatment strategy for patients suffering from prion disease. (medicalxpress.com)
  • Secondly, the epidemic of an apparently new animal prion disease, BSE, in the UK has raised legitimate public concerns of a risk to human health from eating infected tissues. (europa.eu)
  • Prions cause neurodegenerative disease by aggregating extracellularly within the central nervous system which disrupt the normal tissue structure. (biolegend.com)
  • The main goal of this project is to identify and develop biomarkers to be used in treatment trials for presymptomatic genetic prion disease (gPrD). (ucsf.edu)
  • Genetic prion diseases include familial Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD), Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome (GSS), fatal familial insomnia (FFI) and other related conditions. (ucsf.edu)
  • Therapies for prion diseases are currently under development, but in order to prepare for these trials, it is necessary to identify markers sensitive to biological changes in early disease stages, when symptoms have not yet developed (i.e, presymptomatic phase). (ucsf.edu)
  • Presymptomatic individuals from families with gPrD are ideal targets for therapeutic trials to delay, or prevent, the onset of prion disease when the disease is in its earliest stages. (ucsf.edu)
  • Familial forms of human prion disease include those associated with the mutations G114V and A117V, which lie in the hydrophobic domain of PrP. (nih.gov)
  • Given that these mutations lie next to the glycine-rich region of PrP that can abrogate prion infection, these findings provide further support for small, protease-sensitive prion species having a significant role in the progression of prion disease and that the hydrophobic domain is an important determinant of PrP conversion. (nih.gov)
  • These findings deserve the evaluation of MB for in vivo studies and preclinical testing for prion disease. (unina.it)
  • Prions can infect both humans and animals, causing Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans, mad cow disease in cattle, and chronic wasting disease in elk and deer. (case.edu)
  • Preclinical detection of prions has proven difficult, but new research suggests skin samples hold early signs of prion disease that precede neurologic symptoms. (case.edu)
  • The study provides the first proof-of-concept evidence that readily accessible skin samples could be used to detect prion disease early-before clinical symptoms appear. (case.edu)
  • Prions were detected in skin samples from the inoculated rodents before they showed any clinical signs of prion disease. (case.edu)
  • Additionally, "The CSF-based prion test results could be uncertain in some cases and not all CSF specimens from patients with prion disease are RT-QuIC positive," said Qingzhong Kong, PhD, associate professor of pathology at Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine and co-corresponding author on the study. (case.edu)
  • Although skin samples may not replace CSF in routine RT-QuIC-based prion disease diagnosis, they may be helpful when prion disease is suspected but CSF is either unavailable or RT-QuIC-negative. (case.edu)
  • The study results build upon previous work by Zou and colleagues showing that autopsy skin samples from human prion disease patients exhibit prion seeding and infectivity. (case.edu)
  • Said Zou, "Since the skin is readily accessible and skin biopsy is minimally invasive, detection of skin prions will be very useful for monitoring disease progression and assessing therapeutic efficacy during clinical trials or treatments when prion therapy becomes available in the future. (case.edu)
  • Prions are self-perpetuating proteinaceous agents that are associated with degenerative neurological disorder such as Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, kuru, and mad cow diseases. (wustl.edu)
  • Luc Montagnier claims to have detected five cases of prion disease in young and healthy people in temporal proximity to COVID-19 injectable product administration. (substack.com)
  • Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) is a type of prion disease. (substack.com)
  • Death from a prion disease usually occurs within a year. (substack.com)
  • Human-created prion disease outbreak has happened before. (substack.com)
  • COVID-19 RNA Based Vaccines and the Risk of Prion Disease. (substack.com)
  • Indeed, few researchers have even bothered to test other compounds so late in the disease, since it is clear that most anti-prion compounds (and anle138b is no exception) have time-dependent effects, where early treatment is far more effective than late treatment. (cureffi.org)
  • Sewage Sludge Spreading Prion Disease By Jim Bynum Editor's Note: This article was researched. (garychandler.com)
  • This suggested that plants may play an important role in environmental prion contamination and the horizontal transmission of the disease. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Mitochondrial dysfunction within the brain has been observed in many neurodegenerative diseases , including prion disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • Tg7 mice infected with the 263K hamster prion strain have little or no signs of mitochondrial dysfunction at the disease midpoint but suffer from a severe deficit in mitochondrial respiration at the clinical phase of disease . (bvsalud.org)
  • The office coordinates CDC's activities and programs related to prion diseases as well as to select neurological diseases and syndromes of unknown etiology. (cdc.gov)
  • In this study, the researchers found that the glucose repression circuit is sometimes interrupted when bacteria jump-start the replication of the prions in membranes of yeast cells. (scienceblog.com)
  • We provide evidence that structures at the interface of the circulatoryand nervous system can support prion replication and may be important portals of prion neuroinvasion.Overall, very little is known about the site(s) of initial establishment of infection, clearance of inoculum andwhether replication of agent is required for neuroinvasion. (usda.gov)
  • The long-term goal of these studies is toidentify the sites of initial prion replication and to identify new routes of neuroinvasion. (usda.gov)
  • The authors note that the molecular interactions that control prion templating, including hydrogen-bonding, charge and hydrophobic interactions, aromatic stacking, and steric constraints, also play roles in DNA replication. (virology.ws)
  • Telling's group will study the molecular mechanisms behind prion replication and factors that affect the generation, mutation and evolution of prion strains, as well as the barrier that prevents prion diseases from jumping to another species. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Despite great efforts in the prion field, many questions remain unresolved related to the pathogenic mechanisms underlying prion diseases. (unina.it)
  • The processing of APP has been extensively studied, while the identity of the cellular proteases involved in the proteolysis of PrP C and their possible role in prion biology has remained limited and controversial. (mdpi.com)
  • Different strains confer various neuropathology and incubation periods in mammalian prion diseases, and cause different cellular phenotypes in [PRION+] yeast cells. (wustl.edu)
  • Using cellular models of prion infection and propagation and distinct Aβ preparations, we found that the form of Aβ assemblies which most avidly bound to PrP in vitro also inhibited prion infection and propagation. (londonmet.ac.uk)
  • Now, scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have for the first time identified a pair of drugs already approved for human use that show anti-prion activity and, for one of them, great promise in treating these universally fatal disorders. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • Tacrolimus could prove problematic as an anti-prion drug, however, because of issues including possible neurotoxicity. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • However, astemizole is an antihistamine that has potential for use as an anti-prion drug. (infectioncontroltoday.com)
  • All known prion diseases are collectively called transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). (biolegend.com)
  • The similarity in brain pathology between the Mahogunin mutant mice and that seen in prion diseases suggested to us that there might be a connection," Dr. Hegde said. (nih.gov)
  • The lack of immuno-response to transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE), neurodegenerative diseases caused by prions, could stem from the tolerance for PrPSc. (biolegend.com)
  • The results of these aims will determinethe early events in prion pathogenesis and if prion conversion is required for neuroinvasion and transynapticspread. (usda.gov)
  • Perkel JM: Pinning down prion pathogenesis The Scientist , October 15, 2003. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Researchers from McGovern Medical School at The University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston ( UTHealth ) have been awarded $11 million from the National Institutes of Health to study the pathogenesis, transmission and detection of prion diseases that can potentially spread to humans. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Toma T: A possible blood test for prion infection The Scientist , March 1, 2001. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here we have studied the murine homologues (G113V and A116V) of these mutations using cell-based and animal models of prion infection. (nih.gov)
  • In the new study, Zou and colleagues successfully detected prions in rodent skin samples as early as two weeks post-infection. (case.edu)
  • Mitochondrial Respiration Is Impaired during Late-Stage Hamster Prion Infection. (bvsalud.org)
  • Several markers of decreased mitochondrial activity during prion infection have been reported, yet the bioenergetic respiratory status of mitochondria from prion -infected animals is unknown. (bvsalud.org)
  • The Prion and Public Health Office within DHCPP fulfills CDC's responsibilities as the lead agency for monitoring the occurrence of human prion diseases in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • 2) To study possible therapeutic strategies for the human prion diseases. (europa.eu)
  • 4) to establish the full phenotypic range and transmission characteristics of the human prion diseases. (europa.eu)
  • We will develop and evaluate transgenic mouse, cell culture and in vitro models which, as well as allowing an experimental estimation of the risks of transmission of BSE to humans and a complete assessment of the transmission characteristics and phenotypic range of the human prion diseases, should provide the tools to study the mechanisms and pathways of prion neurodegeneration. (europa.eu)
  • This application links with both current EC Concerted Actions in this area, studying the epidemiology and the neuropathology of human prion diseases to both provide a comprehensive range of tissues for study and to allow all the activities in this proposal to be placed within an epidemiological context within the EU. (europa.eu)
  • The tASA is an in vitro method that mimics the conjectured mechanism of prion propagation in vivo. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • 1) To further our understanding of the fundamental biology of prion propagation, and of the mechanisms and pathways leading to late onset neurodegeneration. (europa.eu)
  • In addition, prions have also been discovered in yeast, which has become an outstanding model to investigate the mechanisms of prion formation and propagation. (wustl.edu)
  • Taken together, this dissertation highlights the factors crucial for de novo prion generation and prion propagation, and expands the understanding of prion strain polymorphisms. (wustl.edu)
  • Ligands that bind to PrPC can inhibit prion propagation and neurotoxicity. (londonmet.ac.uk)
  • Here, we investigated whether such soluble Aβ assemblies might, conversely, have an inhibitory effect on prion propagation. (londonmet.ac.uk)
  • By contrast, forms of Aβ which exhibit little or no binding to PrP were unable to attenuate prion propagation. (londonmet.ac.uk)
  • Who knows, but it is not just neurons that take these prions up so it could be a product of cell lysis or undescribed secretion pathway. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Our goal now is to find yeast strains that essentially ignore the signal initiated by the bacteria and do not form the prion, but instead power on through the fermentation. (scienceblog.com)
  • However, the generation of prion or prion-like amyloid, and the formation of various strains are not fully understood. (wustl.edu)
  • Though there is still much to know about prions and prion diseases, we've come a long way since the first case found of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in a domestic cow in Canada, and the launch of the Alberta Prion Research Institute. (realagriculture.com)
  • Prion diseases or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are fatal neurological disorders with long incubation periods (3-6 years in cattle, 15-50 years in humans). (nottingham.ac.uk)
  • Prion diseases , or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), are a family of rare progressive neurodegenerative disorders that affect both humans and animals. (cdc.gov)
  • The prion diseases are a large group of related neurodegenerative conditions, which affect both animals and humans. (medscape.com)
  • Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs), or prion diseases, are a family of rare progressive, neurodegenerative illnesses that affect both humans and animals. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Finally, are humans at risk from exposure to these prions? (scienceblogs.com)
  • Prion diseases are a group of rapidly progressive, fatal and infectious neurodegenerative disorders affecting both humans and animals. (medicalxpress.com)
  • 3) To estimate the efficacy of the species barriers limiting transmission of BSE and scrapie to humans to address the risk to public health within the EU posed by BSE and other animal prion diseases. (europa.eu)
  • Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases of humans and animals. (europa.eu)
  • PrPSc conversion, and be potentially used as drug against prion diseases, we chose methylene blue for its many properties: first, MB fulfills the safety features required for drugs delivery to humans and animals, and secondly, it is able to cross the blood brain barrier and, thus, suitable to target the toxic species formed in the brain, leading to prion diseases. (unina.it)
  • Prion diseases, or transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, comprise a group of fatal neurodegenerative disorders in humans and animals for which there are no effective treatments or cures. (elifesciences.org)
  • No validated treatments exist for transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs or prion diseases) in humans or livestock. (usu.edu)
  • Prions and brain diseases in animals and humans / edited by Douglas R. O. Morrison. (who.int)
  • The objective of thisapplication is to determine the temporal and spatial spread of inoculum PrPSc in the host following naturalroutes of inoculation to identify the pathways of prion spread and neuroinvasion. (usda.gov)
  • The search for TSE therapeutics is complicated by persistent uncertainties about the nature of mammalian prions and their pathogenic mechanisms. (usu.edu)
  • The team also found that plants can uptake prions from contaminated soil and transport them to different parts of the plant, which can act as carriers of infectivity. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • These data suggest that soluble aggregates of Aβ can compete with prions for binding to PrPC and emphasize the bidirectional nature of the interplay between Aβ and PrPC in Alzheimer's and prion diseases. (londonmet.ac.uk)
  • Prions and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) Chemotherapeu" by B. Caughey, W. S. Caughey et al. (usu.edu)
  • Prions and Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE) Chemotherapeutics: A Common Mechanism for Anti-TSE Compounds? (usu.edu)
  • Prion diseases are usually rapidly progressive and always fatal. (cdc.gov)
  • Prion diseases are inevitably fatal infectious neurodegenerative zoonotic disorders of animals, includinghumans, with no known cure. (usda.gov)
  • The infectious agents that transmit prion diseases are resistant to inactivation by heat and chemicals. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • This study should further advance ASAs as recognized prion detection systems. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Additional work will also be needed to fine-tune and test tASA for the detection of prions in peripheral organs and environmental samples, which represent a substantial unmet need to track the spread of CWD prions among North America cervids as well as in the environment. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • To accomplish this objective we havedeveloped powerful animal systems and ultrasensitive prion detection techniques that have resulted inimportant findings in the initial uptake and spread of prions. (usda.gov)
  • She died 10 years after pricking her thumb while working with prion-infected mice, it adds, noting that the link between her accident and death was largely clear as she had variant CJD, which has essentially disappeared from Europe. (genomeweb.com)
  • This has been shown in mice in two studies of prion diseases in which the brain gradually deteriorates. (medicalxpress.com)
  • The researchers first inoculated the brains of hamsters and humanized transgenic mice with rodent or human prion samples, respectively. (case.edu)
  • In both hamsters and mice, the researchers detected prions in skin before they could be detected in brain tissue. (case.edu)
  • To be clear at the outset, anle138b is no cure: it delays, but does not prevent, prion-induced death in mice. (cureffi.org)
  • anle138b inhibits PrP-res formation in vitro , showed excellent blood-brain barrier penetrance, and brought about fairly dramatic survival improvements in a battery of experiments in prion-infected mice. (cureffi.org)
  • To the best of our knowledge, the prolongation of survival even in late-stage treatment experiments obtained in prion-infected mice is by far the largest that has been found for any drug-like compound tested so far (Suppl. (cureffi.org)
  • Different mouse models get sick at different times - incubation time of prions in mice is exquisitely correlated with PrP expression level of the mouse and infectious titer of the inoculum. (cureffi.org)
  • The causative agent of TSEs is believed to be a prion. (cdc.gov)
  • One of the methods, RT-QuIC, has been used to detect prion particles in symptomatic CJD patients. (case.edu)
  • The researchers concluded that skin prions could serve as a useful biomarker for preclinical diagnosis of prion diseases. (case.edu)
  • The team of Hoover and Jason C. Bartz, Ph.D., of Creighton University, will look at the role of the interaction between prions and the environment, both in preclinical lab studies and in the field in native cervids - the class of hoofed animal that includes deer, elk and moose. (globalbiodefense.com)
  • Thus, these mutations appear to limit the formation of aggregated PrP(Sc), giving rise to the accumulation of a relatively soluble, protease sensitive, prion species that is highly neurotoxic. (nih.gov)
  • The development of radical treatments for prion related neurodegeneration may provide a key paradigm for studying the pathways of late onset neurodegeneration and the ability of the brain to recover function following therapeutic intervention. (europa.eu)
  • We would like to thank everyone that attended and supported Prion 2019! (ualberta.ca)
  • World Health Organization, 2013 (https://www.who.int/foodsafety/strategic-plan/en/, accessed 31 October 2019). (who.int)
  • talks.cam : Neuronal death in prion diseases: towards the mechanism. (cam.ac.uk)
  • This advance sets the stage for future efforts to develop potential treatments for prion diseases or perhaps to prevent them from occurring. (nih.gov)
  • A better understanding of the role of PrP in prion diseases may help to reveal new treatments for these and other degenerative brain disorders. (elifesciences.org)
  • Might a prion be a nucleic acid that is sensitive to the side reactions of proteases? (bio.net)
  • This is a list of the genera, species, and subspecies belonging to the prions, which belong to the Procellariiformes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The Antarctic Prion has sub-species. (earthlife.net)
  • Fairy prions are a 'keystone species' for island ecosystems. (beehive.govt.nz)
  • They compared the sensitivity of the new assay technique, the timed prion seeding assay (tASA), to other currently available tests (two bioassays in laboratory rodents and three commercially available TSE rapid tests). (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here we describe a novel assay for monitoring prion uptake and trafficking by immune cells immediately following intraperitoneal inoculation by purifying and fluorescently labeling aggregated prion rods from infected brain material then monitoring their uptake and movement from the injection site and characterizing the cells mediating these events. (jove.com)
  • Here we have studied the effects of two of these mutations and show that they influence the properties of the prions that can be formed. (nih.gov)
  • So future studies on the mode of action of astemizole may uncover potentially new therapeutic targets for prion diseases and similar disorders. (infectioncontroltoday.com)