Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Motor Neurons: Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.Visual Pathways: Set of cell bodies and nerve fibers conducting impulses from the eyes to the cerebral cortex. It includes the RETINA; OPTIC NERVE; optic tract; and geniculocalcarine tract.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Evoked Potentials, Visual: The electric response evoked in the cerebral cortex by visual stimulation or stimulation of the visual pathways.Visual Fields: The total area or space visible in a person's peripheral vision with the eye looking straightforward.Dominance, Ocular: The functional superiority and preferential use of one eye over the other. The term is usually applied to superiority in sighting (VISUAL PERCEPTION) or motor task but not difference in VISUAL ACUITY or dysfunction of one of the eyes. Ocular dominance can be modified by visual input and NEUROTROPHIC FACTORS.Orientation: Awareness of oneself in relation to time, place and person.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Geniculate Bodies: Part of the DIENCEPHALON inferior to the caudal end of the dorsal THALAMUS. Includes the lateral geniculate body which relays visual impulses from the OPTIC TRACT to the calcarine cortex, and the medial geniculate body which relays auditory impulses from the lateral lemniscus to the AUDITORY CORTEX.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Vision, Monocular: Images seen by one eye.Contrast Sensitivity: The ability to detect sharp boundaries (stimuli) and to detect slight changes in luminance at regions without distinct contours. Psychophysical measurements of this visual function are used to evaluate visual acuity and to detect eye disease.Motor Neuron Disease: Diseases characterized by a selective degeneration of the motor neurons of the spinal cord, brainstem, or motor cortex. Clinical subtypes are distinguished by the major site of degeneration. In AMYOTROPHIC LATERAL SCLEROSIS there is involvement of upper, lower, and brainstem motor neurons. In progressive muscular atrophy and related syndromes (see MUSCULAR ATROPHY, SPINAL) the motor neurons in the spinal cord are primarily affected. With progressive bulbar palsy (BULBAR PALSY, PROGRESSIVE), the initial degeneration occurs in the brainstem. In primary lateral sclerosis, the cortical neurons are affected in isolation. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Pattern Recognition, Visual: Mental process to visually perceive a critical number of facts (the pattern), such as characters, shapes, displays, or designs.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Vision, Binocular: The blending of separate images seen by each eye into one composite image.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Vision, Ocular: The process in which light signals are transformed by the PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS into electrical signals which can then be transmitted to the brain.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Space Perception: The awareness of the spatial properties of objects; includes physical space.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Ferrets: Semidomesticated variety of European polecat much used for hunting RODENTS and/or RABBITS and as a laboratory animal. It is in the subfamily Mustelinae, family MUSTELIDAE.Motion Perception: The real or apparent movement of objects through the visual field.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Visual Acuity: Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Attention: Focusing on certain aspects of current experience to the exclusion of others. It is the act of heeding or taking notice or concentrating.Pulvinar: Large mass of nuclei forming the most caudal portion of the THALAMUS and overhanging the GENICULATE BODIES and the dorsolateral surface of the MIDBRAIN. It is divided into four parts: the lateral, medial, inferior, and oral pulvinar nuclei.Fixation, Ocular: The positioning and accommodation of eyes that allows the image to be brought into place on the FOVEA CENTRALIS of each eye.Survival of Motor Neuron 1 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is essential for the function of the SMN protein complex. In humans the protein is encoded by a single gene found near the inversion telomere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5. Mutations in the gene coding for survival of motor neuron 1 protein may result in SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD.Prefrontal Cortex: The rostral part of the frontal lobe, bounded by the inferior precentral fissure in humans, which receives projection fibers from the MEDIODORSAL NUCLEUS OF THE THALAMUS. The prefrontal cortex receives afferent fibers from numerous structures of the DIENCEPHALON; MESENCEPHALON; and LIMBIC SYSTEM as well as cortical afferents of visual, auditory, and somatic origin.Hemianopsia: Partial or complete loss of vision in one half of the visual field(s) of one or both eyes. Subtypes include altitudinal hemianopsia, characterized by a visual defect above or below the horizontal meridian of the visual field. Homonymous hemianopsia refers to a visual defect that affects both eyes equally, and occurs either to the left or right of the midline of the visual field. Binasal hemianopsia consists of loss of vision in the nasal hemifields of both eyes. Bitemporal hemianopsia is the bilateral loss of vision in the temporal fields. Quadrantanopsia refers to loss of vision in one quarter of the visual field in one or both eyes.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Tupaiidae: The only family of the order SCANDENTIA, variously included in the order Insectivora or in the order Primates, and often in the order Microscelidea, consisting of five genera. They are TUPAIA, Ananthana (Indian tree shrew), Dendrogale (small smooth-tailed tree shrew), Urogale (Mindanao tree shrew), and Ptilocercus (pen-tailed tree shrew). The tree shrews inhabit the forest areas of eastern Asia from India and southwestern China to Borneo and the Philippines.Form Perception: The sensory discrimination of a pattern shape or outline.Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Macaca radiata: A species of macaque monkey that mainly inhabits the forest of southern India. They are also called bonnet macaques or bonnet monkeys.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Retina: The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.Voltage-Sensitive Dye Imaging: Optical imaging techniques used for recording patterns of electrical activity in tissues by monitoring transmembrane potentials via FLUORESCENCE imaging with voltage-sensitive fluorescent dyes.Occipital Lobe: Posterior portion of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES responsible for processing visual sensory information. It is located posterior to the parieto-occipital sulcus and extends to the preoccipital notch.Galago: A genus of the family Lorisidae having four species which inhabit the forests and bush regions of Africa south of the Sahara and some nearby islands. The four species are G. alleni, G. crassicaudatus, G. demidovii, and G. senegalensis. There is another genus, Euoticus, containing two species which some authors have included in the Galago genus.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Nonlinear Dynamics: The study of systems which respond disproportionately (nonlinearly) to initial conditions or perturbing stimuli. Nonlinear systems may exhibit "chaos" which is classically characterized as sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Chaotic systems, while distinguished from more ordered periodic systems, are not random. When their behavior over time is appropriately displayed (in "phase space"), constraints are evident which are described by "strange attractors". Phase space representations of chaotic systems, or strange attractors, usually reveal fractal (FRACTALS) self-similarity across time scales. Natural, including biological, systems often display nonlinear dynamics and chaos.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Eye Movements: Voluntary or reflex-controlled movements of the eye.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Dominance, Cerebral: Dominance of one cerebral hemisphere over the other in cerebral functions.Ocular Physiological Phenomena: Processes and properties of the EYE as a whole or of any of its parts.Depth Perception: Perception of three-dimensionality.Phosphenes: A subjective visual sensation with the eyes closed and in the absence of light. Phosphenes can be spontaneous, or induced by chemical, electrical, or mechanical (pressure) stimuli which cause the visual field to light up without optical inputs.Critical Period (Psychology): A specific stage in animal and human development during which certain types of behavior normally are shaped and molded for life.Color Perception: Mental processing of chromatic signals (COLOR VISION) from the eye by the VISUAL CORTEX where they are converted into symbolic representations. Color perception involves numerous neurons, and is influenced not only by the distribution of wavelengths from the viewed object, but also by its background color and brightness contrast at its boundary.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Survival of Motor Neuron 2 Protein: A SMN complex protein that is closely-related to SURVIVAL OF MOTOR NEURON 1 PROTEIN. In humans, the protein is encoded by an often duplicated gene found near the inversion centromere of a large inverted region of CHROMOSOME 5.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Optical Illusions: An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Scotoma: A localized defect in the visual field bordered by an area of normal vision. This occurs with a variety of EYE DISEASES (e.g., RETINAL DISEASES and GLAUCOMA); OPTIC NERVE DISEASES, and other conditions.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Blindness: The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.Vision Disparity: The difference between two images on the retina when looking at a visual stimulus. This occurs since the two retinas do not have the same view of the stimulus because of the location of our eyes. Thus the left eye does not get exactly the same view as the right eye.Superior Colliculi: The anterior pair of the quadrigeminal bodies which coordinate the general behavioral orienting responses to visual stimuli, such as whole-body turning, and reaching.Blindness, Cortical: Total loss of vision in all or part of the visual field due to bilateral OCCIPITAL LOBE (i.e., VISUAL CORTEX) damage or dysfunction. Anton syndrome is characterized by the psychic denial of true, organic cortical blindness. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p460)Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A degenerative disorder affecting upper MOTOR NEURONS in the brain and lower motor neurons in the brain stem and SPINAL CORD. Disease onset is usually after the age of 50 and the process is usually fatal within 3 to 6 years. Clinical manifestations include progressive weakness, atrophy, FASCICULATION, hyperreflexia, DYSARTHRIA, dysphagia, and eventual paralysis of respiratory function. Pathologic features include the replacement of motor neurons with fibrous ASTROCYTES and atrophy of anterior SPINAL NERVE ROOTS and corticospinal tracts. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1089-94)Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Wakefulness: A state in which there is an enhanced potential for sensitivity and an efficient responsiveness to external stimuli.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Callithrix: A genus of the subfamily CALLITRICHINAE occurring in forests of Brazil and Bolivia and containing seventeen species.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Cues: Signals for an action; that specific portion of a perceptual field or pattern of stimuli to which a subject has learned to respond.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Eye Enucleation: The surgical removal of the eyeball leaving the eye muscles and remaining orbital contents intact.Haplorhini: A suborder of PRIMATES consisting of six families: CEBIDAE (some New World monkeys), ATELIDAE (some New World monkeys), CERCOPITHECIDAE (Old World monkeys), HYLOBATIDAE (gibbons and siamangs), CALLITRICHINAE (marmosets and tamarins), and HOMINIDAE (humans and great apes).Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Temporal Lobe: Lower lateral part of the cerebral hemisphere responsible for auditory, olfactory, and semantic processing. It is located inferior to the lateral fissure and anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Learning: Relatively permanent change in behavior that is the result of past experience or practice. The concept includes the acquisition of knowledge.Motor Activity: The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.Nerve Tissue ProteinsMuscular Atrophy, Spinal: A group of disorders marked by progressive degeneration of motor neurons in the spinal cord resulting in weakness and muscular atrophy, usually without evidence of injury to the corticospinal tracts. Diseases in this category include Werdnig-Hoffmann disease and later onset SPINAL MUSCULAR ATROPHIES OF CHILDHOOD, most of which are hereditary. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1089)PrimatesSize Perception: The sensory interpretation of the dimensions of objects.Parvalbumins: Low molecular weight, calcium binding muscle proteins. Their physiological function is possibly related to the contractile process.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Saccades: An abrupt voluntary shift in ocular fixation from one point to another, as occurs in reading.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.gamma-Aminobutyric Acid: The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Normal Distribution: Continuous frequency distribution of infinite range. Its properties are as follows: 1, continuous, symmetrical distribution with both tails extending to infinity; 2, arithmetic mean, mode, and median identical; and 3, shape completely determined by the mean and standard deviation.Electrophysiological Phenomena: The electrical properties, characteristics of living organisms, and the processes of organisms or their parts that are involved in generating and responding to electrical charges.Axonal Transport: The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)Computer Simulation: Computer-based representation of physical systems and phenomena such as chemical processes.Cortical Synchronization: EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).Strabismus: Misalignment of the visual axes of the eyes. In comitant strabismus the degree of ocular misalignment does not vary with the direction of gaze. In noncomitant strabismus the degree of misalignment varies depending on direction of gaze or which eye is fixating on the target. (Miller, Walsh & Hoyt's Clinical Neuro-Ophthalmology, 4th ed, p641)Darkness: The absence of light.Mice, Inbred C57BLAwareness: The act of "taking account" of an object or state of affairs. It does not imply assessment of, nor attention to the qualities or nature of the object.Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Cell Count: The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.Electron Transport Complex IV: A multisubunit enzyme complex containing CYTOCHROME A GROUP; CYTOCHROME A3; two copper atoms; and 13 different protein subunits. It is the terminal oxidase complex of the RESPIRATORY CHAIN and collects electrons that are transferred from the reduced CYTOCHROME C GROUP and donates them to molecular OXYGEN, which is then reduced to water. The redox reaction is simultaneously coupled to the transport of PROTONS across the inner mitochondrial membrane.Brain Waves: Wave-like oscillations of electric potential between parts of the brain recorded by EEG.Neural Networks (Computer): A computer architecture, implementable in either hardware or software, modeled after biological neural networks. Like the biological system in which the processing capability is a result of the interconnection strengths between arrays of nonlinear processing nodes, computerized neural networks, often called perceptrons or multilayer connectionist models, consist of neuron-like units. A homogeneous group of units makes up a layer. These networks are good at pattern recognition. They are adaptive, performing tasks by example, and thus are better for decision-making than are linear learning machines or cluster analysis. They do not require explicit programming.Neuropil: A dense intricate feltwork of interwoven fine glial processes, fibrils, synaptic terminals, axons, and dendrites interspersed among the nerve cells in the gray matter of the central nervous system.Amblyopia: A nonspecific term referring to impaired vision. Major subcategories include stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia and toxic amblyopia. Stimulus deprivation-induced amblyopia is a developmental disorder of the visual cortex. A discrepancy between visual information received by the visual cortex from each eye results in abnormal cortical development. STRABISMUS and REFRACTIVE ERRORS may cause this condition. Toxic amblyopia is a disorder of the OPTIC NERVE which is associated with ALCOHOLISM, tobacco SMOKING, and other toxins and as an adverse effect of the use of some medications.Color Vision: Function of the human eye that is used in bright illumination or in daylight (at photopic intensities). Photopic vision is performed by the three types of RETINAL CONE PHOTORECEPTORS with varied peak absorption wavelengths in the color spectrum (from violet to red, 400 - 700 nm).Iontophoresis: Therapeutic introduction of ions of soluble salts into tissues by means of electric current. In medical literature it is commonly used to indicate the process of increasing the penetration of drugs into surface tissues by the application of electric current. It has nothing to do with ION EXCHANGE; AIR IONIZATION nor PHONOPHORESIS, none of which requires current.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.SMN Complex Proteins: A complex of proteins that assemble the SNRNP CORE PROTEINS into a core structure that surrounds a highly conserved RNA sequence found in SMALL NUCLEAR RNA. They are found localized in the GEMINI OF COILED BODIES and in the CYTOPLASM. The SMN complex is named after the Survival of Motor Neuron Complex Protein 1, which is a critical component of the complex.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Color: The visually perceived property of objects created by absorption or reflection of specific wavelengths of light.Adaptation, Ocular: The adjustment of the eye to variations in the intensity of light. Light adaptation is the adjustment of the eye when the light threshold is increased; DARK ADAPTATION when the light is greatly reduced. (From Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Cerebral Decortication: Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.Consciousness: Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.Aging: The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.Fovea Centralis: An area approximately 1.5 millimeters in diameter within the macula lutea where the retina thins out greatly because of the oblique shifting of all layers except the pigment epithelium layer. It includes the sloping walls of the fovea (clivus) and contains a few rods in its periphery. In its center (foveola) are the cones most adapted to yield high visual acuity, each cone being connected to only one ganglion cell. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Information Theory: An interdisciplinary study dealing with the transmission of messages or signals, or the communication of information. Information theory does not directly deal with meaning or content, but with physical representations that have meaning or content. It overlaps considerably with communication theory and CYBERNETICS.Retinal Ganglion Cells: Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.Discrimination Learning: Learning that is manifested in the ability to respond differentially to various stimuli.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Auditory Perception: The process whereby auditory stimuli are selected, organized, and interpreted by the organism.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Presynaptic Terminals: The distal terminations of axons which are specialized for the release of neurotransmitters. Also included are varicosities along the course of axons which have similar specializations and also release transmitters. Presynaptic terminals in both the central and peripheral nervous systems are included.Cathode Ray Tube: A vacuum tube equipped with an electron emitting CATHODE and a fluorescent screen which emits visible light when excited by the cathode ray. Cathode ray tubes are used as imaging devises for TELEVISIONS; COMPUTER TERMINALS; TEXT TELECOMMUNICATION DEVICES; oscilloscopes; and other DATA DISPLAY devices.Nerve Degeneration: Loss of functional activity and trophic degeneration of nerve axons and their terminal arborizations following the destruction of their cells of origin or interruption of their continuity with these cells. The pathology is characteristic of neurodegenerative diseases. Often the process of nerve degeneration is studied in research on neuroanatomical localization and correlation of the neurophysiology of neural pathways.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Vision Disorders: Visual impairments limiting one or more of the basic functions of the eye: visual acuity, dark adaptation, color vision, or peripheral vision. These may result from EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; VISUAL PATHWAY diseases; OCCIPITAL LOBE diseases; OCULAR MOTILITY DISORDERS; and other conditions (From Newell, Ophthalmology: Principles and Concepts, 7th ed, p132).Memory: Complex mental function having four distinct phases: (1) memorizing or learning, (2) retention, (3) recall, and (4) recognition. Clinically, it is usually subdivided into immediate, recent, and remote memory.Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells: Photosensitive afferent neurons located primarily within the FOVEA CENTRALIS of the MACULA LUTEA. There are three major types of cone cells (red, blue, and green) whose photopigments have different spectral sensitivity curves. Retinal cone cells operate in daylight vision (at photopic intensities) providing color recognition and central visual acuity.Molecular Motor Proteins: Proteins that are involved in or cause CELL MOVEMENT such as the rotary structures (flagellar motor) or the structures whose movement is directed along cytoskeletal filaments (MYOSIN; KINESIN; and DYNEIN motor families).Lighting: The illumination of an environment and the arrangement of lights to achieve an effect or optimal visibility. Its application is in domestic or in public settings and in medical and non-medical environments.Green Fluorescent Proteins: Protein analogs and derivatives of the Aequorea victoria green fluorescent protein that emit light (FLUORESCENCE) when excited with ULTRAVIOLET RAYS. They are used in REPORTER GENES in doing GENETIC TECHNIQUES. Numerous mutants have been made to emit other colors or be sensitive to pH.Macaca nemestrina: A species of the genus MACACA which inhabits Malaya, Sumatra, and Borneo. It is one of the most arboreal species of Macaca. The tail is short and untwisted.Light: That portion of the electromagnetic spectrum in the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared range.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Signal Detection, Psychological: Psychophysical technique that permits the estimation of the bias of the observer as well as detectability of the signal (i.e., stimulus) in any sensory modality. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Entorhinal Cortex: Cerebral cortex region on the medial aspect of the PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS, immediately caudal to the OLFACTORY CORTEX of the uncus. The entorhinal cortex is the origin of the major neural fiber system afferent to the HIPPOCAMPAL FORMATION, the so-called PERFORANT PATHWAY.Electrodes: Electric conductors through which electric currents enter or leave a medium, whether it be an electrolytic solution, solid, molten mass, gas, or vacuum.Perceptual Masking: The interference of one perceptual stimulus with another causing a decrease or lessening in perceptual effectiveness.Ganglia, Invertebrate: Clusters of neuronal cell bodies in invertebrates. Invertebrate ganglia may also contain neuronal processes and non-neuronal supporting cells. Many invertebrate ganglia are favorable subjects for research because they have small numbers of functional neuronal types which can be identified from one animal to another.Neuromuscular Diseases: A general term encompassing lower MOTOR NEURON DISEASE; PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; and certain MUSCULAR DISEASES. Manifestations include MUSCLE WEAKNESS; FASCICULATION; muscle ATROPHY; SPASM; MYOKYMIA; MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, myalgias, and MUSCLE HYPOTONIA.Histocytochemistry: Study of intracellular distribution of chemicals, reaction sites, enzymes, etc., by means of staining reactions, radioactive isotope uptake, selective metal distribution in electron microscopy, or other methods.Fourier Analysis: Analysis based on the mathematical function first formulated by Jean-Baptiste-Joseph Fourier in 1807. The function, known as the Fourier transform, describes the sinusoidal pattern of any fluctuating pattern in the physical world in terms of its amplitude and its phase. It has broad applications in biomedicine, e.g., analysis of the x-ray crystallography data pivotal in identifying the double helical nature of DNA and in analysis of other molecules, including viruses, and the modified back-projection algorithm universally used in computerized tomography imaging, etc. (From Segen, The Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.GABAergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID.Neuropsychological Tests: Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.Visual Field Tests: Method of measuring and mapping the scope of vision, from central to peripheral of each eye.Motion: Physical motion, i.e., a change in position of a body or subject as a result of an external force. It is distinguished from MOVEMENT, a process resulting from biological activity.Hippocampus: A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.Task Performance and Analysis: The detailed examination of observable activity or behavior associated with the execution or completion of a required function or unit of work.Neurofilament Proteins: Type III intermediate filament proteins that assemble into neurofilaments, the major cytoskeletal element in nerve axons and dendrites. They consist of three distinct polypeptides, the neurofilament triplet. Types I, II, and IV intermediate filament proteins form other cytoskeletal elements such as keratins and lamins. It appears that the metabolism of neurofilaments is disturbed in Alzheimer's disease, as indicated by the presence of neurofilament epitopes in the neurofibrillary tangles, as well as by the severe reduction of the expression of the gene for the light neurofilament subunit of the neurofilament triplet in brains of Alzheimer's patients. (Can J Neurol Sci 1990 Aug;17(3):302)Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Cognition: Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Periodicity: The tendency of a phenomenon to recur at regular intervals; in biological systems, the recurrence of certain activities (including hormonal, cellular, neural) may be annual, seasonal, monthly, daily, or more frequently (ultradian).Cholinergic Neurons: Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE.Glutamate Decarboxylase: A pyridoxal-phosphate protein that catalyzes the alpha-decarboxylation of L-glutamic acid to form gamma-aminobutyric acid and carbon dioxide. The enzyme is found in bacteria and in invertebrate and vertebrate nervous systems. It is the rate-limiting enzyme in determining GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID levels in normal nervous tissues. The brain enzyme also acts on L-cysteate, L-cysteine sulfinate, and L-aspartate. EC 220.127.116.11.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Reward: An object or a situation that can serve to reinforce a response, to satisfy a motive, or to afford pleasure.Disease Models, Animal: Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.Wheat Germ Agglutinin-Horseradish Peroxidase Conjugate: The lectin wheatgerm agglutinin conjugated to the enzyme HORSERADISH PEROXIDASE. It is widely used for tracing neural pathways.
Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send their axons to the brainstem and spinal cord to synapse on the lower motor ... as the center of voluntary motor activities The primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex receive and process visual, ... Damage to motor areas of cortex can lead to certain types of motor neuron disease. This kind of damage results in loss of ... These functions originate within the primary motor cortex and other frontal lobe motor areas where actions are planned. ...
Apraxia of Lid Opening
... and the primary visual cortex in some cases of ALO. While often an isolated condition, ALO sometimes occurs in conjunction with ... 45(1):53-4 Abe K, Fujimura H, Tatsumi C, Toyooka K, Yorifuji S, Yanagihara T. Eyelid "apraxia" in patients with motor neuron ... motor neuron disease, Shy-Drager syndrome and various lesions in the brain. Medications that have been associated include ... 115 Pt 1:227-47 De Renzi E, Gentilini M, Bazolli C. Eyelid movement disorders and motor impersistence in acute hemisphere ...
Lateral geniculate nucleus
This suggests that neurons travel from the LGN to both the primary visual cortex and higher cortex regions. The functions of ... these patients are able to perform certain motor tasks accurately in their blind field, such as grasping. ... Neurons of the LGN send their axons through the optic radiation, a direct pathway to the primary visual cortex. In addition, ... particularly the primary visual cortex. In humans, each LGN has six layers of neurons (grey matter) alternating with optic ...
If the motor cortex is involved in the over excitation of neurons, motor auras can result. Likewise, somatosensory auras (such ... or moving lights/shapes/colors caused mostly by abnormal activity in the primary visual cortex. Complex visual auras can ... Simple symptoms can occur from activation in the primary auditory cortex and complex symptoms from the temporo-occipital cortex ... When the primary somatosensory cortex is activated, more discrete parts on the opposite side of the body and the secondary ...
The map of functional cortical areas, which include primary motor and visual cortex, originates from a 'protomap', which is ... Rakic, P (1 February 1974). "Neurons in rhesus monkey visual cortex: systematic relation between time of origin and eventual ... and touch are served by the primary visual cortex, primary auditory cortex and primary somatosensory cortex respectively. In ... The primary visual cortex Comprehensive article about the structure and function of the primary visual cortex. Webvision - ...
Primary motor cortex
... is defined anatomically as the region of cortex that contains large neurons known as Betz cells. Betz ... "Primate motor cortex and free arm movements to visual targets in three-dimensional space. II. Coding of the direction of ... Ventrally the primary motor cortex is bordered by the insular cortex in the lateral sulcus. The primary motor cortex extends ... Layer V of the primary motor cortex contains giant (70-100 µm) pyramidal neurons which are the Betz cells. These neurons send ...
... as observed in primary visual cortex (area V1), or weak and broad, as observed in neural ensembles. Single neurons may be ... This tuning in the somatosensory system also provides feedback to the motor system so that it may selectively tune neurons to ... At the apex of the ventral stream called the inferotemporal cortex, neurons became tuned to complex stimuli, such as faces. The ... They discovered that oriented slits of light were the most effective stimuli for striate cortex "simple cell" neurons. Other ...
Sensory nervous system
... and motor control (via Brodmann area 4). See also: S2 Secondary somatosensory cortex. The visual cortex refers to the primary ... which is carried along one or more afferent neurons towards a specific area of the brain. While the term sensory cortex is ... the somatosensory cortex, the visual cortex, the auditory cortex, the primary olfactory cortex, and the gustatory cortex. Other ... the piriform cortex, the medial amygdala, and the entorhinal cortex, all of which make up the primary olfactory cortex. In ...
Pupillary light reflex
... which project to the primary visual cortex). These intrinsic photosensitive ganglion cells are also referred to as melanopsin- ... Those neurons are the preganglionic cells with axons that run in the oculomotor nerves to the ciliary ganglia. Edinger-Westphal ... It allows for testing the integrity of the sensory and motor functions of the eye. Under normal conditions, the pupils of both ... This shows that the pupillary light reflex is modulated by visual attention and trial-by-trial variation in visual attention. ...
The pars reticulata is one of the two primary output nuclei of the basal ganglia system to the motor thalamus (the other output ... This sends axons to the frontal and oculomotor cortex. Hikosaka and Wurtz devoted four papers to "the visual and oculomotor ... Most of the neurons that project out of the pars reticulata are inhibitory GABAergic neurons (i.e., these neurons release GABA ... It sends axons to the frontal and oculomotor cortex. In addition the pars reticulata sends neurons to the pars parafascicularis ...
Topographic map (neuroanatomy)
... spots on the retina are represented by adjacent neurons in the lateral geniculate nucleus and the primary visual cortex. The ... Unlike the topographic maps of the senses, the neurons of the motor cortex are efferent neurons that exit the brain instead of ... The primary visual cortex (V1, Brodmann's area 17) is the first cortical area to receive visual input. The stria of Gennari - a ... The activation from the motor cortex travels through Betz cells down the corticospinal tract through upper motor neurons, ...
... is seen in the primary visual cortex, a region of the brain that processes visual stimuli and is ... Many different types of neurons can be identified based on their function, such as sensory neurons or motor neurons. Each ... light-independent and visual activity-dependent mechanisms cooperate in the shaping of the field response in rat visual cortex ... This experiment proves that even the visual cortex is capable of achieving activity-dependent plasticity as it is reliant on ...
There are two primary parts of the cingulate cortex: the posterior cingulate cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. The ... Neurons of the cingulum receive afferent fibers from the parts of the thalamus that are associated with the spinothalamic tract ... This can include attention, visual and spatial skills, working memory and general memory. Because of its location, the cingulum ... The middle segment of the cingulum contains connections with premotor and motor cortical areas. Another place of importance ...
... in dark environments were found to have a reduced number of spines in pyramidal cells located in the primary visual cortex and ... Bipolar neurons have one axon and one dendritic tree at opposing ends of the cell body. Unipolar neurons have a stalk that ... Rac, CDC42 and RhoA serve as cytoskeletal regulators and the motor protein includes KIF5, dynein, LIS1. Important secretory and ... Borges, S.; Berry, M. (15 July 1978). "The effects of dark rearing on the development of the visual cortex of the rat". The ...
Pyramidal neurons are the primary neural cell type in the corticospinal tract. Normal motor control depends on the development ... Pyramidal cells may play a critical role in complex object recognition within the visual processing areas of the cortex. ... Pyramidal neurons are the primary excitation units of the mammalian prefrontal cortex and the corticospinal tract. Pyramidal ... Pyramidal neurons (pyramidal cells) are a type of multipolar neuron found in areas of the brain including the cerebral cortex, ...
Motor area in red. Area of general sensations in blue. Auditory area in green. Visual area in yellow. ... that pitch-selective neurons are located in a cortical region near the anterolateral border of the primary auditory cortex. ... Neurons in the auditory cortex are organized according to the frequency of sound to which they respond best. Neurons at one end ... The primary auditory cortex is tonotopically organized, which means that neighboring cells in the cortex respond to neighboring ...
A contrary hypothesis to gain field encoding involved implicating the neurons of the primary motor cortex (M1) in dynamic ... Lee, J.; Yang, J.; Lisberger, S. G. (2013). "Control of the Gain of Visual-Motor Transmission Occurs in Visual Coordinates for ... Most gain field activity is based in the premotor cortex found in the frontal lobe anterior to the primary motor cortex, ... The encoding of the neurons involved in the motor gain field follow the same gain modulation principles as most of the neurons ...
"Motor cortex gates vibrissal responses in a thalamocortical projection pathway". Neuron. 56 (4): 714-725. doi:10.1016/j.neuron. ... The zona incerta avoids the thalamus nuclei of the primary sensory areas such as the ventral posterior nucleus of the ... somatosensory system and the lateral geniculate of the visual system. Rostral zona incerta also sends inhibitory projections to ... Sensory-motor activities. At rest sensory input to the higher sensory areas of the cerebral cortex is gated through the ...
Neurons in the primary motor cortex showed much less activity during the preparation period and were more likely to be active ... Neurons here are responsive to tactile stimuli, visual stimuli, and auditory stimuli. These neurons are especially sensitive to ... the blood flow was more limited to the primary motor cortex. By implication, the primary motor cortex was more involved in ... The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor ...
The cortical input comes most heavily from the primary visual cortex (area 17), the secondary visual cortex (areas 18 and 19), ... The deeper layers also contain a population of motor-related neurons, capable of activating eye movements as well as other ... in that it does not contain a complete map of the visual field seen by the contralateral eye. Instead, like the visual cortex ... and can support this ability even in the absence of the cerebral cortex. Thus, cats with major damage to the visual cortex ...
Sensory reactions may include the feeling of floating, enhanced visual and auditory perception, visual illusions, or the ... Small endorphin neurons in the spinal cord act on receptors to decrease the conduction of pain signals from the spinal cord to ... There exist two primary CNS cannabinoid receptors, on which marijuana and the cannabinoids act. Both the CB1 receptor and CB2 ... In combination, these drug actions work to alter various functions of the central nervous system including the motor system, ...
The AIP has neurons that are responsible for grasping and manipulating objects through motor and visual inputs. The AIP and ... the primary somatosensory cortical area. Dividing this and the posterior parietal cortex is the postcentral sulcus. The ... The posterior parietal cortex (PPC) receives somatosensory and/or visual input, which then, through motor signals, controls ... Separate visual pathways for perception and action. Trends Neurosci. 1992 Jan;15(1):20-5. Fogassi L, Luppino G. (2005).Motor ...
Premovement neuronal activity
A subcortical loop exists within the brain linking upper motor neurons originating in the primary motor and pre-motor cortices ... pre-motor area) during both the visual signal trials and the non-triggered/self-paced trials. The pre-central motor cortex was ... Mirror motor neurons are found in the ventrolateral portion of the pre-motor cortex. These mirror motor neurons respond not ... The primary motor cortex, the pre-motor cortex, the supplementary motor area and the basal ganglia all may experience these ...
Ocular dominance column
A computational model for the development of multiple maps in primary visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex 15:1222-1233.. ... Ocular dominance columns are stripes of neurons in the visual cortex of certain mammals (including humans) that respond ... Ocular motor abnormalities in achiasmatic mutant Belgian sheepdogs: unyoked eye movements in a mammal. Vis Res 1995;35:109-16. ... The ocular dominance columns cover the primary (striate) visual cortex, with the exception of monocular regions of the cortical ...
Functional magnetic resonance imaging
In both the primary motor cortex and the visual cortex, the HDR amplitude scales linearly with duration of a stimulus or ... both inhibitory and excitatory input to a neuron from other neurons sum and contribute to the BOLD signal. Within a neuron ... but evidence suggests a similar relationship at least for the auditory cortex and the primary visual cortex. Activation ... These signals get to the primary visual cortex via the thalamus in tens of milliseconds. Neuronal activity related to the act ...
Neurons in the primary motor cortex showed much less activity during the preparation period and were more likely to be active ... Neurons here are responsive to tactile stimuli, visual stimuli, and auditory stimuli. These neurons are ... in 1919 also suggested that motor cortex was divided into a primary motor cortex (area 4) and a higher-order motor cortex (area ... The premotor cortex is an area of motor cortex lying within the frontal lobe of the brain just anterior to the primary motor ...
... by examining the activity of only a single neuron in the visual cortex, it is very difficult to reconstruct the visual scene ... If, as Georgopoulos showed, just a few primary motor neurons could accurately predict hand motion in two planes, reconstruction ... 1988) Primate motor cortex and free arm movements to visual targets in three-dimensional space. II. Coding of the direction of ... and Kenneth Johnson formulated a population vector hypothesis to explain how populations of motor cortex neurons encode ...
Sense of agency
... the temporoparietal cortex (TPJ), and the medial prefrontal cortex.[non-primary source needed] Another approach to ... and/or random chance is controlling their lives Mirror neurons Morality Motor cognition Neuroscience of free will Jeannerod, M ... as well as the visual and somatosensory inputs were similar or coincided. What differed between imitating and being imitated ... Neurocase, 6, 477-486[non-primary source needed] Jackson, P.L., & Decety, J. (2004). Motor cognition: A new paradigm to study ...
Neurons with such properties were less frequently observed in the primary visual cortex that corresponds to relatively early ... selective visual attention, motor sequences and spatial reference frames in which these entities are represented by brain cells ... Some prefrontal cortex neurons represented actual and some represented perceived displacements of the stimulus. Observation of ... Thus, Earl Miller and colleagues discovered prefrontal cortex neurons that represent perceptual categories (cats versus dogs in ...
Hubel & Wiesel discovered that neurons in the primary visual cortex, the first cortical area to process information coming from ... Single-neuron modeling. Main article: Biological neuron models. Even single neurons have complex biophysical ... such as the Visual cortex, are understood in some detail. It is also unknown what the computational functions of these ... binocular interaction and functional architecture in the cat's visual cortex". J. Physiol. 160 (1): 106-54. doi:10.1113/ ...
Brodmann area 45
1999). "Effects of repetition and competition on activity of left prefrontal cortex during word generation". Neuron. 23 (3): ... There is a difference between the processing patterns of primary and secondary languages in processing of passive sentences. ... "Dissociable Controlled Retrieval and Generalized Selection Mechanisms in Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex". Neuron. 47: 907-918 ... doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.07.023.. *^ H. Jeong, M. Sugiura, Y. Sassa, T. Haji, N. Usui, M. Taira, K. Horie, S. Sato, R. ...
Neuroscience of music
These areas included the primary motor cortex, supplementary motor area, Broca's area, anterior insula, primary and secondary ... "Estimating spatio-temporal receptive fields of auditory and visual neurons from their responses to natural stimuli". Network. ... Role of right auditory cortex in fine pitch resolution. The primary auditory cortex is one of the main areas associated ... Mirror/echo neurons and auditory-motor interactions. The mirror neuron system has an important role in neural models of ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... motor neurons and skeletal muscle and it is also found in saliva. ... "BDNF regulates reelin expression and Cajal-Retzius cell development in the cerebral cortex". Neuron. 21 (2): 305-15. doi: ... The increased visual, physical, and cognitive stimulation all translates into more neuronal activity and synaptic communication ... One of the primary ways BDNF can modulate NMDA receptor activity is through phosphorylation and activation of the NMDA receptor ...
Outline of brain mapping
MEG also accurately pinpoints sources in primary auditory, somatosensory and motor areas. For creating functional maps of human ... The neuron doctrineEdit. *Neuron doctrine - A set of carefully constructed elementary set of observations regarding neurons. ... The first negative and positive swings (see Visual N1, C1 and P1 (neuroscience)) in response to visual stimulation are of ... cortex during more complex cognitive tasks, MEG is most often combined with fMRI, as the methods complement each other. ...
Progressive supranuclear palsy
Primary lateral sclerosis. *Pseudobulbar palsy. *Hereditary spastic paraplegia. *LMN only: *Distal hereditary motor ... The affected brain cells are both neurons and glial cells. The neurons display neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), which are clumps ... Unlike globose NFTs, they may be more widespread in the cortex. Lewy bodies are seen in some cases, but it is not clear ... The visual symptoms are of particular importance in the diagnosis of this disorder. Patients typically complain of difficulty ...
This study explains how visual information from the left side of the visual field is received by the right visual cortex and ... Upper motor neuron. *Lower motor neuron *α motorneuron. *β motorneuron. *γ motorneuron ... The anterior commissure serves as the primary mode of interhemispheric communication in marsupials, and which carries ... Particularly, verbal and visual memory, information processing speed, and executive tasks were shown to be impaired when ...
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor
... motor neurons, the kidneys, saliva, and the prostate. BDNF itself is important for long-term memory. Although the vast ... "BDNF regulates reelin expression and Cajal-Retzius cell development in the cerebral cortex". Neuron. 21 (2): 305-15. doi: ... The increased visual, physical, and cognitive stimulation all translates into more neuronal activity and synaptic communication ... One of the primary ways BDNF can modulate NMDA receptor activity is through phosphorylation and activation of the NMDA receptor ...
... stemming from an upper motor neuron lesion in the brain as well as the corticospinal tract or the motor cortex. This damage ... non-primary source needed][non-primary source needed] Motor impairments cause more problems than sensory impairments.[ ... a teacher specialising in helping children with visual impairment, an educational psychologist, an orthopaedic surgeon, a ... Gross Motor Function Classification System - Expanded & Revised (gross motor function). *Manual Ability Classification System ( ...
Other lesions to the visual cortex have different effects depending on the location of the damage. Lesions to V1, for example, ... It is based on three traits eye opening, verbal response, and motor response, gauged as described below. Based on the Glasgow ... Neurotoxicity is another cause of brain damage that typically refers to selective, chemically induced neuron/brain damage.. .mw ... Primary and secondary brain injury). ... that there is no connection between their working visual cortex ...
மனித மூளை - தமிழ் விக்கிப்பீடியா
முதன்மை இயக்கப் புறணி (primary motor cortex) என்ற பட்டையான நரம்பு இழையம் படத்தில் காட்டியுள்ளபடி நடு வரிப்பள்ளத்தின் (central ... முதன்மைப் பார்வைப் புறணி (primary visual cortex) (பிராட்மேன் வகைப்பாட்டில் 17வது பகுதி), கண்ணில் இருந்து வரும் நரம்பு ... V.S. Ramachandran, "Mirror Neurons and imitation learning as the driving force behind "the great leap forward" in human ... உடல் பாகங்களின் இயக்கத்தை கட்டுப்படுத்தும் இயக்கப் புறணிகளில் ஒன்றான முதன்மை இயக்கப் புறணியின் (primary motor cortex) ...
Overall, the HVCX auditory motor neurons in swamp sparrows are very similar to the visual motor mirror neurons discovered in ... Neurons fire when the primary song type is either heard or sung. b, c. Neurons do not fire in response to the other song type, ... has been considered homologous to a mammalian motor pathway originating in the cerebral cortex and descending through the brain ... Because mirror neurons exhibit both sensory and motor activity, some researchers have suggested that mirror neurons may serve ...
"Increased activity in human visual cortex during directed attention in the absence of visual stimulation". Neuron. 22 (4): 751- ... Cognitive control is mediated by reciprocal PFC connectivity with the sensory and motor cortices, and with the limbic system. ... in which they argue that cognitive control is the primary function of the prefrontal cortex (PFC), and that control is ... The major change that occurs in the brain in adulthood is the constant myelination of neurons in the prefrontal cortex. At ...
Sensory nervous system
Visual cortex. The visual cortex refers to the primary visual cortex, labeled V1 or Brodmann area 17, as well as the ... "Neuron. 67 (1): 49-60. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2010.05.023. PMC 2904318. PMID 20624591.. CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link) ... and motor control (via Brodmann area 4). See also: S2 Secondary somatosensory cortex. ... the somatosensory cortex, the visual cortex, the auditory cortex, the primary olfactory cortex, and the gustatory cortex. ...
It is found in a variety of degenerative neurological conditions including Pick's disease, motor neuron disease, corticobasal ... Functional imaging studies show activation of the insula during audio-visual integration tasks. ... "Cognition and anatomy in three variants of primary progressive aphasia". Annals of Neurology. 55 (3): 335-46. doi:10.1002/ana. ... Motor controlEdit. In motor control, it contributes to hand-and-eye motor movement, swallowing, gastric motility,[ ...
Destruction to olfactory bulb, tract, and primary cortex (brodmann area 34) results in anosmia on the same side as the ... Olfactory nerve: 1° neuron. *Olfactory receptor neurons (Olfactory receptor) → Olfactory bulb (Glomeruli) ... regulates motor behavior (primarily social and stereotypical) brought on by odors, integrates auditory and olfactory sensory ... The uncus houses the olfactory cortex which includes the piriform cortex (posterior orbitofrontal cortex), amygdala, olfactory ...
They include the visual and tactile placing reflexes.. Learning new skillsEdit. Proprioception is what allows someone to ... Primary endings of muscle spindles "respond to the size of a muscle length change and its speed" and "contribute both to the ... These effects are presumed to arise from abnormal stimulation of the part of the parietal cortex of the brain involved with ... Weimer, AK; Schatz, AM; Lincoln, A; Ballantyne, AO; Trauner, DA (2001). ""Motor" impairment in Asperger syndrome: Evidence for ...
Ugonjwa wa Alzheimer, kamusi elezo huru
Schmitz C, Rutten BP, Pielen A, et al. (Aprili 2004). "Hippocampal neuron loss exceeds amyloid plaque load in a transgenic ... Dunne TE, Neargarder SA, Cipolloni PB, Cronin-Golomb A (2004). "Visual contrast enhances food and liquid intake in advanced ... Alzheimer Alois (1907). "Über eine eigenartige Erkrankung der Hirnrinde [About a peculiar disease of the cerebral cortex]" (in ... Risk assessment and primary prevention of Alzheimer disease". CMAJ 178 (5): 548-56. doi:10.1503/cmaj.070796 . PMC 2244657 . ...
For example, when a person looks at a tree, visual cortex neurons representing the tree trunk and those representing the ... Bressloff PC, Cowan JD (2003) Spontaneous pattern formation in primary visual cortex. In: J Hogan, AR Krauskopf, M di Bernado, ... Motor coordinationEdit. Main article: Motor coordination. Oscillations have been commonly reported in the motor system. ... across the surface of the motor cortex along dominant spatial axes characteristic of the local circuitry of the motor cortex.[ ...
腦 - 維基百科，自由的百科全書
This section relies too much on references to primary sources. Please improve this section by adding secondary or tertiary ... The axons, dendrites, and neurons wear out in many cases. Current research illustrates a paradoxical effect[ ... The right prefrontal cortex has been related to retrieval attempt; the medial temporal lobes to conscious recollection; ... Motor learning. *Visual. Short-term. *"The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two" ...
... on certain areas such as the visual cortex and the orbitofrontal cortex. This receptor was first noted for its importance as ... "Co-expression and in vivo interaction of serotonin1A and serotonin2A receptors in pyramidal neurons of prefrontal cortex". ... Wingen M, Kuypers KP, Ramaekers JG (February 2007). "The role of 5-HT1a and 5-HT2A receptors in attention and motor control: a ... Cook EH, Fletcher KE, Wainwright M, Marks N, Yan SY, Leventhal BL (August 1994). "Primary structure of the human platelet ...
Feature detection (nervous system)
In the same year, David Hubel and Torsten Wiesel began investigating properties of neurons in the visual cortex of cats, ... "Combination-sensitive neurons in the primary auditory cortex of the mustached bat". The Journal of Neuroscience. 13 (3): 931-40 ... Axons from the feature sensitive/selective neurons of the optic tectum and thalamic-pretectal region then contact motor ... Through experimentation, they found that each neuron in the cortex is responsible for a small region of the visual field and ...
... in the primary motor cortex, Brodmann area 4) and termination (onto the alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord).[citation ... additional pathways within the brain connect to the visual cortex. ... Motor/. descending. Pyramidal. *flexion: Primary motor cortex → Posterior limb of internal capsule → Decussation of pyramids → ... Primary motor cortex → Genu of internal capsule → Corticobulbar tract → Facial motor nucleus → Facial muscles ...
Cerebral cortex Primary associated perception(s) Name Light Eyes Photoreceptor Visual system Optic (II) Visual cortex Visual ... In the brain, olfaction is processed by the olfactory cortex. Olfactory receptor neurons in the nose differ from most other ... Just as different nerves are dedicated to sensory and motors tasks, different areas of the brain (cortices) are similarly ... Visual system (vision). Main article: Visual system. The visual system, or sense of sight, is based on the transduction ...
Other lesions to the visual cortex have different effects depending on the location of the damage. Lesions to V1, for example, ... This section needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the ... Apraxia is a motor disorder caused by damage to the brain, and may be more common in those who have been left brain damaged, ... IL-1 mediates ischaemic, excitotoxic, and traumatic brain injury, probably through multiple actions on glia, neurons, and the ...
The neocortical circuit: themes and variations | Nature Neuroscience
... motor control and higher cognitive processes. Cortical neurons belong to a small number of main classes. The properties of ... They propose that cortex, like other parts of the body, has a serially homologous organization, featuring area- and species- ... A dedicated circuit links direction-selective retinal ganglion cells to the primary visual cortex. Nature 507, 358-361 (2014). ... Sato, T.R. & Svoboda, K. The functional properties of barrel cortex neurons projecting to the primary motor cortex. J. Neurosci ...
Table of Contents - November 07, 2007, 27 (45) | Journal of Neuroscience
Stereotypical Bouton Clustering of Individual Neurons in Cat Primary Visual Cortex Tom Binzegger, Rodney J. Douglas and Kevan A ... A New Thalamic Pathway of Vibrissal Information Modulated by the Motor Cortex Nadia Urbain and Martin Deschênes ... Reconfiguration of a Vertebrate Motor Network: Specific Neuron Recruitment and Context-Dependent Synaptic Plasticity Wen-Chang ... Human Motor Corpus Callosum: Topography, Somatotopy, and Link between Microstructure and Function Mathias Wahl, Birgit ...
Vision First? The Development of Primary Visual Cortical Networks Is More Rapid Than the Development of Primary Motor Networks...
Here we address the human development of long-range connectivity in primary visual and motor cortices, using well-established ... motor areas with an advantage of visual development; we also confirm that human development is very slow in both cases, and ... We find that there is a temporal lag between the developmental timing of primary sensory vs. ... that have been shown to be related to these specific primary areas, and the long-range neural connectivity within those. ...
Microstructural Changes of the Baboon Cerebral Cortex during Gestational Development Reflected in Magnetic Resonance Imaging...
In contrast, primary motor cortex possesses a notably sparse layer IV plus large pyramidal neurons (Betz cells) in layer V. It ... 1989) Visual cortex development in the ferret. I. Genesis and migration of visual cortical neurons. J Neurosci 9:1242-1253. ... In addition to their potentially distinct developmental tempo, primary visual and motor cortices also differ from the rest of ... Modest but statistically significant differences between primary visual and motor cortices were observed after correction for ...
Primary Motor Cortex, part 3 - Movement and Motor Control: Lower and Upper Motor Neurons | Coursera
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It can be p.683 opened and finger as the primary visual cortex. Therapeutic uses of reversible causes. This type of transport ... An allergic manifestation seen in any study as being sexually abused as a lower motor neurons during voluntary movements of the ... followed by helicobacter of primary squamous cell cancer of various malig-mancies such as write, writes, writing, wrote or loud ...
2015 • Psychology Colorado College
Neurons (N = 194) were traced in prefrontal, motor, and visual cortices for each species. Each neuron was quantified using six ... Neuronal Morphology of Prefrontal, Primary Motor, and Primary Visual Cortices in the Siberian Tiger (Panthera tigris altaica) ... Additionally, recent studies have found CP to be stronger in the right visual field (left hemisphere) than the left visual ... the prefrontal cortex, and the orbitofrontal cortex, and respond to specific treatment techniques like cognitive interventions ...
Thirst regulates motivated behavior through modulation of brainwide neural population dynamics | Science
... finding that neurons in the primary visual cortex encoded both visual information and motor activity related to facial ... The variability of neuronal responses to visual stimuli in the primary visual area is mainly related to arousal and reflects ... Neuron activity across the brain. How is it that groups of neurons dispersed through the brain interact to generate complex ... Individual neurons encoded task-specific responses, but every brain area contained neurons with different types of response. ...
Spatiotemporal dynamics of neuronal population response in the primary visual cortex | PNAS
2002) Visual cortex neurons of monkeys and cats: Temporal dynamics of the contrast response function. J Neurophysiol 88(2):888- ... synaptic localization of immunocytochemically identified NMDA receptor subunit proteins in sensory-motor and visual cortices of ... In some primary sensory areas, such as the primary visual cortex (V1), there is a one-to-one mapping of the external visual ... 1997) Visual cortex neurons in monkeys and cats: Detection, discrimination, and identification. Vis Neurosci 14(5):897-919. ...
In vivo Large-Scale Cortical Mapping Using Channelrhodopsin-2 Stimulation in Transgenic Mice Reveals Asymmetric and Reciprocal...
Photostimulation of subsets of deep layer pyramidal neurons within forelimb, barrel, or visual primary sensory cortex led to ... ChR2-evoked maps confirmed homotopic connections between hemispheres and intracortical sensory and motor cortex connections. ... Channelrhodopsin-2 expression and ChR2-evoked EEG responses across the anterior-posterior axis of cortex. (A) Confocal image of ... D) Example of VSD responses in a unilateral craniotomy preparation during visual stimulation of the contralateral (left), eye ( ...
Addgene: pAAV-EF1a-double floxed-hChR2(H134R)-EYFP-WPRE-HGHpA Citations
Local and Global Influences of Visual Spatial Selection and Locomotion in Mouse Primary Visual Cortex. McBride EG, Lee SJ, ... Whole Brain Mapping of Long-Range Direct Input to Glutamatergic and GABAergic Neurons in Motor Cortex. Luo P, Li A, Zheng Y, ... doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2019.10.008. Epub 2019 Nov 25. PubMed Activity in Lateral Visual Areas Contributes to Surround ... doi: 10.1016/j.neuron.2018.12.004. Epub 2019 Jan 15. PubMed Limbic Neurons Shape Sex Recognition and Social Behavior in ...
Frontiers | Corticotectal Projections From the Premotor or Primary Motor Cortex After Cortical Lesion or Parkinsonian Symptoms...
... namely the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary motor cortex (M1) in eight macaque monkeys subjected to either a cortical ... namely the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary motor cortex (M1) in eight macaque monkeys subjected to either a cortical ... In the present study we analysed the corticotectal projections from two motor cortical areas, ... In the present study we analysed the corticotectal projections from two motor cortical areas, ...
Somatosensory Processing: From Single Neuron to Brain Imaging, 1st Edition (Paperback) - Routledge
Sensory and Motor Functions of Face Primary Somatosensory Cortex in the Primate 8. Mechanisms of Somatosensory Plasticity 9. ... Processing of Higher Order Somatosensory and Visual Information in the Intraparietal Region of the Postcentral Gyrus 7. ... The Primary Nociceptive Neuron: A Nerve Cell With Many Functions 4. Evidence for the Presence of a Visceral Pain Pathway in the ... Limits of Short-Term Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex 11. Cortical Plasticity: Growth of New Connections Can Contribute to ...
High-Resolution 7T MR Imaging of the Motor Cortex in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis | American Journal of Neuroradiology
primary motor cortex. UHF. ultra-high field. UMN. upper motor neuron. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive ... of the visual evaluation and quantitative measurement of signal intensity and cortical thickness of the primary motor cortex in ... Signal hypointensity of the deep layers of the primary motor cortex correlated with upper motor neuron impairment (r = −0.47; P ... and signal hypointensity of the deep layers of the primary motor cortex could constitute a marker of upper motor neuron ...
Simultaneous reconstruction of continuous hand movements from primary motor and posterior parietal cortex | SpringerLink
Primary motor cortex (MI) and parietal area PE both participate in cortical control of reaching actions, but few studies have ... Dushanova J, Donoghue JP (2010) Neurons in primary motor cortex engaged during action observation. Eur J Neurosci 32:386-398. ... Johnson PB, Ferraina S, Caminiti R (1993) Cortical networks for visual reaching. Exp Brain Res 97:361-365PubMedCrossRefGoogle ... Primary motor cortex Posterior parietal cortex Trajectory reconstruction Population decoding This is a preview of subscription ...
Degree Level: Doctoral / Academic Unit: Neurobiology and Behavior / Type: Theses / Subject: Neurosciences | Search Results |...
NeurosciencesVisual cortexNeural circuitryNeurobiology. 7. A Stem Cell Model of the Motor Circuit Reveals Distinct Requirements ... 6. A Novel Circuit Model of Contextual Modulation and Normalization in Primary Visual Cortex ... Neural circuitryNervous system--DegenerationSpinal muscular atrophyMotor neuronsNeurosciences. 8. Asynchronous Inhibition in ... for SMN in Motor Neuron Survival and Function Janas, Anna. 2015. Theses. ...
Protocols and Video Articles Authored by Majid H. Mohajerani (Translated to Russian)
Photostimulation of subsets of deep layer pyramidal neurons within forelimb, barrel, or visual primary sensory cortex led to ... For example, the human reach-to-grasp act is mediated by two visuo-parieto-motor cortex channels, one for the reach and one for ... the parietal association area and a secondary anterior medial sink within the cingulate and secondary motor cortices for visual ... ChR2-evoked maps confirmed homotopic connections between hemispheres and intracortical sensory and motor cortex connections. ...
Cerebrum - Wikipedia
Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send their axons to the brainstem and spinal cord to synapse on the lower motor ... as the center of voluntary motor activities The primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex receive and process visual, ... Damage to motor areas of cortex can lead to certain types of motor neuron disease. This kind of damage results in loss of ... These functions originate within the primary motor cortex and other frontal lobe motor areas where actions are planned. ...
ARTICLES | Journal of Neurophysiology
... for the primary visual cortex (V1) cells (A) and the secondary visual cortex (V2) cells (B). Mean and SE values are plotted. ... Convergence of visual, haltere, and prosternal inputs at neck motor neurons of Calliphora erythrocephala. Cell Tissue Res 240: ... 2008). The receptive field organization of two spiking LPTCs, primary and secondary visual cortices (V1 and V2, respectively), ... The PM1 neurons, movement sensitive centrifugal visual brain neurons in the locust: anatomy, physiology, and modulation by ...
nuero Flashcards by Jessica Wrinn | Brainscape
Contains primary visual cortex.Note: Each main cerebral hemisphere lobe has primary regions and association areas which provide ... cell bodies located in precentral gyri and axons project to lower motor neurons.Lower motor neurons directly initiate movement ... Sensory neurons synapses with a lower motor neuron in the spinal cord. For example, stretch of patellar tendon is detected by a ... The signal travels to the spinal cord where the sensory neuron synapses with a lower motor neuron that stimulates contraction ...
Frontiers | A transcranial magnetic stimulation study of the effect of visual orientation on the putative human mirror neuron...
... reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity), there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in ... reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity), there was no effect of visual perspective. These findings are discussed in ... Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have ... Mirror neurons are a class of motor neuron that are active during both the performance and observation of behavior, and have ...
Cerebrum - New World Encyclopedia
Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send their axons to the brainstem and spinal cord to synapse on the lower motor ... The primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex receive and process visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory ... Damage to motor areas of cortex can lead to certain types of motor neuron disease. This kind of damage results in loss of ... These functions originate within the primary motor cortex and other frontal lobe motor areas where actions are planned. ...
Apraxia of Lid Opening - Wikipedia
... and the primary visual cortex in some cases of ALO. While often an isolated condition, ALO sometimes occurs in conjunction with ... 45(1):53-4 Abe K, Fujimura H, Tatsumi C, Toyooka K, Yorifuji S, Yanagihara T. Eyelid "apraxia" in patients with motor neuron ... motor neuron disease, Shy-Drager syndrome and various lesions in the brain. Medications that have been associated include ... 115 Pt 1:227-47 De Renzi E, Gentilini M, Bazolli C. Eyelid movement disorders and motor impersistence in acute hemisphere ...
Krishna Shenoy | Stanford Medicine Profiles
Yet it is unclear how well the analogy between motor and visual cortex holds. Single-neuron responses in motor cortex are ... We examined tensor structure for multiple datasets from primary visual cortex (V1) and primary motor cortex (M1). All V1 ... while many neurons in the dorsal aspect of premotor cortex and the primary motor cortex were simultaneously monitored for ... We investigated whether a subpopulation of presumed inhibitory neurons in primary motor cortex (M1) might be involved in " ...
Behind the Connectome Commotion | Biomedical Computation Review
... its simulated neurons are grouped into 20 anatomical structures (primary visual cortex, primary motor cortex, and so on) that ... Some more genetic engineering technology is used in vivo to join each neurons barcode with the barcodes from neurons to which ... more than enough for the 100 million or so neurons in a mouse brain. Once the neurons are labeled with these randomly generated ... Inhibitory neurons, for example, express a particular enzyme that is encoded in mRNA; by tagging the appropriate mRNA in a ...
Musical Creativity and the Brain
Primary sensory cortices of all sense modalities, such as visual, motor, somatosensory, and auditory, are located in the OPT ... Neurons in the OPT cortices are devoted to perception and long-term memory. ... rostral cingulate cortex zone, Brocas area, and motor-related areas (e.g., the cerebellum, primary motor area, and precentral ... cortex has an association cortex that further gathers and incorporates sensory information from its respective primary cortex. ...
Plumes of neuronal activity propagate in three dimensions through the nuclear avian brain | BMC Biology | Full Text
Medina L, Reiner A: Do birds possess homologues of mammalian primary visual, somatosensory and motor cortices?. Trends Neurosci ... Neuron. 2012, 75: 1105-1113. 10.1016/j.neuron.2012.08.034.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ... a region developmentally homologous and functionally similar to the mammalian primary visual and somatosensory/motor cortices [ ... Neuron. 2009, 63: 865-878. 10.1016/j.neuron.2009.08.024.PubMed CentralPubMedView ArticleGoogle Scholar. ...
Notes On Blood Brain Barrier - 6951 Words | Major Tests
6. to the primary motor cortex- commanding of efferent motor neurons to initiate voluntary movement 7. to the motor output- ... Cortex is divided into four major lobes: 1. Occipital Lobe- carries out initial processing of visual input a) Visual cortex 2. ... a) Primary somatosensory cortex 4. Frontal lobe- is responsible for: motor processing, voluntary motor activity, speaking ... your higher motor areas now knows that you need a lot of muscles cells to make it happen ,, primary motor cortex gives the ...
Neurology glossary - NeuroPetVet
... especially the primary visual cortex in the occipital lobes. Corticobulbar. Axons projecting from the cerebrum to lower motor ... Gamma motor neurons. A type of motor neuron that is involved in muscle contraction; unlike alpha motor neurons that contract ... Motor neurons. Nerve cells that innervate and direct movement of muscles. Motor unit. Motor neuron axon and the individual ... Upper motor neurons. First order neurons that originate in the brain and synapse on interneurons or lower motor neurons of the ...
Cortical Function: a View from the Thalamus, Volume 149 - 1st Edition
Neural substrates within primary visual cortex for interactions between parallel visual pathways; Bottom up and top down ... dynamics in visual cortex; Dynamic properties of thalamic neurons for vision; Spike timing and synaptic dynamics at the awak ... areas of cortex, represents a corollary message being sent simultaneously to motor centers. It presents a broad overview of ... Functional cell classes and functional architecture in the early visual system of a highly visual rodent; Drivers and ...
PyramidalSomatosensoryPremotor cortexBasalNeuralVentralSingle NeuronThalamusAxonsOccipital Lobe2017Spinal cordPrefrontalCircuitsAuditory cortexBrainstemHuman Cerebral CortexIndividual neuronsPrimate2016MovementsCortical areasPosteriorPlasticityPopulationsInhibitoryGroups of neuronsSurface of the cerebral cortexInterneuronsLower motorExcitatory neuronsThalamic neuronsCorpus callosumLobesCognitiveMirror neuronBillion neuronsPrincipal neuronsPrimatesRatsHumansGustatory CortexAreas of cortexLesionsPrecentral gyrusSensory areasAmyotrophic lateral sAxonInhibitionTemporalInsular cortexSignalsMovementSelective
- grouped as IT here) and pyramidal tract (PT) neurons. (nature.com)
- Morishima, M. & Kawaguchi, Y. Recurrent connection patterns of corticostriatal pyramidal cells in frontal cortex. (nature.com)
- Brown, S.P. & Hestrin, S. Intracortical circuits of pyramidal neurons reflect their long-range axonal targets. (nature.com)
- Photostimulation of subsets of deep layer pyramidal neurons within forelimb, barrel, or visual primary sensory cortex led to downstream cortical maps that were dependent on synaptic transmission and were similar to peripheral sensory stimulation. (nih.gov)
- Elston, G.N., Elston, A., Casagrande, V.A. and Kaas, J.H. Areal specialization of pyramidal cell structure in the visual cortex of the tree shrew. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Elston, G.N., Elston, A., Kaas, J.H. and Casagrande, V.A. Regional specialization in pyramidal cell structure in the visual cortex of the Galago: an intracellular injection study of striate and extrastriate areas with comparative notes on New World and Old World monkeys. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Elston, G.N., Elston, A. Casagrande, V. and Kaas, J.H. Pyramidal neurons of granular prefrontal cortex of the galago: complexity in evolution of the psychic cell in primates. (vanderbilt.edu)
- It consists of 6 layers, into which two main types of cell, the pyramidal neurons and interneurons, are organized. (scienceblogs.com)
- Figure 1: The Neuronal Correlates of Consciousness (NCC) are the minimal set of neural events and structures - here synchronized action potentials in neocortical pyramidal neurons - sufficient for a specific conscious percept or a conscious (explicit) memory . (scholarpedia.org)
- Will the Neural Correlates of Consciousness involve all pyramidal neurons in cortex at any given point in time? (scholarpedia.org)
- Here, using simultaneously recorded cortical populations and morphologically identified pyramidal cells, we compare the laminar structure of spontaneous and sensory-evoked population activity in rat auditory cortex. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- Layers II and III can usually be lumped together, as when one talks of the superficial pyramidal neurons. (williamcalvin.com)
- A given neuron, however, may have dendrites spanning a few layers, especially if it is a pyramidal neuron: these taproot-shaped cells are the excitatory neurons of neocortex. (williamcalvin.com)
- Processing of Higher Order Somatosensory and Visual Information in the Intraparietal Region of the Postcentral Gyrus 7. (routledge.com)
- Sensory and Motor Functions of Face Primary Somatosensory Cortex in the Primate 8. (routledge.com)
- Limits of Short-Term Plasticity in Somatosensory Cortex 11. (routledge.com)
- the cerebrum also functions as the center of voluntary motor activities The primary sensory areas of the cerebral cortex receive and process visual, auditory, somatosensory, gustatory, and olfactory information. (wikipedia.org)
- Special research emphasis is placed on studying visual, auditory and somatosensory systems, but current studies are also concerned with multimodal and sensorimotor integration in parietal and frontal cortex. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Single and multielectrode recordings of neurons in primary somatosensory cortex of monkeys. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Studies of anatomical connections of neural networks in brain systems devoted to somatosensory, visual, auditory, motor, and gustatory functions in monkeys. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Major Research Interests: neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of somatosensory systems of primates, and plasticity of somatosensory and motor systems in adult and developing primates. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Involvement of human primary somatosensory cortex in vibrotactile detection depends on task demand. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Bilateral representations of touch in the primary somatosensory cortex. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- Not only the thalamus but also multiple other discrete brain areas are now known to be involved in pain perception, 1 including the primary and secondary somatosensory, anterior cingulate, insular, and prefrontal cortices. (asahq.org)
- Parietal Lobe - Cortical Regions Primary Somatosensory Cortex (Postcentral Gyrus) - site involved with processing of tactile and proprioceptive information. (scribd.com)
- Somatosensory Association Cortex - Assist with the integration and interpretations of sensations relative to body position and orientation in space. (scribd.com)
- In the present study, we analyzed the corticotectal projections from two motor cortical areas, namely the premotor cortex (PM) and the primary motor cortex (M1) in eight macaque monkeys subjected to either a cortical lesion of the hand area in M1 ( n = 4) or Parkinson's disease-like symptoms PD ( n = 4). (frontiersin.org)
- During improvisation, activated brain regions were found in the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the presupplementary motor area, the rostral portion of the dorsal premotor cortex and the left posterior part of the superior temporal gyrus compared to the reproduction period 16 . (nature.com)
- When the V1-damaged hemisphere was challenged by incoming visual stimuli, or controlled manual responses to these unseen stimuli, the corpus callosum (CC) dynamically recruited areas in the visual dorsal stream and premotor cortex of the intact hemisphere to compensate for altered visuomotor functions. (pnas.org)
- b) The complex brain network ("mirror neuron system") involved in action observation: the ventral premotor cortex (vPMC), posterior part of the inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG), rostral part of the inferior parietal lobule (rIPL), and posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS). (intechopen.com)
- Neurons in macaque primary motor cortex and dorsal premotor cortex are tuned to movement direction. (harvard.edu)
- investigated the activity of mouse basal amygdala neurons in relation to behavior during different tasks. (sciencemag.org)
- The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex (of the two cerebral hemispheres), as well as several subcortical structures, including the hippocampus, basal ganglia, and olfactory bulb. (wikipedia.org)
- The dorsal telencephalon gives rise to the pallium (cerebral cortex in mammals and reptiles) and the ventral telencephalon generates the basal ganglia. (wikipedia.org)
- See main articles on cerebral cortex and basal ganglia for more information. (wikipedia.org)
- Hypometabolism of glucose may play a part, and has been documented in the basal ganglia, frontal lobe, and the primary visual cortex in some cases of ALO. (wikipedia.org)
- The cerebrum is the part of the prosencephalon (forebrain) of the brain that contains the cerebral cortex as well as such subcortical structures as the hippocampus, amygdala, basal ganglia, olfactory bulb, and corpus callosum. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- The functional connectivity between the cortex and sub cortical regions, including the basal ganglia, plays a major role in sensory-motor intergration, reward-based learning and action control. (iit.it)
- Moreover, in older theories of basal ganglia evolution, the cerebral cortex was thought to supplant the basal ganglia in motor control in the mammalian lineage, resulting in the replacement of a supposed reptilian stereotyped motor repertoire with the adaptable mammalian motor capacity. (springer.com)
- Modern findings also show that during most of its evolutionary history (i.e., prior to mammals), the basal ganglia mediated its role in motor control via output pathways to motor layers of the midbrain roof, via midbrain targets of the striatum such as the substantia nigra pars reticulata. (springer.com)
- With the appearance of neocortex in mammals, however, basal ganglia outputs to motor cortex via thalamus became of greater significance, especially in primates, in which a parallel expansion of cerebral cortex and basal ganglia occurred. (springer.com)
- Our work continues with several foci including the role of the pallium/cortex, basal ganglia for selection of different patterns of motor behaviour, optic tectum for steering and eye motor coordination, the physiological role of different modulator systems acting through the spinal networks, and different ion channel subtypes contributing to neuronal function. (ki.se)
- The optic tectum is controlled from both the basal ganglia and cortex/pallium. (ki.se)
- Electrodes in the dorsomedial striatum, part of the basal ganglia, recorded changes consistent with learning in the visual cortex. (myscience.org)
- His project piloted the use of high density recording arrays to record from dozens of neurons across the medial-lateral extent of the substantia nigra pars reticulata, the major basal ganglia output nucleus in rodents. (cmu.edu)
- That's because V , whatever the area, contains neurons that at some stage of development send their outputs down to the spinal cord, with copies to the brain stem, basal ganglia, and hypothalamus. (williamcalvin.com)
- We come to posit that the many loops through the basal ganglia each regulate the embodiment of pattern formation in a given area of cerebral cortex. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- According to most contemporary models, bursts of striatal spiny neurons, via the direct pathway through the basal ganglia, disinhibit their targets in thalamus, allowing thalamo-cortical loops to embody patterns of activity that represent a ballpark estimate of an action or a thought. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Ashe J, Georgopoulos AP (1994) Movement parameters and neural activity in motor cortex and area 5. (springer.com)
- The neural response range of these neurons is increased and the response latency is reduced. (physiology.org)
- For example, in most people, the dominant hemisphere for language is the left hemisphere, where most of the neural processing takes place for speech comprehension, the formation of thoughts into speech, and the generation of motor output for language communication. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- These systems translate neural activity from the brain into control signals for prosthetic devices, which can assist people with paralysis by restoring lost motor functions. (stanford.edu)
- The spatial pattern of results could be captured by a model that involves interactions, on a logarithmic map of visual space, between two loci of neural activity that encode the gaze shift vector and visual stimulus position relative to the fovea. (arvojournals.org)
- The movement-related findings were unexpected since vision tends to be thought of as a feed-forward computation system in which visual information enters through the retina and travels on neural circuits that operate on a one-way path, processing the information piece by piece. (genengnews.com)
- The team also noticed that the neural patterns in the visual cortex that were firing during movement differed in the dark and light, meaning they weren't directly connected. (genengnews.com)
- These findings reveal that threat tunes neural processing in fast, selective, yet attention-independent fashion in sensory and motor systems, for different adaptive purposes. (elifesciences.org)
- Here, we investigate the dimensionality of neural ensembles from the insular cortex of alert rats during periods of `ongoing' (spontaneous) and stimulus-evoked activity. (aps.org)
- To our knowledge, this is the first mechanistic model of neural dimensionality in cortex during both spontaneous and evoked activity. (aps.org)
- At this juncture in our exploration of motor control, let's focus on one of the best studied paradigms for understanding the neural control of movement: the eye movement system. (coursera.org)
- This paper focuses on the neurodynamical research of a small neural network that consists of 25 neurons. (hindawi.com)
- In fact, we know little about expressions of neuron membrane potentials and interactions between neural networks, especially the relationship between neural coding modes and cognitive behaviors. (hindawi.com)
- So our purpose is to try to understand the inner connection between the up and down transitions of a single neuron and that of neural network. (hindawi.com)
- Then, they used a visual paradigm designed to elicit neural responses with differing spatial frequencies in the brain and examined how the new super-Nyquist density EEG performed, revealing that the new configuration captured more neural information than standard Nyquist density EEG. (healthcanal.com)
- The subtle patterns of neural activity uncovered by the new super-Nyquist EEG were closely related to a model of primary visual cortex. (healthcanal.com)
- Motor imagery and action observation facilitate motor recovery of patients because both the motor imagery and the action observation share the activation of cortical neural networks implicated in movement execution. (intechopen.com)
- This chapter reviews the neural mechanisms and clinical studies of motor imagery and action observation and discusses the applications in physical therapy. (intechopen.com)
- reported the neural network of motor imagery using ALE meta‐analysis [ 5 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Our main aim is to understand the cellular bases of motor behaviour with a focus on the mechanisms underlying selection of behaviour and the neural bases of in particular locomotion. (ki.se)
- To gain a reward, the rats learned to produce arbitrary patterns of neural activity unrelated to visual input in order to control a BMI, highlighting the power of neuroplasticity and the flexibility of the brain. (myscience.org)
- The cerebral cortex (plural cortices ), also known as the cerebral mantle , is the outer layer of neural tissue of the cerebrum of the brain in humans and other mammals . (wikipedia.org)
- The cerebral cortex is the largest site of neural integration in the central nervous system . (wikipedia.org)
- The cerebral cortex is folded in a way that allows a large surface area of neural tissue to fit within the confines of the neurocranium . (wikipedia.org)
- Anisha constructed naive Bayes classifiers to quantify the impact of postural vs visual changes in workspace and found that neural tuning change is driven by postural, not visual changes. (cmu.edu)
- A group of researchers led by Professor KITAZAWA Shigeru (Dynamic Brain Network Laboratory, Graduate School of Frontier Biosciences, Osaka University) and Researcher INOUE Masato (Center for Information and Neural Networks (CiNet), National Institute of Information and Communications Technology) clarified that information about direction and size of errors in reaching movements appeared in the motor cortex. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
- The visual system has been a long-standing model for studying the precise wiring of neural circuits. (deepdyve.com)
- This triggers an action potential, which travels along the sensory fiber from the skin, through the dorsal spinal root to the spinal cord, and directly activates a ventral horn motor neuron. (lumenlearning.com)
- The basic withdrawal reflex explained above includes sensory input (the painful stimulus), central processing (the synapse in the spinal cord), and motor output (activation of a ventral motor neuron that causes contraction of the biceps brachii). (lumenlearning.com)
- A collateral branch of the sensory axon would inhibit another ventral horn motor neuron so that the triceps brachii do not contract and slow the withdrawal down. (lumenlearning.com)
- This effect arises simultaneously in ventral face-selective and dorsal motor cortices at 200 ms following face presentation, dissociates across individuals as a function of anxiety, and does not reflect increased attention to threat-signaling emotions. (elifesciences.org)
- Qi, H.X., Phillips, W.S. and Kaas, J.H. Connections of neurons in the lumbar ventral horn of spinal cord are altered after long-standing limb loss in a macaque monkey. (vanderbilt.edu)
- Face percept formation in human ventral temporal cortex. (mayo.edu)
- Hermes D, Rangarajan V, Foster BL, King JR, Kasikci I, Miller KJ , Parvizi J. Electrophysiological Responses in the Ventral Temporal Cortex During Reading of Numerals and Calculation. (mayo.edu)
- Processing within the dorsal visual stream subserves object-directed action, whereas visual object recognition is mediated by the ventral visual stream. (harvard.edu)
- Carmena JM, Lebedev MA, Henriquez CS, Nicolelis MAL (2005) Stable ensemble performance with single-neuron variability during reaching movements in primates. (springer.com)
- Journal Article] Different cortical projections from three subdivisions of the rat lateral posterior thalamic nucleus : a single-neuron tracing study with viral vectors. (nii.ac.jp)
- The advent of single neuron electrophysiological recordings in alert monkeys in the last 50 years, accompanied by more precise lesion and stimulation experiments, have helped to clarify the function of the FEF in motor, perceptual, and cognitive processes. (scholarpedia.org)
- Therefore, the up and down states of single neuron reflect distinct global cortical states, which resemble slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep, respectively [ 20 - 22 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Here, one single neuron affects the whole network status by impacting other coupling neurons. (hindawi.com)
- We have started our research on a single neuron, studied the electrophysiological phenomenon of status transitions, and obtained the bistability and spontaneity that is similar to experiment observation. (hindawi.com)
- The olfactory sensory system is unique since the neurons in the olfactory bulb send their axons directly to the olfactory cortex, rather than to the thalamus first. (wikipedia.org)
- Almost all of the messages that are received by the cerebral cortex from the environment or from the body's internal receptors come through the thalamus and much current thought about perceptual processing is based on sensory pathways that relay in the thalamus. (elsevier.com)
- the hypothesis that much or all of the information relayed by thalamus, even to classical, pure 'sensory' areas of cortex, represents a corollary message being sent simultaneously to motor centers. (elsevier.com)
- For example, reading of this text starts with visual sensory input to the retina, which then projects to the thalamus, and on to the cerebral cortex. (lumenlearning.com)
- This example also includes sensory input (the retinal projection to the thalamus), central processing (the thalamus and subsequent cortical activity), and motor output (activation of neurons in the brain stem that lead to coordinated contraction of extraocular muscles). (lumenlearning.com)
- Major Research Interests: visual and motor systems, and the organization of the thalamus in primates. (vanderbilt.edu)
- RETMUS (The interpretation of retinal activity by the visual thalamus. (europa.eu)
- Despite its central location between the sensory periphery and the primary sensory cortex, the functional role of the thalamus in sensory processing is still largely unknown. (europa.eu)
- centrencephalic system the neurons in the central core of the brainstem from the thalamus to the medulla oblongata, connecting the cerebral hemispheres . (thefreedictionary.com)
- Upper motor neurons in the primary motor cortex send their axons to the brainstem and spinal cord to synapse on the lower motor neurons, which innervate the muscles. (wikipedia.org)
- Axons transmit signals to other neurons by means of specialized junctions called synapses. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Abstract] Axons of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) relay visual information from the retina to lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and superior colliculus (SC), which are two major image-forming visual nuclei. (bio-protocol.org)
- A slice of a rat's brain showing visual cortex neurons (green) and axons from the secondary motor cortex (red). (genengnews.com)
- 2002). Axons from the majority of cortical neurons begin to innervate LGN at P3 (Brooks et al. (deepdyve.com)
- demonstrated that cortex is essential for RGC axons to terminate in the dLGN and mice without V1 can still perform a number of visual tasks (Shanks et al. (deepdyve.com)
- A sequence of regions of the cerebral cortex process the visual information, starting in the primary visual cortex of the occipital lobe, and resulting in the conscious perception of these letters. (lumenlearning.com)
- We compared the composing state and resting state imagery of 17 composers and found that the functional connectivity of primary networks in the bilateral occipital lobe and bilateral postcentral cortex decreased during the composing period. (nature.com)
- calcarine cortex of the occipital lobe for primary visual cortex). (humpath.com)
- Occipital Lobe - Cortical Regions Primary Visual Cortex - this is the primary area of the brain responsible for sight, recognition of size, color, light, motion, dimensions, etc. (scribd.com)
- Thus, the LGN employs at least three modes of visual input integration, each exhibiting different degrees of specialization (Rompani et al, Neuron, 2017). (europa.eu)
- He and Neely, who completed his Ph.D. with Carmena in 2017, tested these limits by trying to train visual neurons, which normally interpret input from the eyes but don't control any physical action, to act like motor neurons that control muscles. (myscience.org)
- This unit covers the surface anatomy of the human brain, its internal structure, and the overall organization of sensory and motor systems in the brainstem and spinal cord. (coursera.org)
- The cerebral cortex informs the spinal cord about the desired voluntary movements both directly via the corticospinal tract (CST) and/or indirectly via the corticorubral, corticotectal and the corticobulbar (corticoreticular) projections which connect the cerebral cortex with different levels of the brainstem that in turn projects to the spinal cord ( Lemon, 2008 ). (frontiersin.org)
- In the CNS, neurons are topographically organized either as aggregates (nuclei, ganglia) or as elongated columns or layers (such as the intermediolateral gray column of the spinal cord or the six-layered cerebral cortex). (humpath.com)
- This allows a given DPM to participate in the computations taking place in other areas of cerebral cortex or in the brainstem or spinal cord. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- A summary of brain structure and function reveals the importance of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) to creative thinking. (dana.org)
- The pontine micturition center controls the bladder state between storage and voiding by communicating with other brain regions including the medial prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, and periaqueductal gray ( Fig. 1 ). (einj.org)
- They used two paradigms that differed widely in musical complexity and found that improvisation was consistently characterized by a dissociated pattern of activity in the prefrontal cortex 17 . (nature.com)
- The Frontal Eye Field (FEF) is a region of primate prefrontal cortex defined as the area in which low-current electrical stimulation evokes saccadic eye movements . (scholarpedia.org)
- 1952). In the modern era of brain research this small sliver of the prefrontal cortex (PFC) known as the Frontal Eye Field (FEF) is localized to the area of PFC from which short-latency saccadic eye movements ( saccades ) can be evoked reliably by electrical stimulation using relatively low electrical currents (Robinson and Fuchs, 1969). (scholarpedia.org)
- Cell type-specific three-dimensional structure of thalamocortical circuits in a column of rat vibrissal cortex. (nature.com)
- We chose the blowfly as a model system because the cells and circuits that process visual motion information and contribute to motor control are exceptionally well studied (reviewed in Krapp and Wicklein 2008 ). (physiology.org)
- A guiding hypothesis is that the plasticity of neurotransmission plays a major part in controlling the input-output relation of sensory circuits, regulating the tuning and sensitivity of neurons to allow adaptation or sensitization to particular features of the input. (sussex.ac.uk)
- The findings suggest that image-processing circuits in the primary visual cortex not only are more active when animals move, but that they receive signals from a movement-controlling region of the brain that is independent from the region that processes what the animal is looking at. (genengnews.com)
- The optic tectum contains motor circuits for the control of eye and orienting/evasive movements and receives visual input arranged in a retinotopic map. (ki.se)
- Define how the visual cortex, the spinal limbed locomotor circuits, and the cortical hemispheric dominance on handedness and chest wall respiratory function influence lower extremity sense, support and stability during forward locomotor movement. (posturalrestoration.com)
- Motor cortical circuits have been hypothesized to provide execution errors that drive adaptation, but human imaging studies to date have reported that execution errors are encoded in parietal association areas. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
- The results indicate for the first time that motor cortical circuits provide error signals that drive trial-by-trial adaptation in reaching movements. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
- 26. A Cerebellar circuits decussate twice before reaching the lower motor neurons. (brainaacn.org)
- Intracortical multiplication of thalamocortical signals in mouse auditory cortex. (addgene.org)
- Scaling down of balanced excitation and inhibition by active behavioral states in auditory cortex. (addgene.org)
- The auditory cortex is the part of the temporal lobe that processes auditory information in humans and many other vertebrates . (wikipedia.org)
- BA41(red) and BA42(green) are auditory cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- The auditory cortex takes part in the spectrotemporal, meaning involving time and frequency, analysis of the inputs passed on from the ear. (wikipedia.org)
- The auditory cortex was previously subdivided into primary (A1) and secondary (A2) projection areas and further association areas. (wikipedia.org)
- The modern divisions of the auditory cortex are the core (which includes primary auditory cortex, A1), the belt (secondary auditory cortex, A2), and the parabelt (tertiary auditory cortex, A3). (wikipedia.org)
- Data about the auditory cortex has been obtained through studies in rodents, cats, macaques, and other animals. (wikipedia.org)
- Sexual dimorphism within the auditory cortex can be seen in humans between males in females through the planum temporale, encompassing Wernicke's region, for the platnum temporale within males has been observed to have a larger platinum temporale volume on average, reflecting previous studies discussing interactions between sex hormones and asymmetrical brain development. (wikipedia.org)
- Damage to the auditory cortex in humans leads to a loss of any awareness of sound, but an ability to react reflexively to sounds remains as there is a great deal of subcortical processing in the auditory brainstem and midbrain . (wikipedia.org)
- Neurons in the auditory cortex are organized according to the frequency of sound to which they respond best. (wikipedia.org)
Human Cerebral Cortex3
- von Economo, C. The Cytoarchitectonics of the Human Cerebral Cortex (Oxford Univ. (nature.com)
- Magnetic resonance imaging of the brain (MRI) makes it possible to get a measure for the thickness of the human cerebral cortex and relate it to other measures. (wikipedia.org)
- Traditionally, the association cortex was simply terra incognita , the 90% of human cerebral cortex that isn't motor strip or a primary sensory area. (williamcalvin.com)
- Individual neurons encoded task-specific responses, but every brain area contained neurons with different types of response. (sciencemag.org)
- He arbitrarily routed the electrical activity recorded by the electrodes - representing the spiking of several individual neurons - to a device that raised or lowered the pitch of an audible tone depending on which neurons were active. (myscience.org)
- Georgopoulos AP, Kalaska JF, Caminiti R, Massey JT (1982) On the relations between the direction of two-dimensional arm movements and cell discharge in primate motor cortex. (springer.com)
- Correct binocular eye alignment and conjugate gaze are critical components for normal development of the primate visual system. (arvojournals.org)
- In areas MSTD and VIP of primate multi-sensory cortex, it has been found that some neurons exhibit invariant head direction tuning regardless of sensory modalities, i.e., each of these congruent cells is tuned to a specific heading direction of the animal irrespective whether the head direction cue is coming from the visual system or the vestibular system. (cmu.edu)
- An allergic manifestation seen in any study as being sexually abused as a lower motor neurons during voluntary movements of the ventricular cavity and provide innervation amazon viagra to muscle wasting. (bigsurlandtrust.org)
- Primary motor cortex (MI) and parietal area PE both participate in cortical control of reaching actions, but few studies have been able to directly compare the form of kinematic encoding in the two areas simultaneously during hand tracking movements. (springer.com)
- Buneo CA, Andersen RA (2006) The posterior parietal cortex: sensorimotor interface for the planning and online control of visually guided movements. (springer.com)
- For instance, a number of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have investigated effects of manipulating visual orientation during the observation of hand movements. (frontiersin.org)
- The results of the study are published in Neuron, in the article, " Encoding of 3D Head Orienting Movements in the Primary Visual Cortex . (genengnews.com)
- Stepniewska, I., Fang, P.-C. and Kaas, J.H. Microstimulation reveals specialized subregions for different complex movements in posterior parietal cortex of prosimian galagos. (vanderbilt.edu)
- The role of primary motor cortex (M1) in controlling movements has been a long-debated subject because M1 neurons have been shown to relate to many different aspects of motor control. (queensu.ca)
- Second, besides the anticipated deficits in eye movements, experimenters noted a profound cognitive and perceptual deficit: "After unilateral ablation of area 8 [(the FEF),] objects in the contralateral visual field are ignored. (scholarpedia.org)
- As the consequence of imaging process, certain characteristics of the brainwaves are raised and can be used for user's command recognition, e.g. motor mu waves (brain waves of alpha range frequency associated with physical movements or intention to move). (scribd.com)
- Frontal Lobe - Cortical Regions Primary Motor Cortex (Precentral Gyrus) - Cortical site with controlling movements of the body. (scribd.com)
- By peering into the eyes of mice and tracking their ocular movements, researchers made an unexpected discovery: the visual cortex - a region of the brain known to process sensory information - plays a key role in promoting the plasticity of innate, spontaneous eye movements. (nih.gov)
- Motor cortical areas have been shown to send projections to the SC mainly to the intermediate and deep layers. (frontiersin.org)
- Cortical areas have specific functions such as movement in the motor cortex , and sight in the visual cortex . (wikipedia.org)
- The thickness of different cortical areas varies but in general, sensory cortex is thinner than motor cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- As with other primary sensory cortical areas, auditory sensations reach perception only if received and processed by a cortical area. (wikipedia.org)
- So for any column of cortex, the bottom layers are like a subcortical OUT box, the middle layer like an IN box, and the superficial layers somewhat like an INTEROFFICE box connecting the columns and different cortical areas. (williamcalvin.com)
- Archambault PS, Caminiti R, Battaglia-Mayer A (2009) Cortical mechanisms for online control of hand movement trajectory: the role of the posterior parietal cortex. (springer.com)
- The brain is functionally divided into the frontal lobe and three posterior cortices known as the occipital, the parietal, and the temporal (OPT). (dana.org)
- If a new FGF8 source is introduced at the posterior pole of the cortical primordium, posterior cortex is induced to take on a more anterior fate ( Fukuchi-Shimogori and Grove, 2001 ). (biologists.org)
- Neuromodulatory and metaplastic regulation of long-term synaptic plasticity in the primary visual cortex of adult rats. (queensu.ca)
- To test the visual cortex's role in the plasticity of these reflexes, the researchers applied a technique called optogenetics, which uses light to turn target cells on or off. (nih.gov)
- Silencing the visual cortex led to a significant reduction in the activity of the optokinetic reflex, suggesting that it is the visual cortex that is involved in mediating the plasticity between the optokinetic and the vestibulo-ocular reflexes. (nih.gov)
- These drives are established through the activity of populations of hypothalamic neurons that sense physiological variables and relay this information to other parts of the brain. (sciencemag.org)
- Furthermore, the fetal graft may produce trophic factors or signaling cues, which are present in the brain only at early developmental stages, and should reactivate neurotropic processes in a 'dormant' host neuron populations. (utah.edu)
- Inhibitory interneurons synthesize the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), and their processes remain within the boundaries of their area of the cortex. (scienceblogs.com)
- The researchers targeted inhibitory neurons in the visual cortex to turn them "on," thus silencing that region of the brain. (nih.gov)
Groups of neurons3
- How is it that groups of neurons dispersed through the brain interact to generate complex behaviors? (sciencemag.org)
- Synfire chains-networks in which groups of neurons are connected via excitatory synapses into a unidirectional chain-are thought to underlie the generation of such sequences. (yale.edu)
- We arbitrarily hijacked small groups of neurons in the visual cortex and virtually re-routed their output to make them control a brain-machine interface, or BMI," said Jose Carmena, senior author of a paper about the development that will appear March 1 in the journal Neuron . (myscience.org)
Surface of the cerebral cortex2
- In larger mammals, including humans, the surface of the cerebral cortex folds to create gyri (ridges) and sulci (furrows) which increase the surface area. (wikipedia.org)
- The surface of the cerebral cortex is highly convoluted in large mammals, with the folds and grooves allowing a much greater surface area in a confined space as in the skull. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- An inflammatory disorder of the facial nerve in man resulting in lower motor neuron facial muscle weakness, hyperacusis, impaired taste and impaired lacrimation. (neuropetvet.com)
- In other cases, namely the urban pattern in which the lower motor neuron (UMN) facial weakness caused by a cold, mottled appearance and mild extrapyramidal or parkinsonian side effects. (cide.edu)
- Four subdivisions of the corpus callosum were segmented in individual native space according to cortical projection zones (occipital, temporal, motor and anterior-frontal). (stanford.edu)
- Fractional anisotropy (FA) and R1 were quantified along the tract trajectory of each subdivision and compared across two birth groups.RESULTS: Compared to controls, preterm children demonstrated significantly decreased FA in 3 of 4 analyzed corpus callosum subdivisions (temporal, motor, and anterior frontal segments) and decreased R1 in only 2 of 4 corpus callosum subdivisions (temporal and motor segments). (stanford.edu)
- Our findings in one patient with early primary visual cortex damage suggest that this nonconscious visuomotor ability depends partly on the compensatory activity of the intact hemisphere, which can be dynamically recruited through the corpus callosum. (pnas.org)
- The two hemispheres are joined beneath the cortex by the corpus callosum . (wikipedia.org)
- The cerebral cortex is generally classified into four lobes: the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital lobes. (wikipedia.org)
- The lobes of the cerebral cortex include the frontal (blue), temporal (green), occipital (red), and parietal lobes (yellow). (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- D. Know what the lobes of cortex and what they relate too. (majortests.com)
- Or only a subset of long-range projection cells in frontal lobes that project to the sensory cortices in the back? (scholarpedia.org)
- In the frontal lobes, the bilateral inferior frontal gyri (IFG, including the pars opercularis), precentral gyrus (PcG), middle frontal gyrus (MfG), supplementary motor area (SMA), and regions of the anterior insula were regions consistently activated during motor imagery. (intechopen.com)
- Similarities in neocortical circuit organization across areas and species suggest a common strategy to process diverse types of information, including sensation from diverse modalities, motor control and higher cognitive processes. (nature.com)
- 12 A primary difference between our brains and those of other animals is our capacity to engage in cognitive abilities such as reasoning, representation, association, working memory, and self-reflection. (dana.org)
- It has been suggested that right handedness evolved in the context of escalating motor and cognitive demands related to tool use. (diva-portal.org)
- Compensation of cognitive and motor deficits after unilateral lesions to the frontal or parietal cortex has been extensively investigated in neurological patients ( 2 , 3 ) as well as animal models ( 4 ), revealing transcallosal recruitment of homologous areas in the intact hemisphere. (pnas.org)
- Motor imagery is a cognitive process in which a subject only imagines completing a movement, without tensing any muscles ( Figure 1(a) ) [ 2 ]. (intechopen.com)
- Although action observation was associated with increases in corticospinal excitability (reflecting putative human mirror neuron activity), there was no effect of visual perspective. (frontiersin.org)
- These findings are discussed in the context of contemporary theories of mirror neuron ontogeny, including models concerning associative learning and evolutionary adaptation. (frontiersin.org)
- an analogous "mirror neuron system" (MNS) has since been established in humans ( Rizzolatti and Fabbri-Destro, 2010 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Given a proposed link to interpersonal understanding, there has been some interest in the degree to which a mirror neuron response is modulated by the perspective from which an action is presented (e.g., self/egocentric vs. other/allocentric perspective). (frontiersin.org)
- The cortical mirror system reflects the cortical motor system: comment on "Grasping synergies: a motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by A. D'Ausilio et al. (nottingham.ac.uk)
- In humans, this highly folded nature with gyri and sulci is particularly pronounced, and allowing some 15-33 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex, each connected by synapses to several thousand other neurons. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- There are between 14 and 16 billion neurons in the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- The data showed that on average, neurons in the rats' visual cortices were more active when the animals moved than when they rested, even in the dark. (genengnews.com)
- The plástic changes were also observed in the older rats, suggesting that motor cortex maintains its plástic capacity throughout the lifespan. (conicyt.cl)
- 1995). Similarly, rats trained a complex motor task show an increase in the number of synapses per Purkinje cell, which persisted after 28 days (Kleim et al. (conicyt.cl)
- Neely implanted 16 electrodes into the visual cortex (V1) of 12 rats. (myscience.org)
- All rats learned to produce spike activity in the correct set of neurons, while silencing other neurons, in order to obtain the reward. (myscience.org)
Areas of cortex1
Amyotrophic lateral s8
- Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a progressive motor neuron disorder that involves degeneration of both upper and lower motor neurons. (ajnr.org)
- In patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, pathologic studies and ex vivo high-resolution MR imaging at ultra-high field strength revealed the co-localization of iron and activated microglia distributed in the deep layers of the primary motor cortex. (ajnr.org)
- The aims of the study were to measure the cortical thickness and evaluate the distribution of iron-related signal changes in the primary motor cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis as possible in vivo biomarkers of upper motor neuron impairment. (ajnr.org)
- Twenty-two patients with definite amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and 14 healthy subjects underwent a high-resolution 2D multiecho gradient-recalled sequence targeted on the primary motor cortex by using a 7T scanner. (ajnr.org)
- The combined high spatial resolution and sensitivity to paramagnetic substances of 7T MR imaging demonstrate in vivo signal changes of the cerebral motor cortex that resemble the distribution of activated microglia within the cortex of patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (ajnr.org)
- Cortical thinning and signal hypointensity of the deep layers of the primary motor cortex could constitute a marker of upper motor neuron impairment in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. (ajnr.org)
- Patients who suffer from severe motor impairments (late stage of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), severe cerebral palsy, head trauma and spinal injuries) may use such a BCI system as an alternative form of communication by mental activity. (scribd.com)
- Virginia Tech Carilion Research Institute scientists have shown that mutations in specific genes that destroy motor neurons and thereby cause the devastating effects of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-- also known as ALS or Lou Gehrig's disease -- also attack sensory neurons. (news-medical.net)
- A rapid, transient, all-or-none electrical impulse generated by a neuron at the axon hillock propagated toward the synapse. (neuropetvet.com)
- That neuron sends a signal along its axon to excite the biceps brachii, causing contraction of the muscle and flexion of the forearm at the elbow to withdraw the hand from the hot stove. (lumenlearning.com)
- Fourth, to restore some visual function in blind animals by targeting optogenetic sensors to LGN cells and stimulating their axon terminals with light patterns. (europa.eu)
- 2014). Recent studies have indicated that specific retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and neurons in their non-image-forming target nuclei can express the same guidance molecules, the deletion of which causes defects in retinal axon targeting (Osterhout et al. (deepdyve.com)
- Like the Ten-m family, Ten-m3 plays a critical role in regulating connectivity of the nervous system, particularly in axon pathfinding and synaptic organisation in the motor and visual system. (wikipedia.org)
- In human lateral temporal cortex, some regions show specific sensitivity to human motion. (harvard.edu)
- The final outcome of all of the computations in a given DPM is a spatio-temporal pattern of activity in the module's output vector, representing the activity in its set of cortical output neurons. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Then, visual signals contained in these patterns are decoded further downstream, mediating behaviors ( 2 ). (pnas.org)
- Bansal AK, Truccolo W, Vargas-Irwin CE, Donoghue JP (2011) Decoding 3-D reach and grasp from hybrid signals in motor and premotor cortices: spikes, multiunit activity and local field potentials. (springer.com)
- 2000). The property that makes neurons unique is their ability to send signals to specific target cells over long distances. (newworldencyclopedia.org)
- Thus, in order to understand the interaction between gaze motor and visual signals, we studied perception during eye-head gaze shifts and found a powerful compression of visual space that was spatially directed toward the intended gaze (and not the eye movement) target location. (arvojournals.org)
- Zirnsak, Lappe, & Hamker, 2010 ) has suggested that compression may be explained by the interaction of sensory (i.e., visual) and extraretinal (i.e., motor) signals on a retinotopically encoded logarithmic map of visual space. (arvojournals.org)
- Besides receiving input from the ears via lower parts of the auditory system, it also transmits signals back to these areas and is interconnected with other parts of the cerebral cortex. (wikipedia.org)
- the other end of this spectrum is a "dense" representation, in which signals are encoded by changes in the firing rates of large numbers of neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- show that error signals encoded by motor cortical neurons drive adaptation in reaching. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
- To learn more about this research, please view the full research report entitled " Error signals in motor cortices drive adaptation in reaching " at this page of the Neuron website. (osaka-u.ac.jp)
- 1997 ). This compression of visual space is due in part to an extraretinal signal related to the eye movement command, since little or no such effect is observed in the absence of an eye movement (Morrone, Ross, & Burr, 1997 ). (arvojournals.org)
- To better understand the relationship between movement and vision, a team of researchers looked at what happens in one of the brain's primary regions for analyzing imagery when animals are free to roam naturally. (genengnews.com)
- In fact, the researchers describe two sets of movement-related patterns in the visual cortex that are based on head motion and whether an animal is in the light or the dark. (genengnews.com)
- It was really surprising to see this type of [movement-related] information in the visual cortex because traditionally people have thought of the visual cortex as something that only processes images," said Grigori Guitchounts, PhD, a postdoctoral researcher in the neurobiology department at Harvard Medical School and the study's lead author. (genengnews.com)
- Many experiments since then have followed their model, but it did not illuminate how movement affects the neurons that analyze. (genengnews.com)
- Furthermore, repetitive high frequency burst spiking of a single rat cortical neuron could trigger a switch between the cortical states resembling slow-wave and rapid-eye-movement sleep [ 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
- It is well known that neurons in primary motor cortex change their tuning to movement when arm workspace changes. (cmu.edu)
- Abstract] In the mammalian visual system, early stages of visual form perception begin with orientation selective neurons in primary visual cortex (V1). (bio-protocol.org)
- These same types of experiments have more recently demonstrated that the FEF also participates in the control of visual selective attention . (scholarpedia.org)
- This result suggests that attention modulates a selective subpopulation of neurons in motor areas, those with directional tuning values in or near the training direction. (arvojournals.org)