The semilunar-shaped ganglion containing the cells of origin of most of the sensory fibers of the trigeminal nerve. It is situated within the dural cleft on the cerebral surface of the petrous portion of the temporal bone and gives off the ophthalmic, maxillary, and part of the mandibular nerves.
Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.
The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.
That portion of the stomach remaining after gastric surgery, usually gastrectomy or gastroenterostomy for cancer of the stomach or peptic ulcer. It is a common site of cancer referred to as stump cancer or carcinoma of the gastric stump.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Clusters of neurons in the somatic peripheral nervous system which contain the cell bodies of sensory nerve axons. Sensory ganglia may also have intrinsic interneurons and non-neuronal supporting cells.
An alkylamide found in CAPSICUM that acts at TRPV CATION CHANNELS.
Calcitonin gene-related peptide. A 37-amino acid peptide derived from the calcitonin gene. It occurs as a result of alternative processing of mRNA from the calcitonin gene. The neuropeptide is widely distributed in neural tissue of the brain, gut, perivascular nerves, and other tissue. The peptide produces multiple biological effects and has both circulatory and neurotransmitter modes of action. In particular, it is a potent endogenous vasodilator.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Neurons of the innermost layer of the retina, the internal plexiform layer. They are of variable sizes and shapes, and their axons project via the OPTIC NERVE to the brain. A small subset of these cells act as photoreceptors with projections to the SUPRACHIASMATIC NUCLEUS, the center for regulating CIRCADIAN RHYTHM.
The ability of a pathogenic virus to lie dormant within a cell (latent infection). In eukaryotes, subsequent activation and viral replication is thought to be caused by extracellular stimulation of cellular transcription factors. Latency in bacteriophage is maintained by the expression of virally encoded repressors.
Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
The inferior (caudal) ganglion of the vagus (10th cranial) nerve. The unipolar nodose ganglion cells are sensory cells with central projections to the medulla and peripheral processes traveling in various branches of the vagus nerve.
A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 or type 2 that is characterized by the development of one or more small fluid-filled vesicles with a raised erythematous base on the skin or mucous membrane. It occurs as a primary infection or recurs due to a reactivation of a latent infection. (Dorland, 27th ed.)
Genes that determine the fate of a cell or CELLS in a region of the embryo during EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Large subcortical nuclear masses derived from the telencephalon and located in the basal regions of the cerebral hemispheres.
The non-neuronal cells that surround the neuronal cell bodies of the GANGLIA. They are distinguished from the perineuronal satellite oligodendrocytes (OLIGODENDROGLIA) found in the central nervous system.
The type species of SIMPLEXVIRUS causing most forms of non-genital herpes simplex in humans. Primary infection occurs mainly in infants and young children and then the virus becomes latent in the dorsal root ganglion. It then is periodically reactivated throughout life causing mostly benign conditions.
Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.
HORMONES secreted by the gastrointestinal mucosa that affect the timing or the quality of secretion of digestive enzymes, and regulate the motor activity of the digestive system organs.
Ganglia of the parasympathetic nervous system, including the ciliary, pterygopalatine, submandibular, and otic ganglia in the cranial region and intrinsic (terminal) ganglia associated with target organs in the thorax and abdomen.
The mechanism by which latent viruses, such as genetically transmitted tumor viruses (PROVIRUSES) or PROPHAGES of lysogenic bacteria, are induced to replicate and then released as infectious viruses. It may be effected by various endogenous and exogenous stimuli, including B-cell LIPOPOLYSACCHARIDES, glucocorticoid hormones, halogenated pyrimidines, IONIZING RADIATION, ultraviolet light, and superinfecting viruses.
A purinergic P2X neurotransmitter receptor involved in sensory signaling of TASTE PERCEPTION, chemoreception, visceral distension, and NEUROPATHIC PAIN. The receptor comprises three P2X3 subunits. The P2X3 subunits are also associated with P2X2 RECEPTOR subunits in a heterotrimeric receptor variant.
An eleven-amino acid neurotransmitter that appears in both the central and peripheral nervous systems. It is involved in transmission of PAIN, causes rapid contractions of the gastrointestinal smooth muscle, and modulates inflammatory and immune responses.
A superficial, epithelial Herpesvirus hominis infection of the cornea, characterized by the presence of small vesicles which may break down and coalesce to form dendritic ulcers (KERATITIS, DENDRITIC). (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
An increased sensation of pain or discomfort produced by mimimally noxious stimuli due to damage to soft tissue containing NOCICEPTORS or injury to a peripheral nerve.
Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.
Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
Factors which enhance the growth potentialities of sensory and sympathetic nerve cells.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that is expressed in nociceptors, including spinal and trigeminal sensory neurons. It plays a role in the transmission of pain signals induced by cold, heat, and mechanical stimuli.
A POU domain factor that activates GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS; alpha internexin; SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25; and BCL-2 PROTO-ONCOGENE PROTEINS.
Sensing of noxious mechanical, thermal or chemical stimuli by NOCICEPTORS. It is the sensory component of visceral and tissue pain (NOCICEPTIVE PAIN).
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE, consisting of herpes simplex-like viruses. The type species is HERPESVIRUS 1, HUMAN.
A form of herpetic keratitis characterized by the formation of small vesicles which break down and coalesce to form recurring dendritic ulcers, characteristically irregular, linear, branching, and ending in knoblike extremities. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 3d ed)
Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.
The 31 paired peripheral nerves formed by the union of the dorsal and ventral spinal roots from each spinal cord segment. The spinal nerve plexuses and the spinal roots are also included.
Neurons which activate MUSCLE CELLS.
The intermediate sensory division of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The maxillary nerve carries general afferents from the intermediate region of the face including the lower eyelid, nose and upper lip, the maxillary teeth, and parts of the dura.
Transection or severing of an axon. This type of denervation is used often in experimental studies on neuronal physiology and neuronal death or survival, toward an understanding of nervous system disease.
The largest and uppermost of the paravertebral sympathetic ganglia.
A GATA transcription factor that is expressed predominately in SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS and regulates vascular smooth muscle CELL DIFFERENTIATION.
A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.
A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
A paravertebral sympathetic ganglion formed by the fusion of the inferior cervical and first thoracic ganglia.
Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Cell surface proteins that bind CALCITONIN GENE-RELATED PEPTIDE with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes which influence the behavior of cells. CGRP receptors are present in both the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM and the periphery. They are formed via the heterodimerization of the CALCITONIN RECEPTOR-LIKE PROTEIN and RECEPTOR ACTIVITY-MODIFYING PROTEIN 1.
Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.
The sensory ganglion of the COCHLEAR NERVE. The cells of the spiral ganglion send fibers peripherally to the cochlear hair cells and centrally to the COCHLEAR NUCLEI of the BRAIN STEM.
The 9th cranial nerve. The glossopharyngeal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve; it conveys somatic and autonomic efferents as well as general, special, and visceral afferents. Among the connections are motor fibers to the stylopharyngeus muscle, parasympathetic fibers to the parotid glands, general and taste afferents from the posterior third of the tongue, the nasopharynx, and the palate, and afferents from baroreceptors and CHEMORECEPTOR CELLS of the carotid sinus.
A nerve which originates in the lumbar and sacral spinal cord (L4 to S3) and supplies motor and sensory innervation to the lower extremity. The sciatic nerve, which is the main continuation of the sacral plexus, is the largest nerve in the body. It has two major branches, the TIBIAL NERVE and the PERONEAL NERVE.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; NEUROTROPHIN 3; neurotrophin 4, neurotrophin 5. It plays a crucial role in pain sensation and thermoregulation in humans. Gene mutations that cause loss of receptor function are associated with CONGENITAL INSENSITIVITY TO PAIN WITH ANHIDROSIS, while gene rearrangements that activate the protein-tyrosine kinase function are associated with tumorigenesis.
A syndrome characterized by recurrent episodes of excruciating pain lasting several seconds or longer in the sensory distribution of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. Pain may be initiated by stimulation of trigger points on the face, lips, or gums or by movement of facial muscles or chewing. Associated conditions include MULTIPLE SCLEROSIS, vascular anomalies, ANEURYSMS, and neoplasms. (Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p187)
Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.
Slender processes of NEURONS, including the AXONS and their glial envelopes (MYELIN SHEATH). Nerve fibers conduct nerve impulses to and from the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.
Intense or aching pain that occurs along the course or distribution of a peripheral or cranial nerve.
The caudal portion of the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), a nucleus involved with pain and temperature sensation.
Renewal or physiological repair of damaged nerve tissue.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype found in the neurons of the NERVOUS SYSTEM and DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. It may play a role in the generation of heat and mechanical pain hypersensitivity.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
Peptides released by NEURONS as intercellular messengers. Many neuropeptides are also hormones released by non-neuronal cells.
A highly contagious herpesvirus infection affecting the central nervous system of swine, cattle, dogs, cats, rats, and other animals.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes INFECTIOUS BOVINE RHINOTRACHEITIS and other associated syndromes in CATTLE.
A neurotrophic factor involved in regulating the survival of visceral and proprioceptive sensory neurons. It is closely homologous to nerve growth factor beta and BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A general term indicating inflammation of a peripheral or cranial nerve. Clinical manifestation may include PAIN; PARESTHESIAS; PARESIS; or HYPESTHESIA.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
A member of the nerve growth factor family of trophic factors. In the brain BDNF has a trophic action on retinal, cholinergic, and dopaminergic neurons, and in the peripheral nervous system it acts on both motor and sensory neurons. (From Kendrew, The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994)
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
The outermost of the three MENINGES, a fibrous membrane of connective tissue that covers the brain and the spinal cord.
A class of disabling primary headache disorders, characterized by recurrent unilateral pulsatile headaches. The two major subtypes are common migraine (without aura) and classic migraine (with aura or neurological symptoms). (International Classification of Headache Disorders, 2nd ed. Cephalalgia 2004: suppl 1)
Traumatic injuries to the TRIGEMINAL NERVE. It may result in extreme pain, abnormal sensation in the areas the nerve innervates on face, jaw, gums and tongue and can cause difficulties with speech and chewing. It is sometimes associated with various dental treatments.
A genus of the family HERPESVIRIDAE, subfamily ALPHAHERPESVIRINAE. Its species include those causing CHICKENPOX and HERPES ZOSTER in humans (HERPESVIRUS 3, HUMAN), as well as several animal viruses.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
An opisthobranch mollusk of the order Anaspidea. It is used frequently in studies of nervous system development because of its large identifiable neurons. Aplysiatoxin and its derivatives are not biosynthesized by Aplysia, but acquired by ingestion of Lyngbya (seaweed) species.
A family of mammalian POU domain factors that are expressed predominately in NEURONS.
Drugs that act on neuronal sensory receptors resulting in an increase, decrease, or modification of afferent nerve activity. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p367)
Neurons in the OLFACTORY EPITHELIUM with proteins (RECEPTORS, ODORANT) that bind, and thus detect, odorants. These neurons send their DENDRITES to the surface of the epithelium with the odorant receptors residing in the apical non-motile cilia. Their unmyelinated AXONS synapse in the OLFACTORY BULB of the BRAIN.
Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.
The non-neuronal cells of the nervous system. They not only provide physical support, but also respond to injury, regulate the ionic and chemical composition of the extracellular milieu, participate in the BLOOD-BRAIN BARRIER and BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER, form the myelin insulation of nervous pathways, guide neuronal migration during development, and exchange metabolites with neurons. Neuroglia have high-affinity transmitter uptake systems, voltage-dependent and transmitter-gated ion channels, and can release transmitters, but their role in signaling (as in many other functions) is unclear.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS producing a respiratory infection (PSEUDORABIES) in swine, its natural host. It also produces an usually fatal ENCEPHALOMYELITIS in cattle, sheep, dogs, cats, foxes, and mink.
A class of nerve fibers as defined by their nerve sheath arrangement. The AXONS of the unmyelinated nerve fibers are small in diameter and usually several are surrounded by a single MYELIN SHEATH. They conduct low-velocity impulses, and represent the majority of peripheral sensory and autonomic fibers, but are also found in the BRAIN and SPINAL CORD.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
In tissue culture, hairlike projections of neurons stimulated by growth factors and other molecules. These projections may go on to form a branched tree of dendrites or a single axon or they may be reabsorbed at a later stage of development. "Neurite" may refer to any filamentous or pointed outgrowth of an embryonal or tissue-culture neural cell.
Virus diseases caused by the HERPESVIRIDAE.
The developmental entity of a fertilized chicken egg (ZYGOTE). The developmental process begins about 24 h before the egg is laid at the BLASTODISC, a small whitish spot on the surface of the EGG YOLK. After 21 days of incubation, the embryo is fully developed before hatching.
An articulation between the condyle of the mandible and the articular tubercle of the temporal bone.
A masticatory muscle whose action is closing the jaws.
A sensory branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The ophthalmic nerve carries general afferents from the superficial division of the face including the eyeball, conjunctiva, upper eyelid, upper nose, nasal mucosa, and scalp.
A species of VARICELLOVIRUS that causes a fatal MENINGOENCEPHALITIS in calves.
A richly vascularized and innervated connective tissue of mesodermal origin, contained in the central cavity of a tooth and delimited by the dentin, and having formative, nutritive, sensory, and protective functions. (Jablonski, Dictionary of Dentistry, 1992)
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Infections of the eye caused by minute intracellular agents. These infections may lead to severe inflammation in various parts of the eye - conjunctiva, iris, eyelids, etc. Several viruses have been identified as the causative agents. Among these are Herpesvirus, Adenovirus, Poxvirus, and Myxovirus.
A protein-tyrosine kinase receptor that is specific for NEUROTROPHIN 3. It is widely expressed in nervous tissue and may play a role in mediating the effects of NEUROTROPHIN 3 on the proliferation and differentiation of NEURONS.
A serotonin agonist that acts selectively at 5HT1 receptors. It is used in the treatment of MIGRAINE DISORDERS.
The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.
The organ of sight constituting a pair of globular organs made up of a three-layered roughly spherical structure specialized for receiving and responding to light.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
The nervous system outside of the brain and spinal cord. The peripheral nervous system has autonomic and somatic divisions. The autonomic nervous system includes the enteric, parasympathetic, and sympathetic subdivisions. The somatic nervous system includes the cranial and spinal nerves and their ganglia and the peripheral sensory receptors.
Any of several BRASSICA species that are commonly called mustard. Brassica alba is white mustard, B. juncea is brown or Chinese mustard, and B. nigra is black, brown, or red mustard. The plant is grown both for mustard seed from which oil is extracted or used as SPICES, and for its greens used as VEGETABLES or ANIMAL FEED. There is no relationship to MUSTARD COMPOUNDS.
The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.
A branch of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The mandibular nerve carries motor fibers to the muscles of mastication and sensory fibers to the teeth and gingivae, the face in the region of the mandible, and parts of the dura.
An intense itching sensation that produces the urge to rub or scratch the skin to obtain relief.
A mononuclear phagocyte colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) synthesized by mesenchymal cells. The compound stimulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of hematopoietic cells of the monocyte-macrophage series. M-CSF is a disulfide-bonded glycoprotein dimer with a MW of 70 kDa. It binds to a specific high affinity receptor (RECEPTOR, MACROPHAGE COLONY-STIMULATING FACTOR).
Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.
NERVE GROWTH FACTOR is the first of a series of neurotrophic factors that were found to influence the growth and differentiation of sympathetic and sensory neurons. It is comprised of alpha, beta, and gamma subunits. The beta subunit is responsible for its growth stimulating activity.
Diseases of the BASAL GANGLIA including the PUTAMEN; GLOBUS PALLIDUS; claustrum; AMYGDALA; and CAUDATE NUCLEUS. DYSKINESIAS (most notably involuntary movements and alterations of the rate of movement) represent the primary clinical manifestations of these disorders. Common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; NEURODEGENERATIVE DISEASES; and CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA.
The ten-layered nervous tissue membrane of the eye. It is continuous with the OPTIC NERVE and receives images of external objects and transmits visual impulses to the brain. Its outer surface is in contact with the CHOROID and the inner surface with the VITREOUS BODY. The outer-most layer is pigmented, whereas the inner nine layers are transparent.
A voltage-gated sodium channel beta subunit that binds covalently to voltage-gated alpha subunits.
Neurons in the SPINAL CORD DORSAL HORN whose cell bodies and processes are confined entirely to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. They receive collateral or direct terminations of dorsal root fibers. They send their axons either directly to ANTERIOR HORN CELLS or to the WHITE MATTER ascending and descending longitudinal fibers.
Pain in the facial region including orofacial pain and craniofacial pain. Associated conditions include local inflammatory and neoplastic disorders and neuralgic syndromes involving the trigeminal, facial, and glossopharyngeal nerves. Conditions which feature recurrent or persistent facial pain as the primary manifestation of disease are referred to as FACIAL PAIN SYNDROMES.
Cell surface receptors that bind NERVE GROWTH FACTOR; (NGF) and a NGF-related family of neurotrophic factors that includes neurotrophins, BRAIN-DERIVED NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR and CILIARY NEUROTROPHIC FACTOR.
A GUANOSINE analog that acts as an antimetabolite. Viruses are especially susceptible. Used especially against herpes.
The type species of VARICELLOVIRUS causing CHICKENPOX (varicella) and HERPES ZOSTER (shingles) in humans.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
A CELL LINE derived from the kidney of the African green (vervet) monkey, (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS) used primarily in virus replication studies and plaque assays.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Cellular receptors which mediate the sense of temperature. Thermoreceptors in vertebrates are mostly located under the skin. In mammals there are separate types of thermoreceptors for cold and for warmth and NOCICEPTORS which detect cold or heat extreme enough to cause pain.
The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.
Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.
Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The two longitudinal ridges along the PRIMITIVE STREAK appearing near the end of GASTRULATION during development of nervous system (NEURULATION). The ridges are formed by folding of NEURAL PLATE. Between the ridges is a neural groove which deepens as the fold become elevated. When the folds meet at midline, the groove becomes a closed tube, the NEURAL TUBE.
Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.
The process of intracellular viral multiplication, consisting of the synthesis of PROTEINS; NUCLEIC ACIDS; and sometimes LIPIDS, and their assembly into a new infectious particle.
The main information-processing organs of the nervous system, consisting of the brain, spinal cord, and meninges.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A POU domain factor that activates neuronal cell GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25. Mutations in the Brn-3c gene have been associated with DEAFNESS.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
Inflammation caused by an injurious stimulus of peripheral neurons and resulting in release of neuropeptides which affect vascular permeability and help initiate proinflammatory and immune reactions at the site of injury.
The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.
A POU domain factor that represses GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION of GENES encoding NEUROFILAMENT PROTEINS, alpha internexin, and SYNAPTOSOMAL-ASSOCIATED PROTEIN 25.
CIRCULAR DNA that is interlaced together as links in a chain. It is used as an assay for the activity of DNA TOPOISOMERASES. Catenated DNA is attached loop to loop in contrast to CONCATENATED DNA which is attached end to end.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
Disorders of one or more of the twelve cranial nerves. With the exception of the optic and olfactory nerves, this includes disorders of the brain stem nuclei from which the cranial nerves originate or terminate.
A subfamily of HERPESVIRIDAE characterized by a short replication cycle. The genera include: SIMPLEXVIRUS; VARICELLOVIRUS; MAREK'S DISEASE-LIKE VIRUSES; and ILTOVIRUS.
A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.
The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.
That portion of the nasal mucosa containing the sensory nerve endings for SMELL, located at the dome of each NASAL CAVITY. The yellow-brownish olfactory epithelium consists of OLFACTORY RECEPTOR NEURONS; brush cells; STEM CELLS; and the associated olfactory glands.
The 4th cranial nerve. The trochlear nerve carries the motor innervation of the superior oblique muscles of the eye.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic factors influence the differential control of gene action in viruses.
Congener of CYTARABINE that is metabolized to cytarabine and thereby maintains a more constant antineoplastic action.
Pain in the adjacent areas of the teeth.
The 3d cranial nerve. The oculomotor nerve sends motor fibers to the levator muscles of the eyelid and to the superior rectus, inferior rectus, and inferior oblique muscles of the eye. It also sends parasympathetic efferents (via the ciliary ganglion) to the muscles controlling pupillary constriction and accommodation. The motor fibers originate in the oculomotor nuclei of the midbrain.
An enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of ATP and thymidine to ADP and thymidine 5'-phosphate. Deoxyuridine can also act as an acceptor and dGTP as a donor. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 2.7.1.21.
An alcohol produced from mint oils or prepared synthetically.
A technique for maintenance or growth of animal organs in vitro. It refers to three-dimensional cultures of undisaggregated tissue retaining some or all of the histological features of the tissue in vivo. (Freshney, Culture of Animal Cells, 3d ed, p1)
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
Diseases of the peripheral nerves external to the brain and spinal cord, which includes diseases of the nerve roots, ganglia, plexi, autonomic nerves, sensory nerves, and motor nerves.
Formation of NEURONS which involves the differentiation and division of STEM CELLS in which one or both of the daughter cells become neurons.
Application of a ligature to tie a vessel or strangulate a part.
An exotic species of the family CYPRINIDAE, originally from Asia, that has been introduced in North America. They are used in embryological studies and to study the effects of certain chemicals on development.
Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The directed transport of ORGANELLES and molecules along nerve cell AXONS. Transport can be anterograde (from the cell body) or retrograde (toward the cell body). (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, pG3)
A pathological process characterized by injury or destruction of tissues caused by a variety of cytologic and chemical reactions. It is usually manifested by typical signs of pain, heat, redness, swelling, and loss of function.
Decarboxylated monoamine derivatives of TRYPTOPHAN.
The span of viability of a cell characterized by the capacity to perform certain functions such as metabolism, growth, reproduction, some form of responsiveness, and adaptability.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.
The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.
The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.
Diseases of the cornea.
A sensory branch of the MANDIBULAR NERVE, which is part of the trigeminal (5th cranial) nerve. The lingual nerve carries general afferent fibers from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue, the floor of the mouth, and the mandibular gingivae.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
Inflammation of the DENTAL PULP, usually due to bacterial infection in dental caries, tooth fracture, or other conditions causing exposure of the pulp to bacterial invasion. Chemical irritants, thermal factors, hyperemic changes, and other factors may also cause pulpitis.
Ribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of viruses.
Traumatic injuries to the LINGUAL NERVE. It may be a complication following dental treatments.
Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.
A simple organophosphorus compound that inhibits DNA polymerase, especially in viruses and is used as an antiviral agent.
Neurons whose primary neurotransmitter is DOPAMINE.
Proteins that are coded by immediate-early genes, in the absence of de novo protein synthesis. The term was originally used exclusively for viral regulatory proteins that were synthesized just after viral integration into the host cell. It is also used to describe cellular proteins which are synthesized immediately after the resting cell is stimulated by extracellular signals.
The most common inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system.
NERVE FIBERS which project from the central nervous system to AUTONOMIC GANGLIA. In the sympathetic division most preganglionic fibers originate with neurons in the intermediolateral column of the SPINAL CORD, exit via ventral roots from upper thoracic through lower lumbar segments, and project to the paravertebral ganglia; there they either terminate in SYNAPSES or continue through the SPLANCHNIC NERVES to the prevertebral ganglia. In the parasympathetic division the fibers originate in neurons of the BRAIN STEM and sacral spinal cord. In both divisions the principal transmitter is ACETYLCHOLINE but peptide cotransmitters may also be released.
... activated primary sensory neurons (meningeal nociceptors) in the trigeminal ganglion release CGRP from their peripherally ... peptide enhancer by mitogen-activated protein kinases and repression by an antimigraine drug in trigeminal ganglia neurons". ... Activation of primary sensory neurons in the trigeminal vascular system in humans can cause the release of CGRP. During some ... In the trigeminal vascular system, the cell bodies on the trigeminal ganglion are the main source of CGRP. CGRP is thought to ...
... the first-order neuron will be the trigeminal nerve ganglia or the ganglia of other sensory cranial nerves). The second-order ... The first-order neuron is a type of pseudounipolar neuron and always has its cell body in the dorsal root ganglion of the ... Intensity of affective touch is still encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex and is processed in a similar way to emotions ... The axons (as afferent nerve fibers) of sensory neurons connect with, or respond to, various receptor cells. These sensory ...
Central course - special sensory component. The central processes of these neurons exit the inferior ganglion and pass through ... The visceral motor fibers pass through both ganglia without synapsing and exit the inferior ganglion with CN IX general sensory ... Spinal nucleus of the trigeminal nerve: Somatic sensory fibers from the middle ear ... neurons from the thalamus project via the posterior limb of the internal capsule to the inferior one-third of the primary ...
... trigeminal ganglion, and hindbrain sensory ganglia), certain regions of the central nervous system, retinal neurons called ... primary structure, binding specificity, and expression in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and somatosensory neurons". The ... Microarrays have been used to determine many genes downstream of Brn3a in peripheral sensory neurons. In the sensory neurons ... primary structure, binding specificity, and expression in subsets of retinal ganglion cells and somatosensory neurons". The ...
The mesencephalic nucleus is not a true nucleus; it is a sensory ganglion (like the trigeminal ganglion) embedded in the ... The trigeminal ganglion is analogous to the dorsal root ganglia of the spinal cord, which contain the cell bodies of incoming ... "Transient Receptor Potential Channels Encode Volatile Chemicals Sensed by Rat Trigeminal Ganglion Neurons". PLOS ONE. 8 (10): ... The classic diagram implies a single primary sensory map of the body, when there are multiple primary maps. At least four ...
In the somatic nervous system this includes dorsal root ganglia and trigeminal ganglia among a few others. In the autonomic ... The area of the visual cortex that receives the sensory input from the lateral geniculate nucleus is the primary visual cortex ... Gamete - Ganglion - is a group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system. ... Sensory nervous system - Sensory processing - Serratus anterior muscle - Serratus posterior inferior muscle - Serratus ...
... neurons at dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion and sympathetic ganglion neurons, which are part of the autonomic ... the neuron fires. In sensory neurons, multiple voltage-dependent sodium currents can be differentiated by their voltage ... Like primary erythromelalgia, PEPD is similarly the result of a gain-of-function mutation in the gene encoding the Nav1.7 ... Unique splicing patterns are observed in dorsal root ganglia". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (44): 46234-41. doi: ...
... areas tends to be heavier than the input from primary sensory or motor areas.[citation needed] However, the cortical areas ... During fixation, neurons near the front edge - the foveal zone - are tonically active. During smooth pursuit, neurons a small ... Another important input comes from the substantia nigra, pars reticulata, a component of the basal ganglia. This projection ... In other mammals, the retinal ganglion cells throughout the contralateral retina project to the contralateral colliculus. This ...
Sensory neuron, Sensory receptor, Proprioception, and Category:Sensory receptors), as a center for coordinating certain ... primary somatosensory map within the somatosensory cortex), 2. output maps (primary motor map within the primary motor cortex ... See also: olfactory receptor neurons Optic nerve (cranial nerve 2) Sight. See also: retinal ganglion cell Oculomotor nerve ( ... Human brain List of regions in the human brain Lobes of the brain Brain Basal ganglia Brain stem including Medulla oblongata, ...
Just after the facial nerve geniculate ganglion (general sensory ganglion) in the temporal bone, the facial nerve gives off two ... From these four ganglia the parasympathetic nerves complete their journey to target tissues via trigeminal branches (ophthalmic ... the preganglionic neuron releases ACh at the ganglion, which acts on nicotinic receptors of postganglionic neurons. The ... nicotinic receptors are broadly classified into two subtypes based on their primary sites of expression: muscle-type nicotinic ...
... second-order neurons, and third-order neurons. The first-order neurons are sensory neurons located in the dorsal root ganglia, ... The first-order neuron is pseudounipolar in shape with its body in the dorsal root ganglion. The action signal will continue ... Fibres from the trigeminal nerve (supplying the head) come in dorsal to the arm fibres, and travel up the lemniscus too. The ... It transmits information from the body to the primary somatosensory cortex in the postcentral gyrus of the parietal lobe of the ...
The sensory fibers originate from neurons of the nodose ganglion, whereas the motor fibers come from neurons of the dorsal ... which receives afferent taste information and primary afferents from visceral organs The spinal trigeminal nucleus - which ... and pelvic plexuses The celiac ganglia with the sympathetic plexuses of the abdominal viscera radiating from the ganglia The ... Arnold's nerve ear-cough reflex though uncommon is a manifestation of a vagal sensory neuropathy and this is the cause of a ...
... it will be the trigeminal nerve ganglia or the ganglia of other sensory cranial nerves). ... The first neuron always has its cell body in the dorsal root ganglion of the spinal nerve (if sensation is in parts of the head ... A somatosensory pathway will typically have three long neurons:[15] primary, secondary, and tertiary (or first, second, and ... The axons (as afferent nerve fibers) of sensory neurons connect with, or respond to, various receptor cells. These sensory ...
... areas tends to be heavier than the input from primary sensory or motor areas.[citation needed] However, the cortical areas ... During fixation, neurons near the front edge - the foveal zone - are tonically active. During smooth pursuit, neurons a small ... The intermediate and deep layers also receive input from the spinal trigeminal nucleus, which conveys somatosensory information ... In other mammals, the retinal ganglion cells throughout the contralateral retina project to the contralateral colliculus. This ...
... prepyriform cortex presacral space prevertebral fascia primary fissure primary olfactory cortex primary sensory neuron primary ... auscultation triangles of the neck triceps triceps reflex tricuspid valve trigeminal ganglion trigeminal lemniscus trigeminal ... cervical plexus cervical spinal nerves cervical spine cervical sympathetic ganglia cervical vertebrae cervicothoracic ganglion ... reflex galea aponeurotica gall bladder gamma motoneurons ganglion ganglion cell ganglion cell of the retina gasserian ganglion ...
The pterygopalatine ganglia are ganglia (one on each side) of the soft palate. The greater petrosal, lesser palatine and ... "gustatory neurons typically respond to more than one kind of stimulus, [a]lthough each neuron responds most strongly to one ... The lingual nerve (trigeminal, not shown in diagram) is deeply interconnected with the chorda tympani in that it provides all ... Spinal ganglion are involved in movement. The frontal operculum is speculated to be the memory and association hub for taste.[ ...
Synaptic communication between neurons leads to the establishment of functional neural circuits that mediate sensory and motor ... Without this Hoxb-1 expression, a nerve similar to the trigeminal nerve arises. Neurogenesis is the process by which neurons ... developing cochlea generate bursts of activity which spreads across the inner hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons which ... As the embryo develops, the anterior part of the neural tube expands and forms three primary brain vesicles, which become the ...
sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... in the primary motor cortex, Brodmann area 4) and termination (onto the alpha motor neurons of the spinal cord).[citation ... Basal ganglia pathways and dopamine[edit]. Neural pathways in the basal ganglia in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamo-cortical ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ...
... migrates to the cell body of the neuron, and becomes latent in the ganglion.[14] As a result of primary infection, the body ... Following active infection, herpes viruses establish a latent infection in sensory and autonomic ganglia of the nervous system ... along the trigeminal nerve axon, to the brainstem.[16][17][18][19] Despite its low incidence, HSE is the most common sporadic ... Following a primary infection, the virus enters the nerves at the site of primary infection, ...
Type I neurons make up 90-95% of the neurons and innervate the inner hair cells. They have relatively large diameters, are ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... The cochlear nerve carries auditory sensory information from the cochlea of the inner ear directly to the brain. The other ... Type II neurons make up the remaining 5-10% of the neurons and innervate the outer hair cells. They have relatively small ...
sensory decussation/arcuate fibers (Posterior external arcuate fibers, Internal arcuate fibers) → Medial lemniscus/Trigeminal ... Upper motor neuron. References[edit]. *^ a b c d e Martini, Frederic (2010). Anatomy & Physiology. Benjamin Cummings. ISBN 978- ... inner ear: Hair cells → Spiral ganglion → Cochlear nerve VIII →. *pons: Cochlear nucleus (Anterior, Dorsal) → Trapezoid body → ... Basal ganglia. direct:. 1° (Motor cortex → Striatum) → 2° (GPi) → 3° (Lenticular fasciculus/Ansa lenticularis → Thalamic ...
... neurons in the trigeminal ganglion innervate the gland with nerve fibers containing the neuropeptide PACAP. The pineal body ... The primary function of the pineal gland is to produce melatonin. Melatonin has various functions in the central nervous system ... A parasympathetic innervation from the pterygopalatine and otic ganglia is also present. Further, some nerve fibers penetrate ... "A fossil brain from the Cretaceous of European Russia and avian sensory evolution". Biology Letters. 3 (3): 309-13. doi:10.1098 ...
... : 2° neuron. *Mitral cells → Olfactory tract → Olfactory trigone. Lateral olfactory stria/. Primary olfactory ... The olfactory nerve is sensory in nature and originates on the olfactory mucosa in the upper part of the nasal cavity.[1] From ... it is carried to the central nervous system by the trigeminal nerve. ... Ganglia *superior. *inferior. After jugular fossa. *Tympanic *tympanic plexus. *lesser petrosal. *otic ganglion ...
Synaptic communication between neurons leads to the establishment of functional neural circuits that mediate sensory and motor ... developing cochlea generate bursts of activity which spreads across the inner hair cells and spiral ganglion neurons which ... Without this Hoxb-1 expression, a nerve similar to the trigeminal nerve arises. ... the anterior part of the neural tube expands and forms three primary brain vesicles, which become the forebrain (prosencephalon ...
Principal(英语:Principal sensory nucleus of trigeminal nerve). *Spinal(英语:Spinal trigeminal nucleus) ... Lower motor neuron(英语:Lower motor neuron) *α motorneuron(英语:Alpha motor neuron) ... Autonomic ganglion(英语:Autonomic ganglion) (Preganglionic nerve fibers(英语:Preganglionic nerve fibers) ... Trigeminal lemniscus(英语:Trigeminal lemniscus) *Dorsal trigeminal tract(英语:Dorsal trigeminal tract) ...
... migrates to the cell body of the neuron, and becomes latent in the ganglion.[12] As a result of primary infection, the body ... Following active infection, herpes viruses establish a latent infection in sensory and autonomic ganglia of the nervous system ... along the trigeminal nerve axon, to the brain. HSV is the most common cause of viral encephalitis. When infecting the brain, ... Following a primary infection, the virus enters the nerves at the site of primary infection, ...
Conclusion: Trigeminal nerve terminals in meninges, as well as dural mast cells and trigeminal ganglion neurons express a ... to induce headaches suggests contribution of cholinergic mechanisms to primary headaches. However, neurochemical mechanisms of ... Both nicotine and carbachol induced intracellular Ca2+ transients in trigeminal neurons partially overlapping with expression ... we studied effects of cholinergic agents on peripheral nociception in rat hemiskulls and isolated trigeminal neurons.Results: ...
Ichikawa, H., and Sugimoto, T. (2001). VR1-immunoreactive primary sensory neurons in the rat trigeminal ganglion. Brain Res. ... beta coexist in a subpopulation of sensory neurons of female rat dorsal root ganglia. Neurosci. Lett. 319, 71-74. doi: 10.1016/ ... 2006). Prolactin modulates TRPV1 in female rat trigeminal sensory neurons. J. Neurosci. 26, 8126-8136. doi: 10.1523/jneurosci. ... Cho, T., and Chaban, V. V. (2012). Expression of P2X3 and TRPV1 receptors in primary sensory neurons from estrogen receptors- ...
2004) Conditional gene deletion in primary nociceptive neurons of trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. Genesis 38:122- ... dorsal root ganglion. *O-GlcNAc transferase. *O-GlcNAcylation. *sensory neuron. Introduction. O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic post ... Nav1.8-Cre is expressed in most of the small-diameter sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia ... sensory neurons. These neurons have cell bodies in ganglia along the spine and project sensory axons to multiple organs in the ...
2004) Conditional gene deletion in primary nociceptive neurons of trigeminal ganglia and dorsal root ganglia. Genesis 38:122- ... 2009) NAD+ activates KNa channels in dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci 29:5127-5134, doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.0859-09.2009 ... Painful stimuli are detected by sensory neurons whose cell somata are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ... where they form synapses with spinal neurons (Basbaum et al., 2009; Schmidtko et al., 2009). Lesions to sensory neurons can ...
Herpes Simplex Virus 1 Tropism for Human Sensory Ganglion Neurons in the Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Mouse Model of ... After primary activation, the effector T cells differentiate into memory CD8+ T cells, generally characterized by a loss of ... results in lifelong latent infections of neurons in sensory ganglia such as the trigeminal ganglia (TG). It has been postulated ... both viruses enter sensory ganglia such as the trigeminal ganglia (TG) and establish a lifelong, latent infection of sensory ...
... establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. Upon reactivation HSV-1 can cause neurological diseases ... In the present study, trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons expressing six neuronal marker proteins were characterized, based on ... Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia ... Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this ...
... migrates along the axons of the trigeminal nerve to reach the cell bodies of sensory neurons within the trigeminal ganglion (TG ... Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is a human herpesvirus with a specific tropism for sensory neurons. After a primary ... Dually infected (HSV-1/VZV) single neurons in human trigeminal ganglia. Ann. Neurol. 54:678-682. ... HSV-1 DNA was only detected in LAT+ neurons and not in LAT− neurons (Fig. 3I). All of the 12 LAT+ neuron pools were positive ...
... neurons as well as trigeminal and vagal primary afferent neurons. Transduction efficiency in sensory ganglia was substantially ... Robust transduction was seen in small and large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) ... primary afferent fibers and corresponding primary sensory neurons at all spinal levels. ... In summary, i.t. delivery yielded higher transduction efficiency in sensory neurons and the CNS. The observation of comparable ...
A characteristic of IBR virus is that it establishes a latent infection in sensory neurons, typically trigeminal ganglia or ... BHV1 given by intramuscular (IM) injection could not be reactivated from trigeminal ganglia, the primary site of BHV1 latency, ... Both nucleic acids were detected in a single cervical ganglion sample, suggesting a direct or proximate intraneural injection. ... Further, no BHV1 DNA or latency-related RNA was detected in trigeminal or iliosacral spinal dorsal root ganglia collected after ...
The trigeminal primary sensory neurons within the ganglia are pseudo-unipolar cells; the tips of their peripheral processes ... Zucker, E and Welker, W I (1969). Coding of somatic sensory input by vibrissae neurons in the rats trigeminal ganglion. Brain ... impulses to the brainstem trigeminal nuclei via the centrally projecting processes of the trigeminal primary sensory neurons; ... Abraira, V E and Ginty, D D (2013). The Sensory Neurons of Touch. Neuron 79: 618-639. doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2013.07.051. ...
This manuscript describes how to prepare intact dorsal root ganglia for patch clamp recordings. This preparation maintains the ... Primary sensory neurons, with the exception of the mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve, are located in the trigeminal ... Satellite glial cells in the trigeminal ganglion as a determinant of orofacial neuropathic pain. Neuron Glia Biol. 2, 247-257 ( ... Waxman, S. G., Cummins, T. R., Dib-Hajj, S., Fjell, J., Black, J. A. Sodium channels, excitability of primary sensory neurons, ...
... the peripheral axons from the primary sensory neurons such as Rohon-Beard neurons and the trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons ( ... fragment of Slit2 stimulates the formation of axon collateral branches by NGF-responsive neurons of the dorsal root ganglia ( ... of the GFP fluorescence in the trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons and Rohon-Beard neurons that was induced by sensory neuron- ... In the trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons (E,H) and Rohon-Beard neurons (F,I), both PlexinA4-GFP (E,F) and dnPlexinA4-GFP (H,I ...
Thirty-two differentially expressed miRNAs were first screened using a microarray chip in ipsilateral trigeminal ganglions (TGs ... following CFA injection into the orofacial skin innervated by trigeminal nerve, and a portion of them, including miR-23a*, -24- ... Nerve injury-induced upregulation of miR-21 in the primary sensory neurons contributes to neuropathic pain in rats.. Atsushi ... Downregulation of selective microRNAs in trigeminal ganglion neurons following inflammatory muscle pain. Guang Yuan Bai, Rajini ...
... activated primary sensory neurons (meningeal nociceptors) in the trigeminal ganglion release CGRP from their peripherally ... peptide enhancer by mitogen-activated protein kinases and repression by an antimigraine drug in trigeminal ganglia neurons". ... Activation of primary sensory neurons in the trigeminal vascular system in humans can cause the release of CGRP. During some ... In the trigeminal vascular system, the cell bodies on the trigeminal ganglion are the main source of CGRP. CGRP is thought to ...
DNA Microarray Analysis of Differential Gene Expression in the Dorsal Root Ganglia of Four Different Neuropathic Pain Mouse ... In addition, oxytocin inhibits ASIC activity through vasopressin, particularly V1a receptor, in primary sensory neurons.32,33 ... of all cells in the trigeminal ganglion. Even if its expression was to increase due to nerve injury, this would still affect ... Figure 3 V1a expression in the dorsal root ganglia (L3, 4, and 5) 3 weeks and 6 weeks after SNI surgery. The SNI model showed a ...
... which is preferentially expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia. ... An alternative transcript, Nav1.9b, has been detected in rat DRG and trigeminal ganglion. Nav1.9b is predicted to produce a ... A subfamily of Old World monkeys, colobines are unique primates that use leaves rather than fruits and insects as their primary ...
... which is preferentially expressed in nociceptive primary sensory neurons of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia. ... An alternative transcript, Nav1.9b, has been detected in rat DRG and trigeminal ganglion. Nav1.9b is predicted to produce a ... We show that GluRS2s primary role is to generate Glu-tRNA(Gln), not Glu-tRNA(Glu). Thus, GluRS2 appears to be a transient ... A subfamily of Old World monkeys, colobines are unique primates that use leaves rather than fruits and insects as their primary ...
... the first-order neuron will be the trigeminal nerve ganglia or the ganglia of other sensory cranial nerves). The second-order ... The first-order neuron is a type of pseudounipolar neuron and always has its cell body in the dorsal root ganglion of the ... Intensity of affective touch is still encoded in the primary somatosensory cortex and is processed in a similar way to emotions ... The axons (as afferent nerve fibers) of sensory neurons connect with, or respond to, various receptor cells. These sensory ...
Nav1.9 is found primarily within small sensory neurons (,30 μm diameter) of dorsal root ganglia (DRG) and trigeminal ganglia, ... A novel persistent tetrodotoxin-resistant sodium current in SNS-null and wild-type small primary sensory neurons. J. Neurosci ... Behavioral changes and trigeminal ganglion sodium channel regulation in an orofacial neuropathic pain model. Pain, 2005 Dec 15 ... In a trigeminal ganglia model of neuropathic pain [1444]. Several models and human cases of radicular pain [1445] ...
Puriner 2 Receptor Mediating the Communication between Neurons Cell Body and Satellite Glial Cells in Primary Sensory Ganglion ... Bidirectional Calcium Signaling between Satellite Glial Cells and Neurons in Cultured Mouse Trigeminal Ganglia. Neuron Glia ... Abstract: The reaserch of structure and function on neuron cell body and satellite glial cells in primary sensory ganglion ... Primary Sensory Neurons Regulate Toll- Like Receptor-4-Dependent Activity of Glial Cells in Dorsal Root Ganglia. Neuroscience, ...
... attentional control among early to middle-aged adults Structural and functional substitution of deleted primary sensory neurons ... A critical role for Trpv4 in the trigeminal ganglion Patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells recapitulate hematopoietic ... and immune function Molecular profiling of single neurons of known identity in two ganglia from the crab Cancer borealis ... and End Results database Bacteria activate sensory neurons that modulate pain and inflammation Efficient genome engineering in ...
  • A plethora of molecules and signaling pathways are involved in the detection, transduction, and propagation of environmental noxious stimuli by nociceptors, a specialized class of sensory neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Preclinical evidence suggests that, during a migraine, activated primary sensory neurons (meningeal nociceptors) in the trigeminal ganglion release CGRP from their peripherally projecting nerve endings located within the meninges. (wikipedia.org)
  • Specialized peripheral sensory neurons known as nociceptors alert us to potentially damaging stimuli at the skin by detecting extremes in temperature and pressure and injury-related chemicals, and transducing these stimuli into long-ranging electrical signals that are relayed to higher brain centers. (jci.org)
  • These high threshold physical and noxious chemical stimuli are detected by specialized peripheral sensory neurons (nociceptors). (jci.org)
  • Sodium channel Na V 1.7 is preferentially expressed within dorsal root ganglia (DRG), trigeminal ganglia and sympathetic ganglion neurons and their fine-diamter axons, where it acts as a threshold channel, amplifying stimuli such as generator potentials in nociceptors. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), advillin is enriched in non-peptidergic nociceptors. (eneuro.org)
  • Noxious chemical, thermal and mechanical stimuli excite peripheral nerve endings of small diameter sensory neurons (nociceptors) in sensory ganglia (e. g., dorsal root, nodose and trigeminal ganglia) and initate signals that are perceived as pain. (google.com)
  • Other types include mechanoreceptors, chemoreceptors, and nociceptors which send signals along a sensory nerve to the spinal cord where they may be processed by other sensory neurons and then relayed to the brain for further processing. (wikipedia.org)
  • Using this technique it could be shown that compared with neurons innervating the skin nasal trigeminal neurons reveal pronounced chemosensitivity for TRPM8 and TRPV1 channel agonists and only partially meet properties typical for nociceptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurons in TGs are also known to have nociceptors and neurochemical properties similar to that of DRG neurons [15]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Both nicotine and carbachol induced intracellular Ca 2+ transients in trigeminal neurons partially overlapping with expression of capsaicin-sensitive TRPV1 receptors. (frontiersin.org)
  • These receptors represent a potential target for novel therapeutic interventions in trigeminal pain and probably in migraine. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sensory nerve endings are synonymous with "sensory receptors. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Receptor protein molecules on the neuronal cell membrane should not to be confused with sensory receptors associated with sensory organs such as the follicle sinus complex. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Sensory receptors are composed primarily of an "axon terminal" and "terminal Schwann cells. (scholarpedia.org)
  • Various kinds of sensory receptors have been characterized according to their branching patterns and/or the presence of enlargements of the axon terminal as well as by the extent and distribution of the terminal Schwann cell sheaths that partly or completely envelop the axon terminals (Takahashi-Iwanaga, 2000). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Occasionally, the existence of an outer collagenous capsule is used to differentiate different types of sensory receptors (Malinovsky, 1996), for example, Ruffini endings that possess an outer capsule vs. Ruffini-like endings that do not (see section on Ruffini-like endings, below). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Multiple lines have been created that target subpopulations of sensory neurons based on the expression of sensory receptors, channels or neuropeptides. (eneuro.org)
  • Capsaicin itself is a selective activator of thinly myelinated or unmyelinated nociceptive afferents (Szolcsanyi, J., Actions of capsaicin on sensory receptors, In Capsaicin Study, Pain, J. N. Wood, ed. (google.com)
  • In this study, we used the patch-clamp technique to explore the action of ApppI on native ATP-gated P2X receptors in rat sensory neurons and rat and human P2X3, P2X2, and P2X7 receptors expressed in human embryonic kidney cells. (aspetjournals.org)
  • Sensory receptors are found all over the body including the skin, epithelial tissues, muscles, bones and joints, internal organs, and the cardiovascular system. (wikipedia.org)
  • It consists both of sensory receptors and afferent neurons in the periphery (skin, muscle and organs for example), to deeper neurons within the central nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • After studying the number and morphology of resident macrophages in culture, the consequences of adding host macrophages on macrophage phagocytosis and membrane currents mediated by pain-transducing P2X3 receptors on sensory neurons were examined. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Trigeminal ganglion cultures from a genetic mouse model of migraine showed basal macrophage activation together with enhanced neuronal currents mediated by P2X3 receptors. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Neurons were challenged with several agonists that were reported to exhibit specificity for known receptors, including TRP channels and purinergic receptors. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These findings pointed to TRPM8 and TRPV1 receptor protein expression largely in nasal neurons whereas for cutaneous neurons these receptors are present only in a smaller fraction. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In contrast to P2X 3 receptors, TRPM8 and TRPV1 receptors seem to be of pronounced physiological relevance for intranasal trigeminal sensation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neurons of the peripheral nervous system are also endowed with ATP-sensitive receptors belonging to the P2X (ligand-gated cationic channels) and P2Y (G protein-coupled receptors) types [ 11 , 12 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • B . Cough results from activation of myelinated cough receptors and unmyelinated C-fibers, whose cell bodies are in the jugular and nodose ganglia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Nevertheless, it has been shown that parasympathetic fibers originating from the parasympathetic sphenopalatine ganglion (SPG) can innervate and interact, via released acetylcholine (ACh), with somatic trigeminal nerves located around essential meningeal vessels ( 5 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Particularly germane to this report is the dense innervation of the follicle by a large variety of nerve fibers provided by sensory neurons of the trigeminal ganglia (Fig. 1, inset). (scholarpedia.org)
  • After i.t. delivery, GFP immunoreactivity (-ir) was observed in spinal neurons, primary afferent fibers and corresponding primary sensory neurons at all spinal levels. (nih.gov)
  • These sensory neurons maintain the integrity of fibers (in the periphery) involved in sensation including touch and pain- Under normal conditions, primary afferent nerves, e.g., those located in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) and trigeminal ganglion (TG), convey sensory information, including pain information, to the central nervous system (CNS). (google.com)
  • With some variations depending on the species, Mes V fibers reach, via the trigeminal nerve, muscles of the jaw and oral region, teeth, and extraocular muscles (AlvaradoMallart et al. (docme.ru)
  • The axons (as afferent nerve fibers) of sensory neurons connect with, or respond to, various receptor cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • Intranasal trigeminal fibers are distributed throughout the nasal cavity and are described as intraepithelial free nerve endings arising from Aδ and C fibers of the nasopalatine and ethmoid branches of the trigeminal nerve. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In many cases the ingenious defensive strategies of plants to ward off herbivorous predators are based upon the production of chemical agents such as capsaicin, isothiocyanates, and thiosulfinates that produce their behavioral effects by targeting excitatory TRP channels on primary afferent nerve fibers of the trigeminal pain pathway within the nasal and oral cavities [ 4 , 5 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Anatomically, both pathways are mediated by small-diameter sensory fibers. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These cough and itch sensory fibers release neuropeptides upon activation, which leads to inflammation of the nerves. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Figure 1 illustrates sensory fibers that are primarily responsible for itch and cough. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In the cough pathway, the cough sensory afferent fibers terminate in or under the airway epithelium with their cell bodies located in the vagal nodose or jugular ganglia [ 4 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sensory neurons that play a role in itch or cough can be classified into two distinct fibers, the thinly myelinated Aδ-fiber and the unmyelinated C-fiber. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Itch is primarily sensed through the epithelium by unmyelinated C-fibers, whose cell bodies are in the dorsal root ganglion. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, miRNA expression in every latently infected neuron would provide an additional checkpoint before viral replication is initiated. (asm.org)
  • Additionally, HSV-1-specific CD8 + T cells were transferred into HSV-1 latently infected mice to mimic the effect of a therapeutic vaccine, and their migration into trigeminal ganglia (TG) was traced during steady-state latency, or during recovery of the TG-resident memory CD8 + T cell population following stress-, and corticosterone-induced depletion and HSV-1 reactivation from latency. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Virus reactivated from latently infected neurons migrates back to the site of the initial infection in the oral epithelium producing a second lytic infection. (hindawi.com)
  • The effects on neuronal health in vivo are not solely due to disruption of developmental processes, because inducing OGT knock-out in the sensory neurons of adult mice results in a similar decrease in nerve fiber endings and cell bodies. (jneurosci.org)
  • After a primary infection of the oral cavity, the virus migrates along the axons of the trigeminal nerve to reach the cell bodies of sensory neurons within the trigeminal ganglion (TG), where it establishes life-long latency ( 1 , 20 ). (asm.org)
  • CGRP is derived mainly from the cell bodies of motor neurons when synthesized in the ventral horn of the spinal cord and may contribute to the regeneration of nervous tissue after injury. (wikipedia.org)
  • In the trigeminal vascular system, the cell bodies on the trigeminal ganglion are the main source of CGRP. (wikipedia.org)
  • and MCP-1 was also increased in the trigeminal ganglia (TG), where the cell bodies of the primary sensory neurons in the migraine circuit are localized. (migraineresearchfoundation.org)
  • Mes V neurons have been compared to primary sensory ganglion cells with peripheral processes running in the trigeminal nerve but with cell bodies included in the CNS. (docme.ru)
  • A group of neuron cell bodies where the auditory nerves arise. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Our preliminary experiments utilizing RNAi-mediated gene silencing at the trigeminal ganglion, where SGCs surround the cell bodies of primary sensory neurons innervating the face, show that this approach selectively and reversibly silences SGC genes in freely behaving rats. (grantome.com)
  • It accumulates in the nuclei of the infected neurons, where it can easily be visualized by applying in situ hybridization ( 21 ). (asm.org)
  • During primary infection, HSV invades the neurons that innervate the mucosal surface by retrograde axonal transport to the neuronal nuclei that are housed in the sensory ganglia. (molvis.org)
  • Primary herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) infections typically occur at mucosal surfaces, where the virus invades sensory neurons, is transported to neuronal nuclei in sensory ganglia and establishes a life-long latent infection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Sensory neuron-specific knock-out of OGT results in behavioral hyposensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli accompanied by decreased epidermal innervation and cell-body loss in the dorsal root ganglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • Painful stimuli are detected by sensory neurons whose cell somata are located in dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) and trigeminal ganglia. (jneurosci.org)
  • A characteristic of IBR virus is that it establishes a latent infection in sensory neurons, typically trigeminal ganglia or iliosacral dorsal root ganglia. (drugs.com)
  • Robust transduction was seen in small and large dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons as well as trigeminal and vagal primary afferent neurons. (nih.gov)
  • Conversely, CGRP is derived from dorsal root ganglion when synthesized in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord and may be linked to the transmission of pain. (wikipedia.org)
  • This manuscript describes how to prepare intact dorsal root ganglia for patch clamp recordings. (jove.com)
  • Patch clamp studies from dorsal root ganglia (DRGs) neurons have increased our understanding of the peripheral nervous system. (jove.com)
  • We extracted candidate genes in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) from three nerve injury mouse models and a sham-operated model (sciatic nerve ligation and resection, sural nerve resection, spared nerve injury [SNI], and sham) using DNA microarray to elucidate the genes responsible for the neuropathic pain mechanism in the SNI model, which exhibits hypersensitivity in the hindpaw of the preserved sural nerve area. (dovepress.com)
  • We have previously found that painful peripheral nerve injury is accompanied by disordered Ca 2+ signaling in the traumatized sensory neurons of the dorsal root ganglion (DRG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Real-time PCR, agarose gel electrophoresis, western blotting and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the levels of TRPA1 mRNA or protein in the bladder mucosa and L6-S1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuropathic pain is a persistent or chronic pain syndrome that can result from damage to the nervous system, the peripheral nerves, the dorsal root ganglion or dorsal root, or to the central nervous system. (google.com)
  • Herpes simplex viruses types 1 and 2 (HSV-1 and HSV-2) are human neurotropic viruses that establish latent infection in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) for the entire life of the host. (springer.com)
  • Primary sensory neurons in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) play an essential role in generating itch by detecting itch stimuli through their peripheral axons in the skin and sending signals to the spinal cord via their central axons [ 6 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Despite substantial evidence supporting an antinociceptive effect of dexmedetomidine in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG), the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood in the orofacial region. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • HSV DNA persists in sensory ganglia of the peripheral nervous system [ 4 ] and is characterized by occasional reactivation of infectious virus. (molvis.org)
  • In the case of herpes simplex virus type 1, recurrent disease results from reactivation of latent virus in sensory ganglia, which is controlled in part by a ganglia-resident HSV-specific memory CD8 + T cell population. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herpes simplex type 1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic virus which establishes lifelong latency in human trigeminal ganglia (TG). (asm.org)
  • Following primary infection Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) establishes lifelong latency in the neurons of human sensory ganglia. (mendeley.com)
  • With respect to latent HSV-1 infection, latency associated transcripts (LAT) were detected using in situ hybridization (ISH) in neurons expressing each of the marker proteins. (mendeley.com)
  • To analyze the rabbit host global gene expression patterns in uninfected and herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) latent trigeminal ganglia (TG) for identification of host response-initiated transcriptional changes during the maintenance of viral latency. (molvis.org)
  • Lytic infections occur in a broad range of cells while latency is highly specific for neurons. (hindawi.com)
  • The biology of their ability to establish latency, maintain it for the entire life of the host, reactivate, and cause primary and recurrent disease is being studied in animal models and in humans. (springer.com)
  • Attention is now turning to the core migraine circuits in the brain, which include the trigeminal ganglia, trigeminal nucleus, medullary modulatory regions, pons, periaqueductal gray matter, hypothalamus and thalamus. (nature.com)
  • Strong nociceptive firing was also induced by nicotine, implying essential role of nicotinic AChRs in control of excitability of trigeminal nerve endings. (frontiersin.org)
  • Sensory nerve endings are divided into two groups morphologically: mechanoreceptors and free nerve endings (Fig. 1, inset). (scholarpedia.org)
  • Using electrophysiology, calcium imaging, immunohistochemistry, and staining of meningeal mast cells, we studied effects of cholinergic agents on peripheral nociception in rat hemiskulls and isolated trigeminal neurons. (frontiersin.org)
  • Both ACh and carbachol significantly increased nociceptive firing in peripheral terminals of meningeal trigeminal nerves recorded by local suction electrode. (frontiersin.org)
  • In migraine pathophysiology, much attention was traditionally paid to the role of trigeminal innervation of meninges, likely representing a triggering zone for migraine pain ( 1 - 3 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Results showed that BDNF, TrkB, phosphor(p)-ERK and p-CREB were up-regulated in the brain neurons of both male and female rats with NTG-induced migraine compared to non-migraine control, whereas their expression levels were decreased in headache-free intervals of the migraine compared to migraine attacks. (biologists.org)
  • In this project, we used leaner , a strain of mouse that has the mutant P/Q-type channels, as a model to investigate the effects of these channels on primary sensory neurons mediating migraine headache and facial pain. (migraineresearchfoundation.org)
  • Enhanced activity of trigeminal ganglion neurons is thought to underlie neuronal sensitization facilitating the onset of chronic pain attacks, including migraine. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Since it is difficult to study this process in vivo , we investigated functional crosstalk between macrophages and sensory neurons in primary cultures from trigeminal sensory ganglia of wild-type (WT) or knock-in (KI) mice expressing the Cacna1a gene mutation (R192Q) found in familial hemiplegic migraine-type 1. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Migraine triggers are likely to reflect a disturbance in overall balance of the circuits involved in the modulation of sensory activity, particularly those with relevance to the head. (nature.com)
  • In this Review, we consider the evidence pointing towards a neuronal mechanism in migraine development, highlighting the role of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is found in small to medium-sized neurons in the trigeminal ganglion. (nature.com)
  • Figure 1: Migraine as a deficit in filtering of sensory inputs-a model. (nature.com)
  • In contrast to the mouse model, co-localization with neuronal markers Ret or CGRP mirrored the magnitude of these neuron populations, whereas for the other four neuronal markers fewer marker-positive cells were also LAT-ISH+. (mendeley.com)
  • Ret and CGRP are both known to label neurons related to pain signaling. (mendeley.com)
  • CGRP is produced in both peripheral and central neurons. (wikipedia.org)
  • Parasympathetic innervation of meninges and ability of carbachol, acetylcholine (ACh) receptor (AChR) agonist, to induce headaches suggests contribution of cholinergic mechanisms to primary headaches. (frontiersin.org)
  • Trigeminal nerve terminals in meninges, as well as dural mast cells and trigeminal ganglion neurons express a repertoire of pro-nociceptive nicotinic and muscarinic AChRs, which could be activated by the ACh released from parasympathetic nerves. (frontiersin.org)
  • In contrast to trigeminal system, considerably less is known about the functional role of parasympathetic innervation of these tissues. (frontiersin.org)
  • the parasympathetic and the sympathetic ganglia combined. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • This preparation maintains the microenvironment for neurons and satellite glial cells, thus avoiding the phenotypic and functional changes seen using dissociated DRG neurons. (jove.com)
  • Neurons in sensory ganglia are surrounded by satellite glial cells (SGCs) that perform similar functions to the glia found in the CNS. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The dogma that glial cells are passive players only providing structural support to neurons has long since been replaced by the understanding that there are many different types of glial cell and that they are involved in every function of the brain in both normal and pathological states. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • There are, however, other classes of glial cell in the PNS, most notably the satellite glial cells (SGCs) that surround neuronal somata in sensory and autonomic ganglia. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Persistent pain was previously attributed exclusively to sensory neuron functions;however, recent discoveries indicate that glial cells also contribute to chronic pain. (grantome.com)
  • Activation of satellite glial cells (SGCs), the type of glial cell surrounding primary sensory neurons, correlates with increased sensory neuron excitability. (grantome.com)
  • In contrast, in LAT − neurons that were surrounded by T cells, neither miRNAs nor the DNA of HSV-1, HSV-2, or varicella-zoster virus could be detected. (asm.org)
  • By contrast, Slit also promotes elongation and branching of axons of sensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • The lack of a distinct somatotopy in the distribution of Mes V cells and the lack of projections caudal to the trigeminal motor nucleus as revealed in this study with a wide variety of tracers are in striking contrast to previous data provided for other amphibians. (docme.ru)
  • In contrast, the neurons of L4 remain intact but are exposed to inflammatory conditions in the distal sciatic nerve triggered by degenerating distal fragments of axotomized L5 neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Islet2 is a LIM/homeodomain-type transcription factor that specifically regulates elongation and branching of the peripheral axons of the primary sensory neurons in zebrafish embryos. (biologists.org)
  • We found that PlexinA4, a transmembrane protein known to be a co-receptor for class III semaphorins, acts downstream of Islet2 to promote branching of the peripheral axons of the primary sensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Intriguingly, repression of PlexinA4 function by injection of the antisense morpholino oligonucleotide specific to PlexinA4 or by overexpression of the dominant-negative variant of PlexinA4 counteracted the effects of overexpression of Slit2 to induce branching of the peripheral axons of the primary sensory neurons in zebrafish embryos, suggesting involvement of PlexinA4 in the Slit signaling cascades for promotion of axonal branching of the sensory neurons. (biologists.org)
  • Colocalized expression of Robo, a receptor for Slit2, and PlexinA4 is observed not only in the primary sensory neurons of zebrafish embryos but also in the dendrites of the pyramidal neurons of the cortex of the mammals, and may be important for promoting the branching of either axons or dendrites in response to Slit, as opposed to the growth cone collapse. (biologists.org)
  • Ubiquitously overexpressed Slit2 induced excessive branching in the peripheral axons of Rohon-Beard neurons (black circles) (B) compared with branching in normal embryos (A). Simultaneous overexpression of Slit2 with dnPlexinA4 (C) and with injection of the AMO against PlexinA4 (D) rescued this phenotype. (biologists.org)
  • Overexpression of Slit2 before the central axons of trigeminal sensory ganglion neurons (arrows) enter the hindbrain prevents these axons from entering the hindbrain and induce abnormal defasciculation (F). The embryo in E is a normal control. (biologists.org)
  • Some axons from the mitral cells in the olfactory bulb synapse on anterior olfactory neurons, and anterior olfactory neurons contribute axons to the olfactory tract. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • Any of the many small clusters of neurons on which some axons of the stria terminalis synapse. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In the mouse pelvic ganglion, advillin immunoreactivity is most intense in pairs of small neurons, and concentrated in spine-like structures on the axon initial segment contacted by sympathetic preganglionic axons. (eneuro.org)
  • Here, we characterize advillin expression amongst sensory neurons and in several other neural and non-neural tissues. (eneuro.org)
  • The somatosensory system is a complex system of sensory neurons and neural pathways that responds to changes at the surface or inside the body. (wikipedia.org)
  • Application of AOAA in TMJ area reduced the production of H 2 S in TGs and reversed the enhanced neural hyperexcitability and increased the I K currents of TG neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Chemosensation from the mammalian nasal cavity is predominantly mediated by two independent neural systems, the olfactory and somatosensory (trigeminal) system. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Here, we show that OGT is essential for sensory neuron survival and maintenance in mice. (jneurosci.org)
  • Here we generated global and sensory neuron-specific Slack mutant mice and analyzed their behavior in various animal models of pain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Transduction efficiency in sensory ganglia was substantially lower in i.v. treated mice. (nih.gov)
  • We conducted electrophysiological recordings to compare the electrical properties of certain neurons from wild-type and leaner mice. (migraineresearchfoundation.org)
  • TG neurons from C57BL/6 mice were prepared as previously described [18]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Whole cell patch clamp recordings were employed on acutely isolated TG neurons from rats 2 days after CFA injection. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Application of H 2 S donor NaHS enhanced excitability and suppressed the voltage-gated I K of TG neurons in vitro and reduced escape threshold of in healthy rats [ 15 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • By using stereotactically targeted RNA interference (RNAi) to inhibit gene expression, we can now silence specific genes in single sensory ganglia of adult rats. (grantome.com)
  • Neuropathic pain behaviors were also exaggerated after ablation of Slack selectively in sensory neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • In conclusion, Slack selectively controls the sensory input in neuropathic pain states, suggesting that modulating its activity might represent a novel strategy for management of neuropathic pain. (jneurosci.org)
  • Neuropathic lesions are linked to enhanced excitability of sensory neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Accelerated PMCA function in the primary sensory neuron may contribute to the generation of neuropathic pain, and thus its modulation could provide a new pathway for peripheral treatment of post-traumatic neuropathic pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Reduced AHP and neuronal hyperexcitability are features of axotomized neurons after SNL [ 11 ], so these findings together suggest a possible role of PMCA in the pathogenesis of neuropathic pain. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Neuropathic pain syndromes include allodynia, various neuralgias such as post herpetic neuralgia and trigeminal neuralgia, phantom pain, and complex regional pain syndromes, such as reflex sympathetic dystrophy and causalgia. (google.com)
  • These genes are likely to play key roles in neuropathic pain since they regulate neuron-SGC communication and control neuronal excitability following injury. (grantome.com)
  • The sensory input may, for example, be application of heat and/or mechanical stimuli to the face to produce pain. (google.com)
  • These neurons are crucial for the detection of harmful or potentially harmful stimuli (heat) and tissue damage (H + (local tissue acidosis), and/or stretch) which arise from changes in the extracellular space during inflammatory or ischaemic conditions (Wall, P. D., and Melzack, R., Textbook of Pain, 1994, New York: Churchill Livingstone). (google.com)
  • These sensory receptor cells are activated by different stimuli such as heat and nociception, giving a functional name to the responding sensory neuron, such as a thermoreceptor which carries information about temperature changes. (wikipedia.org)
  • In conclusion, the usability of PrV mediated tracing of primary afferents was demonstrated. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Cultured sensory neurons lacking OGT also exhibit decreased axonal outgrowth. (jneurosci.org)
  • Our findings demonstrate that OGT is important in regulating axonal maintenance in the periphery and the overall health and survival of sensory neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • o 1993 Wiley-Liss, Inc. Key words: Anuran, Brainstem, Trigeminal nerve, Mesencephalic trigeminal nucleus, Axonal transport, HRP, PHA-L, DiI The mesencephalic nucleus of the trigeminal nerve (Mes V) is a conspicuous cell group formed by large neurons that stain well with classical techniques. (docme.ru)
  • In the present study, trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons expressing six neuronal marker proteins were characterized, based on staining with antibodies against the GDNF family ligand receptor Ret, the high-affinity nerve growth factor receptor TrkA, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), the antibody RT97 against 200 kDa neurofilament, calcitonin gene-related peptide and peripherin. (mendeley.com)
  • Future randomized clinical trials (RCTs) will fully uncover whether PACAP38 or PAC 1 receptor blockade could be a promising new approach in treating primary headaches. (springermedizin.de)
  • We hypothesize that the TRPA1 in primary sensory neurons functions as a mechanical or nociceptive receptor and its activation may enhance afferent nerve activities induced by overactive bladder. (biomedcentral.com)
  • KI ganglion cultures constitutively contained a larger number of active macrophages, although no difference in P2X3 receptor expression was found. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The same protocol had no effect on P2X3 receptor expression in WT or KI co-cultures, but it largely enhanced WT neuron currents that grew to the high amplitude constitutively seen for KI neurons. (beds.ac.uk)
  • The majority of nasal neurons lacked P2X 3 receptor-mediated currents but showed P2X 2 -mediated responses when stimulated with ATP. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Certain populations of sensory neurons have been shown to be more susceptible to latent infection in the animal model, but this has not been addressed in human tissue. (mendeley.com)
  • Following entry to the host, these viruses enter into the corresponding neuronal ganglia (trigeminal ganglia in HSV-I and lumbosacral ganglia in HSV-II) and establish a latent infection for the whole life [ 2 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • The primary infection may or may not have symptomatic presentation, but manifests as reactivations from time to time depending upon stress (e.g. fever) and hormonal imbalance in the host [ 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
  • HSV-1 gene expression was expressed as early as 2 days following ocular infection in the OB and was consistent with an enhanced expression in the ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular branch of the trigeminal nerve ganglia (TG). (biomedcentral.com)
  • Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a neurotropic pathogen that initially infects mucosa epithelial cells prior to infection of the innervating sensory neurons. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Progeny virus from this initial infection is able to traffic to sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion where a latent infection is produced. (hindawi.com)
  • In Vitro analysis of transneuronal spread of an alphaherpesvirus infection in peripheral nervous system neurons. (springer.com)
  • We also demonstrate that the Na V 1.7/I228M variant impairs slow-inactivation, and produces hyperexcitability in both trigeminal ganglion and DRG neurons. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We found that PMCA function is elevated in axotomized sensory neurons, which contributes to neuronal hyperexcitability. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system. (wikipedia.org)
  • The postcentral gyrus includes the primary somatosensory cortex (Brodmann areas 3, 2 and 1) collectively referred to as S1. (wikipedia.org)
  • Thanks to the action of a subset of somatosensory neurons, mammals can swiftly detect noxiously cold or hot objects or environments. (oxfordhandbooks.com)
  • Accordingly, we have evaluated these populations separately and compared them to control neurons from animals receiving only skin incision. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In vitro characterization of trigeminal primary sensory neurons derives largely from analysis of complete neuronal populations prepared from sensory ganglia. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The trigeminal ganglion (TG) is the counterpart of the DRG at the spinal level, and both areas have comparable neuronal populations. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • Co-culturing WT or KI ganglia with host macrophages (active as much as resident cells) strongly stimulated single cell phagocytosis. (beds.ac.uk)
  • This phenotype could be replicated in WT cultures by adding host macrophages, indicating an important functional crosstalk between macrophages and sensory neurons. (beds.ac.uk)
  • Peripheral primary afferent excitation is followed by activation of neurons in the trigeminocervical complex ( 4 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • The activation and sensitization of trigeminal ganglion (TG) neurons innervating the meninges and cerebral vessels in the brain is the first step in the onset of headache. (migraineresearchfoundation.org)
  • A functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and in particular the trigeminal ganglion (TG), to determine activation in response to sensory input. (google.com)
  • Initially, activation of VRs by pungent agonists such as capsaicin leads to excitation of primary sensory neurons gating nociceptive inputs to the central nervous system ( Holzer, 1991 ). (aspetjournals.org)
  • Influx of Ca 2+ , the dominant second messenger in neurons, follows neuronal activation by membrane depolarization or ligand binding. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We hypothesized that TMJ inflammation-induced hyperalgesia is mediated by upregulation of cbs gene expression and that activation of CBS-H 2 S signaling enhances neuronal excitability via suppression of potassium currents of TMJ-projecting TG neurons, thus contributing to hyperalgesia in TMJ after inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Evidence suggests that pollutant-induced activation of airway sensory nerves via the gating of ion channels is critical to these systemic responses. (oatd.org)
  • alpha]2-Adrenoceptors are widely distributed throughout the peripheral and central nervous system including primary afferents, spinal dorsal horns, and the brain stem, and their activation produces a variety of effects [3-6]. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • In the present study, we investigated whether the peripheral dexmedetomidine-induced analgesia in the orofacial area might, in part, arise from suppression of VGSC activation via binding to Gi/o protein-coupled [alpha]2-adrenoceptors in small-sized TG neurons. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • The agent can include a clostridial neurotoxin, or a component or fragment or derivative thereof, attached to a targeting moiety, wherein the targeting moiety is selected from a group consisting of transmission compounds which can be released from neurons upon the transmission of pain signals by the neurons, and compounds substantially similar to the transmission compounds. (google.com)
  • CFA injection enhanced neuronal excitability as evidenced by depolarization of resting membrane potentials, reduction in rheobase, and an increase in number of action potentials evoked by 2 and 3 times rheobase current stimulation and by a ramp current stimulation of TG neurons innervating the TMJ area. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Therefore, controlling the excitability of nociceptive TG neurons by modulating VGSCs would provide a useful tool for the management of physiological or pathological pain in the orofacial area. (thefreelibrary.com)
  • This proposal aims to elucidate the contribution of SGC-specific genes to the control of neuronal excitability and sensory behavior following trigeminal nerve injury. (grantome.com)
  • It is still debated whether the TRPA1 located in neurons become sensitized to nociceptive or mechanical responses in response to visceral inflammation. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Compared with cutaneous neurons, a larger fraction of nasal trigeminal neurons showed sensitivity for menthol and capsaicin. (biomedcentral.com)
  • When primary sensory neurons are injured, the surrounding SGCs undergo characteristic changes. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)