Lactic Acid: A normal intermediate in the fermentation (oxidation, metabolism) of sugar. The concentrated form is used internally to prevent gastrointestinal fermentation. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Lactobacillus: A genus of gram-positive, microaerophilic, rod-shaped bacteria occurring widely in nature. Its species are also part of the many normal flora of the mouth, intestinal tract, and vagina of many mammals, including humans. Pathogenicity from this genus is rare.Lactobacillaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria found regularly in the mouth and intestinal tract of man and other animals, in food and dairy products, and in fermenting vegetable juices. A few species are highly pathogenic.Lactobacillales: An order of gram-positive bacteria in the class Bacilli, that have the ability to ferment sugars to lactic acid. They are widespread in nature and commonly used to produce fermented foods.Leuconostoc: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. It is nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Pediococcus: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria whose growth is dependent on the presence of a fermentable carbohydrate. No endospores are produced. Its organisms are found in fermenting plant products and are nonpathogenic to plants and animals, including humans.Fermentation: Anaerobic degradation of GLUCOSE or other organic nutrients to gain energy in the form of ATP. End products vary depending on organisms, substrates, and enzymatic pathways. Common fermentation products include ETHANOL and LACTIC ACID.Lactates: Salts or esters of LACTIC ACID containing the general formula CH3CHOHCOOR.Lactobacillus plantarum: A species of rod-shaped, LACTIC ACID bacteria used in PROBIOTICS and SILAGE production.Lactococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria mainly isolated from milk and milk products. These bacteria are also found in plants and nonsterile frozen and dry foods. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS (group N), it is now recognized as a separate genus.Lactococcus lactis: A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.Food Microbiology: The presence of bacteria, viruses, and fungi in food and food products. This term is not restricted to pathogenic organisms: the presence of various non-pathogenic bacteria and fungi in cheeses and wines, for example, is included in this concept.Lactobacillus acidophilus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria isolated from the intestinal tract of humans and animals, the human mouth, and vagina. This organism produces the fermented product, acidophilus milk.Lactobacillus delbrueckii: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped, facultatively anaerobic bacteria. capable of producing LACTIC ACID. It is important in the manufacture of fermented dairy products.Lactobacillus brevis: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria that is frequently used as starter culture in SILAGE fermentation, sourdough, and lactic-acid-fermented types of beer and wine.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Streptococcus thermophilus: A species of thermophilic, gram-positive bacteria found in MILK and milk products.Lactobacillus casei: A rod-shaped bacterium isolated from milk and cheese, dairy products and dairy environments, sour dough, cow dung, silage, and human mouth, human intestinal contents and stools, and the human vagina.Bifidobacterium: A rod-shaped, gram-positive, non-acid-fast, non-spore-forming, non-motile bacterium that is a genus of the family Bifidobacteriaceae, order Bifidobacteriales, class ACTINOBACTERIA. It inhabits the intestines and feces of humans as well as the human vagina.Streptococcaceae: A family of gram-positive non-sporing bacteria including many parasitic, pathogenic, and saprophytic forms.Probiotics: Live microbial DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS which beneficially affect the host animal by improving its intestinal microbial balance. Antibiotics and other related compounds are not included in this definition. In humans, lactobacilli are commonly used as probiotics, either as single species or in mixed culture with other bacteria. Other genera that have been used are bifidobacteria and streptococci. (J. Nutr. 1995;125:1401-12)Cheese: A nutritious food consisting primarily of the curd or the semisolid substance formed when milk coagulates.Bacteriocins: Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.Bread: Baked food product made of flour or meal that is moistened, kneaded, and sometimes fermented. A major food since prehistoric times, it has been made in various forms using a variety of ingredients and methods.Acetic Acid: Product of the oxidation of ethanol and of the destructive distillation of wood. It is used locally, occasionally internally, as a counterirritant and also as a reagent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Lactobacillus fermentum: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria associated with DENTAL CARIES.Antibiosis: A natural association between organisms that is detrimental to at least one of them. This often refers to the production of chemicals by one microorganism that is harmful to another.Acidosis, Lactic: Acidosis caused by accumulation of lactic acid more rapidly than it can be metabolized. It may occur spontaneously or in association with diseases such as DIABETES MELLITUS; LEUKEMIA; or LIVER FAILURE.RNA, Ribosomal, 16S: Constituent of 30S subunit prokaryotic ribosomes containing 1600 nucleotides and 21 proteins. 16S rRNA is involved in initiation of polypeptide synthesis.Cultured Milk Products: Milk modified with controlled FERMENTATION. This should not be confused with KAFFIR LIME or with KAFFIR CORN.Food Preservation: Procedures or techniques used to keep food from spoiling.Streptococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.Industrial Microbiology: The study, utilization, and manipulation of those microorganisms capable of economically producing desirable substances or changes in substances, and the control of undesirable microorganisms.Weissella: A genus of gram-positive, asporogenous, lactic acid bacteria, in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE.Food Preservatives: Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Wine: Fermented juice of fresh grapes or of other fruit or plant products used as a beverage.L-Lactate Dehydrogenase: A tetrameric enzyme that, along with the coenzyme NAD+, catalyzes the interconversion of LACTATE and PYRUVATE. In vertebrates, genes for three different subunits (LDH-A, LDH-B and LDH-C) exist.Oenococcus: A genus of GRAM-POSITIVE COCCI in the family LEUCONOSTOCACEAE. It is the primary bacteria involved in carrying out malolactic conversion in winemaking.Gram-Positive Asporogenous Rods: A gram-positive, non-spore-forming group of bacteria comprising organisms that have morphological and physiological characteristics in common.Monocarboxylic Acid Transporters: A family of proteins involved in the transport of monocarboxylic acids such as LACTIC ACID and PYRUVIC ACID across cellular membranes.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.DNA, Ribosomal: DNA sequences encoding RIBOSOMAL RNA and the segments of DNA separating the individual ribosomal RNA genes, referred to as RIBOSOMAL SPACER DNA.Colony Count, Microbial: Enumeration by direct count of viable, isolated bacterial, archaeal, or fungal CELLS or SPORES capable of growth on solid CULTURE MEDIA. The method is used routinely by environmental microbiologists for quantifying organisms in AIR; FOOD; and WATER; by clinicians for measuring patients' microbial load; and in antimicrobial drug testing.Meat Products: Articles of food which are derived by a process of manufacture from any portion of carcasses of any animal used for food (e.g., head cheese, sausage, scrapple).Nisin: A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.Lactobacillus reuteri: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped LACTIC ACID bacteria found naturally in the human intestinal flora and BREAST MILK.Silage: Fodder converted into succulent feed for livestock through processes of anaerobic fermentation (as in a silo).Gram-Positive Cocci: Coccus-shaped bacteria that retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Yogurt: A slightly acid milk food produced by fermentation due to the combined action of Lactobacillus acidophilus and Streptococcus thermophilus.Food Packaging: Containers, packaging, and packaging materials for processed and raw foods and beverages. It includes packaging intended to be used for storage and also used for preparation of foods such as microwave food containers versus COOKING AND EATING UTENSILS. Packaging materials may be intended for food contact or designated non-contact, for example, shipping containers. FOOD LABELING is also available.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Acids: Chemical compounds which yield hydrogen ions or protons when dissolved in water, whose hydrogen can be replaced by metals or basic radicals, or which react with bases to form salts and water (neutralization). An extension of the term includes substances dissolved in media other than water. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Lactate Dehydrogenases: Alcohol oxidoreductases with substrate specificity for LACTIC ACID.Food Handling: Any aspect of the operations in the preparation, processing, transport, storage, packaging, wrapping, exposure for sale, service, or delivery of food.Carboxylic Acids: Organic compounds containing the carboxy group (-COOH). This group of compounds includes amino acids and fatty acids. Carboxylic acids can be saturated, unsaturated, or aromatic.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Sodium Acetate: The trihydrate sodium salt of acetic acid, which is used as a source of sodium ions in solutions for dialysis and as a systemic and urinary alkalizer, diuretic, and expectorant.Waste Products: Debris resulting from a process that is of no further use to the system producing it. The concept includes materials discharged from or stored in a system in inert form as a by-product of vital activities. (From Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary, 1981)Anaerobiosis: The complete absence, or (loosely) the paucity, of gaseous or dissolved elemental oxygen in a given place or environment. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Carbohydrate Metabolism: Cellular processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of CARBOHYDRATES.Bacteria: One of the three domains of life (the others being Eukarya and ARCHAEA), also called Eubacteria. They are unicellular prokaryotic microorganisms which generally possess rigid cell walls, multiply by cell division, and exhibit three principal forms: round or coccal, rodlike or bacillary, and spiral or spirochetal. Bacteria can be classified by their response to OXYGEN: aerobic, anaerobic, or facultatively anaerobic; by the mode by which they obtain their energy: chemotrophy (via chemical reaction) or PHOTOTROPHY (via light reaction); for chemotrophs by their source of chemical energy: CHEMOLITHOTROPHY (from inorganic compounds) or chemoorganotrophy (from organic compounds); and by their source for CARBON; NITROGEN; etc.; HETEROTROPHY (from organic sources) or AUTOTROPHY (from CARBON DIOXIDE). They can also be classified by whether or not they stain (based on the structure of their CELL WALLS) with CRYSTAL VIOLET dye: gram-negative or gram-positive.Aerobiosis: Life or metabolic reactions occurring in an environment containing oxygen.Cacao: A tree of the family Sterculiaceae (or Byttneriaceae), usually Theobroma cacao, or its seeds, which after fermentation and roasting, yield cocoa and chocolate.Sodium Lactate: The sodium salt of racemic or inactive lactic acid. It is a hygroscopic agent used intravenously as a systemic and urinary alkalizer.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Glycolysis: A metabolic process that converts GLUCOSE into two molecules of PYRUVIC ACID through a series of enzymatic reactions. Energy generated by this process is conserved in two molecules of ATP. Glycolysis is the universal catabolic pathway for glucose, free glucose, or glucose derived from complex CARBOHYDRATES, such as GLYCOGEN and STARCH.Polymers: Compounds formed by the joining of smaller, usually repeating, units linked by covalent bonds. These compounds often form large macromolecules (e.g., BIOPOLYMERS; PLASTICS).Bioreactors: Tools or devices for generating products using the synthetic or chemical conversion capacity of a biological system. They can be classical fermentors, cell culture perfusion systems, or enzyme bioreactors. For production of proteins or enzymes, recombinant microorganisms such as bacteria, mammalian cells, or insect or plant cells are usually chosen.Lactobacillus helveticus: A species of gram-positive bacteria isolated from MILK and cheese-starter cultures.Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis: Electrophoresis in which various denaturant gradients are used to induce nucleic acids to melt at various stages resulting in separation of molecules based on small sequence differences including SNPs. The denaturants used include heat, formamide, and urea.Acetobacter: A species of gram-negative bacteria of the family ACETOBACTERACEAE found in FLOWERS and FRUIT. Cells are ellipsoidal to rod-shaped and straight or slightly curved.Hydrochloric Acid: A strong corrosive acid that is commonly used as a laboratory reagent. It is formed by dissolving hydrogen chloride in water. GASTRIC ACID is the hydrochloric acid component of GASTRIC JUICE.Fatty Acids, Volatile: Short-chain fatty acids of up to six carbon atoms in length. They are the major end products of microbial fermentation in the ruminant digestive tract and have also been implicated in the causation of neurological diseases in humans.Refrigeration: The mechanical process of cooling.Flour: Ground up seed of WHEAT.Food Storage: Keeping food for later consumption.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Enterococcus faecalis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly isolated from clinical specimens and the human intestinal tract. Most strains are nonhemolytic.ButanonesFormates: Derivatives of formic acids. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that are formed with a single carbon carboxy group.Biodegradable Plastics: Organic polymeric materials which can be broken down by naturally occurring processes. This includes plastics created from bio-based or petrochemical-based materials.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Propionibacterium: A genus of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria whose cells occur singly, in pairs or short chains, in V or Y configurations, or in clumps resembling letters of the Chinese alphabet. Its organisms are found in cheese and dairy products as well as on human skin and can occasionally cause soft tissue infections.Citric Acid: A key intermediate in metabolism. It is an acid compound found in citrus fruits. The salts of citric acid (citrates) can be used as anticoagulants due to their calcium chelating ability.Gram-Positive Bacteria: Bacteria which retain the crystal violet stain when treated by Gram's method.Streptococcus mutans: A polysaccharide-producing species of STREPTOCOCCUS isolated from human dental plaque.Biotechnology: Body of knowledge related to the use of organisms, cells or cell-derived constituents for the purpose of developing products which are technically, scientifically and clinically useful. Alteration of biologic function at the molecular level (i.e., GENETIC ENGINEERING) is a central focus; laboratory methods used include TRANSFECTION and CLONING technologies, sequence and structure analysis algorithms, computer databases, and gene and protein structure function analysis and prediction.MalatesFeminine Hygiene Products: Personal care items for women.Rumen: The first stomach of ruminants. It lies on the left side of the body, occupying the whole of the left side of the abdomen and even stretching across the median plane of the body to the right side. It is capacious, divided into an upper and a lower sac, each of which has a blind sac at its posterior extremity. The rumen is lined by mucous membrane containing no digestive glands, but mucus-secreting glands are present in large numbers. Coarse, partially chewed food is stored and churned in the rumen until the animal finds circumstances convenient for rumination. When this occurs, little balls of food are regurgitated through the esophagus into the mouth, and are subjected to a second more thorough mastication, swallowed, and passed on into other parts of the compound stomach. (From Black's Veterinary Dictionary, 17th ed)PyruvatesReticulum: The second stomach of ruminants. It lies almost in the midline in the front of the abdomen, in contact with the liver and diaphragm and communicates freely with the RUMEN via the ruminoreticular orifice. The lining of the reticulum is raised into folds forming a honeycomb pattern over the surface. (From Concise Veterinary Dictionary, 1988)Humulus: A plant genus in the CANNABACEAE family. Best known for the buds of Humulus lupulus L. used in BEER.Fructose: A monosaccharide in sweet fruits and honey that is soluble in water, alcohol, or ether. It is used as a preservative and an intravenous infusion in parenteral feeding.Carbon Dioxide: A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.Rhizopus: A genus of zygomycetous fungi of the family Mucoraceae, order MUCORALES, a common saprophyte and facultative parasite of mature fruits and vegetables. It may cause cerebral mycoses in diabetes and cutaneous infection in severely burned patients.Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.D-Aspartic Acid: The D-isomer of ASPARTIC ACID.Listeria: A genus of bacteria which may be found in the feces of animals and man, on vegetation, and in silage. Its species are parasitic on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals, including man.Enterococcus: A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria consisting of organisms causing variable hemolysis that are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Previously thought to be a member of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS, it is now recognized as a separate genus.Dairy Products: Raw and processed or manufactured milk and milk-derived products. These are usually from cows (bovine) but are also from goats, sheep, reindeer, and water buffalo.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.XyloseGenome, Bacterial: The genetic complement of a BACTERIA as represented in its DNA.Genetic Engineering: Directed modification of the gene complement of a living organism by such techniques as altering the DNA, substituting genetic material by means of a virus, transplanting whole nuclei, transplanting cell hybrids, etc.Gastrointestinal Contents: The contents included in all or any segment of the GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.Acid-Base Equilibrium: The balance between acids and bases in the BODY FLUIDS. The pH (HYDROGEN-ION CONCENTRATION) of the arterial BLOOD provides an index for the total body acid-base balance.Food Technology: The application of knowledge to the food industry.Starch: Any of a group of polysaccharides of the general formula (C6-H10-O5)n, composed of a long-chain polymer of glucose in the form of amylose and amylopectin. It is the chief storage form of energy reserve (carbohydrates) in plants.Intestines: The section of the alimentary canal from the STOMACH to the ANAL CANAL. It includes the LARGE INTESTINE and SMALL INTESTINE.DNA Fingerprinting: A technique for identifying individuals of a species that is based on the uniqueness of their DNA sequence. Uniqueness is determined by identifying which combination of allelic variations occur in the individual at a statistically relevant number of different loci. In forensic studies, RESTRICTION FRAGMENT LENGTH POLYMORPHISM of multiple, highly polymorphic VNTR LOCI or MICROSATELLITE REPEAT loci are analyzed. The number of loci used for the profile depends on the ALLELE FREQUENCY in the population.Molasses: The syrup remaining after sugar is crystallized out of SUGARCANE or sugar beet juice. It is also used in ANIMAL FEED, and in a fermented form, is used to make industrial ETHYL ALCOHOL and ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.Crop, Avian: A thin-walled distention of the alimentary tract protruding just outside the body cavity in the distal end of the neck (esophagus), used for the temporary storage of food and water.Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA Technique: Technique that utilizes low-stringency polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification with single primers of arbitrary sequence to generate strain-specific arrays of anonymous DNA fragments. RAPD technique may be used to determine taxonomic identity, assess kinship relationships, analyze mixed genome samples, and create specific probes.Bacterial Typing Techniques: Procedures for identifying types and strains of bacteria. The most frequently employed typing systems are BACTERIOPHAGE TYPING and SEROTYPING as well as bacteriocin typing and biotyping.Tropaeolum: A plant genus of the family TROPAEOLACEAE. The common nasturtium is a plant that grows 2.4-3.6 m (8-12 feet) tall and has funnel-shaped flowers that are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. Some species in this genus are called watercress which is also a common name for RORIPPA and NASTURTIUM.Abiotrophia: A genus of gram-positive, facultatively anaerobic bacteria in the family Aerococcaceae.Corrosion: The gradual destruction of a metal or alloy due to oxidation or action of a chemical agent. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Propionates: Derivatives of propionic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxyethane structure.Lactobacillus rhamnosus: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria used in PROBIOTICS.Microbial Viability: Ability of a microbe to survive under given conditions. This can also be related to a colony's ability to replicate.Animal Feed: Foodstuff used especially for domestic and laboratory animals, or livestock.Base Composition: The relative amounts of the PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in a nucleic acid.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Food-Processing Industry: The productive enterprises concerned with food processing.Yeasts: A general term for single-celled rounded fungi that reproduce by budding. Brewers' and bakers' yeasts are SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE; therapeutic dried yeast is YEAST, DRIED.Dental Plaque: A film that attaches to teeth, often causing DENTAL CARIES and GINGIVITIS. It is composed of MUCINS, secreted from salivary glands, and microorganisms.Soy Milk: A beverage prepared from SOYBEANS.Gastrointestinal Tract: Generally refers to the digestive structures stretching from the MOUTH to ANUS, but does not include the accessory glandular organs (LIVER; BILIARY TRACT; PANCREAS).Pyruvic Acid: An intermediate compound in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. In thiamine deficiency, its oxidation is retarded and it accumulates in the tissues, especially in nervous structures. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Triticum: A plant genus of the family POACEAE that is the source of EDIBLE GRAIN. A hybrid with rye (SECALE CEREALE) is called TRITICALE. The seed is ground into FLOUR and used to make BREAD, and is the source of WHEAT GERM AGGLUTININS.Biodegradation, Environmental: Elimination of ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTANTS; PESTICIDES and other waste using living organisms, usually involving intervention of environmental or sanitation engineers.Fructans: Polysaccharides composed of D-fructose units.Lactose: A disaccharide of GLUCOSE and GALACTOSE in human and cow milk. It is used in pharmacy for tablets, in medicine as a nutrient, and in industry.Toxaphene: A very complex, but reproducible mixture of at least 177 C10 polychloro derivatives, having an approximate overall empirical formula of C10-H10-Cl8. It is used as an insecticide and may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)Propylene Glycol: A clear, colorless, viscous organic solvent and diluent used in pharmaceutical preparations.Garbage: Discarded animal and vegetable matter from a kitchen or the refuse from food preparation. (From Random House College Dictionary, 1982)Resins, Synthetic: Polymers of high molecular weight which at some stage are capable of being molded and then harden to form useful components.Beer: An alcoholic beverage usually made from malted cereal grain (as barley), flavored with hops, and brewed by slow fermentation.Streptococcus bovis: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria commonly found in the alimentary tract of cows, sheep, and other ruminants. It occasionally is encountered in cases of human endocarditis. This species is nonhemolytic.Phenformin: A biguanide hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of METFORMIN. Although it is generally considered to be associated with an unacceptably high incidence of lactic acidosis, often fatal, it is still available in some countries. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Genes, rRNA: Genes, found in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes, which are transcribed to produce the RNA which is incorporated into RIBOSOMES. Prokaryotic rRNA genes are usually found in OPERONS dispersed throughout the GENOME, whereas eukaryotic rRNA genes are clustered, multicistronic transcriptional units.Decarboxylation: The removal of a carboxyl group, usually in the form of carbon dioxide, from a chemical compound.Microbial Interactions: The inter- and intra-relationships between various microorganisms. This can include both positive (like SYMBIOSIS) and negative (like ANTIBIOSIS) interactions. Examples include virus - bacteria and bacteria - bacteria.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nanocomposites: Nanometer-scale composite structures composed of organic molecules intimately incorporated with inorganic molecules. (Glossary of Biotechnology and Nanobiotechology Terms, 4th ed)Biodiversity: The variety of all native living organisms and their various forms and interrelationships.Enterococcaceae: A family of gram-positive bacteria in the order Lactobacillales, phylum Firmicutes.BenzaldehydesSpectroscopy, Electron Energy-Loss: A technique for analysis of the chemical composition of molecules. A substance is bombarded with monochromatic ELECTRONS. Some of the electrons passing through the specimen will lose energy when they ionize inner shell electrons of the atoms in the specimen. The energy loss is element dependent. Analysis of the energy loss spectrum reveals the elemental composition of a specimen. ENERGY-FILTERED TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY is a type of electron energy loss spectroscopy carried out in electron microscopes specially outfitted to analyze the spectrum of electron energy loss.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Fish Products: Food products manufactured from fish (e.g., FISH FLOUR, fish meal).Bacterial Adhesion: Physicochemical property of fimbriated (FIMBRIAE, BACTERIAL) and non-fimbriated bacteria of attaching to cells, tissue, and nonbiological surfaces. It is a factor in bacterial colonization and pathogenicity.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Veillonella: A genus of gram-negative, anaerobic cocci parasitic in the mouth and in the intestinal and respiratory tracts of man and other animals.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Bacterial Load: Measurable quantity of bacteria in an object, organism, or organism compartment.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Biota: The spectrum of different living organisms inhabiting a particular region, habitat, or biotope.Dental Cements: Substances used to bond COMPOSITE RESINS to DENTAL ENAMEL and DENTIN. These bonding or luting agents are used in restorative dentistry, ROOT CANAL THERAPY; PROSTHODONTICS; and ORTHODONTICS.Food Analysis: Measurement and evaluation of the components of substances to be taken as FOOD.Eichhornia: A plant genus of the family PONTEDERIACEAE that is used as a biological filter for treating wastewater.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Ammonia: A colorless alkaline gas. It is formed in the body during decomposition of organic materials during a large number of metabolically important reactions. Note that the aqueous form of ammonia is referred to as AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE.Siloxanes: Silicon polymers that contain alternate silicon and oxygen atoms in linear or cyclic molecular structures.Hot Temperature: Presence of warmth or heat or a temperature notably higher than an accustomed norm.Muscle Fatigue: A state arrived at through prolonged and strong contraction of a muscle. Studies in athletes during prolonged submaximal exercise have shown that muscle fatigue increases in almost direct proportion to the rate of muscle glycogen depletion. Muscle fatigue in short-term maximal exercise is associated with oxygen lack and an increased level of blood and muscle lactic acid, and an accompanying increase in hydrogen-ion concentration in the exercised muscle.Metabolism: The chemical reactions that occur within the cells, tissues, or an organism. These processes include both the biosynthesis (ANABOLISM) and the breakdown (CATABOLISM) of organic materials utilized by the living organism.RNA, Bacterial: Ribonucleic acid in bacteria having regulatory and catalytic roles as well as involvement in protein synthesis.Cells, Immobilized: Microbial, plant, or animal cells which are immobilized by attachment to solid structures, usually a column matrix. A common use of immobilized cells is in biotechnology for the bioconversion of a substrate to a particular product. (From Singleton & Sainsbury, Dictionary of Microbiology and Molecular Biology, 2d ed)Industrial Waste: Worthless, damaged, defective, superfluous or effluent material from industrial operations.Cecum: The blind sac or outpouching area of the LARGE INTESTINE that is below the entrance of the SMALL INTESTINE. It has a worm-like extension, the vermiform APPENDIX.Cereals: Seeds from grasses (POACEAE) which are important in the diet.Polyglycolic Acid: A biocompatible polymer used as a surgical suture material.Synbiotics: Nutritional supplements combining PROBIOTICS (bacteria) and PREBIOTICS (sugars).Enterococcus faecium: A species of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms are normal flora of the intestinal tract. Unlike ENTEROCOCCUS FAECALIS, this species may produce an alpha-hemolytic reaction on blood agar and is unable to utilize pyruvic acid as an energy source.Ampyrone: A metabolite of AMINOPYRINE with analgesic and anti-inflammatory properties. It is used as a reagent for biochemical reactions producing peroxides or phenols. Ampyrone stimulates LIVER MICROSOMES and is also used to measure extracellular water.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Hyperoxaluria: Excretion of an excessive amount of OXALATES in the urine.Capparis: A plant genus of the family CAPPARACEAE that contains mabinlin, a sweet protein.Suppositories: Medicated dosage forms that are designed to be inserted into the rectal, vaginal, or urethral orifice of the body for absorption. Generally, the active ingredients are packaged in dosage forms containing fatty bases such as cocoa butter, hydrogenated oil, or glycerogelatin that are solid at room temperature but melt or dissolve at body temperature.Polyesters: Polymers of organic acids and alcohols, with ester linkages--usually polyethylene terephthalate; can be cured into hard plastic, films or tapes, or fibers which can be woven into fabrics, meshes or velours.Biofilms: Encrustations, formed from microbes (bacteria, algae, fungi, plankton, or protozoa) embedding in extracellular polymers, that adhere to surfaces such as teeth (DENTAL DEPOSITS); PROSTHESES AND IMPLANTS; and catheters. Biofilms are prevented from forming by treating surfaces with DENTIFRICES; DISINFECTANTS; ANTI-INFECTIVE AGENTS; and antifouling agents.Virus Inactivation: Inactivation of viruses by non-immune related techniques. They include extremes of pH, HEAT treatment, ultraviolet radiation, IONIZING RADIATION; DESICCATION; ANTISEPTICS; DISINFECTANTS; organic solvents, and DETERGENTS.Alkalosis, Respiratory: A state due to excess loss of carbon dioxide from the body. (Dorland, 27th ed)Food Contamination: The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.Plastics: Polymeric materials (usually organic) of large molecular weight which can be shaped by flow. Plastic usually refers to the final product with fillers, plasticizers, pigments, and stabilizers included (versus the resin, the homogeneous polymeric starting material). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Cluster Analysis: A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.Listeria monocytogenes: A species of gram-positive, rod-shaped bacteria widely distributed in nature. It has been isolated from sewage, soil, silage, and from feces of healthy animals and man. Infection with this bacterium leads to encephalitis, meningitis, endocarditis, and abortion.Calcium Phosphates: Calcium salts of phosphoric acid. These compounds are frequently used as calcium supplements.Biomass: Total mass of all the organisms of a given type and/or in a given area. (From Concise Dictionary of Biology, 1990) It includes the yield of vegetative mass produced from any given crop.
Cellular waste product
Lactic acid fermentation is relatively inefficient. The waste products lactic acid and ethanol have not been fully oxidized and ... Fermentation occurs primarily in anaerobic conditions, although some organisms such as yeast use fermentation even when oxygen ... In the homolactic pathway, it produces lactic acid as waste. In the heterolactic pathway, it produces lactic acid as well as ... Muscles cells under great exertion will also use lactic acid fermentation to supplement aerobic respiration. Lactic acid ...
At higher temperatures Lactobacillus plantarum dominates, which produces primarily lactic acid. Many pickles start with ... Natural fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the required acidity. Other pickles are made by ... typically by a process involving Lactobacillus bacteria that produce lactic acid as the preservative agent. Alum is used in ... In the Philippines, achara is primarily made out of green papaya, carrots, and shallots, with cloves of garlic and vinegar. ...
It may increase the amount of lactic acid and pyruvic acid within the blood. In advanced cases, the disease may cause high- ... It affects primarily 0.5-1 kg sized birds such as the herring gull (Larus argentatus), common starling (Sturnus vulgaris) and ... The citric acid cycle is a central metabolic pathway involved in the regulation of carbohydrate, lipid, and amino acid ... A derivative of thiamine, thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP), is a cofactor involved in the citric acid cycle, as well as connecting ...
The lactic acid system, like the ATP-CP system, is important primarily because it provides a rapid supply of ATP energy. For ... In activities such as running 1500 meters or a mile, the lactic acid system is used predominately for the "kick" at the end of ... Another limitation of the lactic acid system that relates to its anaerobic quality is that only a few moles of ATP can be ... The ATP-CP system neither uses oxygen nor produces lactic acid if oxygen is unavailable and is thus said to be alactic ...
Due to lactic acid's keratolytic properties (to break down hard skin cells) and urea's hydrating properties, Calmurid is used ... primarily in the treatment of dry, scaly skin. Ichthyosis and general dermatitis in the absence of inflammation are some of its ... Composition: Urea 100 mg/g and lactic acid 50 mg/g in an emulsified base containing betaine monohydrate, glyceryl monostearate ... Calmurid Cream contains the active ingredients lactic acid and urea, whereas Calmurid HC contains an additional ingredient, the ...
The tartness of buttermilk is due to acid in the milk. The increased acidity is primarily due to lactic acid produced by lactic ... As the bacteria produce lactic acid, the pH of the milk decreases and casein, the primary milk protein, precipitates, causing ... Buttermilk is also used in marination, especially of chicken and pork, whereby the lactic acid helps to tenderize, retain ... During this time, naturally occurring lactic acid-producing bacteria in the milk fermented it. This facilitates the butter ...
... producing either a mixture of acetic and lactic acids or an equimolar molar mixture of acetic acid and CO2. For example, G. ... it forms acetic acid and CO2. Gemella bacteria are primarily found in the mucous membranes of humans and other animals, ... haemolysans ferments glucose forming a mixture of acetic and lactic acids in the absence of oxygen, whereas when oxygen is ...
... primarily through the production of lactic acid and secretion of bacteriocins known as pediocins. P. acidilactici has a wide ... Genetics of bacteriocins produced by lactic acid bacteria. FEMS Microbiol. Rev. 12 :39S-85S Barros R.R., Carvalho G.S., Peralta ... relative to other bacteriocins from lactic acid bacteria. J.Appl. Microbiol. 88:449S-457S Lee SH, Lillehoj HS, Dalloul RA, Park ... such as stomach acid. Therefore, obtaining consistent and reproducible results becomes the major challenge for the commercial ...
The consequence of such rapid glucose breakdown is the formation of lactic acid (or more appropriately, its conjugate base ... lactate at biological pH levels). Physical activities that last up to about thirty seconds rely primarily on the former, ATP-CP ... Westerblad, Håkan (1 February 2002). "Muscle Fatigue: Lactic Acid or Inorganic Phosphate the Major Cause?". Physiology. 17 (1 ... The former is called alactic anaerobic and the latter lactic anaerobic system. High energy phosphates are stored in limited ...
Lactic acid is primarily produced by lactic acid fermentation of sugar with lactic acid bacteria (similar to the bacteria used ... They are mixed fatty acid esters of lactic acid and its polymers, with minor quantities of free lactic acid, poly(lactic acid ... palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0), arachidic acid (C20:0), behenic acid (C22:0), etc.). Second, lactic acid readily ... The original lab-scale preparation of lactylates involved esterification of lactic acid or poly(lactic acid) with an acid ...
However, most cancer cells predominantly produce their energy through a high rate of glycolysis followed by lactic acid ... Normal cells primarily produce energy through mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. ... which prevent lactic acid build up in tumors) has been successfully used as a metabolic target in brain tumor pre-clinical ... bromopyruvic acid, or bromopyruvate), 3-bromo-2-oxopropionate-1-propyl ester (3-BrOP), 5-thioglucose and dichloroacetic acid ( ...
At higher temperatures Lactobacillus plantarum dominates, which produces primarily lactic acid. Many pickles start with ... Natural fermentation at room temperature, by lactic acid bacteria, produces the required acidity. Other pickles are made by ... typically by a process involving Lactobacillus bacteria that produce lactic acid as the preservative agent. ... Achara remains popular as the Philippine localization of the Malay acar, and is primarily made out of green papaya, carrots, ...
... although the acidosis caused by ethanol is actually primarily due to the increased production of lactic acid found in such ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid, or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body ... Lactic acidosis Ketoacidosis Chronic renal failure (accumulation of sulfates, phosphates, urea) Intoxication: Organic acids, ... Metabolic acidosis is a condition that occurs when the body produces excessive quantities of acid or when the kidneys are not ...
High anion gap metabolic acidosis
... although the acidosis caused by ethanol is actually primarily due to the increased production of lactic acid found in such ... K - Ketoacidosis (DKA, AKA) U - Uremia L - Lactic acidosis T - Toxins (Ethylene glycol, methanol, as well as drugs, such as ... "Metabolic Acidosis: Acid-Base Regulation and Disorders: Merck Manual Professional". Retrieved 2008-12-04. ... K - Ketoacidosis A - aspirin R - Renal failure M - Methanol E - Ethylene glycol L - Lactic acidosis Another frequently used ...
The presence of lactic acid has an inhibitory effect on ATP generation within the muscle; though not producing fatigue, it can ... They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such ... Acidification by lactic acid may allow recovery of force so that acidosis may protect against fatigue rather than being a cause ... Once thought to be caused by lactic acid build-up, a more recent theory is that it is caused by tiny tears in the muscle fibers ...
Alpha hydroxy acid
Compounds of this class are used on the industrial-scale and include glycolic acid, lactic acid, citric acid, and mandelic acid ... Bioavailability (influenced primarily by small molecular size) is an important factor in a compound's ability to penetrate the ... lactic acid (from sour milk), malic acid (from apples), citric acid (from citrus fruits) and tartaric acid (from grape wine). ... Glycolic acid, lactic acid, and citric acid, on topical application to photodamaged skin, have been shown to produce increased ...
sour cabbage') is finely cut raw cabbage that has been fermented by various lactic acid bacteria. It has a long shelf ... This is due primarily to the greater initial activity of species L. plantarum. ... Sauerkraut is made by a process of pickling called lactic acid fermentation that is analogous to how traditional (not heat- ... A 2004 genomic study found an unexpectedly large diversity of lactic acid bacteria in sauerkraut, and that previous studies had ...
... is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The ... lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. A mixture of the two in equal amounts is called DL-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic ... Lactic acid is chiral, consisting of two optical isomers. One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ...
Lactic acid bacteria (hereto known as LAB) ferment lactose to lactic acid, they are Gram-positive facultative anaerobes. The ... Sour cream is used primarily in the cuisines of Europe and North America, often as a condiment. It is a traditional topping for ... When the cream is inoculated with starter bacteria and the bacteria begins converting lactose to lactic acid, the pH begins a ... Sour cream is a dairy product obtained by fermenting regular cream with certain kinds of lactic acid bacteria. The bacterial ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 2
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... Mutations primarily manifest in the PDHA1 gene. In women, this deficiency can be much harder to detect. This is because of the ... Pyruvate dehydrogenase deficiency is characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid in the body and a variety of ... Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ...
Apart from lactic acid and lactide, lactic acid O-carboxyanhydride ("lac-OCA"), a five-membered cyclic compound has been used ... primarily used for lipoatrophy of cheeks. Progress in biotechnology has resulted in the development of commercial production of ... Lactic Acid)". In Rafael Auras; Loong-Tak Lim; Susan E. M. Selke; Hideto Tsuji. Poly(Lactic Acid): Synthesis, Structures, ... Poly(lactic acid) or polylactic acid or polylactide (PLA) is a biodegradable and bioactive thermoplastic aliphatic polyester ...
If oxygen is not available, pyruvic acid is converted to lactic acid, which may contribute to muscle fatigue. This occurs ... They are primarily responsible for maintaining and changing posture, locomotion, as well as movement of internal organs, such ... Acidification by lactic acid may allow recovery of force so that acidosis may protect against fatigue rather than being a cause ... Once thought to be caused by lactic acid build-up, a more recent theory is that it is caused by tiny tears in the muscle fibers ...
... although the acidosis caused by ethanol is actually primarily due to the increased production of lactic acid found in such ... Metabolic acidosis occurs when the body produces too much acid, or when the kidneys are not removing enough acid from the body ... L-Lactic acidosis (L-lactate and D-lactate). *E-Ethylene glycol (Note: Ethanol is sometimes included in this mnemonic, as well ... "Anion Gap: Acid Base Tutorial". University of Connecticut Health Center. Archived from the original on 2008-11-21. Retrieved ...
Pyruvate dehydrogenase (lipoamide) alpha 2
The most common feature is a potentially life-threatening buildup of lactic acid (lactic acidosis), which can cause nausea, ... Mutations primarily manifest in the PDHA1 gene. ... characterized by the buildup of a chemical called lactic acid ... tricarboxylic acid cycle. • oxidation-reduction process. • acetyl-CoA biosynthetic process from pyruvate. • glucose metabolic ... Voet DJ, Voet JG, Pratt CW (2010). "Chapter 17, Citric Acid Cycle". Principles of Biochemistry (4th ed.). Wiley. p. 550. ISBN ...
... is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The ... One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(−)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. ... Related carboxylic acids. acetic acid. glycolic acid. propionic acid. 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. malonic acid. butyric acid. ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ...
... lactic acid, salicylic acid, Jessner's solution, or a lower concentration (20%) of trichloroacetic acid. These peels only ... The earliest pathologic change is the formation of a plug (a microcomedone), which is driven primarily by excessive growth, ... Salicylic acid. Salicylic acid is a topically applied beta-hydroxy acid that stops bacteria from reproducing and has ... "Topical azelaic acid, salicylic acid, nicotinamide, sulphur, zinc and fruit acid (alpha-hydroxy acid) for acne". Cochrane ...
Acid malt, also known as acidulated malt, whose grains contain lactic acid, can be used as a continental analog to ... In whisky production, Bourbon uses a mash made primarily from maize (often mixed with rye or wheat and a small amount of malted ... Acid malt lowers the mash pH and provides a rounder, fuller character to the beer, enhancing the flavor of Pilseners and other ...
... is a copolymer of lactide (a cyclic diester of lactic acid) and glycoside. In practice, vicryl comes as braided, dyed or ... has been used generically referring to any synthetic absorbable suture made primarily of polyglycolic acid. Other brands of ... Vicryl and other polyglycolic-acid sutures may also be treated for more rapid breakdown ("Vicryl Rapide") in rapidly healing ... polyglycolic acid suture include PolySyn, Surgicryl, Polysorb and Dexon, all of which are manufactured by different companies. ...
The pyruvate is either converted into alanine via alanine aminotransferase or converted into lactic acid by lactate ... Diseases of the nervous system, primarily CNS (G04-G47, 323-349). Inflammation. ... Their function is to convert the potential energy of glucose, amino acids, and fatty acids into adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in ... Succinic acid has been studied, and shown effective for both Leigh syndrome, and MELAS syndrome. A high-fat, low- ...
Lactic acid bacteria ferments the sugars into lactic acid and yeast makes ethanol, which through aging and secondary ... Yìn yóu (蔭油): A darker soy sauce brewed primarily in Taiwan by culturing only steamed soybeans with Aspergillus and mixing the ... Based on the result of free amino acid analysis, the most abundant amino acids in Chinese soy sauce product are glutamic acid, ... 18 June 2002). "Lactic acid bacteria isolated from soy sauce mash in Thailand". Journal of General and Applied Microbiology. 48 ...
Main articles: Acid-base homeostasis and Acid-base imbalance. The plasma pH can be altered by respiratory changes in the ... This hormone acts primarily on bone, causing the rapid removal of calcium from the blood and depositing it, in insoluble form, ... An important function is the production and control of bile acids. Too much bile acid can be toxic to cells and its synthesis ... A change in the plasma pH gives an acid-base imbalance. In acid-base homeostasis there are two mechanisms that can help ...
... and acid baths (such as lactic acid from sour milk, and later diluted sulfuric acid). The whole process lasted up to six months ... primarily in the United States). Even "scientific-grade", commercially produced disinfection solutions such as Virocidin-X ... Peracetic (peroxoacetic) acid (H. 3CC(O)OOH). Generated in situ by some laundry detergents, and also marketed for use as ... Louis Jacques Thénard first produced hydrogen peroxide in 1818 by reacting barium peroxide with nitric acid. Hydrogen ...
Yeasts produce ethanol, lactic acid bacteria produce lactic acid, and acetic acid bacteria produce acetic acid. The ... Pure, unsweetened chocolate, often called "baking chocolate", contains primarily cocoa solids and cocoa butter in varying ... mainly palmitic acid and stearic acid, while the predominant unsaturated fat is oleic acid (table). ... may affect the esophageal sphincter muscle in a way that permits stomach acids to enter the esophagus. Theobromine ...
Acid - Simple English Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Lactic acid, C3H6O3 was found by Carl Wilhelm Scheele in 1780. It can be found in sour milk products, such as Yogurt. ... The cell membrane of nearly all organisms is primarily made up of a phospholipid bilayer, a micelle of hydrophobic fatty acid ... Every acid has a conjugate base formed by removing the acid's proton. Hydrochloric acid (HCl), for example, is an acid and its ... The article about certain properties of databases is at ACID. Sometimes acid is another name for the drug LSD (Lysergic acid ...
The first stage of bokashi preserves the ingredients in a lactic acid fermentation. The acid is a natural disinfectant, used as ... being primarily mixed with soil, sand, grit, bark chips, vermiculite, perlite, or clay granules to produce loam. Compost can be ... addition of vital humus or humic acids, and as a natural pesticide for soil. In ecosystems, compost is useful for erosion ...
LDH is measured by the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) test (also known as the LDH test or lactic acid dehydrogenase test). ... Both of these conditions affect how the body breaks down sugars, primarily in certain muscle cells. Lactate dehydrogenase-A ... The onset of acidosis during periods of intense exercise is commonly attributed to accumulation of lactic acid. From this ... This leads to the addition of seven amino acid acids to the normal LDH-H protein. The extension contains a peroxisomal ...
Quark (dairy product)
Quark is a member of the acid-set cheese group, whose coagulation mainly relies on the acidity, produced by lactic acid ... This group is distinguished from the "rennet cheeses", whose coagulation relies primarily on the action of rennet, in Fox's ... The lactic acid bacteria are introduced in the form of mesophilic Lactococcus starter cultures. In the dairy ... It can be classified as fresh acid-set cheese. Traditional quark can be made without rennet, but in modern dairies small ...
This is mainly because these species can grow in the presence of high sucrose, ethanol, acetic acid, sorbic acid, benzoic acid ... Kaufmann K, Schoneck A (2002). Making Sauerkraut and Pickled Vegetables at Home: Creative Recipes for Lactic Fermented Food to ... They are the species primarily responsible for cryptococcosis, a fungal disease that occurs in about one million HIV/AIDS ... They are often used in the same way that monosodium glutamate (MSG) is used and, like MSG, often contain free glutamic acid.[92 ...
Category:E nummer frae Wikidata
The cell membrane of nearly all organisms is primarily made up of a phospholipid bilayer, a micelle of hydrophobic fatty acid ... Gluconic acid HOCH2-(CHOH)4-COOH. *Lactic acid (CH3-CHOH-COOH) ... ic acid. perchloric acid (HClO4). ate. ic acid. chloric acid ( ... Common acids. Mineral acids (inorganic acids). *Hydrogen halides and their solutions: hydrofluoric acid (HF), hydrochloric acid ... See also: Acid dissociation constant § Monoprotic acids. Polyprotic acids. Polyprotic acids, also known as polybasic acids, are ...
... and is converted in the body to lactic acid, a normal product of metabolism and exercise. ... Ethylene glycol is primarily used in antifreeze formulations (50%) and as a raw material in the manufacture of polyesters such ... Treating a ketone or aldehyde with ethylene glycol in the presence of an acid catalyst (e.g., p-toluenesulfonic acid; BF3·Et2O ... Upon ingestion, ethylene glycol is oxidized to glycolic acid, which is, in turn, oxidized to oxalic acid, which is toxic. It ...
Fermentative anaerobic organisms mostly use the lactic acid fermentation pathway:. C6H12O6 + 2 ADP + 2 phosphate → 2 lactic ... Some organisms metabolise primarily using glycogen, for example the Nereid (worm)s and some polychaetes, or the juvenile ... Anaerobic bacteria and archaea use these and many other fermentative pathways, e.g., propionic acid fermentation, butyric acid ... cells function as facultative anaerobes during vigorous exercise and this creates a build-up of the byproduct lactic acid in ...
This is probably brought about by the buildup of lactic acid in the active muscles causing an osmotic gradient, moving the ... In mammals, inhalation at rest is primarily due to the contraction of the diaphragm. This is an upwardly domed sheet of muscle ... Surfactant immune function is primarily attributed to two proteins: SP-A and SP-D. These proteins can bind to sugars on the ... There are also oxygen and carbon dioxide sensors in the lungs, but they primarily determine the diameters of the bronchioles ...
Citric acid cycle
"Section 18.6: The Regulation of Cellular Respiration Is Governed Primarily by the Need for ATP". Biochemistry. San Francisco: ... To turn them into amino acids the alpha keto-acids formed from the citric acid cycle intermediates have to acquire their amino ... The citric acid cycle (CAC) - also known as the TCA cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) or the Krebs cycle - is a series of ... These latter amino acids are therefore termed "ketogenic" amino acids, whereas those that enter the citric acid cycle as ...
Burnout sets help increase muscle growth because of the buildup of lactic acid in the muscle when it's forced to the point of ... Strength training is primarily an anaerobic activity, although some proponents have adapted it to provide the benefits of ... Strength training exercise is primarily anaerobic. Even while training at a lower intensity (training loads of ~20-RM), ... Wrist straps can be used to isolate muscle groups like in "lat pull-downs", where the trainee would primarily use the ...
Cultured cream, cultured butter, and cultured buttermilk owe their tart flavour to lactic acid bacteria and their buttery aroma ... The examples and perspective in this section deal primarily with the United States and do not represent a worldwide view of the ... That notice also solicited input regarding exposure and health effects of acetoin, acetaldehyde, acetic acid and furfural. ... and cultured butter are produced by inoculating pasteurized cream or milk with a lactic starter culture, churning (agitating) ...
Rapid removal of lead and cadmium from water by specific lactic acid bacteria. - PubMed - NCBI
People are exposed to them primarily through food and water. Available conventional methods (precipitation, flocculation, ion ... Rapid removal of lead and cadmium from water by specific lactic acid bacteria.. Halttunen T1, Salminen S, Tahvonen R. ... In this work, specific lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were assessed for their ability to remove cadmium and lead from water. ...
Nanomaterials | Free Full-Text | Antagonistic Effect of Azoxystrobin Poly (Lactic Acid) Microspheres with Controllable...
... lactic acid) microspheres (MS) were prepared by an oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation approach. The hydrated mean particle ... Strobilurins are natural substances primarily derived from Oudemansiella mucida and Strobilurus tenacellus. Strobilurins bind ... Du, N.; Guo, W.; Yu, Q.; Guan, S.; Guo, L.; Shen, T.; Tang, H.; Gan, Z. Poly(d,l-lactic acid)-block-poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl) ... The biocompatible polymers of poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA), approved by the US Food and Drug ...
Use of food wastes for the production of lactic silage
2002a, b). Ensiling is characterized as primarily a lactic acid fermentation process. During the initial stage of fermentation ... Figure 5 shows the pH and lactic acid (LA) behaviors setting off the pH decrease and lactic acid increase over the time. The pH ... During the fermentation of organic wastes, the production of lactic acid by the yogurt lactic acid bacteria kept a continuous ... which caused a self-control system by the lactic acid bacteria, which produced more lactic acid and did not alter the pH ...
Lactic acid - Wikipedia
Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The ... lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. A mixture of the two in equal amounts is called DL-lactic acid, or racemic lactic acid. Lactic ... Related carboxylic acids. acetic acid. glycolic acid. propionic acid. 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. malonic acid. butyric acid. ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ...
Lactic acid: Facts, Discussion Forum, and Encyclopedia Article
Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk. Milk. Milk is a white liquid produced by the mammary glands of mammals. It is the ... One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(−)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. ... Lactic acid is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of at least ... Lactic acid is a carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acid. Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of at least ...
Award Data | SBIR.gov
Global Lactic Acid Market Research Report 2018 : ReportsnReports
This report studies the global Lactic Acid market status and... ... Check for Discount on Global Lactic Acid Market Research Report ... primarily split into. - Glazed Ceramic Tile. - Unglazed Ceramic Tile. - Porcelain Tile. On the basis of the end users/ ... 1 Lactic Acid Market Overview. 1.1 Product Overview and Scope of Lactic Acid. 1.2 Lactic Acid Segment by Type (Product Category ... 2.5 Lactic Acid Market Competitive Situation and Trends. 2.5.1 Lactic Acid Market Concentration Rate. 2.5.2 Lactic Acid Market ...
Waste Degradation and Utilization by Lactic Acid Bacteria: Use of Lactic Acid Bacteria in Production of Food Additives,...
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the most well-studied bacterial groups known from ancient times. These valuable ... Lactic acid is the main product of LAB synthesis primarily consumed by food industry. These microorganisms are also sources of ... use of waste substrates for production of lactic acid by LAB. Lactic acid, or 2-hydroxypropanoic acid, is water soluble and ... Lactic acid is the main product of LAB. The use of waste substrates for production of lactic acid by LAB is described in ...
Cellular waste product - Wikipedia
Lactic acid fermentation is relatively inefficient. The waste products lactic acid and ethanol have not been fully oxidized and ... Fermentation occurs primarily in anaerobic conditions, although some organisms such as yeast use fermentation even when oxygen ... In the homolactic pathway, it produces lactic acid as waste. In the heterolactic pathway, it produces lactic acid as well as ... Muscles cells under great exertion will also use lactic acid fermentation to supplement aerobic respiration. Lactic acid ...
Aerobic Respiration in Lactic Acid Bacteria: Current and Future Applications in Dairy Starter Culture: Medicine & Healthcare...
Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are used as food-grade microorganisms for production of a variety of fermented milk products. They ... Aerobic Respiration in Lactic Acid Bacteria: Current and Future Applications in Dairy Starter Culture: 10.4018/978-1-5225-5363- ... LAB are primarily used as starter cultures in manufacturing of diverse range of fermented products from milk, cereals etc. LAB ... "Aerobic Respiration in Lactic Acid Bacteria: Current and Future Applications in Dairy Starter Culture." Microbial Cultures and ...
Social Responsibility's Influence Over Food Safety and Quality - Food Safety Magazine
DFD is found primarily in sheep and cattle when decreased lactic acid levels raise the pH. This can lead to a dark, unpleasant ... Ideally, a calm, well-rested animal has high levels of glycogen, a sugar found in muscle that produces lactic acid ... The resultant reduced glycogen levels lower yields and shorten shelf life by increasing spoilage (lactic acid retards microbial ... Preslaughter distress consumes this sugar, causing reduced lactic acid levels. This chemical reaction is responsible for major ...
Blood Lactic Acid
... , Lactic Acidosis, Lactic Acidosis Definition, Lactic Acid. ... Lactic Acid is primarily used as a Sepsis marker and tissue ischemia marker (e.g. ischemic bowel). *However, differential ... Lactic Acid may have more evidence for use in sick children (esp. Sepsis, Trauma) and their disposition. *Increased organ ... Lactic Acid clearance outside Sepsis does not uniformly improve with Intravenous Fluids. *Cardiogenic Shock can also increase ...
Food additive - Preservatives | Britannica
Two principal types of oxidation that contribute to food deterioration are autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (i.e., those ... lactic acid-producing bacteria). nitrates, nitrites. inhibits enzymes/disrupts cell membrane function (bacteria, primarily ... acetic acid. disrupts cell membrane function (bacteria, yeasts, some molds). benzoic acid. disrupts cell membrane function/ ... propionic acid. disrupts cell membrane function (molds, some bacteria). sorbic acid. disrupts cell membrane function/inhibits ...
Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria | PNAS
Gram-positive organisms that ferment hexose sugars to produce primarily lactic acid. This functional classification includes a ... a homofermentative pathway in which lactic acid is the primary product and a heterofermentative pathway in which lactic acid, ... Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria. K. Makarova, A. Slesarev, Y. Wolf, A. Sorokin, B. Mirkin, E. Koonin, A. ... Comparative genomics of the lactic acid bacteria. K. Makarova, A. Slesarev, Y. Wolf, A. Sorokin, B. Mirkin, E. Koonin, A. ...
Global and China Lactic Acid and Derivative Industry Report, 2014-2016 | Jan 15, 2015 - ReleaseWire
China surpassed Western Europe to become the second largest lactic acid market, with growth in consumption primarily benefiting ... The United States is still the largest consumer market in the world, accounting for 31% of total lactic acid consumption in ... Global lactic acid consumption has been growing steadily and rapidly since 2008, and the market capacity has arrived at 800,000 ... Global and China Lactic Acid and Derivative Industry Report, 2014-2016. The Report Global and China Lactic Acid and Derivative ...
Jinhong Tablet Reduces Damage of Intestinal Mucosal Barrier in Rats with Acute Biliary Infection via Bcl-2/Bax mRNA and Protein...
D-lactic acid is a metabolic product of intestinal bacteria. Serum D-lactic acid levels can reflect the intestinal mucosal ... DAO is primarily expressed in small intestine and rarely detected under normal circumstances [15, 16]. When intestinal injury ... Serum DAO, D-Lactic Acid, and Endotoxin Levels. To confirm the impairment of the intestinal mucosal barrier in acute biliary ... what is more, serum indexes DAO, D-lactic acid, and endotoxin also showed a higher level in acute biliary infection group and a ...
Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Survey Report... - Chemical Industry News
DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Industry 2018 Market Research Report is an in depth study providing... ... primarily split into. Low Density. Medium Density. High Density ... Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Survey Report ... The Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Industry Report 2018 is an in depth study analyzing the current state of ... The recently published report titled Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Industry 2018 Market Research Report is ...
Global Bio-Renewable Chemicals Market 2017 by Key Players -... - FMR News
The Purpose of Lactic Acid Testing
Under certain conditions lactic acid increases to critical levels. This is called lactic acidosis which can be a life ... Lactic acid is a by-product of normal muscle metabolism under conditions of low oxygen. ... Other Testing Done With Lactic Acid. Lactic acid testing is primarily done to diagnose lactic acidosis, an acidic condition of ... What is Lactic Acid?. Lactic acids levels increase when there is decreased oxygen. An increase in lactic acid may be a result ...
Ifosfamide-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) PLGA-dextran polymeric nanoparticles to improve the antitumor efficacy in...
In this study, ifosfamide-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-dextran polymeric nanoparticles (PD/IFS) was developed ... Osteosarcoma is a typical bone cancer that primarily affects adolescents. The therapeutic activity of drugs is limited by their ... Osteosarcoma is a typical bone cancer that primarily affects adolescents. The therapeutic activity of drugs is limited by their ... Louis, MO, USA).Poly(d,l-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) (Mw: 10,000; lactic acid : glycolic acid = 50:50) was procured from ...
Who Builds More Lactic Acid: a Sprinter or a Jogger? | LIVESTRONG.COM
Lactic acid is a by-product of the energy-producing processes which predominate in high intensity exercise,... ... utilizing primarily sources whose energy production results in lactic acid as a by-product. Lactic acid levels cause increased ... Some lactic acid can build up during a long jog, but the level of lactic acid is generally less than the lactic-acid buildup ... Sprinters build more lactic acid than joggers. Lactic acid is a by-product of the energy-producing processes which predominate ...
Lactic acid - Wikipedia
Lactic acid is found primarily in sour milk products, such as koumiss, laban, yogurt, kefir, and some cottage cheeses. The ... One is known as L-(+)-lactic acid or (S)-lactic acid and the other, its mirror image, is D-(−)-lactic acid or (R)-lactic acid. ... Related carboxylic acids. acetic acid. glycolic acid. propionic acid. 3-hydroxypropanoic acid. malonic acid. butyric acid. ... Chemistry and production of lactic acid, lactide and poly(lactic acid) in Poly(Lactic acid). Hoboken: Wiley. p. 3. ISBN 978-0- ...
Oud Beersel Oude Lambic | Brouwerij Oud Beersel | BeerAdvocate
Some biscuit malt sweetness pokes its head into the lactic acid. Then more bone dry funkiness that lasts through the swallow ... Lactobacillus and what tastes like Pediococcus primarily. Not as big of a Brett presence as I expected to get. ... Lemony citric acid. Nice depth to the funk has developed here. Just a touch of biscuit malt aroma as well.. T: A modest citric ... acid bite up front, followed by funk and cheese. Big barnyard funk. ...
Oud Beersel Oude Lambic | Brouwerij Oud Beersel | BeerAdvocate
Some biscuit malt sweetness pokes its head into the lactic acid. Then more bone dry funkiness that lasts through the swallow ... Lactobacillus and what tastes like Pediococcus primarily. Not as big of a Brett presence as I expected to get. ... and a puckey lactic sourness thats a whole lot more than lemony acid, its like sweet tart candy for a moment, and then mellowed ... Lemony citric acid. Nice depth to the funk has developed here. Just a touch of biscuit malt aroma as well.. T: A modest citric ...
Kefir extract as an anti-cancer agent - McGill University
The grains include primarily lactic acid bacteria (lactobacilli, lactococci, leuconostocs) and yeast. They resemble small ... lactic acid was excluded as the active ingredient since lactic acid measurements showed no relationship with lactic acid ... The supernatant was isolated for lactic acid measurement using a lactic acid assay kit from Sigma Diagnostics Inc. Kefir, milk ... Lactic Acid Concentration in Cell Cultural Media, Kefir and Yogurt Extracts: After cells were collected for counting, the ...
Brewing With Lactic Acid Bacteria | MoreBeer
The homofermentative group produces primarily lactic acid, whereas the heterofermentative group produces lactic acid, acetic ... Lactic Acid Bacteria in the Brewhouse. Lactic acid bacteria provide a versatile tool for producing acid beers. Bearing in mind ... Preserving Lactic Acid Bacteria. Because lactic acid cultures accumulate acid in their medium, they are difficult to keep and ... Obtaining Lactic Acid Bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria can be obtained from several sources; however, only strains that are ...
sodium lactate | Cosmetic Ingredient Dictionary | Paula's Choice
Probiotic spectra of lactic acid bacteria yogurt, how much probiotic should i take for ibs diarrhea, enzymes for soy digestion...
MALA: Metformin-Associated Lactic Acidosis | California Poison Control System | UCSF
Acidosis and lactic acid levels cleared over the next 24 hours and creatinine levels remained normal. She was discharged on ... It is primarily used in the treatment of diabetes but has been used in other conditions associated with insulin resistance such ... Serum chemistry panel, lactic acid and blood gas may be helpful in establishing a presumptive diagnosis of metformin poisoning ... It is this mitochondrial impairment that leads to a buildup of lactic acid, a substrate of stalled gluconeogenesis. It is a ...
Fatty acidsHenan Jindan Lactic Acid TechnologyMicroorganismsPyruvateGlobal Lactic Acid marketAcidosisResults in lactic acidLevel of lactic acidFormation of lactic acidCarbohydrates into lactic acidAerobicEthanolMetabolize lactic acidGlycolicPolyAciditySugarsKnown as lacticContains lacticLactoseAcidicExcessAccumulationOxygenCarbonHeterofermentativeOrganic acidsBacteriumMetabolicProductionFermentable carbohydratesBacteria are found2016MetabolismYeastSilage2017MusclesPolylacticChemicalBreakdownSynthesisDehydrogenaseCheesesAminoBacterialBenzoicAscorbic acidConsumptionMetric tonsHydroxycarboxylic acid
- Two principal types of oxidation that contribute to food deterioration are autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids (i.e., those containing one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms of the hydrocarbon chain) and enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. (britannica.com)
- The autoxidation of unsaturated fatty acids involves a reaction between the carbon-carbon double bonds and molecular oxygen (O 2 ). (britannica.com)
- Aluminium - color (silver) Aluminium ammonium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium potassium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium silicate - anti-caking agent Aluminium sodium sulfate - mineral salt Aluminium sulfate - mineral salt Amaranth - color (red) (FDA: [DELISTED] Red #2) Note that amaranth dye is unrelated to the amaranth plant Amaranth oil - high in squalene and unsaturated fatty acids - used in food and cosmetic industries. (wikipedia.org)
Henan Jindan Lactic Acid Technology1
- Organic acids, including acetic , benzoic , propionic, and sorbic acids, are used against microorganisms in products with a low pH . (britannica.com)
- Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) named so for the appropriate ability to ferment carbohydrates into lactic acid are one of the most studied and used groups of microorganisms. (intechopen.com)
- however, milk souring and lactic acid producing bacteria were considered as the same microorganisms until the beginning of twentieth century [ 1 ]. (intechopen.com)
- This study examines nine other LAB genomes representing the phylogenetic and functional diversity of lactic acid-producing microorganisms. (pnas.org)
- This encourages the growth of even more lactic acid bacteria and prevents the growth of other microorganisms ( 3 ). (healthline.com)
- The lactic acid bacteria represent a large heterogeneous family of microorganisms that share the property of converting fermentable carbohydrates primarily to lactic acid. (springer.com)
- The interest in microorganisms occurring in foods is primarily due to the biotechnological potential of new bacterial species and strains. (asm.org)
- Genetically modified lactic acid bacteria (GM-LAB) can be considered as a different class of GMOs, and the European Union is preparing regulations for the risk assessment of genetically modified microorganisms. (archive.org)
- CO2 is formed in Pyruvate decarboxylation, H2O is formed in oxidative phosphorylation, and both are formed in the citric acid cycle. (wikipedia.org)
- Intracellular redox balance is maintained through the oxidation of NADH , concomitant with pyruvate reduction to lactic acid. (bionity.com)
- When oxygen is low, our muscle cells will utilize anaerobic respiration and ferment pyruvate into lactic acid. (wyzant.com)
Global Lactic Acid market5
- This report studies the global Lactic Acid market status and forecast, categorizes the global Lactic Acid market size (value & volume) by manufacturers, type, application, and region. (reportsnreports.com)
- The global Lactic Acid market is valued at million US$ in 2017 and will reach million US$ by the end of 2025, growing at a CAGR of during 2018-2025. (reportsnreports.com)
- The global lactic acid market is estimated to witness high growth, due to rising demand from its end-use applications. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The global lactic acid market is witnessing high growth, which was mainly achieved by the growing demand from its end-use applications. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- In this report, the global Lactic Acid market is valued at USD XX million in 2016 and is expected to reach USD XX million by the end of 2022, growing at a CAGR of XX% between 2016 and 2022. (qyresearchreports.com)
- The purpose of the lactic acid test is to diagnose lactic acidosis. (brighthub.com)
- Lactic acidosis can result from a number of diseases affecting the heart, liver, and kidneys. (brighthub.com)
- Lactic acid testing is primarily done to diagnose lactic acidosis, an acidic condition of the body that can compromise many systems and organs. (brighthub.com)
- These findings have been synthesized into the acid-mediated tumor invasion model, which proposes that intratumoral acidosis results in flow of H + ions along concentration gradients into normal tissue adjacent to the tumor. (aacrjournals.org)
- The accumulation of organic acid metabolites, especially glycolic acid, results in an elevated anion gap metabolic acidosis. (cdc.gov)
- Phenformin, a previously used biguanide, as withdrawn from the market in the 1970's due its association with numerous cases of lactic acidosis. (calpoison.org)
- When should dialysis be used in the management of metformin-associated lactic acidosis (MALA)? (calpoison.org)
- Lactic acidosis is about 20 times less frequent with metformin than phenformin. (calpoison.org)
- The role of metformin in the development of lactic acidosis had not been completely elucidated and is further complicated in the literature by many reported cases of MALA without elevated metformin concentrations. (calpoison.org)
- MALA is extremely rare when prescribed to a low-risk groups less inclined to develop lactic acidosis and avoided in those with alcoholism, heart failure and significant respiratory disease. (calpoison.org)
- A Cochrane review concluded therapeutic use of metformin is not associated with an increased risk of lactic acidosis if no contraindications are present. (calpoison.org)
- The acidosis results primarily from an increase in glycolic acid, although glyoxylic, oxalic, and lactic acids also contribute in small part. (medscape.com)
- Through interaction with aldehyde dehydrogenase, ethylene glycol is then metabolized to glycolic acid (GA), which accumulates and can cause a profound metabolic acidosis. (medscape.com)
Results in lactic acid2
- In the absence of oxygen, carbohydrate metabolism results in lactic acid production. (brighthub.com)
- An anaerobic activity, sprinting is performed at high intensity for a short burst of energy expenditure, utilizing primarily sources whose energy production results in lactic acid as a by-product. (livestrong.com)
Level of lactic acid2
Formation of lactic acid1
- Now, more ATP is produced through anaerobic glycolysis, and through a series of chemical reactions in the cells of the muscle, the formation of lactic acid allows anaerobic glycolysis to continue. (mtbr.com)
Carbohydrates into lactic acid1
- Jogging, especially at a slow pace and for long distances, is primarily aerobic, and utilizes a greater array of energy sources. (livestrong.com)
- Tumor cells, even under aerobic conditions, generate energy primarily through glycolytic pathways ( 15 ). (spandidos-publications.com)
- This acidity is primarily due to ( a ) anaerobic glycolysis in tumor regions subjected to short-term or long-term hypoxia as a result of poorly organized vasculature with diminished chaotic blood flow, and ( b ) aerobic glycolysis (the Warburg effect), a common cancer phenotypic property in which the glycolytic metabolic pathways are used even in the presence of oxygen ( 5 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- The microflora-on fresh plants are primarily gram-negative, aerobic (oxygen-loving) species. (pioneer.com)
- Many organisms (or cells) will use aerobic respiration primarily, however, if there is a limited oxygen supply they can utilize anaerobic respiration for survival. (wyzant.com)
- When we aren't exercising, our muscle cells primarily use aerobic respiration because oxygen is plentiful. (wyzant.com)
- Finally, the aerobic system is next and primarily what is trained in endurance athletes. (breakingmuscle.com)
- DL -lactic acid is miscible with water and with ethanol above its melting point, which is around 17 or 18 °C. D -lactic acid and L -lactic acid have a higher melting point. (wikipedia.org)
- In the heterolactic pathway, it produces lactic acid as well as ethanol and carbon dioxide. (wikipedia.org)
- The waste products lactic acid and ethanol have not been fully oxidized and still contain energy, but it requires the addition of oxygen to extract this energy. (wikipedia.org)
Metabolize lactic acid2
- One of the liver's functions is to metabolize lactic acid, therefore, the health of the liver is a factor in removing lactic acid from the body. (brighthub.com)
- In the presence of oxygen, certain yeast species have the ability to metabolize lactic acid, causing an elevation in silage pH which reduces the inhibitory effect on other heatgenerating spoilage organisms such as mold, bacilli and acetobacter species. (pioneer.com)
- In this study, ifosfamide-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)-dextran polymeric nanoparticles (PD/IFS) was developed and studied its anticancer efficacy against multiple osteosarcoma cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Aflibercept (AFL) was encapsulated in poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles (NPs) via double emulsion diffusion. (mdpi.com)
- Glycolic, salicylic, lactic and malic acids all fall into this category. (happi.com)
- Glycolic acid rejuvenates skin with minimal irritation. (happi.com)
- It is not as irritating as glycolic acid. (happi.com)
- Malic acid is a weaker version of glycolic acid. (happi.com)
- This glycolic acid is eventually converted into glyoxylic acid, and then into the highly toxic oxalate or the safer glutamate or α-ketoadipic acid metabolites. (medscape.com)
- glycolic acid, glycolide, .beta. (patentgenius.com)
- Size-controlled azoxystrobin-poly (lactic acid) microspheres (MS) were prepared by an oil/water emulsion solvent evaporation approach. (mdpi.com)
- Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Survey Report. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The recently published report titled Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Industry 2018 Market Research Report is an in depth study providing complete analysis of the industry for the period 2018 - 2025. (mynewsdesk.com)
- It provides complete overview of Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional market considering all the major industry trends, market dynamics and competitive scenario. (mynewsdesk.com)
- The Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional Industry Report 2018 is an in depth study analyzing the current state of the Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional market. (mynewsdesk.com)
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- Research study on Global Poly (DL-lactic) Acid Market Professional market also discusses the opportunity areas for investors. (mynewsdesk.com)
- Volume augmentation products, such as hyaluronic acid (HA), calcium hydroxylapatite (CaHA), and poly-L-lactic acid (PLLA), are often used in combination with one another and with neurotoxins for facial rejuvenation because of the complementary modes of action. (jddonline.com)
- 4. The method according to claim 1 wherein said polyester comprises poly(aliphatic hydroxy carboxylic acid). (patentgenius.com)
- In recent years, new applications, such as degradable plastics and coatings made from poly (lactic) acid, have the potential to greatly expand the market for lactic acid (Cheng et al. (scribd.com)
- Lactic acid levels cause increased respiration, such as during and immediately after a sprint -- the carbon dioxide exhaled is a by-product of the body's neutralization of the increased acidity. (livestrong.com)
- The stool acidity test is used for infants and young children to measure the amount of acid in the stool. (amazonaws.com)
- As a starting material for industrial production of lactic chemistry, that is applied for chemical synthesis, almost any carbohydrate source containing C5/C6 sugars could be used. (wikipedia.org)
- Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are historically defined as a group of microaerophilic, Gram-positive organisms that ferment hexose sugars to produce primarily lactic acid. (pnas.org)
- These bacteria break down the sugars in food to form lactic acid and sometimes alcohol or carbon dioxide ( 1 , 3, 4 ). (healthline.com)
- This reduces pH through the efficient conversion of sugars to lactic acid. (pioneer.com)
- Furthermore, not all of the small population of LAB is desirable because most are Leuconostics species which are inefficient at converting sugars, lack acid-tolerance and can't reduce pH below about 5.0. (pioneer.com)
- Researchers from the Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering at Harvard and Harvard Medical School have engineered photosynthetic bacteria to produce simple sugars and lactic acid. (redorbit.com)
- Because the production methods use photosynthesis - the process by which living things are assembled using only CO2 and sunlight - the cost of making sugars, lactic acid, and other compounds would be significantly lower than traditional methods. (redorbit.com)
- When making this cheese the culture is allowed to produce as much lactic acid from the milk lactose (sugars) as it can and then the remaining curd is dried out to remove the lactose through a higher heat cooking process. (cheesemaking.com)
Known as lactic1
- Kidney-stone disease, gout, lactic-acid build-up with exercise are all created in an acidic environment. (statesman.com)
- The accumulation of lactic acid can be critical, so a lactic acid test may be done for the purpose of identifying acidic conditions in the body. (brighthub.com)
- [ 4 ] When urate is filtered at exceedingly high concentrations from the plasma and is further concentrated through the course of the tubular system, with the pH becoming progressively more acidic, uric acid precipitation and obstruction in the tubules, collecting ducts, and even pelves and ureters may result. (medscape.com)
- As bacteria break down sugar, lactic acid and carbon dioxide are formed, removing oxygen and making the food more acidic. (healthline.com)
- The acidic environment damages the tooth's hard tissues ( enamel and dentin ) by way of leaching mineral content from them (primarily calcium and phosphate ions). (animated-teeth.com)
- A buffered acid has a lower pH, which makes it more acidic and better able to penetrate skin to have an effect. (happi.com)
- The closer the acid gets to neutral pH (6.6-7.3), the less acidic the acid, which means, the less likely it is to be irritating and less effective on the skin, as well. (happi.com)
- Such treatment would have selectivity by virtue of the acidic milieu surrounding tumors, because MCT is increasingly active as extracellular pH decreases below 7.0 and lactic acid production increases. (aspetjournals.org)
- Dietary acids include phosphoric, citric, and other acids commonly used to impart the tart, tangy flavors we associate with acidic foods and beverages. (dentalcare.com)
- Under conditions of anaerobic activity such as heavy exercise, the body will adjust and re-establish equilibrium once the exercise is discontinued, clearing the system of excess lactic acid. (brighthub.com)
- Three forms of kidney disease have been attributed to excess uric acid: acute uric acid nephropathy, chronic urate nephropathy, and uric acid nephrolithiasis. (medscape.com)
- These disorders share the common element of excess uric acid or urate deposition, although the clinical features vary. (medscape.com)
- The classical "oxygen debt" hypothesis formulated by Hill and associates in the 1920s was an attempt to link the metabolism of lactic acid with the O2 consumption in excess of resting that occurs after exercise. (nih.gov)
- I'm sure you've all been told that your muscles hurt during and after exercise because you have an excess build of lactic acid in your muscles. (wyzant.com)
- Lactic acids levels increase when there is decreased oxygen. (brighthub.com)
- At intensities below 50% of one's maximum oxygen consumption, lactic acid buildup is reduced. (livestrong.com)
- acto" refers to lactic acid, which is a type of acid that's produced upon the breakdown of sugar in an oxygen-free environment. (healthline.com)
- Our muscles have three different energy systems, the ATP-CP system, the lactic acid system, and the oxygen system. (mtbr.com)
- For sprinters, on the other hand, oxygen replenishment is a peripheral concern since the short duration of the activity ensures that almost all energy production relies on the phosphagen or lactic acid processes. (gmatclub.com)
- α-Hydroxy acids, or alpha hydroxy acids , are a class of chemical compounds that consist of a carboxylic acid substituted with a hydroxyl group on the adjacent carbon. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- The small genomes of lactic acid bacteria encode a broad repertoire of transporters for efficient carbon and nitrogen acquisition from the nutritionally rich environments they inhabit and reflect a limited range of biosynthetic capabilities that indicate both prototrophic and auxotrophic strains. (pnas.org)
- The lactic acid along with carbon dioxide builds up in the bloodstream as it cannot be cleared through the lungs. (brighthub.com)
- 2007). There are two methods of ensiling: the chemical, which uses inorganic and/or organic acids, and the biological, which could be microbiological (use of microbial cultivations) or enzymatic (use of proteolytic enzymes) (Cira et al. (scielo.br)
- Carboxylic acids are organic acids characterized by the presence of at least one carboxyl group. (absoluteastronomy.com)
- Organic acids, such as lactic acid and ketoacids, also can impair the proximal secretion of uric acid. (medscape.com)
- Several organic acids such as acetic, lactic, propionic, sorbic and benzoic acids are used as food preservatives (Brul and Coote, 1999). (ispub.com)
- The Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) comprise a clade of Gram positive , low-GC, acid tolerant, non-sporulating, non-respiring rod or cocci that are associated by their common metabolic and physiological characteristics. (bionity.com)
- Furthermore, lactic acid and other metabolic products contribute to the organoleptic and textural profile of a food item. (bionity.com)
- The metabolic antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (LA), is a disulfide compound found naturally in plants and animals. (advocare.com)
- These can be used for fertilizer, ground restorer, energy resource (heat, liquid fuels, electricity) and the production of chemicals (organic volatile acids, ammonium products, alcohols) (Westerman and Bicudo 2005). (scielo.br)
- Chemical production Racemic lactic acid is produced in industry by addition of hydrogen cyanide to acetaldehyde and subsequent hydrolysis of forming lactonitrile. (wikipedia.org)
- Focuses on the key Lactic Acid manufacturers, to study the capacity, production, value, market share and development plans in future. (reportsnreports.com)
- Lactic acid-producing bacteria are associated with various plant and animal niches and play a key role in the production of fermented foods and beverages. (pnas.org)
- Cargill mainly supplies lactic acid products to its subsidiary - NatureWorks for production of polylactic acid. (sbwire.com)
- Since the smooth realization of industrial production in the 1990s, polylactic acid has seen incremental application in biomedicinel, automotive, electronics and other fields, accompanied by intensified development efforts in various countries. (sbwire.com)
- Polylactic acid industry started relatively late in China, seeing gradual transition from laboratory to pilot industrial-production units only after 1990s. (sbwire.com)
- Lactic acid bacteria are used in the production of fermented foods. (asm.org)
- Its simple formula belies its profound effectiveness, aiding in increased cellular energy production and buffering performance-robbing lactic acid. (mtbr.com)
- In doing so, Race Day Boost will enhance the functions and performance of all three of your body's sources of energy production as well as effectively buffering lactic acid during your races. (mtbr.com)
- The availability of creatine also delays the production of lactic acid, the substance which causes the famous 'burn' and can eventually shut down the muscle. (cbass.com)
- Kojic, L-ascorbic, azelaic and mandelic acids all work at a deeper skin level to halt melanin production and impart a brightening effect. (happi.com)
- It could also expand the availability of biodegradable plastics by reducing the cost of lactic acid, a key building block in their production. (redorbit.com)
- Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are utilized in the production and preservation of various fermented foods in Southeast Asia. (asm.org)
- The maintenance of a low pH in the vagina through the microbial production of lactic acid is known to be an important defense against infectious disease in reproductive age women. (nih.gov)
- The combination of the two cations enables the reaction to proceed smoothly with few side reactions, providing outstanding catalytic performances for lactic acid production from cellulose or the related carbohydrates. (rsc.org)
Bacteria are found2
- Populations of lactic acid bacteria are found throughout nature, including in animals and humans. (healthline.com)
- Lactic acid bacteria are found on plant surfaces, on external cavities of human and animal bodies, as commensal colonizers of the gastrointestinal systems of vertebrates, as well as in sewage and manure. (springer.com)
- The Report Global and China Lactic Acid and Derivative Industry Report, 2014-2016 provides information on pricing, market analysis, shares, forecast, and company profiles for key industry participants. (sbwire.com)
- The Global and China Lactic Acid and Derivative Industry Report, 2014-2016 market research, published in October 2014 , is spread across 66 pages, discusses 19 companies and it's market analysis is supported with 65+ charts. (prnewswire.com)
- Lactic acid is a by-product of anaerobic metabolism, a biochemical process which uses limited energy sources for moderate to high intensity exercise. (livestrong.com)
- Uric acid is the relatively water-insoluble end product of purine nucleotide metabolism. (medscape.com)
- Uric acid, the product of the xanthine oxidase-catalyzed conversion of xanthine and hypoxanthine, is the final metabolite of endogenous and dietary purine nucleotide metabolism. (medscape.com)
- Metformin does not undergo hepatic metabolism and is primarily excreted through the renal system unchanged. (calpoison.org)
- It indicates that tumor cells obtain energy to maintain their viability primarily relying on anaerobic metabolism. (hindawi.com)
- The organization of genes involved in purine metabolism and the regulation of the expression of these genes have been primarily described for Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis ( 7 , 30 , 33 , 36 , 38 , 39 ). (asm.org)
- They make lactic acid and peroxide as part of their metabolism. (verywell.com)
- The research report studies the global Global lactic acid sales market report 2017 market on the basis of several criteria, including type, application, and geography to provide a better understanding to the readers. (qyresearchreports.com)
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- The lactic acid energy system uses carbohydrates as fuel, primarily in the form of glycogen stored in the muscles. (mtbr.com)
- Creatine is an amino acid found primarily in the skeletal muscles. (cbass.com)
- With rest and time, our body will eliminate the lactic acid and our muscles will no longer be sore. (wyzant.com)
- Polylactic acid is one of the most potential applications of lactic acid. (sbwire.com)
- Currently, leading polylactic acid manufacturers are concentrated in the United States, the Netherlands, Germany and other developed countries. (sbwire.com)
- In 2013, global polylactic acid capacity hovered around 320,000 tons, of which 90% came from six major manufacturers. (sbwire.com)
- In 2014 China's polylactic acid capacity was approximately 13,700 tons, increasing by 4,800 tons over 2008. (sbwire.com)
- Polylactic acid is a thermoplastic polyester. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The global Lactic acid and polylactic acid market has been segmented on the basis of application and region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The polylactic acid market is projected to reach USD 5.16 Billion by 2020, growing at a CAGR of 20.9% during the forecast period. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The Asia-Pacific market is projected to grow at the highest CAGR, owing to the increasing demand for polylactic acid in this region. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The report provides both qualitative and quantitative analysis of the global lactic acid and polylactic acid market, the competitive landscape, and the preferred development strategies of the key players. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- The polylactic acid market is witnessing a high growth, owing to increasing awareness among consumers and plastic manufacturers regarding the environment, coupled with support from government legislations and increasing landfill waste in various regions. (marketsandmarkets.com)
- For example, enzymes called phenolases catalyze the oxidation of certain molecules (e.g., the amino acid tyrosine ) when fruits and vegetables , such as apples , bananas , and potatoes , are cut or bruised. (britannica.com)
- This enzyme is used to oxidize the L forms of leucine, valine, isoleucine, norvaline, norleucine, and aminobutyrate by removing the amine group from these amino acids and reducing NAD+ to NADH. (kenyon.edu)
- A new study on mice shows that these whey protein shakes contain very high levels of branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), which can reduce certain brain hormones to increase risk for obesity and premature death. (drmirkin.com)
- When the dietary supply is inadequate the body can make a limited amount of creatine from a combination of the amino acids arginine, glycine and methionine. (cbass.com)
- Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) are one of the most well-studied bacterial groups known from ancient times. (intechopen.com)
- a) The acids that cause decay are bacterial waste products. (animated-teeth.com)
- However, it is generally accepted that caries occurs under plaque and is the direct result of bacterial acids. (dentalcare.com)
- Ninety-two strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were isolated from a Malaysian food ingredient, chili bo, stored for up to 25 days at 28°C with no benzoic acid (product A) or with 7,000 mg of benzoic acid kg −1 (product B). The strains were divided into eight groups by traditional phenotypic tests. (asm.org)
- Both sorbic and benzoic acid have a broad spectrum of activity (Davidson, 2001). (ispub.com)
- L-ascorbic acid is derived from vitamin C in synthetic form. (happi.com)
- It imparts antioxidant benefits, brightening skin and increasing collagen, L-ascorbic acid is the synthetic version of vitamin C and works to brighten skin while providing free-radical protection against photo-damage and elements in the environment such as pollution that damages skin. (happi.com)
- Argon - propellant Rocket (Arugula) Asafoetida - Ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) - antioxidant (water-soluble) Ascorbyl palmitate - antioxidant (fat soluble) Ascorbyl stearate - antioxidant (fat soluble) Aspartame - artificial sweetener Astaxanthin - color Avocado oil - used a substitute for olive oil. (wikipedia.org)
- Albany, NY -- ( SBWIRE ) -- 01/15/2015 -- Global lactic acid consumption has been growing steadily and rapidly since 2008, and the market capacity has arrived at 800,000 tons in 2013. (sbwire.com)
- China surpassed Western Europe to become the second largest lactic acid market, with growth in consumption primarily benefiting from increasing demand in the food and beverage processing industry as well as robust export demand. (sbwire.com)
- Lactic acid (CAS No. 50-21-5, 2-hydroxypropanoic acid) is the most widely occurring hydroxycarboxylic acid and is distributed in normal food. (sbir.gov)
- In addition to other biological roles, L -lactic acid is the primary endogenous agonist of hydroxycarboxylic acid receptor 1 (HCA 1 ), which is a G i/o -coupled G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR). (wikipedia.org)