A phenomenon where microorganisms communicate and coordinate their behavior by the accumulation of signaling molecules. A reaction occurs when a substance accumulates to a sufficient concentration. This is most commonly seen in bacteria.
One of the FURANS with a carbonyl thereby forming a cyclic lactone. It is an endogenous compound made from gamma-aminobutyrate and is the precursor of gamma-hydroxybutyrate. It is also used as a pharmacological agent and solvent.
Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.
Cyclic esters of hydroxy carboxylic acids, containing a 1-oxacycloalkan-2-one structure. Large cyclic lactones of over a dozen atoms are MACROLIDES.
Benzopyrroles with the nitrogen at the number one carbon adjacent to the benzyl portion, in contrast to ISOINDOLES which have the nitrogen away from the six-membered ring.
A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.
A plant genus of the family SOLANACEAE. Members contain NICOTINE and other biologically active chemicals; its dried leaves are used for SMOKING.
Viscous materials composed of complex, high-molecular-weight compounds derived from the distillation of petroleum or the destructive distillation of wood or coal. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Plants or plant parts which are harmful to man or other animals.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Injuries to DNA that introduce deviations from its normal, intact structure and which may, if left unrepaired, result in a MUTATION or a block of DNA REPLICATION. These deviations may be caused by physical or chemical agents and occur by natural or unnatural, introduced circumstances. They include the introduction of illegitimate bases during replication or by deamination or other modification of bases; the loss of a base from the DNA backbone leaving an abasic site; single-strand breaks; double strand breaks; and intrastrand (PYRIMIDINE DIMERS) or interstrand crosslinking. Damage can often be repaired (DNA REPAIR). If the damage is extensive, it can induce APOPTOSIS.
A classification of T-lymphocytes, especially into helper/inducer, suppressor/effector, and cytotoxic subsets, based on structurally or functionally different populations of cells.
The end-stage of CHRONIC RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. It is characterized by the severe irreversible kidney damage (as measured by the level of PROTEINURIA) and the reduction in GLOMERULAR FILTRATION RATE to less than 15 ml per min (Kidney Foundation: Kidney Disease Outcome Quality Initiative, 2002). These patients generally require HEMODIALYSIS or KIDNEY TRANSPLANTATION.
Molecules on the surface of T-lymphocytes that recognize and combine with antigens. The receptors are non-covalently associated with a complex of several polypeptides collectively called CD3 antigens (ANTIGENS, CD3). Recognition of foreign antigen and the major histocompatibility complex is accomplished by a single heterodimeric antigen-receptor structure, composed of either alpha-beta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, ALPHA-BETA) or gamma-delta (RECEPTORS, ANTIGEN, T-CELL, GAMMA-DELTA) chains.
T-cell receptors composed of CD3-associated alpha and beta polypeptide chains and expressed primarily in CD4+ or CD8+ T-cells. Unlike immunoglobulins, the alpha-beta T-cell receptors recognize antigens only when presented in association with major histocompatibility (MHC) molecules.
The altered state of immunologic responsiveness resulting from initial contact with antigen, which enables the individual to produce antibodies more rapidly and in greater quantity in response to secondary antigenic stimulus.
A critical subpopulation of T-lymphocytes involved in the induction of most immunological functions. The HIV virus has selective tropism for the T4 cell which expresses the CD4 phenotypic marker, a receptor for HIV. In fact, the key element in the profound immunosuppression seen in HIV infection is the depletion of this subset of T-lymphocytes.
Therapy for the insufficient cleansing of the BLOOD by the kidneys based on dialysis and including hemodialysis, PERITONEAL DIALYSIS, and HEMODIAFILTRATION.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.
The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.
Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.
Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)
A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.
Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.
A progressive, malignant disease of the blood-forming organs, characterized by distorted proliferation and development of leukocytes and their precursors in the blood and bone marrow. Leukemias were originally termed acute or chronic based on life expectancy but now are classified according to cellular maturity. Acute leukemias consist of predominately immature cells; chronic leukemias are composed of more mature cells. (From The Merck Manual, 2006)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.
Activating transcription factors of the MADS family which bind a specific sequence element (MEF2 element) in many muscle-specific genes and are involved in skeletal and cardiac myogenesis, neuronal differentiation and survival/apoptosis.
A family of muscle-specific transcription factors which bind to DNA in control regions and thus regulate myogenesis. All members of this family contain a conserved helix-loop-helix motif which is homologous to the myc family proteins. These factors are only found in skeletal muscle. Members include the myoD protein (MYOD PROTEIN); MYOGENIN; myf-5, and myf-6 (also called MRF4 or herculin).
Cells derived from the BLASTOCYST INNER CELL MASS which forms before implantation in the uterine wall. They retain the ability to divide, proliferate and provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.
Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.
Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.
A superfamily of proteins that share a highly conserved MADS domain sequence motif. The term MADS refers to the first four members which were MCM1 PROTEIN; AGAMOUS 1 PROTEIN; DEFICIENS PROTEIN; and SERUM RESPONSE FACTOR. Many MADS domain proteins have been found in species from all eukaryotic kingdoms. They play an important role in development, especially in plants where they have an important role in flower development.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
White blood cells. These include granular leukocytes (BASOPHILS; EOSINOPHILS; and NEUTROPHILS) as well as non-granular leukocytes (LYMPHOCYTES and MONOCYTES).
The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.
Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.
A system of organs and tissues that process and transport immune cells and LYMPH.
The cells found in the body fluid circulating throughout the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.
Malignant lymphoma in which the lymphomatous cells are clustered into identifiable nodules within the LYMPH NODES. The nodules resemble to some extent the GERMINAL CENTER of lymph node follicles and most likely represent neoplastic proliferation of lymph node-derived follicular center B-LYMPHOCYTES.
Malignant lymphoma composed of large B lymphoid cells whose nuclear size can exceed normal macrophage nuclei, or more than twice the size of a normal lymphocyte. The pattern is predominantly diffuse. Most of these lymphomas represent the malignant counterpart of B-lymphocytes at midstage in the process of differentiation.
A group of heterogeneous lymphoid tumors generally expressing one or more B-cell antigens or representing malignant transformations of B-lymphocytes.
A general term for various neoplastic diseases of the lymphoid tissue.
Antibodies obtained from a single clone of cells grown in mice or rats.
Any of a group of malignant tumors of lymphoid tissue that differ from HODGKIN DISEASE, being more heterogeneous with respect to malignant cell lineage, clinical course, prognosis, and therapy. The only common feature among these tumors is the absence of giant REED-STERNBERG CELLS, a characteristic of Hodgkin's disease.
Tumors or cancer of the MEDIASTINUM.
They can be made only by advanced biotechnological processes; primarily mammalian cell cultures. Monoclonal antibodies (mAb) ... Commonly used cell lines are Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells or plant cell cultures. The production volumes are very small. ... Cell Cultures Animal or plant cells, removed from tissues, will continue to grow if cultivated under the appropriate nutrients ... The inherent risks of the mammalian cell technology led several companies to opt out of mammalian cell technology or to ...
Diabetes and radiation primarily damage the retinal capillaries. Diabetes results in early loss of pericytes and thickening of ... Radiation however, damages the endothelial cells. The management of radiation retinopathy is similar to that for diabetic ...
Users interact with sheets primarily through the cells. A given cell can hold data by simply entering it in, or a formula, ... cell reference(s) in that cell, naming some other cell(s), causes the computer to fetch the value of the named cell(s). A cell ... Most cell references indicate another cell in the same spreadsheet, but a cell reference can also refer to a cell in a ... When a cell contains a formula, it often contains references to other cells. Such a cell reference is a type of variable. Its ...
Color vision is primarily achieved through cone cells. Cone cells are more concentrated in the fovea centralis, which is the ... Rod cells are concentrated in the periphery of the human retina. Rod cells are more light sensitive than cone cells, and are ... Vision in humans is due to a system that includes rod and cone photoreceptors, retinal ganglion cells and the visual cortex in ... For example, about 1 in 30,000 people have monochromatic vision because the color-sensitive cone cells in their eyes do not ...
Every cell is primarily water. "But the water doesn't just sit in the cell, it moves through it in a very organized way. The ... Agre joined Vann Bennett's lab in the Cell Biology Department at Johns Hopkins where he studied red cell membranes and ... In 1981, Agre returned to the Johns Hopkins School of Medicine to join the lab of Vann Bennett in the Department of Cell ... "But the very rapid movement of water through some cells was not explained by this theory," said Agre. Agre's team and others ...
Cell. 151 (2): 372-83. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2012.08.036. PMC 3475186. PMID 23063126. Vargas E, Bezanilla F, Roux B (December 2011 ... This primarily occurs within the liver. The degradation pathway causes LDL to end up in endosomes and lysosomes - where TPCs ... focus on cell death". Cell Death and Differentiation. 22 (8): 1250-9. doi:10.1038/cdd.2015.67. PMC 4495366. PMID 26024394. ... Without the fusion event LDL accumulates in liver cells. The loss of TPCs have been found to be a cause of the yellow ...
Outer hair cells serve as acoustic amplifiers for stimulation of the inner hair cells. Outer hair cells respond primarily to ... If these cells do not get this chance to recover, they are vulnerable to death. Temporary threshold shifts can result in ... The stereocilia (hair cells) of the inner ear can become subjected to bending from loud noises. Because they are not ... This can lead to fatigue and temporary hearing loss if the outer hair cells do not get the opportunity to recover through ...
SARS-CoV primarily infects epithelial cells within the lung. The virus is capable of entering macrophages and dendritic cells ... single-stranded RNA virus which infects the epithelial cells within the lungs. The virus enters the host cell by binding to ... In order for recombination to happen at least two SARS-CoV-1 genomes must be present in the same host cell. Recombination may ... Although the bat SARS virus did not replicate in cell culture, in 2008, American researchers altered the genetic structure of ...
... containing thousands of cells. These are primarily used to culture bacteria and fungi. Liquid culture: Cells are grown inside a ... Cell culture: Human or animal cell cultures are infected with the microbe of interest. These cultures are then observed to ... Once the virus has gained access to the host's cells, the virus' genetic material (RNA or DNA) must be introduced to the cell. ... Additionally, the extracellular matrix and dense outer layer of bacterial cells can protect the inner bacteria cells from ...
... testosterone is synthesized primarily in Leydig cells. The number of Leydig cells in turn is regulated by luteinizing hormone ( ... In the testes, testosterone is produced by the Leydig cells. The male generative glands also contain Sertoli cells, which ... Cell Biol. 42 (6): 813-27. doi:10.1016/j.biocel.2009.11.013. PMID 19931639. Wang C, Liu Y, Cao JM (2014). "G protein-coupled ... Fat cells synthesize the enzyme aromatase, which converts testosterone, the male sex hormone, into estradiol, the female sex ...
The historic East Campus is primarily the home of the faculties of Science and Humanities, as well as the University Council, ... Molecular and Cell Biology; Geography, Archaeology and Environmental Studies; Geosciences; Mathematics; Statistics and ... The Wartenweiler Library primarily serves the Faculty of Humanities. It also contains the Library Administration, Library ...
De Weg is primarily used for repeating offenders (veelplegers). The five pavilions each with 24 cells. Three of these 24 can ... Three of them offer cells with more than one prisoner (meermans cel), one standard pavilion with only single person cells and ... In HvB's work is optional, but people not working remain locked up in their cell during working hours. The HvB is named after a ... The five pavilions are divided into: one providing multi-person (2) cells two reserved for so called arrestanten. Arrestanten ...
Cotton fibers are trichome cells composed primarily of cellulose. Mature fibers have more cellulose and a greater degree of ... Cotton maturity is measured as the relative wall thickness (i.e., the area of the cell wall to that of a circle with the same ... It is quantified by the degree of cell wall thickening relative to its perimeter. The maturity of individual cotton fiber is an ... cell wall thickening. The significant impact of immature fiber is on the finished appearance. The MIC values of immature fibers ...
... s are primarily applied in Volatile memory cells. The memory cells are either SRAM or DRAM cells which are laid ... To read a bit from a particular memory cell, the wordline along the cell's row is turned on, activating all the cells in the ... The bit from the desired cell is then latched from the cell's sense amplifier into a buffer, and put on the output bus. The ... Each cell lies at the intersection of a particular wordline and bitline, which can be used to "address" it. The data in the ...
The cells primarily infected are lymphocytes and monocytes/macrophages. BIV was discovered in the late 1960s in the search for ... The attached virus enters the cell by one of two ways, receptor mediated endocytosis or viral envelope-cell membrane fusion. ... Once in the cell, the virus is uncoated and the RNA genome is reverse-transcribed into DNA. Some studies have found that ... The first animal studied was an eight-year-old Holstein cow (R-29), her white blood cell count was elevated and her physical ...
Foot and mouth disease virus primarily is found in cloven-hoofed animals such as pigs and cows and causes severe fever for the ... Rhinovirus uses protease 3C and 3D to induce cytopathetic effects in the host cell. 3C and 3D act similarly in rhinovirus as ... For most of these viruses, 3C is necessary for cytopathetic effects on the host cell. So far, 3C protease inhibitors have been ... Specifically, 2B, 2C, and 3A proteins interfere with host cell function and the 3D protein encodes as the RNA polymerase. 2A ...
The diagnosis rests primarily on the presence of plasma cells. Intermed. mag. High mag. Chorioamnionitis Decidua Edmondson, N ...
It is primarily expressed by macrophages, monocytes and dendritic cells. Blisibimod binds to BAFF and inhibits the interaction ... "A novel modality of BAFF-specific inhibitor AMG623 peptibody reduces B-cell number and improves outcomes in murine models of ... Blisibimod is a selective peptibody antagonist of B-cell activating factor (BAFF). BAFF is critical to the development, ... "Association of BAFF/BLyS overexpression and altered B cell differentiation with Sjögren's syndrome". J Clin Invest. 109 (1): 59 ...
Flame cells are therefore primarily used to remove excess water. The nerve system of F. hepatica consists of a pair of nerve ... These cells are modified parenchyme cells. In F. hepatica, their role is to perform excretion, but more importantly, ... This means it is made from the fusion of many cells, each containing one nucleus, to produce a multinucleated cell membrane. In ... Instead, the nuclei are found in the cell bodies, also known as tegumental cells, these connect to the outer cytoplasm via thin ...
ALOX5 exists primarily in the cytoplasm and nucleoplasm of cells. Upon cell stimulation, ALOX5: a) may be phosphorylated on ... In skin, Langerhans cells strongly express ALOX5. Fibroblasts, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells express low levels of ... mast cells, dendritic cells, and B-lymphocytes express ALOX5. Platelets, T cells, and erythrocytes are ALOX5-negative. ... Cells primarily involved in regulating inflammation, allergy, and other immune responses, e.g. neutrophils, eosinophils, ...
Melanocytes are melanin-producing cells, primarily responsible for skin colour. Melanocyte toxicity induces apoptosis of the ... a T-cell response is observed. The melanocyte cell lysates may sensitise T-cells, and the immunised cytotoxic T-lymphocytes ( ... in B16 melanoma cells: production of RD-pheomelanin and covalent binding with thiol proteins". Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research ... PubMed - NCBI". Cell Death and Differentiation. 6 (2): 99-104. doi:10.1038/sj.cdd.4400476. PMID 10200555. Ito, Shosuke; Ojika, ...
... is primarily secreted by monocytes, macrophages and dendritic cells. Platelet derived growth factor is a major inducer of ... CCL2 recruits monocytes, memory T cells, and dendritic cells to the sites of inflammation produced by either tissue injury or ... Basophils and mast cells that are treated with CCL2 release their granules to the intercellular space. This effect can be also ... Cell Physiology. 302 (1): C165-77. doi:10.1152/ajpcell.00116.2011. PMID 21900689. Cuesta S, Kireev R, Forman K, García C, ...
Primarily white blood cells, mainly mononuclear cells, generate the inflammation. As well as damaging the lungs, many viruses ... Once in the upper airway, the viruses may make their way into the lungs, where they invade the cells lining the airways, ... The invasion of the lungs may lead to varying degrees of cell death. When the immune system responds to the infection, even ... In people with HIV/AIDS and a CD4 count of less than 200 cells/uL the antibiotic trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole decreases the ...
939 is primarily used for cell phones. In The Simpsons episode "A Tale of Two Springfields" which first aired on November 5, ... Within only four years, 787 was already on the brink of exhaustion due to the proliferation of cell phones and dial-up Internet ...
... itself does not cause cancer, but it may stimulate the growth of cancer cells. Microcystin-LR had effects on all ... Microcystins are primarily hepatotoxic compounds; therefore, noticeable toxic effects are not immediate. Most of the toxicity ... The excretion of the compound takes primarily place via the feces and urine. After 6 days approximately 24% of the intake is ... Microcystin-LR inhibits protein phosphatase type 1 and type 2A (PP1 and PP2A) activities in the cytoplasm of liver cells. This ...
These cells are known as bottle cells, for their eventual shape. Because all of the cells constrict on the apical side, the ... Apical constriction occurs primarily through the contraction of cytoskeletal elements. The specific mechanism depends on the ... Apical constriction is the process in which contraction of the apical side of a cell causes the cell to take on a wedged shape ... In these cells, apical constriction occurs when actomyosin contractility folds the cell membrane to reduce the apical surface ...
Tight junctions primarily consist of claudins and occludins, which are membrane proteins that form the cell-cell contact, as ... Adherens junctions are a type of cell-cell adhesion structure that is present in both motile and non-motile cells, which adhere ... In the actin cytoskeleton, mechanotransduction can occur at cell-ECM and cell-cell adhesions, through focal adhesions and ... Chen, Christopher S.; Tan, John; Tien, Joe (August 15, 2004). "Mechanotransduction at Cell-Matrix and Cell-Cell Contacts". ...
Symptoms primarily affect children. Acatalasia is often the result of mutations in both copies of the CAT gene which codes for ... Catalase breaks down hydrogen peroxide in cells into water and oxygen. Low levels of catalase can cause hydrogen peroxide to ... build up, causing damage to cells. The disorder is relatively benign, although it causes an increased incidence of oral ulcers ...
In human pancreatic ß cells, KCNB1, which mediates potassium efflux, produces a downstroke of the action potential in the cell ... KCNB1 conductance is regulated primarily by oligomerization and phosphorylation. Additional forms of regulation include ... These neuronal modifications may explain the atrophy of cell layer volume and late stage cell death observed in HAD disease. ... auditory outer hair cells, stem cells, the retina, and organs such as the heart and pancreas. Modulation of K+ channel activity ...
Harrison published 25 papers on cell biology, primarily using insect cells. His most notable research includes early ... His thesis was primarily supervised by Franz Eilhard Schulze, who worked largely with sponges and other invertebrates. In 1901 ... He also detailed the morphology of the nucleolus, and observed that in some hemipteran insects the germ cells of males but not ... He studied in Berlin before becoming a researcher and professor at the University of Pennsylvania, where he primarily worked ...
Photoelectric cells in a spectrophotometer device worn on the forehead measure the amount of each wavelength of light reflected ... The myriad of studies exploring the potency of neurotherapy as a treatment for ASD have primarily involved EEG and QEEG, but ...
If the stem cells and sebaceous gland are destroyed, there is then no possibility for regeneration of the hair follicle, and ... The one exception is Central centrifugal cicatricial alopecia, which primarily affects women of African ancestry and may occur ... The goal of treatment is to decrease or eliminate the lymphocytic inflammatory cells that are attacking and destroying the hair ... However, all cicatricial alopecias involve inflammation directed at the upper part of the hair follicle where the stem cells ...
... which is the inability of cells to respond adequately to normal levels of insulin, occurs primarily within the muscles, liver, ... a type 2 diabetic will have lost about half of their beta cells.[52] Fatty acids in the beta cells activate FOXO1, resulting in ... The proportion of insulin resistance versus beta cell dysfunction differs among individuals, with some having primarily insulin ... Type 2 diabetes primarily occurs as a result of obesity and lack of exercise.[1] Some people are more genetically at risk than ...
Santeuil and Le Blanc viruses primarily infect intestinal cells in Caenorhabditis nematodes, in: Virology, Volume 448, 5. ...
Flamingos, three species of prion, and some ducks are filter feeders.[50][51] Geese and dabbling ducks are primarily grazers. ... The brain detects insulin in the blood, which indicates that nutrients are being absorbed by cells and a person is getting full ... When the glucose levels of cells drop (glucoprivation), the body starts to produce the feeling of hunger. The body also ...
1156 patients with a mean of 87 CD4 cell counts and mean viral load of 100,000 copies/ml were randomized to one of the two ... Antiviral drugs: antiretroviral drugs used against HIV (primarily J05). Entry/fusion inhibitors (Discovery and development). * ... Viral resistance to the drug leads to the drug becoming useless since the virus evolves to have cells that are able to resist ... There were higher CD4 cell counts and less viral load in patients assigned to the three-drug group, proving that a three-drug ...
The cells met to read Marxist texts and hold self-criticism sessions.[51] Sâr joined a cell that met on the rue Lacepède; his ... Chandler suggested that the seven years that Pol Pot primarily spent in jungle encampments among his fellow Marxists had a ... the bombing primarily affected civilians.[162] This fuelled recruitment to the Khmer Rouge,[163] which had an estimated 12,000 ... primarily because they were needed for the offensive against Saigon.[184] As it became more dominant, the CPK imposed ...
Invasins, such as pneumolysin, an antiphagocytic capsule, various adhesins, and immunogenic cell wall components are all major ... and white blood cells to fill the alveoli. This condition is called pneumonia.[20] It is susceptible to clindamycin.[21] ...
The moonlit sky is not perceived as blue, however, because at low light levels human vision comes mainly from rod cells that do ... Here, Rayleigh scattering primarily occurs through sunlight's interaction with randomly located air molecules. It is this ...
This tracer is a glucose analog that is taken up by glucose-using cells and phosphorylated by hexokinase (whose mitochondrial ... This limitation restricts clinical PET primarily to the use of tracers labelled with fluorine-18, which has a half-life of 110 ... This means that FDG is trapped in any cell that takes it up until it decays, since phosphorylated sugars, due to their ionic ... PET in the management of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research ...
... dendritic cells and other cells including liver cells, fibroblasts, and adrenal gland cells.[93] Viral replication triggers ... Treatment is primarily supportive in nature.[135] Early supportive care with rehydration and symptomatic treatment improves ... doi:10.1016/j.cell.2014.10.006. PMC 4243531. PMID 25417101.. *^ a b c d e f g h Kühl A, Pöhlmann S (September 2012). "How Ebola ... liver cells, and several types of immune cells such as macrophages, monocytes, and dendritic cells are the main targets of ...
"Cell. 136 (2): 272-83. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2008.11.047. PMC 2859625. PMID 19167329.. ... STT3A is primarily responsible for cotranslational glycosylation of the nascent polypeptide as it enters the lumen of the ... "J. Cell Biol. 161 (4): 715-25. doi:10.1083/jcb.200301043. PMC 2199356. PMID 12756234.. ... the hepatitis C virus envelope protein E1 occurs posttranslationally in a mannosylphosphoryldolichol-deficient CHO mutant cell ...
... with states led primarily by Democrats tending to expand Medicaid and states led primarily by Republicans tending to reject ... T-cell count drops below 200).[76] The Medicaid eligibility policy contrasts with the Journal of the American Medical ... Unlike Medicaid, Medicare is a social insurance program funded at the federal level[46] and focuses primarily on the older ... sickle cell anemia; sepsis; congestive heart failure; chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; and complications of devices, ...
... and Th1 cells.[45] IL-1α stimulates increased skin cell activity and reproduction, which, in turn, fuels comedo development.[45 ... The earliest pathologic change is the formation of a plug (a microcomedone), which is driven primarily by excessive growth, ... reproduction, and accumulation of skin cells in the hair follicle.[1] In healthy skin, the skin cells that have died come up to ... the increased production of oily sebum causes the dead skin cells to stick together.[10] The accumulation of dead skin cell ...
... which is primarily found on the surface of immune system B cells.[6] When it binds to this protein it triggers cell death.[2] ... cells in destroying these B cells. When an NK cell latched onto the cap, it had an 80% success rate at killing the cell. In ... The antibody binds to the cell surface protein CD20. CD20 is widely expressed on B cells, from early pre-B cells to later in ... It induces apoptosis of CD20+ cells.. The combined effect results in the elimination of B cells (including the cancerous ones) ...
A study involving 2408 donors (18-60 years) indicated that bone pain (primarily back and hips) as a result of filgrastim ... who have lost their stem cells after birth. Other conditions[13] treated with stem cell transplants include sickle-cell disease ... Peripheral blood stem cells[26] are now the most common source of stem cells for HSCT. They are collected from the blood ... Sources and storage of cells[edit]. To limit the risks of transplanted stem cell rejection or of severe graft-versus-host ...
The term is primarily used in the context of regular subgraphs: a k-factor is a factor that is k-regular. In particular, a 1- ... with a one in the cell for row i and column j when vertices i and j are adjacent, and a zero otherwise.[4]. adjacent. The ... with a one in the cell for row i and column j when vertex i and edge j are incident, and a zero otherwise.. incident. The ...
Thyroid hormones are primarily eliminated by the kidneys (approximately 80%), with urinary excretion decreasing with age.[15] ... T4 and T3 bind to thyroid receptor proteins in the cell nucleus and cause metabolic effects through the control of DNA ...
The number and ratio of rods to cones varies among species, dependent on whether an animal is primarily diurnal or nocturnal. ... Further complexity arises from the various interconnections among bipolar cells, horizontal cells, and amacrine cells in the ... ON bipolar cells or inhibit (hyperpolarize) OFF bipolar cells. Thus, it is at the photoreceptor-bipolar cell synapse where ... which releases a neurotransmitter called glutamate to bipolar cells. Farther back is the cell body, which contains the cell's ...
Ulcers occur on exposed parts of the body, primarily on anterolateral aspect of the lower limbs and may erode muscles and ... Squamous cell carcinoma may occasionally develop, usually in chronic cases, and at the edge of ulcer.[citation needed] Tetanus ...
Multiple tornadoes produced by the same storm cell are referred to as a "tornado family".[21] Several tornadoes are sometimes ... Primarily spring and summer, but can be at any time of year. ... more lightning than other storms and some tornadic cells never ...
USC Medical Center provides care for half of HIV/AIDS and sickle cell anemia patients in Southern California.[26] ... primarily to buffer DPH from DHS' recurring budget shortfalls and to separate public health functions, including enforcement of ...
... which airs primarily on the campus closed cable system operated by the Office of the Chief Information Officer (OCIO). ... engineering students and engineers from the Ford Motor Company and will seek to break the land speed record for hydrogen cell ...
The spirochetes may also induce host cells to secrete quinolinic acid, which stimulates the NMDA receptor on nerve cells, which ... It occurs primarily in pockets along the Yellowstone River in central Montana. People have developed a red bull's-eye rash ... Acrodermatitis chronica atrophicans (ACA) is a chronic skin disorder observed primarily in Europe among the elderly.[39] ACA ... However, PCR tests are susceptible to false positive results, e.g. by detection of debris of dead Borrelia cells or specimen ...
The mesoderm-derived epithelial cells of the sex cords in developing testes become the Sertoli cells, which will function to ... Androgens are synthesized from cholesterol and are produced primarily in the gonads (testicles and ovaries) and also in the ... These are Leydig cells. Soon after they differentiate, Leydig cells begin to produce androgens. ... Dihydrotestosterone increased the number of BrdU cells, while flutamide inhibited these cells. ...
Potassium is the major cation (positive ion) inside animal cells,[223] while sodium is the major cation outside animal cells.[ ... Due to planetary differentiation, the core region is believed to be primarily composed of iron (88.8%), with smaller amounts of ... The balance between potassium and sodium is maintained by ion transporter proteins in the cell membrane.[231] The cell membrane ... Unit cell ball-and-stick model of lithium nitride.[118] On the basis of size a tetrahedral structure would be expected, but ...
1 × 12-cell tower (single-wide, built between 2000 and 2001), 2 × 18-cell towers (double-wide, built in 2000), and 1 × 6-cell ... concerned primarily with exposure to, and inhalation of, airborne radioactive contamination, and an ingestion pathway zone of ... The 12-cell tower is only used for supplementary cooling of the cold (return) cooling canal as necessary in order to maintain ... The single 12-cell cold (return) canal cooling tower is fed by 24 pumps rated at 8,800 US gallons per minute (0.56 m3/s) each ( ...
In 1975, association with "HL-A1,8" (Current name: HLA A1-B8) was confirmed by serological typing of cells from myasthenics.[11 ... Some disease like coeliac disease primarily associate with certain genes. While other diseases, like type 1 diabetes may have ... These chromosome chimerize within the reproductive cells of each parent which are then passed to the developing person during ... DQ2 region is primarily seen in females with age-relative thymic hyperplasia. Later the level of anti-acetylcholine receptor ...
Anaplastic cells have lost total control of their normal functions and many have deteriorated cell structures. Anaplastic cells ... a pharmaceutical company primarily focused on brain cancer treatments) as a combination treatment (Toca 511 & Toca FC). This ... Necrotic cells send the wrong chemical signals which prevent phagocytes from disposing of the dead cells, leading to a buildup ... Glial cells such as Schwann cells in the periphery or, within the cord itself, oligodendrocytes, wrap themselves around the ...
Indole cell signaling occurs primarily at low temperatures in Escherichia coli.. Lee J1, Zhang XS, Hegde M, Bentley WE, ... cell signals cause diverse responses at different temperatures, and indole- and AI-2-based signaling are intertwined. ... enhanced antibiotic resistance and inhibited cell division at 30 degrees C. In contrast to indole and SdiA, the addition of (S ...
... ISME J. 2008 Oct;2(10):1007-23. doi: 10.1038/ ... cell signals cause diverse responses at different temperatures, and indole- and AI-2-based signaling are intertwined. ... enhanced antibiotic resistance and inhibited cell division at 30 degrees C. In contrast to indole and SdiA, the addition of (S ...
Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericardium. a case report and literature review. Yin, Yue1; Zhang, Yun1; ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericardium: A case report and literature review. Chin Med J 2019;133:106- ... Large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma primarily in the pericardium: a case report and literature review ... Morphologically, it is the large cell carcinoma in which tumor cells are typically more than three times greater than the ...
Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and ... Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and ... Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and ... Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and ...
Human fat cell lipolysis is primarily regulated by inhibitory modulators acting through distinct mechanisms.. ... Human fat cell lipolysis is primarily regulated by inhibitory modulators acting through distinct mechanisms.. ... A certain degree of inhibition, therefore, appears to be necessary for human fat cell lipolysis to be susceptible for hormonal ... In addition, the results demonstrate that, upon relief of endogenous inhibition, human fat cell lipolysis proceeds at ...
... the circulating levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human ... circulating levels as well as in vitro release by fat are enhanced in obesity and are primarily released by the nonfat cells of ... human omental as compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells ... Most of the adipokines are also cytokines and are released primarily by cells other than fat cells in human adipose tissue ( ...
T cells correlates inversely to the early differentiation of CD8+ T cells primarily into the central CD8+ T cell subset. ... T cells that differentiated primarily into central CD8+ T cell phenotype early on where the primed cells remained parked for ... The expression of IL-7Rα+ on tetramer+ CD8+ T cells (C) and the percentages of IL-7Rα+ cells among tetramer+ CD8+ T cells (D) ... During infection of mice with BCG-OVA, the majority of cells differentiated primarily into the central CD8+ T cell subset (Fig ...
... in adrenal chromaffin cells in vitro. This effect is dependent on extracellular Ca2+ and is reduced by Ca2+ channel blockers ... Histamine affects release and biosynthesis of opioid peptides primarily via H1-receptors in bovine chromaffin cells J Neurochem ... Histamine is a potent secretagogue for opioid pentapeptides (Met- and Leu-enkephalin) in adrenal chromaffin cells in vitro. ... All the histamine-induced effects (acute release, changes in peptide cell content, proenkephalin A mRNA levels) are antagonized ...
Sunitinib Acts Primarily on Tumor Endothelium rather than Tumor Cells to Inhibit the Growth of Renal Cell Carcinoma. Dan Huang ... Sunitinib Acts Primarily on Tumor Endothelium rather than Tumor Cells to Inhibit the Growth of Renal Cell Carcinoma ... Sunitinib Acts Primarily on Tumor Endothelium rather than Tumor Cells to Inhibit the Growth of Renal Cell Carcinoma ... Sunitinib Acts Primarily on Tumor Endothelium rather than Tumor Cells to Inhibit the Growth of Renal Cell Carcinoma ...
... a cigarette that primarily heats tobacco. A549-NFκB reporter cells stably transfected with a NFκB-luciferase plasmid were ... HO-1 and COX-2 mRNA levels were temporally regulated and significantly increased (p,0.05) in cells exposed to K2R4F compared to ... The NFκB signal transduction pathway is reported to mediate in part the response of bronchial epithelial cells to cigarette ... expression profiles in A549-NFkB reporter cells following exposure to smoke condensate from cigarettes that burn or primarily ...
End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have a prematurely aged T cell system which is associated with defective T cell- ... End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients have a prematurely aged T cell system which is associated with defective T cell- ... primarily affecting the CD8+ T cell compartment. This skewed TCR Vb-repertoire may be associated with a less broad and diverse ... All ESRD patients had expanded TCR Vb-families within total CD8+ T cells and the median (IQ range) number of expanded TCR Vb- ...
Most of the adipokines are also cytokines and are released primarily by cells other than fat cells in human adipose tissue ( ... at 5 to 80-fold higher levels in fat cells than the other cells present in human fat and primarily released by fat cells. ... Comparison of release of 37 adipokines by fat cells as compared to the other cells in human adipose tissue ranked by fat cell ... 82] suggested that immature fat cells or other cells in the nonfat cell fractions of human adipose tissue also release ...
... cells and report the following novel features of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan on ATL cells in ATL cell adhesion to ... Heparan sulfate proteoglycan on leukemic cells is primarily involved in integrin-triggering and its mediated adhesion to ... Publications] Tanaka,Y.: Heparan sulfate proteoglycan on leukemic cells is primarily involved in integrin-triggering and its ... Publications] Tanaka,Y.: Heparan sulfate proteoglycan on leukemic cells is primarily involved in integrin-triggering and its ...
2018). Derivation of human trophoblast stem cells. Cell Stem Cell 22, 50-63.e6. doi:10.1016/j.stem.2017.11.004. ... cells/sample, n=4) and HLA-G positive extravillous trophoblasts (. cells/sample, n=4) were isolated from the same four first ... Human trophoblasts are primarily distinguished from somatic cells by differences in the pattern rather than the degree of ... Human trophoblasts are primarily distinguished from somatic cells by differences in the pattern rather than the degree of ...
Leptin, The Hormone Produced Primarily By Adipose Cells In The Intestines And Other Adipocyte Cel …. November 11, 2020. / by ... Leptin is released from adipose cells in the liver and adipose tissues in the central nervous system. Leptin helps us to ... Seattle School was established as a performance group of people interested in exploring sound and music, primarily in terms of ... Leptin also affects body weight, fat accumulation, and food intake, with the effects being primarily dependent on individual ...
... separated non-T cells (NT) cells are not specific for aut ... We present evidence that most T cells proliferating in response ... Third, T memory cells generated against SRBC-separated autologous NT cells were specifically restimulated by autologous Percoll ... We present evidence that most T cells proliferating in response to autologous sheep erythrocyte (SRBC)-separated non-T cells ( ... against SRBC-separated autologous NT cells was exclusively seen when NT cells exposed to or separated with xenoproteins were ...
Here, by characterizing rat models and analysing human T cells, the authors identify differential requirements of two potassium ... Potassium channels are essential for modulating T-cell functions. ... Autoreactive T cells are primarily dependent on Kv1.3. Unlike vaccine-induced T cells, autoreactive T cells have been ... In vitro cell T-cell assays. Rat T-cell responses to anti-CD3 and anti-CD28 activation were determined using spleen cells from ...
... genes primarily involved in pancreatic β-cell function; (2) genes primarily influencing insulin action and glucose metabolism ... Genes Primarily Affecting β-Cell Function ABCC8 and KCNJ11 (encoding, respectively, the sulphonylurea receptor and inwardly ... Polymorphisms in five of 15 genes (33%) encoding molecules known to primarily influence pancreatic β-cell function-ABCC8 ( ... Genes Primarily Affecting Insulin Action. INSR (encoding the insulin receptor).. At the INSR locus of the seven SNPs genotyped ...
By grafting hMGE cells that are engineered to express DREADDs, we have shown that the therapeutic effect is primarily achieved ... All cells in red (first column) denote graft-derived cells expressing HNA (a marker of human cells), whereas cells in green ( ... Application of MGE cells from human ES cells, although less contentious ethically than fetal cells (60), still requires immune ... The total number of live cells initially grafted into each hippocampus was ∼300,000 cells (i.e., ∼100,000 live cells in three ...
In blood, subsets of Th2 and Th17 cells also express CXCR3, but it is unknown if these cells are present in RA SF or how ... cells in paired SF and blood, as well as the phenotype of TPh and TFh cells in RA SF (n = 8), by the use of flow cytometry. We ... The proportions of Th1 and CXCR3+Th2 cells were higher in SF than in blood (P , 0.05). TPh and PD-1highTFh in RA SF were ... These findings indicate that not only Th1 but also CXCR3+Th2 cells may have a pathogenic role in RA synovial inflammation. ...
ZIP8 deficiency dramatically affected zinc influx in effector T cells and profoundly reduced T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated ... thereby reducing the function of effector CD4+ T cells, including Th17 cells. Our results also suggest that targeting ZIP8 may ... Increased uptake of zinc by T cells may fuel the poorly controlled immune response that wreaks havoc on joint tissues in ... This ZIP8-mediated zinc uptake in turn activates and stimulates proliferation of these T cells. Drugs that target ZIP8 could ...
Why pneumococci affect primarily humans Bacteria 18 Aug 2016 Benedict Chambers and Berit Carrow interviewed on Sveriges Radio ... In the journal Cell Reports researchers at Karolinska Institutet together with international colleagues present new data on the ... Michael Landreh, David Lane, Sonia Lain, Marcus Ladds et al publish in Cell Chemical Biology Cancer and Oncology ... The projects focus on proteins, cells and molecules as part of the efforts to diagnose and treat diseases better and with fewer ...
Kikushige, Y., Miyamoto, T., & Akashi, K. (2010). [Hematopoietic stem cells are primarily involved in pathogenesis of chronic ... Hematopoietic stem cells are primarily involved in pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia]. In: [Rinsho ketsueki] The ... Hematopoietic stem cells are primarily involved in pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia]. / Kikushige, Yoshikane; ... Hematopoietic stem cells are primarily involved in pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia]. [Rinsho ketsueki] The ...
Nestin is an early filament gene that is expressed primarily in neural progenitor cells; the nestin enhancer sequence therefore ... Cells were resuspended in growth medium at a concentration of 5-7 × 105 cells/ml. Using a plastic pipette, 10 ml of ES cells ... Mouse D3 ES cells were trypsinized to single cells and washed with PBS. Pelleted cells were then transfected with nestin/tk- ... Neural cell fate specification of transiently transfected ES cells.. One day before transfection, mouse D3 ES cells were ...
... and particularly to neural stem cells, and their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic gene products to neoplastic foci. The ... The present invention relates to tumor tropic stem cells, ... The stem cell may be a neural stem cell (NSC). Furthermore, the ... The isolated stem cell of claim 1, wherein said isolated stem cell is a neural stem cell (NSC). 13. A method for assessing ... Cells and Culture Process. The human U87MG, murine GL26 glioma cell lines, NIH 3T3, and 293 human embryonic kidney cell lines ...
Is type 2 diabetes primarily caused by a deficit in β-cell mass?. That type 2 diabetes develops largely because of a deficit in ... Is β-cell loss of function the main determinant of β-cell defects in type 2 diabetes?. The case for a prevalent role of β-cell ... A reduction in β-cell mass increases the secretory demand to the remaining β-cells, thereby disturbing β-cell function. This ... Beta-cell deficit and increased beta-cell apoptosis in humans with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes 2003;52:102-110pmid:12502499. ...
In the fight against cancer, scientists are developing new drugs to hit tumor cells at so far unused weak points. Such a "sore ... Im Focus: Basel researchers succeed in cultivating cartilage from stem cells. Stable joint cartilage can be produced from adult ... Overweight primarily a problem among wealthier women in low- to middle-income countries. 23.11.2010 ... Certain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells from the bone marrow of adults are considered extremely promising for skeletal tissue ...
As photographer Bruce Marlin explains, "Cirrus Digital Imaging was founded primarily as a hobby, as a way to share the joy I ...
They primarily deal with parasitic infections. Eosinophils are also the predominant inflammatory cells in allergic reactions. ... T cells: *CD4+ helper T cells: T cells displaying co-receptor CD4 are known as CD4+ T cells. These cells have T-cell receptors ... B cells: releases antibodies and assists activation of T cells. *T cells: *CD4+ Th (T helper) cells: activate and regulate T ... Natural killer cells: virus-infected and tumor cells.. Deeply staining, eccentric. NK-cells and cytotoxic (CD8+) T-cells. Years ...
Immunohistochemical (IHC) staining of tumor cells expressed positivity for mature B cell markers CD20, CD19, CD10, CD23, CD45, ... Although the needle core biopsy of this mass was suggestive of B cell lymphoma, excisional biopsy showed morphological features ... with features of diffuse large B cell lymphoma and classical Hodgkins lymphoma (BCLu-DLBCL/CHL) is more commonly known as gray ... 7 (primarily nodal) Name of node not specified in the article. NHL. RS and Hodgkins cells were LeuM1 or BerH2+ and LCA− in 8/9 ...
  • Based on this model, tissue-homing effector memory T cells (CD62L low CCR7 − ), capable of immediate effector function, were separated from the lymph node-homing central memory T cells (CD62L high CCR7 + ), which were devoid of effector activity in vitro. (jimmunol.org)
  • Histamine is a potent secretagogue for opioid pentapeptides (Met- and Leu-enkephalin) in adrenal chromaffin cells in vitro. (nih.gov)
  • NF-κB) following cigarette smoke exposure in an in vitro human bronchial epithelial cell model may serve as biomarkers of effect for assessing some types of potential reduced-risk cigarettes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Publications] Wake,A.: 'Calcium-dependent homotypic adhesion through leukocyte function-associated antigen-1/intercellular adhesion molecule-1 induces interleukin-1 and parathyroid hormone-related protein production on adult T-cell leukemia cells in vitro. (nii.ac.jp)
  • We now report that expression of MEF2CA, both in vitro and in vivo , under regulation of the nestin enhancer effectively produces "neuronal" progenitor cells that differentiate into a virtually pure population of neurons. (jneurosci.org)
  • Hence, in vitro induction of pluripotent cells into more restricted progenitor cells before transplantation might be necessary for their neuronal differentiation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Under in vitro conditions, β-cell death has been induced by various factors linked to the type 2 diabetes phenotype, such as high concentrations of glucose, free fatty acids, or human islet amyloid polypeptide ( 10 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In vitro studies have established that CD27 promotes expansion of newly activated T cells ( 1 , 5 , 6 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In particular, CD27 was recently found at low levels on all GC B cells from human tonsils, and dramatically up-regulated upon their in vitro differentiation into plasma cells ( 17 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In vitro studies on human B cells indicate that CD27 can promote IgM, IgG, IgA, and IgE secretion ( 10 , 16 , 18 , 19 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In Vitro and In Vivo Animal Studies The ability of MaxSimil-enhanced EPA and DHA to positively influence growth inhibition and apoptosis in colorectal, breast, lung, and prostate diseased cell lines was first demonstrated in a series of in vitro studies. (nutrimedical.com)
  • Antibodies specific for the SCM factor are useful in immunoassays that can detect the factor, including detection of cancer cells grown in vitro. (justia.com)
  • This minus-end-directed kinesin exhibits Ca 2+ -calmodulin-sensitive motor activity in vitro and has been implicated in trichome morphogenesis and cell division. (biologists.org)
  • 2) Different from any other hematopoietic cells, ATL cells express a characteristic heparan sulfate capable of immobilizing heparin-binding chemokine macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP) -1beta, a potent T cell-integrin-trigger, produced by the cells themselves. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Hematopoietic stem cells are primarily involved in pathogenesis of chronic lymphocytic leukemia]. (elsevier.com)
  • All white blood cells are produced and derived from multipotent cells in the bone marrow known as hematopoietic stem cells . (wikipedia.org)
  • The other dichotomy is by lineage: Myeloid cells (neutrophils, monocytes, eosinophils and basophils) are distinguished from lymphoid cells (lymphocytes) by hematopoietic lineage ( cellular differentiation lineage). (wikipedia.org)
  • Somatic stem cells (stress and regulation of hematopoietic precursors, intestinal stem cell aging and regulation). (ebooks.com)
  • Chronic Myeloid Leukemia and Aging of Hematopoietic Stem Cells (Mouse/Human). (ebooks.com)
  • This strain may have an enhanced ability to be engrafted with human hematopoietic stem cells. (jax.org)
  • Vav1 Cre recombinase-mediated deletion of the a2 isoform of the V-ATPase (a2V) in mouse hematopoietic cells leads to a specific and profound loss of peripheral CD4 + and CD8 + αβ T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Thymocyte development begins as hematopoietic progenitor cells emigrate from the bone marrow into circulation, settle in the thymus, and adopt the T cell lineage developmental program. (frontiersin.org)
  • The WAS protein is located within cells made from hematopoietic stem cells. (brighthub.com)
  • In this study, we evaluated several tumor cell and endothelial targets of sunitinib and investigated which RTK(s) may specifically contribute to its therapeutic effects. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Moreover, whereas sunitinib inhibited the growth of ccRCC xenograft tumors and decreased tumor microvessel density as soon as 12 hours after treatment, sunitinib showed no significant effects on tumor cell proliferation or apoptosis up to 72 hours after treatment. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, it remains to be understood how tumor cells adhere to endothelium and infiltrate into underlying tissue. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Our finding would warrant further studies that different proteoglycan and cytokine might bring enormous flexibility to the process of leukemic cell infiltration and tumor metastasis and would introduce new pharmacological approaches to control them. (nii.ac.jp)
  • The present invention relates to tumor tropic stem cells, and particularly to neural stem cells, and their use as delivery vehicles for therapeutic gene products to neoplastic foci. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The stem cells with tumor tropic potential are selected based on the stem cells exhibiting CXCR4 receptors or an affinity for the chemokine SDF-1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 11. The isolated stem cell of claim 8, wherein said polypeptide is tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL). (freepatentsonline.com)
  • and assessing tumor tropic potential of the stem cell based upon said expression level of CXCR4, said affinity for the chemokine SDF-1, or both. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • For instance, taking a drug that targets fast-growing tumor cells frequently results in hair loss, because cells in the hair follicle are among some of the fastest growing in the body. (nsf.gov)
  • Xenograft tumors in nude mice were established using cells affected by lentivirus, and tumor growth, angiogenesis, proliferation, and apoptosis were measured. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Robust tumor growth requires the presence of a local vascular network that supplies both oxygen and nutrients to tumor cells. (aacrjournals.org)
  • However, a highly proliferating mass of tumor cells develops faster than the vasculature, and tumor cells rapidly meet up with an avascular environment deficient in oxygen ( 1 ). (aacrjournals.org)
  • This in turn means that most tumor cells have adapted to and can grow in a hypoxic condition. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Copanlisib hydrochloride may stop the growth of tumor cells by blocking some of the enzymes needed for cell growth. (cancer.gov)
  • Immunotherapy with monoclonal antibodies, such as nivolumab, may help the body's immune system attack the cancer, and may interfere with the ability of tumor cells to grow and spread. (cancer.gov)
  • Investigators at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital and Massachusetts General Hospital, alongside others, have revealed the cells of origin for specific subtypes of medulloblastoma, the most common malignant pediatric brain tumor. (news-medical.net)
  • Using tumor samples from patients with each of the four subtypes, the researchers conducted single-cell RNA sequencing. (news-medical.net)
  • By digging into the biology of intermediate Group3/4 medulloblastoma, the investigators showed these tumors consist of a mixture of immature and mature tumor cells, explaining current challenges associated with their classification. (news-medical.net)
  • The research also provided insights into WNT tumors, showing that WNT tumors can be subdivided into four distinct tumor cell populations based on gene expression profiles. (news-medical.net)
  • In contrast, the circulating levels of leptin and FABP-4 are also enhanced in obesity and they are primarily released by fat cells of human adipose tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • The relative expression of adipokines and other proteins in human omental as compared to subcutaneous adipose tissue as well as their expression in the nonfat as compared to the fat cells of human omental adipose tissue is also reviewed. (hindawi.com)
  • This review will primarily discuss studies on the effects of obesity on circulating adipokines, the relative release of adipokines by the fat cells versus the nonfat cells of human adipose tissue, the effects of obesity on adipokine release by explants of human visceral omental adipose tissue, and the differences in gene expression between visceral and subcutaneous fat. (hindawi.com)
  • The term adipokine, as used in this review, means any protein released by adipose tissue without regard to whether it is released by the fat or the other cells (nonfat cells) found in human adipose tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • In contrast, leptin levels are elevated in obesity and the current paradigm is that it is released by fat cells in adipose tissue. (hindawi.com)
  • John N. Fain, "Release of Inflammatory Mediators by Human Adipose Tissue Is Enhanced in Obesity and Primarily by the Nonfat Cells: A Review," Mediators of Inflammation , vol. 2010, Article ID 513948, 20 pages, 2010. (hindawi.com)
  • In the placental field, methylation has frequently been examined in tissue lysates, which contain mixed cell types that can confound results. (biologists.org)
  • Due to intravascular multiple sequential scattering, Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy of tissue primarily measures relative red blood cell motion within vessels. (escholarship.org)
  • We suggest that Diffuse Correlation Spectroscopy (DCS) measurements of tissue blood flow primarily probe relative red blood cell (RBC) motion, due to the occurrence of multiple sequential scattering events within blood vessels. (escholarship.org)
  • One day before transfection, mouse D3 ES cells were trypsinized and plated in DMEM plus 20% FBS and 1000 U/ml LIF in six-well tissue culture plates coated with gelatin at a density resulting in ∼90% confluency within 1 d. (jneurosci.org)
  • In addition, CD27 exerts a prosurvival effect on CD4 + and CD8 + T cells at tissue sites ( 8 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • It might even be the primary cause for age-associated attrition of tissue function in organs that heavily rely on stem cells for maintaining homeostasis, like the skin, blood and intestines. (ebooks.com)
  • Muscle tissue is composed primarily of contractile cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The irregular sickled cells can also block blood vessels causing tissue and organ damage and pain . (medicinenet.com)
  • Many people hope that human embryonic stem cells, which can turn into any type of tissue in the body, could prove useful for everything from generating organs for transplants to helping test drugs on numerous diseases. (mercurynews.com)
  • Adult stem cells, which appear in the body about 12 weeks after conception and typically produce a limited variety of tissue types, have been tested on people in various ways. (mercurynews.com)
  • Tissue-resident mast cells are critical for pathogen surveillance and initial response. (jci.org)
  • To help interpretation of the electron micrographs, the structure of each type of cell and/or tissue is illustrated diagramatically, and an attempt has been made to relate this to function. (google.com)
  • Where possible, such interpretative diagrams are printed adjacent to the electron micrographs of that particular type of cell/ tissue. (google.com)
  • Each section will briefly introduce the reader to the type of cell, tissue or organ that is being illustrated. (google.com)
  • Anatomy & Cell Biology : An introduction to light and electron microscopic anatomy in which cell and tissue dynamics will be explored in the principal tissues and organs of the body. (mcgill.ca)
  • There are also a number of prior art methods and apparatuses which relate to flow cytometry and the act of segregating and counting malignant cells within a tissue sample. (justia.com)
  • This damage (called a mutation) can affect the ability of your cells to produce energy, can cause your cells to die early resulting in compromised tissue or inflammation, and can even show up years later as cancer. (whfoods.com)
  • Because the cells can morph into virtually any cell or tissue, researchers hope they will eventually produce cures for a host of ailments, including heart disease, cancer, Alzheimer's and paralysis. (washingtonpost.com)
  • A protective tissue, consisting of parenchyma cells, that develops over a cut or damaged plant surface. (fao.org)
  • 3. Actively dividing non-organized masses of undifferentiated and differentiated cells often developing from injury (wounding) or in tissue culture in the presence of growth regulators. (fao.org)
  • A layer, usually regarded as one or two cells thick, of persistently meristematic tissue between the xylem and phloem tissues, and which gives rise to secondary tissues, thus resulting in an increase in diameter. (fao.org)
  • cancer Uncontrolled growth of the cells of a tissue or an organ in a multicellular organism. (fao.org)
  • carcinoma A malignant tumour derived from epithelial tissue, which forms the skin and the outer cell layers of internal organs. (fao.org)
  • A common view is that increased β-cell apoptosis leads to the continuous loss of β-cells ( 8 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Controversy exists regarding the presumed causes of β-cell apoptosis in type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • These results demonstrated that DOC induces a gonadotoxic effect on the mouse ovary through induction of somatic cell apoptosis, with no evidence of direct effects on the oocyte, and that the damaging effect is not mitigated by T3. (ed.ac.uk)
  • Curcumin inhibited proliferation and induced apoptosis in both KG-1 and U937 cells. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Graviola extracts inhibited the proliferation of HL-60 cells in a concentration dependent manner and induced apoptosis. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • Shikonin induces apoptosis in HL-60 cells without significant effect on primary cells from healthy volunteers. (greenmedinfo.com)
  • The same study found that targeted deletion of BC200 in MCF-7 cells resulted in suppressed cell growth, altered morphology and elevated background levels of apoptosis. (springermedizin.de)
  • When natural killer cells (a type of white blood cell) bind to the cap, they are more successful at triggering cell death, or apoptosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • It is thought that in some of these individuals, a molecule called regulator soluble complement factor H (CFH) protects the cells from apoptosis. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Histological, electrophysiological, and behavioral analyses demonstrate that MEF2C-directed neuronal progenitor cells transplanted into a mouse model of cerebral ischemia can successfully differentiate into functioning neurons and ameliorate stroke-induced behavioral deficits. (jneurosci.org)
  • Ideal cells to replace lost neurons should be easy to maintain, with efficient and dependable differentiation capacity, lacking neoplastic potential. (jneurosci.org)
  • A new study from Massachusetts Institute of Technology materials scientists reveals that these nanoparticles enter cells by taking advantage of a route normally used in vesicle-vesicle fusion, a crucial process that allows signal transmission between neurons. (nsf.gov)
  • Cultured bag cell neurons were filled with the Ca 2+ indicator, fura-PE3, to image Ca 2+ under whole-cell voltage clamp. (jneurosci.org)
  • Absence or presence of glial cells missing (GCM) in cells of the developing nervous system of Drosophila decides over their future fate as neurons or glia with only those cells turning into glia that express GCM. (pnas.org)
  • Neurons and glia are the two main cell types in the nervous system with neurons being involved in the processing of information and glia providing trophic, structural, and functional support. (pnas.org)
  • As a result, the channels cannot regulate the flow of potassium ions in neurons, which disrupts normal communication between these cells. (medlineplus.gov)
  • To find out how neurons influence astrocyte shape, Jeff Stogsdill, a recent PhD graduate in Eroglu's lab, grew the two cells together while tweaking neurons' cellular signaling mechanisms. (eurekalert.org)
  • Previously, their functions had been primarily studied in neurons. (eurekalert.org)
  • A protein present in cells throughout the body has to be present in a specific set of neurons in the brain, to offset weight gain after bingeing on high-calorie diet. (medindia.net)
  • This is the first study to show that SIRT1 in hypothalamic neurons, specifically POMC neurons, is required for preventing diet-induced obesity and maintaining normal body weight," said Dr. Roberto Coppari, assistant professor of internal medicine at UT Southwestern and senior author of the mouse study, available online and in the July 7 issue of Cell Metabolism . (medindia.net)
  • However, the idea of having a drug that could selectively affect specific hypothalamic neurons that then control specific branches of the sympathetic nervous system suggests that one could avoid acting on unwanted cells but selectively on those able to burn calories such as brown adipocytes. (medindia.net)
  • The enzyme glucokinase (GK) serves as a glucose sensor in pancreatic β-cells and seems to play a similar role in selected endocrine enterocytes, hepatocytes, and specialized hypothalamic neurons ( 1 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Sunitinib was unable to inhibit survival or proliferation of ccRCC cells at pharmacologically relevant concentrations (∼0.1 μmol/L) that inhibit RTK targets. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In contrast, sunitinib inhibited endothelial cell proliferation and motility at the same concentrations by suppressing VEGFR-2 signaling. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In this study, we show that hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α correlated with different clinical-pathologic parameters, stabilized at different oxygen levels, contributed differently to cell proliferation, and regulated different target genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • MC-dependent γδ T cell activation and proliferation during DENV infection required T cell receptor (TCR) signaling and the nonconventional antigen presentation molecule endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR) on MCs. (jci.org)
  • We report on a mouse model of insulin resistance that induces dramatic pancreatic β cell proliferation and β cell mass expansion. (forbes.com)
  • Expression of betatrophin correlates with β cell proliferation in other mouse models of insulin resistance and during gestation. (forbes.com)
  • Transient expression of betatrophin in mouse liver significantly and specifically promotes pancreatic beta cell proliferation, expands β cell mass, and improves glucose tolerance. (forbes.com)
  • Callus culture is used as the basis for organogenic (shoot, root) cultures, cell cultures or proliferation of embryoids. (fao.org)
  • CXCL12 and CXCR4, but not CXCR7, are primarily expressed by the stroma in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The CXCL12/CXCR4 axis is involved in numerous models of metastatic dissemination, including head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). (biomedsearch.com)
  • 40%) of the CXCL12 promoter was observed in only a few tumoural samples (5/23) and was associated with a lower expression of the gene (p = 0.03).Stromal cells, rather than the tumour itself, are mainly responsible for the expression of both CXCL12 and CXCR4 expression in HNSCC. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Publications] Abe,M.: 'Regulation of interleukin (IL)-1 β gene transcription induced by IL-1 β in rheumatoid synovial fibroblast-like cells,E11,transformed with simian virus 40 large T antigen' J.Rheumatology. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Leptin production is highly influenced by the type of Leptin receptor gene (Leptin V exon 9) that is located on the surface of your immune cells. (seattleschool.net)
  • 5. The isolated stem cell of claim 1, wherein said isolated stem cell comprises a heterologous gene. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 6. The isolated stem cell of claim 5, wherein said heterologous gene encodes a polypeptide of therapeutic use in the treatment of a disease condition. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Cell reporter and transfection assays A cPLA2α reporter build containing 2.4 kb (?2 487 to +40 bp) of the 5′-flanking area of rat cPLA2α AMN-107 gene was ligated in to the promoterless vector PA3-Luc (PA3-Luc/cPLA2α) (25 26 The phRLTK vector (Promega) containing the Renilla luciferase gene was utilized as an interior control. (technumber.com)
  • MAL gene expression is seen in 70%, unlike other diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. (wikipedia.org)
  • PMLBCL is CD20 positive, expresses pan-B markers including CD79a, and has clonal immunoglobulin gene rearrangements and mRNA but paradoxically does not express cytoplasmic or cell surface immunoglobulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Here, we show that, as a gene expressed primarily during tracheary element ( TE ) development, EXO70A1 regulates vesicle trafficking in TE differentiation in Arabidopsis thaliana . (plantcell.org)
  • Sickle cell trait, which is the inheritance of one sickle gene, almost never causes problems. (medicinenet.com)
  • What determines the choice between these two different cell fates has become apparent only recently with the isolation of the gene glial cells missing (GCM) in Drosophila ( 4 , 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • This condition is inherited in an autosomal dominant pattern, which means one copy of the altered gene in each cell is sufficient to cause the disorder. (medlineplus.gov)
  • When the WAS gene is mutated it impairs the WAS protein's role in cell signaling, as well as disrupts the actin cytoskeleton's function in certain blood cells and immune cells. (brighthub.com)
  • Males only have to have a single altered copy of the gene within each cell for the condition to occur. (brighthub.com)
  • High-Efficiency, Selection-free Gene Repair in Airway Stem Cells from Cystic Fibrosis Patients Rescues CFTR Function in Differentiated Epithelia. (stanford.edu)
  • Sickle cell disease is caused by an inherited mutation in the gene that carries instructions for making hemoglobin. (medindia.net)
  • One question that sprung to mind was if you are going to use this technique to look at gene expression in damaged cells, is it possible that only robust cells will survive the initial cell separation. (alzforum.org)
  • During embryonic development, the first cell lineage differentiation event (the separation of the trophectoderm from the inner cell mass) has been associated with the establishment of distinct DNA methylation patterns between these two lineages. (biologists.org)
  • Here, we generated stably transformed murine ES (embryonic stem) cells that express a constitutively active form of myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2CA). (jneurosci.org)
  • Here, using a constitutively active form of MEF2C (MEF2CA), we report the production and characterization of neuronally restricted progenitors derived from non-oncogene-transformed, murine embryonic stem (ES) cells, and their subsequent successful transplantation into a disease model of focal cerebral ischemia. (jneurosci.org)
  • A Menlo Park biotech firm said Friday that federal regulators will let it proceed with the world's first human test of a treatment made from embryonic stem cells, a much-anticipated but controversial study of patients with spinal cord injuries that had been placed on hold for nearly a year because of safety concerns. (mercurynews.com)
  • The company's treatment involves turning embryonic cells into another type of cell, which helps nerve fibers replace myelin, a fatty insulating substance that often gets stripped away when spines are injured, inhibiting the body's ability to transmit sensory signals. (mercurynews.com)
  • However, no people have ever been tested using human embryonic stem cells, That's partly because critics - many of them involved in religious and anti-abortion groups - argue that research with the cells is unethical because the embryos the cells come from are life-forms. (mercurynews.com)
  • Supporters of human embryonic stem-cell studies argue that the cells' potential benefits outweigh any ethical concerns about where they come from and Geron has said it has found no teratomas among the vast numbers of animals it has tested with its treatment. (mercurynews.com)
  • Having Geron's study given the go-ahead, "is an important milestone for the whole field," said Alan Trounson, president of the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine, a state agency that promotes research with human embryonic stem cells. (mercurynews.com)
  • Geron isn't the only company seeking FDA permission to test a human embryonic stem cell treatment on people. (mercurynews.com)
  • Now with dawn of stem cell research, it can be used as guide to understand adult and embryonic stem cell microstructure in conjunction with LM and immuno -fluorescent microscopy (FM). (google.com)
  • We were the first to study embryonic stem cells by TEM, a logical progression of our extensive research on human gametes, fertilization and embryos in IVF & ART. (google.com)
  • The company conducting the first government-approved tests in people of a therapy developed using human embryonic stem cells abruptly announced Monday that it was halting the study, stunning advocates of the highly contentious field. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Another company continues to test a second embryonic stem cell therapy in people. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Human embryonic stem cell research has been the focus of intense excitement and acrimonious public debate, but it has so far shown promise only in animal and laboratory studies. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Many scientists think embryonic stem cells could represent one of the most important advances in medicine. (washingtonpost.com)
  • After many delays, the Food and Drug Administration last year approved two experiments testing therapies created from embryonic stem cells in humans, including a study testing Geron's experimental treatment on 10 patients partially paralyzed by spinal cord injuries. (washingtonpost.com)
  • The studies have been seen by supporters and opponents of embryonic stem cell research as potentially pivotal to the future of the research. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In October 2010, doctors in Atlanta injected millions of cells made from embryonic stem cells into the spine of a 21-year-old Alabama nursing student who had been partially paralyzed in a car accident less than two weeks earlier. (washingtonpost.com)
  • Some of these putative adipokines such as CRP, haptoglobin, and amyloid A are actually acute phase proteins primarily released by the liver in response to the mild inflammatory response seen in human obesity. (hindawi.com)
  • MEF2 proteins are highly expressed in cardiac myocytes and induce myogenesis from precursor cells ( Black and Olson, 1998 ). (jneurosci.org)
  • In a sort of biological 'spooky action at a distance,' water in a cell slows down in the tightest confines between proteins and develops the ability to affect other proteins much farther away, University of Michigan researchers have discovered. (nsf.gov)
  • The proteins in human cells are extensively decorated with different types of sugars, a phenomenon called glycosylation. (phys.org)
  • In the latest study, lead author Abigail Jarret, now a graduate student at Yale University, and her group showed that hepatitis C virus sabotages the antiviral defenses of liver cells by blunting the effect of key immune proteins called interferons. (eurekalert.org)
  • These in turn spur hundreds of genes that generate virus-fighting proteins within the cell. (eurekalert.org)
  • When free radicals are released from the mitochondria in numbers sufficient to overwhelm the protective biochemical systems of the body, they become a threat to some cellular structures such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, and nucleic acids in cell membranes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Stogsdill searched existing genetic databases for cell surface proteins known to be expressed by astrocytes, and identified three candidates that might help direct their shape. (eurekalert.org)
  • This type of intervention uses antibodies, which bind to specific cells or proteins, thereby stimulating the patient's immune system to attack them. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Rtuximab is thought to work by using a number of mechanisms - for example, once the drug has bound to CD20, it forms a cap on one side of the cell, which draws proteins over to that side. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Moist heat causes destruction of micro-organisms by denaturation of macromolecules, primarily proteins. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, changes in cellular zinc levels in specific immune cells may influence inflammatory autoimmune diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). (nature.com)
  • However, the regulation of zinc mobilization in immune cells and its role in the pathogenesis of RA are not fully understood. (nature.com)
  • The NSG CSF1 strain is used to make "humanized mice", which are created by injecting human immune cells. (jax.org)
  • In turn, the macrophages and monocytes assist other immune cells such as Natural Killer cells. (jax.org)
  • The skin is an important barrier to infections and contains resident immune cells poised to respond to pathogens. (jci.org)
  • MC innate responses to pathogens promote pathogen clearance in vivo through initiation of inflammation and recruitment and activation of other immune cells within the site of infection. (jci.org)
  • in these conditions, the cancer primarily affects the immune cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • These include certain immune cells and blood cells. (brighthub.com)
  • Immune cells without WAS protein function generally have difficulty responding to the factors that activate cell division and growth. (brighthub.com)
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel m. (nih.gov)
  • Catecholamine exocytosis during low frequency stimulation in mouse adrenal chromaffin cells is primarily asynchronous and controlled by the novel mechanism of Ca2+ syntilla suppression. (nih.gov)
  • Polymorphisms in five of 15 genes (33%) encoding molecules known to primarily influence pancreatic β-cell function- ABCC8 (sulphonylurea receptor), KCNJ11 (KIR6.2), SLC2A2 (GLUT2), HNF4A (HNF4α), and INS (insulin)-significantly altered disease risk, and in three genes, the risk allele, haplotype, or both had a biologically consistent effect on a relevant physiological trait in the QT study. (plos.org)
  • These results confirm the genetic complexity of Type 2 diabetes and provide evidence that common variants in genes influencing pancreatic β-cell function may make a significant contribution to the inherited component of this disease. (plos.org)
  • These findings indicate that the strain specificity of CTL responses to T. parva is not determined primarily by immune response genes that define the inherent capacity to respond, but rather s a consequence of the response in individual animals being biased toward a limited number of immunodominant peptide-MHC determinants. (cgiar.org)
  • In fact, the vast majority of genes associated with type 2 diabetes have been linked to the β-cell, and impairments in β-cell mass and in insulin secretion have been reported in numerous studies in patients with type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RNAs perform all kinds of functions in a cell, acting as messengers and switches to communicate and monitor which genes are expressed in a cell at any given time. (nsf.gov)
  • OSCC cell lines transfected with lentivirus encoding short hairpin RNA against HIF-1α/2α were used to investigate the HIF-1α/2α-dependent target genes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • Sickle cell anemia requires the inheritance of two sickle cell genes. (medicinenet.com)
  • In a previous study, Savan's research team discovered that when hepatitis C virus invades a liver cell, the virus induces the cell to activate two genes -- MYH7 and MYH7B. (eurekalert.org)
  • These genes are usually active only in smooth skeletal muscle and heart cells. (eurekalert.org)
  • By activating the MYH7 and MYH7B genes, the invading hepatitis C viruses limit liver cells' ability to generate these interferons. (eurekalert.org)
  • The analysis revealed that over time, the genomes of bacteria isolated from sickle cell patients shrank as genes and the corresponding DNA were discarded or combined. (medindia.net)
  • Using a technique called transposon sequencing (Tn-seq), researchers showed that the bacteria's ability to cause widespread infection in mice with and without sickle cell disease was dramatically affected by changes in 60 different bacterial genes. (medindia.net)
  • When researchers checked those same genes in bacteria isolated from sickle cell patients, they found six that were missing or altered in a significant percentage of samples. (medindia.net)
  • The list included genes involved in transporting iron into bacteria, bacterial metabolism and other processes that are likely altered in patients with sickle cell disease. (medindia.net)
  • We demonstrated that genes necessary to cause disease in the general public are expendable in patients with sickle cell disease," Rosch said. (medindia.net)
  • In humans, a phenotypic and functional model of the subsets of memory CD4 + and CD8 + T cells was proposed based on expression of CD62L and CCR7 ( 15 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Here, we assessed the impact of ESRD on the TCR Vβ-repertoire within different T cell subsets using a multiparameter flow-cytometry-based assay, controlling for effects of aging and CMV latency. (frontiersin.org)
  • Percentages of 24 different TCR Vβ-families were tested in circulating naive and memory T cell subsets of 10 ESRD patients and 10 age- and CMV-serostatus-matched healthy individuals (HI). (frontiersin.org)
  • Gini-TCR indices were already significantly higher for different CD8 + memory T cell subsets of younger ESRD patients compared to their age-matched HI. (frontiersin.org)
  • In conclusion, loss of renal function skews the TCR Vβ-repertoire already in younger patients by inducing expansions of different TCR Vβ-families within the various T cell subsets, primarily affecting the CD8 + T cell compartment. (frontiersin.org)
  • These uremia-induced effects on T cells are expressed as a decline in thymic output, a severe depletion of naive T cell compartment, a shift to more highly differentiated memory T cell subsets, attrition of T cell telomeres ( 14 ) and a defective T cell receptor (TCR)-induced ERK phosphorylation ( 15 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Expression of TNFR family member CD27 is restricted to naive and activated CD4 + and CD8 + T cells and subsets of B and NK cells. (jimmunol.org)
  • Using mouse models of MC deficiency, we report on MC-dependent recruitment and activation of multiple T cell subsets to the skin and draining lymph nodes (DLNs) during dengue virus (DENV) infection. (jci.org)
  • 2011). "Primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma, classic Hodgkin lymphoma presenting in the mediastinum, and mediastinal gray zone lymphoma: what is the oncologist to do? (wikipedia.org)
  • This phase II trial studies how well copanlisib hydrochloride and nivolumab work in treating patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma that has come back (recurrent) or does not responded to the treatment (refractory). (cancer.gov)
  • Giving copanlisib hydrochloride and nivolumab may work better in treating patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or primary mediastinal large B-cell lymphoma compared to standard of care. (cancer.gov)
  • To evaluate whether this CD8 + T cell differentiation program operates in all infection models, we evaluated CD8 + T cell differentiation during infection of mice with recombinant intracellular bacteria, Listeria monocytogenes (LM) and Mycobacterium bovis (BCG), expressing OVA. (jimmunol.org)
  • During LM-OVA infection, if CD8 + T cells were guided to compete for access to APCs, then they received reduced stimulation that was associated with increased differentiation into the central subset and reduced attrition subsequently. (jimmunol.org)
  • Taken together, our results indicate that the potency of the pathogen can influence the differentiation and fate of CD8 + T cells enormously, and the extent of attrition of primed CD8 + T cells correlates inversely to the early differentiation of CD8 + T cells primarily into the central CD8 + T cell subset. (jimmunol.org)
  • After differentiation, effector CD8 + T cells possess the unique ability to mediate specific cytotoxicity (by perforin and Fas-dependent pathways) toward infected cells and tumors ( 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • CD8 + , but not CD4 + , T cell differentiation was associated with higher Gini-TCR indices. (frontiersin.org)
  • ZIP8 deficiency dramatically affected zinc influx in effector T cells and profoundly reduced T cell receptor (TCR)-mediated signaling, including NF-κB and MAPK signaling, which are pathways that are involved in T helper (Th) 17 cell differentiation. (nature.com)
  • However, experimental deficiency of Th1-promoting cytokines, such as IL-12 and interferon (IFN)-γ, has been shown to increase Th17 cell differentiation and paradoxically exacerbate RA in animal models 12 . (nature.com)
  • Cell-based therapies require a reliable source of cells that can be easily grown, undergo directed differentiation, and remain viable after transplantation. (jneurosci.org)
  • Nevertheless, lack of directed neuronal differentiation as well as apoptotic cell death remain two major problems in cerebral transplantation. (jneurosci.org)
  • We find that B cells acquire CD27 at the centroblast stage and lose it progressively upon further differentiation. (jimmunol.org)
  • Whether CD27/CD70 interactions enhance Ig production by delivering differentiation signals to B cells or by sustaining expansion of differentiating cells is unclear. (jimmunol.org)
  • Effectively prevents neuronal cell death (by ≥95% at 10 µM) upon oxidative stress induction by HCA and selectively induces cellular α-tubulin, but not histone H4, hyperacetylation (2.5 to 5 µM) in primary rat cortical neuron cultures. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • Although failing to block cellular glutathione depletion by homocysteic acid (HCA), Tubastatin A nevertheless is reported to prevent neuronal cell death upon oxidative stress induction by HCA in a dose-dependent manner (≥95% protection at 10 µM), presumably by preventing peroxiredoxins deacetylation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • For the first time, we have performed detailed quantitative analyses of BC200 expression in a variety of human tissues, cancer cell lines and cultured primary cells that challenge the paradigm that BC200 is restricted to a neuronal and tumour expression pattern. (springermedizin.de)
  • Star-like cells called astrocytes diligently fill in the gaps between neural nets, each wrapping itself around thousands of neuronal connections called synapses. (eurekalert.org)
  • Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease that primarily affects joint tissues. (nature.com)
  • The disease primarily affects Africans and African Americans. (medicinenet.com)
  • This immune deficiency disorder primarily affects males. (brighthub.com)
  • Primary mediastinal (thymic) large B-cell lymphoma is a distinct type of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma involving the mediastinum, recognized in the WHO 2008 classification. (wikipedia.org)
  • In-between CHD and NHL" Lymphoma Diffuse large B cell lymphoma Swerdlow, Steven H. (wikipedia.org)
  • The stem cells may additionally exhibit markers characteristic of astrocytic progenitors. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • The stem cells may be administered as part of a treatment regimen including the chemokine SDF-1. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 2. The isolated stem cell of claim 1, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits markers characteristic of a precursor for astrocytic differentiated stem cells. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • From 1999 to 2002 he was scientific research fellow at the University of Kentucky, USA with expertise in stem cells, genetics and aging. (ebooks.com)
  • Aging of somatic stem cells reduces cell function and results in dysfunctional organs and tissues, making it an underlying cause of diseases associated with aging. (ebooks.com)
  • The book is intended for all scientists and clinicians working with stem cells, aging mechanisms or age-related diseases. (ebooks.com)
  • Stem cells, aging and longevity (overview). (ebooks.com)
  • Diseases of Aging and Stem Cells. (ebooks.com)
  • Wound Healing Repair and Aging of Skin Stem Cells (Mouse/Human). (ebooks.com)
  • Stanford researchers have found that injecting stem cells directly into the brains of recovering stroke sufferers is more than just safe - it actually reverses brain damage, something previously thought impossible by science. (rt.com)
  • It was a small sample size of only 18 patients, and the objective was to test the safety of the procedure - which involves injecting stem cells directly under the uppermost layer of the brain. (rt.com)
  • But what " stunned " Stanford researchers was that the stem cells also reversed the damage way past the six-month recovery period after a stroke, beyond which it is thought the remaining unhealed brain circuits are completely beyond recovery. (rt.com)
  • They drilled holes into the participants' skulls and directly injected stem cells from adult donors into the grey matter. (rt.com)
  • What's more, the Stanford team once more debunked an old assumption about the way stem cells actually affect us. (rt.com)
  • The researchers are still not entirely sure about the origins of this mysterious process, or whether it is the stem cells themselves triggering the recovery, or if the procedure is responsible for some sort of placebo effect that tricks the brain into action. (rt.com)
  • While stem cells are proving invaluable for research, translating the promising science into new therapies is a slow, painstaking process with many setbacks," said George Q. Daley, a leading stem cell researcher at Harvard Medical School. (washingtonpost.com)
  • All the histamine-induced effects (acute release, changes in peptide cell content, proenkephalin A mRNA levels) are antagonized by the H1-receptor antagonist, clemastine, whereas the H2-receptor antagonists, ranitidine and cimetidine, were less effective (approximately 20% inhibition). (nih.gov)
  • Sunitinib is a broad-spectrum small-molecule inhibitor of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) that serves as the present standard of care for first-line therapy of advanced clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • A broad T cell receptor (TCR-) repertoire is required for an effective immune response. (frontiersin.org)
  • 1. An isolated stem cell, which is isolated by a method, comprising selecting the stem cell based on the stem cell exhibiting a CXCR4 receptor, demonstrating an affinity for the chemokine SDF-1, or both. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • In humans, CD27 is induced by B cell receptor triggering and maintained long-term ( 9 , 10 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • In both humans and mice, CD70 is induced by Ag receptor triggering in T and B cells ( 2 , 3 , 22 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Although it has long been assumed that insulin resistance is the leading factor in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes ( 1 ), evidence for the importance of the pancreatic β-cells has accumulated over the past decades. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Autopsy studies in various populations (European, Asian, and North American) have reported significant reductions in the amount of pancreatic β-cells in patients with type 2 diabetes compared with nondiabetic individuals ( 5 - 7 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The mechanism of glucose-dependent insulin release in pancreatic Beta cells. (forbes.com)
  • In adults, pancreatic β cells are generated primarily by self-duplication. (forbes.com)
  • Glucokinase (GK) serves as glucose sensor in pancreatic β-cells and in other glucose sensor cells in the body. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Structure/function studies of the enzyme suggest the existence of a hitherto unknown allosteric activator site of the enzyme that has significant implications for the physiological chemistry of GK-containing cells, particularly the pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It has two promoters, initially conceptualized as specific for pancreatic β-cells and hepatocytes, but used now to also explain differential expression in the broader system of diverse GK-containing cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • According to this concept, insulin is the prime mover in GK induction in hepatocytes, and glucose is the critical factor for GK induction in pancreatic β-cells. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Two pairs of broadest categories classify them either by structure ( granulocytes or agranulocytes ) or by cell lineage (myeloid cells or lymphoid cells). (wikipedia.org)
  • Primarily lymphoid cells. (jax.org)
  • Cells that successfully complete this process emigrate from the thymus into peripheral circulation and lymphoid tissues as single positive CD4 + or CD8 + T cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • PMLBCL arises from a putative thymic peripheral B cell. (wikipedia.org)
  • MC-γδ T cell conjugates were observed consistently in infected peripheral tissues, suggesting a new role for MCs as nonconventional APCs for γδ T cells. (jci.org)
  • Thymic development of T lymphocytes occurs via irreversible progression through distinct developmental stages, ensuring a diverse, responsive, yet selective peripheral T cell compartment. (frontiersin.org)
  • Ffects are mediated primarily by increased peripheral T cell cycling and augmented cell survival. (monytours.com)
  • 3) Competitive interruption of endogenous heparan sulfate proteoglycan-synthesis reduces cell surface MIP-1beta and prev … More ents ATL cells from integrin-mediated adhesion to endothelial cells of ICAM-1 triggered through G-protein. (nii.ac.jp)
  • 4) The heparan sulfate proteoglycan on ATL cells characteristically consists of an 100 kDa unknown core protein and extremely weakly sulfated glycosaminoglycan, which has a potency to bind to distinctive heparin-binding cytokines. (nii.ac.jp)
  • In a study published in Cell Chemical Biology this week, researchers from MTC (Michael Landreh, David Lane, Sonia Lain, Marcus Ladds et al), KTH, Uppsala University, and the University of Oxford, used a new strategy to find out how anticancer drugs bind to the membrane protein dehydroorotate. (ki.se)
  • 4. The isolated stem cell of claim 2, wherein said isolated stem cell exhibits a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytic precursor marker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 16. The method of claim 14, wherein said stem cell exhibits a glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) astrocytic precursor marker. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • FANCA is a member of the Fanconi anemia (FA) complementation group (FANC) which make up a multi-protein nuclear complex involved in cellular responses to DNA damage and germ cell survival. (jax.org)
  • Sickle cell anemia (sickle cell disease) is a disorder of the blood caused by an inherited abnormal hemoglobin (the oxygen-carrying protein within the red blood cells). (medicinenet.com)
  • Our idea was to move farther downstream, we conducted some unbiased protein array assays and identified a drug target that was uncommon for the mutation driving the resistance, and we modeled this in cell lines. (news-medical.net)
  • Anatomy & Cell Biology : The architectural, functional and temporal continuity of organelles and the cytoskeleton of mammalian cells is introduced as well as their functional integration in the phenomena of exocytosis, endocytosis, protein trafficking and cell motility and adhesion. (mcgill.ca)
  • Specifically, rituximab is an antibody against a protein called CD20, which occurs most commonly on the surface of immune B cells. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This protein plays a role in communicating signals from the surface of a cell to the actin cytoskeleton. (brighthub.com)
  • That is the protein red blood cells use to carry oxygen. (medindia.net)
  • During infection with lymphocytic choriomeningitis virus, CD8 + T cells differentiate rapidly into effectors (CD62L low CD44 high ) that differentiate further into the central memory phenotype (CD62L high CD44 high ) gradually. (jimmunol.org)
  • Developing thymocytes differentiate in response to environmental cues carried from cell surface receptors to the nucleus, shaping a distinct transcriptional program that defines their developmental outcome. (frontiersin.org)
  • Another question - do you think that it would be possible to differentiate between sick and ordinary cells following dissection? (alzforum.org)
  • We have studied CD27 expression and function on B cells in the mouse. (jimmunol.org)
  • In this study, we have analyzed in detail the expression of CD27 on B cells in the mouse and find it in line with a contribution of CD27 to centroblast expansion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Increased LDH is seen in approximately 75%, but unlike other large cell lymphomas, no increase in beta-2 microglobulin is seen even when bulky which may relate to defective major histocompatibility complex expression. (wikipedia.org)
  • Based on expression analyses, we proposed previously that individual EXO70 members may provide the exocyst with functional specificity to regulate cell type- or cargo-specific exocytosis, although direct evidence is not available. (plantcell.org)
  • When OSCC cells were cultured at 5% O 2 , only HIF-2α contributed to the expression of vascular endothelial growth factor. (aacrjournals.org)
  • expression is seen in bone marrow derived cell lines. (jax.org)
  • Furthermore, a recent report has demonstrated estrogen regulated BC200 expression in breast cancer cell lines. (springermedizin.de)
  • Glucose is the preeminent positive regulator of β-cell GK expression and involves molecular mechanisms that are still to be elucidated in detail, but seem to have a specific requirement for increased glucose metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • In the PNAS study, researchers demonstrated that this approach effectively eliminates lab-grown human brain, prostate and bone cancer cells in a mutation-specific manner. (nsf.gov)
  • But because the cells are derived from discarded 3- to-5-day-old embryos, their use by researchers has sparked ethical concerns and a highly contentious national debate. (mercurynews.com)
  • Additionally, the researchers suggest a previously unknown cell of origin for the understudied Group 4 subgroup. (news-medical.net)
  • The virus that causes hepatitis C protects itself by blocking signals that call up immune defenses in liver cells, according to University of Washington researchers and colleagues reporting Nov. 14 in Nature Medicine . (eurekalert.org)
  • From this study, researchers hypothesized that the virus' ability to evade interferons was related to the cells themselves. (eurekalert.org)
  • Researchers at Harvard Stem Cell Institute have discovered a hormone that could dramatically improve treatments for Type 2 diabetes . (forbes.com)
  • Some researchers have referred to it as the "most substantial advancement in the treatment of B cell malignancies, since the advent of combination chemotherapy. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Researchers at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital have found that differences in the genetic code of pneumococcal bacteria could be the reason behind their heightened risk children with sickle cell disease and the inability of current vaccines to provide better protection against the infection. (medindia.net)
  • In mammalian cells, zinc homeostasis is primarily regulated by membrane zinc transporters in the Slc30a (ZNT) exporter family and the Slc39a (ZIP) importer family 14 . (nature.com)
  • Its membrane-bound ligand CD70 is confined to activated lymphocytes and mature dendritic cells ( 1 , 2 , 3 , 4 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Histological analyses revealed an altered pattern of secondary cell wall thickening and accumulation of large membrane-bound compartments specifically in developing TEs of the mutant. (plantcell.org)
  • Exocytosis is expected to occur during patterned SCW thickening in order to insert cellulose synthase complexes into the plasma membrane and to allow deposition of SCW materials, such as hemicellulose and lignin, at specific sites of the cell wall after the cessation of cell elongation ( Fukuda, 1997 ). (plantcell.org)
  • One of the main problems with any fuel cell is contamination of the membrane. (tripod.com)
  • This is because the cell membrane and most of the internal structures are beyond the high resolution of the LM. (google.com)
  • Two organelles in a cell come in contact via membrane contact sites (MCS). (wikibooks.org)
  • Having membrane- bound organelles is a special characteristic for eukaryotic cells, as it allows for specialized functions in different compartments of the cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Ever since then, similar electron microscopy techniques were used to visualize contact sites in cells between the endoplasmic reticulum and: mitochondria, vacuoles, Golgi, chloroplasts and plasma membrane. (wikibooks.org)
  • The primary study is of the yeast cell Saccharomyces cerevisiae, in which the vacuolar membrane, inner nuclear membrane, and the ER membrane is bridged through NVJ. (wikibooks.org)
  • Although NVJ is the most studied membrane contact site, we still don't know how much it can do for a cell. (wikibooks.org)
  • Inwardly rectifying potassium channels, such as Kir2.6, maintain resting membrane potential in excitable cells and aid in repolarization of cells following depolarization. (wikipedia.org)
  • Towards biomarker-dependent individualized chemotherapy: exploring cell-specific differences in oxaliplatin-DNA adduct distribution using accelerator mass spectrometry. (semanticscholar.org)
  • Conventional chemotherapy employs treatment with one or more drugs, assuming that these medicines are able to both 'diagnose' and 'treat' the affected cells. (nsf.gov)
  • Epoetin alpha prevents anaemia and reduces transfusion requirements in patients undergoing primarily platinum-based chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer. (openrepository.com)
  • This multicentre study was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of epoetin alpha in preventing the decline in haemoglobin (Hb) level, and to determine whether the transfusion requirement could be reduced, in patients receiving 4-6 cycles of primarily platinum-based combination cyclic chemotherapy for small cell lung cancer (SCLC). (openrepository.com)
  • Human autologous mixed lymphocyte reactivity is primarily specific for xenoprotein determinants adsorbed to antigen-presenting cells during rosette formation with sheep erythrocytes. (rupress.org)
  • The results of this study indicate that mast cells serve as nonconventional antigen-presenting cells that are poised to activate γδ T cells early during viral infection and limit disease. (jci.org)
  • Mast cells (MCs) are immune sentinels, but whether they also function as antigen-presenting cells (APCs) remains elusive. (jci.org)
  • Human fat cell lipolysis is primarily regulated by inhibitory modulators acting through distinct mechanisms. (jci.org)
  • We studied mechanisms of extravasation of leukemic cells using adult T cell leukemia (ALT) cells and report the following novel features of cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan on ATL cells in ATL cell adhesion to endothelium. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Adoptive transfer of T and B cells into CD27/CD28 −/− mice revealed that CD27 promotes GC formation and consequent IgG production by two distinct mechanisms. (jimmunol.org)
  • Understanding the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved is critical for developing approaches to attenuate stem cell aging and could pave the way for improved quality of life among the elderly. (ebooks.com)
  • It offers insights into stem cell function, explains in detail the mechanisms of stem cell aging in model organisms as well as mammalian systems and describes related diseases and approaches to attenuating stem cell aging or achieving rejuvenation. (ebooks.com)
  • General mechanisms of stem cell aging (overview). (ebooks.com)
  • Mechanisms of Stem Cell Aging in Model Organisms. (ebooks.com)
  • Mechanisms of Stem Cell Aging in Mammalian Tissues. (ebooks.com)
  • These data deepen our understanding of the biological mechanisms that orchestrate T cell development and lend credence to the recent focus on V-ATPase as a potential chemotherapeutic target to combat proliferative potential in T cell lymphoblastic leukemias and autoimmune disease. (frontiersin.org)
  • Incredible efforts toward diagnosing the underlying mechanisms which govern progression through the checkpoints and distinct stages that define intrathymic T cell development have revealed key molecular players working in concert to shepherd progenitor cells along the T lineage pathway ( 1 , 2 ). (frontiersin.org)
  • Identification of mechanisms by which cells orchestrate these shifting networks of developmental control remains an area of intense study. (frontiersin.org)
  • Biological processes in cells and tissues of living organisms are regulated by a number of mechanisms in order to maintain a steady state even when large changes occur in the environment. (nobelprize.org)
  • Damage to tissues and organs of the body can cause severe disability in patients with sickle cell anemia. (medicinenet.com)
  • Sickling of the red blood cells in patients with sickle cell anemia results in cells of abnormal shape and diminished flexibility. (medicinenet.com)
  • The results followed whole genome sequencing of hundreds of pneumococcal bacteria collected from the public and patients with sickle cell disease. (medindia.net)
  • CD8 + T cells induced by LM-OVA also differentiated into central phenotype cells first, but the cells rapidly converted into effectors in contrast to BCG-OVA. (jimmunol.org)
  • 20 ) found that CD27 did not drive expansion of activated B cells, but promoted the generation of a plasma cell phenotype and IgG secretion. (jimmunol.org)
  • Indole cell signaling occurs primarily at low temperatures in Escherichia coli. (nih.gov)
  • The effects of adenosine deaminase and of pertussis toxin on hormonal regulation of lipolysis were investigated in isolated human fat cells. (jci.org)
  • In addition, the results demonstrate that, upon relief of endogenous inhibition, human fat cell lipolysis proceeds at considerable (adenosine deaminase) or almost maximal (pertussis toxin) rates. (jci.org)
  • A certain degree of inhibition, therefore, appears to be necessary for human fat cell lipolysis to be susceptible for hormonal activation. (jci.org)
  • Our laboratory previously reported that smoke condensate from cigarettes that primarily heat tobacco produce less change in p21, GADD45, COX-2, IL-8, HO-1 and HSP70 mRNA levels in normal human bronchial epithelial (NHBE) cells than smoke condensate from tobacco-burning cigarettes. (aacrjournals.org)
  • First, this revealed that, unlike murine blastocysts, human trophectoderm and inner cell mass samples did not have significantly different levels of global methylation. (biologists.org)
  • From these findings and from our previous results that indicated an absolute requirement of HLA-DR+-adherent NT cells (8), we conclude that human AMLR primarily does not represent an autoantigen but a xenoantigen response that is genetically restricted by the HLA-DR type of the antigen-presenting cell. (rupress.org)
  • Voltage-gated Kv1.3 and Ca 2+ -dependent KCa3.1 are the most prevalent K + channels expressed by human and rat T cells. (nature.com)
  • However, experiments with Kv1.3 KO rats and Kv1.3 siRNA knockdown or channel-specific inhibition of human T cells show that maximal T-cell responses against autoantigen or repeated tetanus toxoid stimulations require both Kv1.3 and KCa3.1. (nature.com)
  • Studies on human B cells have featured CD27 as a marker and mediator of the B cell response. (jimmunol.org)
  • Engrafted human cells generate adaptive immune responses to Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in humanized mice. (jax.org)
  • books.google.com - This EBook covers the fine structure of human cells and tissues as seen with the transmission and scanning electron microscope (TEM & SEM). (google.com)
  • To the author's knowledge there is no book of this kind expressly devoted to human cells and tissues. (google.com)
  • The cell is the fundamental unit of structure in the human body. (google.com)
  • Cells and their products form the tissues and the various organs and organ systems of the human body. (google.com)
  • It covers the ultrastructure of the human cell, the basic tissues of the human body and some of the more important organs of the human body. (google.com)
  • Anatomy & Cell Biology : Introduction to the gross anatomy of the various organ systems of head, neck and trunk regions of the human body. (mcgill.ca)
  • The human body is made up of many different types of cells that are composed of multiple diverse types of molecules. (encyclopedia.com)
  • 4 ] reported the influence of genetic factors on a subset of variable CpGs to be higher in cord blood than placenta or human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). (biomedcentral.com)
  • To analyse the cost effectiveness of a national programme to screen blood donors for infection with the human T cell leukaemia/lymphoma virus. (bmj.com)
  • Many pre-transplant factors are known to influence the outcome of allogeneic stem cell transplantation (SCT) treatment in myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). (ru.nl)
  • This trial was a difficult but important one and will help future cell transplantation clinical trials move forward in important ways," said Keith Tansey of the Shepherd Center in Atlanta, where two of the patients were treated. (washingtonpost.com)
  • In CD27 −/− mice, generation and maintenance of CD4 + and CD8 + effector T cells in response to antigenic challenge is impaired ( 7 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • Yet it remains poorly understood how the intrinsic cell biology of developing thymocytes participates in the coordination of signals guiding developmental transition, and how these pathways might be targeted to affect the many deleterious outcomes of aberrant T cell development. (frontiersin.org)
  • It is expected that at the beginning of the third year, the students who wish to continue in the Honours program will be those who feel that they are seriously interested in a career in Cell Biology. (mcgill.ca)
  • Admission is guaranteed for all students enrolled in programs in the Department of Anatomy and Cell Biology for which ANAT 214 is a required course. (mcgill.ca)
  • Anatomy & Cell Biology : Supervised honours research project in biological sciences. (mcgill.ca)
  • We found that astrocytes' shape and their interactions with synapses are fundamentally important for brain function and can be linked to diseases in a way that people have neglected until now," said Cagla Eroglu, an associate professor of cell biology and neurobiology at Duke. (eurekalert.org)
  • We thus propose that EXO70A1 functions in vesicle trafficking in TEs to regulate patterned secondary cell wall thickening. (plantcell.org)
  • The CD8 + T cell is stimulated when peptides from endogenously derived Ags (intracellular bacteria, viruses, or tumors) are presented on MHC class I molecules ( 1 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • By de-coupling diagnosis and treatment, we can create molecules that are both highly selective and highly effective in killing cancer cells,' said Pierce. (nsf.gov)
  • Evobrutinib (Merck Serono) is the first of a new class of agents that inhibit the enzyme Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK), which is believed to bring about some of the pathologic activity of B cells and macrophages. (medscape.com)
  • The hope is that it will achieve similar benefits without the necessity of depleting all the B cells, and it also has an additional effect on macrophages," he added. (medscape.com)
  • Because this drug has a dual mechanism on both B cells and macrophages it is probably doing something that the anti-CD20 antibodies, which target B cells alone, can't do, but we won't be able to see evidence of that in this small phase 2 study," he told Medscape Medical News . (medscape.com)
  • Kir2.6 is primarily expressed in skeletal muscle and is transcriptionally regulated by thyroid hormone. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, in mice it has been shown that activated T cells and other lymphocytes can also release leptin under inflammatory conditions [ 14 , 15 ]. (hindawi.com)
  • however, CD44 appears to be the most reliable marker that is expressed at high levels in all memory T cells of mice irrespective of their activation status ( 8 , 12 ). (jimmunol.org)
  • A mutant transcript expressed from this allele was detected by Northern blot in bone marrow derived cell lines from homozygous mice. (jax.org)
  • Melton and Yi found that betatrophin causes lab mice to produce the cells at up to 30 times the normal rate. (forbes.com)
  • We looked in pregnant mice and found that when the animal becomes pregnant this hormone is turned on to make more beta cells. (forbes.com)
  • Neural cell fate specification of transiently transfected ES cells. (jneurosci.org)
  • In transiently transfected cells, GCM also activated transcription from promoters consisting of the newly identified GCM-binding site and a TATA box. (pnas.org)
  • With this condition, when the normal immune cell function is disrupted, it may contribute to eczema, as well as the patient being at an increased risk for autoimmune disorders, lymphoma and infection associated with this condition. (brighthub.com)
  • 3 Infection with the virus is associated with tropical spastic paraparesis, 4 adult T cell leukaemia/lymphoma, and some inflammatory disorders. (bmj.com)
  • Sickle cell disease is a hereditary condition that causes red blood cells to be deformed. (medicinenet.com)
  • The findings will aid efforts to improve vaccine effectiveness and inform research into new ways to protect young sickle cell disease patients from life-threatening pneumococcal infections that can lead to pneumonia, meningitis, bloodstream infections and other problems. (medindia.net)
  • Despite advances in preventive care, including vaccination and prophylactic antibiotic therapy, pneumococcal infections still pose a serious health risk to children with sickle cell disease, who are at a much greater risk of possibly fatal infection than are members of the general public. (medindia.net)
  • As a result, disease-causing strains of the bacteria differ in children with and without sickle cell disease. (medindia.net)
  • The results help explain why current vaccines haven't been as successful at protecting children with sickle cell disease from pneumococcal infections as they have in protecting other children," said Joshua Wolf, M.D., an assistant member of the St. Jude Department of Infectious Diseases and one of the study's lead authors. (medindia.net)
  • Work is already underway on vaccines that take a different approach to priming the disease-fighting immune system to protect high-risk groups, including children with sickle cell disease, said the study's corresponding author, Jason Rosch, Ph.D., an assistant member of the St. Jude Infectious Diseases department. (medindia.net)
  • About 300,000 infants are born with sickle cell disease each year, making it the world's most common genetic disorder. (medindia.net)
  • For this study, scientists compared the genomes of 322 pneumococcal bacteria collected from sickle cell patients between 1994 and 2011 to DNA from 327 strains obtained from individuals without sickle cell disease. (medindia.net)
  • A comparison of the bacterial genomes from individuals with and without sickle cell disease suggested the changes reflected bacterial adaptation to their sickle cell host and contributed to the bacteria's ability to persist despite advances in preventive care. (medindia.net)
  • The results demonstrated that bacteria faced different conditions in animals with and without sickle cell disease. (medindia.net)
  • Memory CD8 + T cells induced by both LM-OVA as well as BCG-OVA were functional in that they produced cytokines and proliferated extensively in response to antigenic stimulation after adoptive transfer. (jimmunol.org)
  • If one accepts this notion, the next question is whether β-cell defects are primarily functional in nature or whether a reduction in the number of insulin-secreting cells (i.e., β-cell mass) is the leading problem in type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This study aimed to investigate the functional difference between hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1α and HIF-2α in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC). (aacrjournals.org)
  • they should have no mature T cells or B cells, lack functional natural killer (NK) cells, have reduced numbers of lymphocytes and myeloid dendritic cells, and be deficient in cytokine signaling. (jax.org)
  • The rhIL - 7 expanded T cells retain significant functional capacity, and the CD4+ T cell expansion is not accompanied by a disproportionate increase Tregs occurs following rhIL-2 therapy. (monytours.com)
  • [6] Lymphocytes can be further classified as T cells, B cells, and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • for example, among lymphocytes, there are B cells (named from bursa or bone marrow cells), T cells (named from thymus cells), and natural killer cells. (wikipedia.org)
  • To better understand how DNA methylation influences placentation, DNA from isolated first trimester trophoblast populations underwent reduced representation bisulfite sequencing and was compared to publicly available data of blastocyst-derived and somatic cell populations. (biologists.org)
  • Rather, our findings suggest that different patterns of CpG methylation may be more important in epigenetically distinguishing the placenta from somatic cell populations, and these patterns of methylation may contribute to successful placental/trophoblast function. (biologists.org)
  • Bone fragments marrow-derived dendritic cells (BM-DCs) had been turned on by rlipo-OVA via TLR2 Splenocytes had been singled out and triggered with recombinant immunogens and positive control reagents (LPS and Pam3 are TLR4 and TLR2 agonists, respectively) to determine the proliferative replies. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • To check their activity on the growth of dendritic cells, BM-DCs were stimulated with rlipo-OVA and rOVA. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • BM-DCs pulsed with rlipo-OVA elevated the display of OVA-H-2Kb via TLR2 signaling Because a TLR2 agonist-conjugated peptide could end up being used up and utilized to activate Compact disc8+ Testosterone levels cells [15], we investigated whether the presentation of peptide/MHC I complexes was increased in the surface of dendritic cells indeed. (exposed-skin-care.net)
  • This article will summarize the arguments in favor of both sides, aiming to reach a consensus as to the importance of reduced β-cell mass and impaired β-cell function in the pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Presumably, the individual contribution of the β-cell deficit versus that of β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance to the overall pathogenesis of type 2 diabetes varies between different populations. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Quantitative tumour necrosis is an independent predictor of overall survival in clear cell renal cel. (biomedsearch.com)
  • A special class of tiny gold particles can easily slip through cell membranes, making them good candidates to deliver drugs directly to target cells. (nsf.gov)
  • Vitamin E ( d -alpha tocopherol) is a fat-soluble antioxidant, which means it is stored in body fat and works within the lipid portion of cell membranes to provide an alternative binding site for free radicals, preventing the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (Chow). (encyclopedia.com)
  • When needed, vitamin E places itself in cell membranes. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Longer chains trick the cell into thinking it has been invaded by a virus, tripping a self-destruct response. (nsf.gov)
  • Interferons can even provoke cells to self-destruct to prevent the virus from propagating. (eurekalert.org)
  • Alterations in signaling pathways associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and DNA damage are often observed in cells exposed to complex chemical mixtures including cigarette smoke. (aacrjournals.org)
  • In severe oxidative stress, cell death may occur. (encyclopedia.com)
  • [3] White blood cells make up approximately 1% of the total blood volume in a healthy adult, [4] making them substantially less numerous than the red blood cells at 40% to 45% . (wikipedia.org)
  • The average adult has around 30 trillion cells in his or her body, and every day thousands of new cells are replicated from old ones. (whfoods.com)
  • 1) ATL cells adhere to endothelial cells through already activated integrins without exogenous stimulation. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Thus, we here propose that leukemic cells adhere to endothelial cells through the adhesion cascade, similar to normal leukocyte, and that the cell surface heparan sulfate particularly on ATL cells is pivotally involved in chemokine-dependent autocrine stimulation of integrin-triggering by immobilizing the chemokine on them. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Stimulation of CD27 on B cells by CD28 + Th cells accelerates GC formation, most likely by promoting centroblast expansion. (jimmunol.org)
  • There is the awkward question of what to do with a patient who is failing rituximab or ocrelizumab, as it can take many months for the cell populations to come back. (medscape.com)
  • Examples of Electro-Transfected Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic Cells ( Mam. (bio-medicine.org)