Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Taxes: Governmental levies on property, inheritance, gifts, etc.Drug Costs: The amount that a health care institution or organization pays for its drugs. It is one component of the final price that is charged to the consumer (FEES, PHARMACEUTICAL or PRESCRIPTION FEES).Costs and Cost Analysis: Absolute, comparative, or differential costs pertaining to services, institutions, resources, etc., or the analysis and study of these costs.Drugs, Generic: Drugs whose drug name is not protected by a trademark. They may be manufactured by several companies.Economic Competition: The effort of two or more parties to secure the business of a third party by offering, usually under fair or equitable rules of business practice, the most favorable terms.Inflation, Economic: An increase in the volume of money and credit relative to available goods resulting in a substantial and continuing rise in the general price level.Fees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Fees, Pharmaceutical: Amounts charged to the patient or third-party payer for medication. It includes the pharmacist's professional fee and cost of ingredients, containers, etc.Drugs, Essential: Drugs considered essential to meet the health needs of a population as well as to control drug costs.Investments: Use for articles on the investing of funds for income or profit.Models, Econometric: The application of mathematical formulas and statistical techniques to the testing and quantifying of economic theories and the solution of economic problems.Alcoholic Beverages: Drinkable liquids containing ETHANOL.Rate Setting and Review: A method of examining and setting levels of payments.Drug Industry: That segment of commercial enterprise devoted to the design, development, and manufacture of chemical products for use in the diagnosis and treatment of disease, disability, or other dysfunction, or to improve function.Models, Economic: Statistical models of the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services, as well as of financial considerations. For the application of statistics to the testing and quantifying of economic theories MODELS, ECONOMETRIC is available.Cost Control: The containment, regulation, or restraint of costs. Costs are said to be contained when the value of resources committed to an activity is not considered excessive. This determination is frequently subjective and dependent upon the specific geographic area of the activity being measured. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Price ListsMarketing: Activity involved in transfer of goods from producer to consumer or in the exchange of services.Prescription Fees: The charge levied on the consumer for drugs or therapy prescribed under written order of a physician or other health professional.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Health Care Sector: Economic sector concerned with the provision, distribution, and consumption of health care services and related products.Negotiating: The process of bargaining in order to arrive at an agreement or compromise on a matter of importance to the parties involved. It also applies to the hearing and determination of a case by a third party chosen by the parties in controversy, as well as the interposing of a third party to reconcile the parties in controversy.Book PricesUnited StatesHealth Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Cost Savings: Reductions in all or any portion of the costs of providing goods or services. Savings may be incurred by the provider or the consumer.Tobacco Products: Substances and products derived from NICOTIANA TABACUM.Tobacco Industry: The aggregate business enterprise of agriculture, manufacture, and distribution related to tobacco and tobacco-derived products.Marketing of Health Services: Application of marketing principles and techniques to maximize the use of health care resources.Hospital Charges: The prices a hospital sets for its services. HOSPITAL COSTS (the direct and indirect expenses incurred by the hospital in providing the services) are one factor in the determination of hospital charges. Other factors may include, for example, profits, competition, and the necessity of recouping the costs of uncompensated care.Patents as Topic: Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.Economics, Behavioral: The combined discipline of psychology and economics that investigates what happens in markets in which some of the agents display human limitations and complications.Consumer Satisfaction: Customer satisfaction or dissatisfaction with a benefit or service received.Economics, Pharmaceutical: Economic aspects of the fields of pharmacy and pharmacology as they apply to the development and study of medical economics in rational drug therapy and the impact of pharmaceuticals on the cost of medical care. Pharmaceutical economics also includes the economic considerations of the pharmaceutical care delivery system and in drug prescribing, particularly of cost-benefit values. (From J Res Pharm Econ 1989;1(1); PharmacoEcon 1992;1(1))Private Sector: That distinct portion of the institutional, industrial, or economic structure of a country that is controlled or owned by non-governmental, private interests.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Health Care Costs: The actual costs of providing services related to the delivery of health care, including the costs of procedures, therapies, and medications. It is differentiated from HEALTH EXPENDITURES, which refers to the amount of money paid for the services, and from fees, which refers to the amount charged, regardless of cost.Economics, Hospital: Economic aspects related to the management and operation of a hospital.Insurance, Pharmaceutical Services: Insurance providing for payment of services rendered by the pharmacist. Services include the preparation and distribution of medical products.Group Purchasing: A shared service which combines the purchasing power of individual organizations or facilities in order to obtain lower prices for equipment and supplies. (From Health Care Terms, 2nd ed)Energy-Generating Resources: Materials or phenomena which can provide energy directly or via conversion.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Technology, High-Cost: Advanced technology that is costly, requires highly skilled personnel, and is unique in its particular application. Includes innovative, specialized medical/surgical procedures as well as advanced diagnostic and therapeutic equipment.Government Regulation: Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.Copyright: It is a form of protection provided by law. In the United States this protection is granted to authors of original works of authorship, including literary, dramatic, musical, artistic, and certain other intellectual works. This protection is available to both published and unpublished works. (from Circular of the United States Copyright Office, 6/30/2008)Insurance, Health, Reimbursement: Payment by a third-party payer in a sum equal to the amount expended by a health care provider or facility for health services rendered to an insured or program beneficiary. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)ArkansasReimbursement Mechanisms: Processes or methods of reimbursement for services rendered or equipment.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Pharmacies: Facilities for the preparation and dispensing of drugs.Economics, Medical: Economic aspects of the field of medicine, the medical profession, and health care. It includes the economic and financial impact of disease in general on the patient, the physician, society, or government.Public Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Cost Sharing: Provisions of an insurance policy that require the insured to pay some portion of covered expenses. Several forms of sharing are in use, e.g., deductibles, coinsurance, and copayments. Cost sharing does not refer to or include amounts paid in premiums for the coverage. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Drug and Narcotic Control: Control of drug and narcotic use by international agreement, or by institutional systems for handling prescribed drugs. This includes regulations concerned with the manufacturing, dispensing, approval (DRUG APPROVAL), and marketing of drugs.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.United States Federal Trade Commission: An independent administrative agency concerned with maintaining competitive free enterprise by prohibiting unfair methods of competition and unfair deceptive acts or practices.Food Preferences: The selection of one food over another.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Equipment and Supplies: Expendable and nonexpendable equipment, supplies, apparatus, and instruments that are used in diagnostic, surgical, therapeutic, scientific, and experimental procedures.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Choice Behavior: The act of making a selection among two or more alternatives, usually after a period of deliberation.Animal Husbandry: The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.Food Industry: The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.United States Government Agencies: Agencies of the FEDERAL GOVERNMENT of the United States.Consummatory Behavior: An act which constitutes the termination of a given instinctive behavior pattern or sequence.Pharmaceutical Preparations: Drugs intended for human or veterinary use, presented in their finished dosage form. Included here are materials used in the preparation and/or formulation of the finished dosage form.Purchasing, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the purchasing of supplies and equipment.Cost Allocation: The assignment, to each of several particular cost-centers, of an equitable proportion of the costs of activities that serve all of them. Cost-center usually refers to institutional departments or services.Health Benefit Plans, Employee: Health insurance plans for employees, and generally including their dependents, usually on a cost-sharing basis with the employer paying a percentage of the premium.Managed Competition: A strategy for purchasing health care in a manner which will obtain maximum value for the price for the purchasers of the health care and the recipients. The concept was developed primarily by Alain Enthoven of Stanford University and promulgated by the Jackson Hole Group. The strategy depends on sponsors for groups of the population to be insured. The sponsor, in some cases a health alliance, acts as an intermediary between the group and competing provider groups (accountable health plans). The competition is price-based among annual premiums for a defined, standardized benefit package. (From Slee and Slee, Health Care Reform Terms, 1993)Formularies as Topic: Works about lists of drugs or collections of recipes, formulas, and prescriptions for the compounding of medicinal preparations. Formularies differ from PHARMACOPOEIAS in that they are less complete, lacking full descriptions of the drugs, their formulations, analytic composition, chemical properties, etc. In hospitals, formularies list all drugs commonly stocked in the hospital pharmacy.Transcaucasia: Area of Europe that includes ARMENIA,; AZERBAIJAN; and the Republic of GEORGIA.Legislation, Drug: Laws concerned with manufacturing, dispensing, and marketing of drugs.Budgets: Detailed financial plans for carrying out specific activities for a certain period of time. They include proposed income and expenditures.Prescription Drugs: Drugs that cannot be sold legally without a prescription.Food Services: Functions, equipment, and facilities concerned with the preparation and distribution of ready-to-eat food.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Fees, Medical: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for medical services.KyrgyzstanFinancing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Hospital Costs: The expenses incurred by a hospital in providing care. The hospital costs attributed to a particular patient care episode include the direct costs plus an appropriate proportion of the overhead for administration, personnel, building maintenance, equipment, etc. Hospital costs are one of the factors which determine HOSPITAL CHARGES (the price the hospital sets for its services).Pharmacy Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the receiving, storing, and distribution of pharmaceutical supplies.National Health Programs: Components of a national health care system which administer specific services, e.g., national health insurance.Preferred Provider Organizations: Arrangements negotiated between a third-party payer (often a self-insured company or union trust fund) and a group of health-care providers (hospitals and physicians) who furnish services at lower than usual fees, and, in return, receive prompt payment and an expectation of an increased volume of patients.Legislation, Pharmacy: Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of pharmacy, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.Product Packaging: Form in which product is processed or wrapped and labeled. PRODUCT LABELING is also available.Health Facility Merger: The combining of administrative and organizational resources of two or more health care facilities.Deductibles and Coinsurance: Cost-sharing mechanisms that provide for payment by the insured of some portion of covered expenses. Deductibles are the amounts paid by the insured under a health insurance contract before benefits become payable; coinsurance is the provision under which the insured pays part of the medical bill, usually according to a fixed percentage, when benefits become payable.Health Care Reform: Innovation and improvement of the health care system by reappraisal, amendment of services, and removal of faults and abuses in providing and distributing health services to patients. It includes a re-alignment of health services and health insurance to maximum demographic elements (the unemployed, indigent, uninsured, elderly, inner cities, rural areas) with reference to coverage, hospitalization, pricing and cost containment, insurers' and employers' costs, pre-existing medical conditions, prescribed drugs, equipment, and services.Antitrust Laws: Those federal and state laws, and their enforcement, that protect trade and commerce from unlawful restraints and monopolies or unfair business practices.Advertising as Topic: The act or practice of calling public attention to a product, service, need, etc., especially by paid announcements in newspapers, magazines, on radio, or on television. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)State Government: The level of governmental organization and function below that of the national or country-wide government.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Competitive Medical Plans: Alternative health care delivery mechanisms, such as PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS or other health insurance services or prepaid plans (other than HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS), that meet Medicare qualifications for a risk-sharing contract. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)European Union: The collective designation of three organizations with common membership: the European Economic Community (Common Market), the European Coal and Steel Community, and the European Atomic Energy Community (Euratom). It was known as the European Community until 1994. It is primarily an economic union with the principal objectives of free movement of goods, capital, and labor. Professional services, social, medical and paramedical, are subsumed under labor. The constituent countries are Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, and the United Kingdom. (The World Almanac and Book of Facts 1997, p842)United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Quality-Adjusted Life Years: A measurement index derived from a modification of standard life-table procedures and designed to take account of the quality as well as the duration of survival. This index can be used in assessing the outcome of health care procedures or services. (BIOETHICS Thesaurus, 1994)Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Federal Government: The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.Financial Management, Hospital: The obtaining and management of funds for hospital needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Vegetables: A food group comprised of EDIBLE PLANTS or their parts.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Fraud: Exploitation through misrepresentation of the facts or concealment of the purposes of the exploiter.Risk Sharing, Financial: Any system which allows payors to share some of the financial risk associated with a particular patient population with providers. Providers agree to adhere to fixed fee schedules in exchange for an increase in their payor base and a chance to benefit from cost containment measures. Common risk-sharing methods are prospective payment schedules (PROSPECTIVE PAYMENT SYSTEM), capitation (CAPITATION FEES), diagnosis-related fees (DIAGNOSIS-RELATED GROUPS), and pre-negotiated fees.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Medicare: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XVIII-Health Insurance for the Aged, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, that provides health insurance benefits to persons over the age of 65 and others eligible for Social Security benefits. It consists of two separate but coordinated programs: hospital insurance (MEDICARE PART A) and supplementary medical insurance (MEDICARE PART B). (Hospital Administration Terminology, AHA, 2d ed and A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, US House of Representatives, 1976)Professional Corporations: Legally authorized corporations owned and managed by one or more professionals (medical, dental, legal) in which the income is ascribed primarily to the professional activities of the owners or stockholders.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Meat: The edible portions of any animal used for food including domestic mammals (the major ones being cattle, swine, and sheep) along with poultry, fish, shellfish, and game.Fees, Dental: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for dental services.Economic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Ecological and Environmental Processes: Ecosystem and environmental activities, functions, or events.Crime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Nutritive Value: An indication of the contribution of a food to the nutrient content of the diet. This value depends on the quantity of a food which is digested and absorbed and the amounts of the essential nutrients (protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, vitamins) which it contains. This value can be affected by soil and growing conditions, handling and storage, and processing.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Competitive Bidding: Pricing statements presented by more than one party for the purpose of securing a contract.Functional Food: Components of the usual diet that may provide health benefits beyond basic nutrients. Examples of functional foods include soy, nuts, chocolate, and cranberries (From NCCAM Backgrounder, March 2004, p3).Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Tax Exemption: Status not subject to taxation; as the income of a philanthropic organization. Tax-exempt organizations may also qualify to receive tax-deductible donations if they are considered to be nonprofit corporations under Section 501(c)3 of the United States Internal Revenue Code.Hospital Bed Capacity, 500 and overConservation of Energy Resources: Planned management, use, and preservation of energy resources.Licensure: The legal authority or formal permission from authorities to carry on certain activities which by law or regulation require such permission. It may be applied to licensure of institutions as well as individuals.Privatization: Process of shifting publicly controlled services and/or facilities to the private sector.Managed Care Programs: Health insurance plans intended to reduce unnecessary health care costs through a variety of mechanisms, including: economic incentives for physicians and patients to select less costly forms of care; programs for reviewing the medical necessity of specific services; increased beneficiary cost sharing; controls on inpatient admissions and lengths of stay; the establishment of cost-sharing incentives for outpatient surgery; selective contracting with health care providers; and the intensive management of high-cost health care cases. The programs may be provided in a variety of settings, such as HEALTH MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONS and PREFERRED PROVIDER ORGANIZATIONS.Hospitals, Voluntary: Private, not-for-profit hospitals that are autonomous, self-established, and self-supported.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.Mass Behavior: Collective behavior of an aggregate of individuals giving the appearance of unity of attitude, feeling, and motivation.Fruit: The fleshy or dry ripened ovary of a plant, enclosing the seed or seeds.Therapeutic Equivalency: The relative equivalency in the efficacy of different modes of treatment of a disease, most often used to compare the efficacy of different pharmaceuticals to treat a given disease.International Cooperation: The interaction of persons or groups of persons representing various nations in the pursuit of a common goal or interest.World Health Organization: A specialized agency of the United Nations designed as a coordinating authority on international health work; its aim is to promote the attainment of the highest possible level of health by all peoples.Social Marketing: Use of marketing principles also used to sell products to consumers to promote ideas, attitudes and behaviors. Design and use of programs seeking to increase the acceptance of a social idea or practice by target groups, not for the benefit of the marketer, but to benefit the target audience and the general society.Salaries and Fringe Benefits: The remuneration paid or benefits granted to an employee.Family Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Medicare Part B: The voluntary portion of Medicare, known as the Supplementary Medical Insurance (SMI) Program, that includes physician's services, home health care, medical services, outpatient hospital services, and laboratory, pathology, and radiology services. All persons entitled to Medicare Part A may enroll in Medicare Part B on a monthly premium basis.Library Collection Development: Development of a library collection, including the determination and coordination of selection policy, assessment of needs of users and potential users, collection use studies, collection evaluation, identification of collection needs, selection of materials, planning for resource sharing, collection maintenance and weeding, and budgeting.Employer Health Costs: That portion of total HEALTH CARE COSTS borne by an individual's or group's employing organization.Great BritainUniversal Coverage: Health insurance coverage for all persons in a state or country, rather than for some subset of the population. It may extend to the unemployed as well as to the employed; to aliens as well as to citizens; for pre-existing conditions as well as for current illnesses; for mental as well as for physical conditions.Reinforcement Schedule: A schedule prescribing when the subject is to be reinforced or rewarded in terms of temporal interval in psychological experiments. The schedule may be continuous or intermittent.Government: The complex of political institutions, laws, and customs through which the function of governing is carried out in a specific political unit.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.GuatemalaSmoking Cessation: Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.Motivation: Those factors which cause an organism to behave or act in either a goal-seeking or satisfying manner. They may be influenced by physiological drives or by external stimuli.Contracts: Agreements between two or more parties, especially those that are written and enforceable by law (American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). It is sometimes used to characterize the nature of the professional-patient relationship.Contract Services: Outside services provided to an institution under a formal financial agreement.Health Services Research: The integration of epidemiologic, sociological, economic, and other analytic sciences in the study of health services. Health services research is usually concerned with relationships between need, demand, supply, use, and outcome of health services. The aim of the research is evaluation, particularly in terms of structure, process, output, and outcome. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.CaliforniaArtemisinins: A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).Gross Domestic Product: Value of all final goods and services produced in a country in one year.Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Gasoline: Volative flammable fuel (liquid hydrocarbons) derived from crude petroleum by processes such as distillation reforming, polymerization, etc.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Government Programs: Programs and activities sponsored or administered by local, state, or national governments.Anti-Retroviral Agents: Agents used to treat RETROVIRIDAE INFECTIONS.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (U.S.): A component of the Department of Health and Human Services to oversee and direct the Medicare and Medicaid programs and related Federal medical care quality control staffs. Name was changed effective June 14, 2001.Drug Approval: Process that is gone through in order for a drug to receive approval by a government regulatory agency. This includes any required pre-clinical or clinical testing, review, submission, and evaluation of the applications and test results, and post-marketing surveillance of the drug.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Models, Theoretical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of systems, processes, or phenomena. They include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.Antiplatyhelmintic Agents: Agents used to treat cestode, trematode, or other flatworm infestations in man or animals.Health Facility Size: The physical space or dimensions of a facility. Size may be indicated by bed capacity.Behavioral Research: Research that involves the application of the behavioral and social sciences to the study of the actions or reactions of persons or animals in response to external or internal stimuli. (from American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed)Carbonated Beverages: Drinkable liquids combined with or impregnated with carbon dioxide.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Public Opinion: The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.Insurance, Physician Services: Insurance providing benefits for the costs of care by a physician which can be comprehensive or limited to surgical expenses or for care provided only in the hospital. It is frequently called "regular medical expense" or "surgical expense".Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Token Economy: A practice whereby tokens representing money, toys, candy, etc., are given as secondary reinforcers contingent upon certain desired behaviors or performances.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Orphan Drug Production: Production of drugs or biologicals which are unlikely to be manufactured by private industry unless special incentives are provided by others.Burundi: A republic in eastern Africa bounded on the north by RWANDA and on the south by TANZANIA. Its capital is Bujumbura.Health Maintenance Organizations: Organized systems for providing comprehensive prepaid health care that have five basic attributes: (1) provide care in a defined geographic area; (2) provide or ensure delivery of an agreed-upon set of basic and supplemental health maintenance and treatment services; (3) provide care to a voluntarily enrolled group of persons; (4) require their enrollees to use the services of designated providers; and (5) receive reimbursement through a predetermined, fixed, periodic prepayment made by the enrollee without regard to the degree of services provided. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988)Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Cost of Illness: The personal cost of acute or chronic disease. The cost to the patient may be an economic, social, or psychological cost or personal loss to self, family, or immediate community. The cost of illness may be reflected in absenteeism, productivity, response to treatment, peace of mind, or QUALITY OF LIFE. It differs from HEALTH CARE COSTS, meaning the societal cost of providing services related to the delivery of health care, rather than personal impact on individuals.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Samoa: A group of islands in the southwest central Pacific, divided into AMERICAN SAMOA and the INDEPENDENT STATE OF SAMOA (Western Samoa). First European contact was made in 1722 by Jacob Roggeveen, a Dutchman. In 1768 they were named Navigators Islands by Louis de Bougainville. The present name may derive from that of a local chieftain or from a local word meaning place of the moa, a now-extinct island bird. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1061 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p481)Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Financial Audit: An examination, review and verification of all financial accounts.Food Habits: Acquired or learned food preferences.Medicare Part D: A stand-alone drug plan offered by insurers and other private companies to beneficiaries that receive their Medicare Part A and/or B benefits through the Original Medicare Plan. It includes Medicare Private Fee-for-Service Plans that do not offer prescription drug coverage and Medicare Cost Plans offering Medicare prescription drug coverage. The plan was enacted as the Medicare Prescription Drug, Improvement and Modernization Act of 2003 with coverage beginning January 1, 2006.Direct Service Costs: Costs which are directly identifiable with a particular service.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Petroleum: Naturally occurring complex liquid hydrocarbons which, after distillation, yield combustible fuels, petrochemicals, and lubricants.Beverages: Liquids that are suitable for drinking. (From Merriam Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
  • The global market size of Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) is $XX million in 2018 with XX CAGR from 2014 to 2018, and it is expected to reach $XX million by the end of 2024 with a CAGR of XX% from 2019 to 2024. (aarkstore.com)
  • The AP analyzed 26,176 U.S. list price changes for brand-name prescription drugs from Jan. 1 through July 31 in the years 2015 through 2018, using data supplied by health information analytics firm Elsevier. (necn.com)
  • The median price increase, meaning half were higher and half lower, was 5.2 percent in June and July of 2018, down from 8 percent in that period in 2017. (necn.com)
  • Global Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) Market Report 2019 - Market Size, Share, Price, Trend and Forecast is a professional and in-depth study on the current state of the global Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) industry. (aarkstore.com)
  • 5.The report estimates 2019-2024 market development trends of Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) industry. (aarkstore.com)
  • UK dairy processor Muller has increased its standard non-aligned milk price by 0.5p/litre. (fwi.co.uk)
  • The rise means the 700 Muller Direct producers will receive 30.5p/litre on its liquid contract with constituents of 4% butterfat and 3.3% protein. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Muller also confirmed that 130 producers had signed up to its new 100m litre Direct Futures contract. (fwi.co.uk)
  • My daughter has been a Trinity patient since her birth 4 1/2 years ago and our whole family joined Direct Primary Care at the beginning of this year. (trinitydpc.com)
  • Led by Darden faculty and Boston Consulting Group global pricing experts, the course provides the practical and research-based models and methods you need to set prices that maximize your profits. (coursera.org)
  • In the electricity industry, profits increase with higher sales, so a carbon price will encourage action that reduces emissions per unit of electricity sold, such as renewable energy, but not actions that reduce sales. (theconversation.com)
  • Understanding these costs helps the company to make pricing decisions and estimate its potential profits. (chron.com)
  • First, we'll take a look at price discrimination and how to set prices for different customer segments to maximize profits. (coursera.org)
  • He noted the complexity of the medicine market and its incentives for drugmakers to boost prices so they and middlemen make bigger profits. (necn.com)
  • Diffusion," the "Company," "we," "our" or "us") today announced that it has entered into definitive securities purchase agreements with certain institutional investors to purchase in a registered direct offering priced at-the-market 6,266,787 shares of the Company's common stock, at a purchase price of $0.4335 per share, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $2.72 million. (yahoo.com)
  • The Company also agreed to issue to the institutional investors in a concurrent private placement unregistered warrants to purchase up to 6,266,787 shares of common stock, at an exercise price of $0.4335 per share and a purchase price of $0.125 per warrant, for aggregate gross proceeds of approximately $0.78 million. (yahoo.com)
  • Research published in Canada has linked the introduction of minimum pricing with a significant drop in alcohol-related deaths. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The researchers said a rise in alcohol prices of 10% would lead to a 32% reduction in alcohol-related deaths. (bbc.co.uk)
  • It suggests that, when drink prices rose, there were "immediate, substantial and significant reductions" in deaths wholly attributable to alcohol abuse. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Dr Tim Stockwell, director of the University of Victoria's Centre for Addictions Research of British Columbia, said: "This study adds to the scientific evidence that, despite popular opinion to the contrary, even the heaviest drinkers reduce their consumption when minimum alcohol prices increase. (bbc.co.uk)
  • This is the first study to highlight the effects on mortality of alcohol minimum pricing, although the Scottish government has used previous research from the University of Sheffield to claim consumption of alcohol would be reduced if prices rose. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Alcohol Focus Scotland (AFS) said it was further evidence that minimum pricing will be effective. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Increasing the price of the cheapest alcohol through minimum pricing has the biggest effect on the heaviest drinkers who are most at risk of alcohol-related illness and death. (bbc.co.uk)
  • MSPs passed The Alcohol (Minimum Pricing) (Scotland) Act 2012 in May 2012, setting a 50p minimum unit price as part of an effort to tackle alcohol misuse. (bbc.co.uk)
  • There is not a simple link between alcohol price and harm," he said. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Plans to impose a minimum price for alcohol of 45p a unit appear doomed in the face of powerful opposition from cabinet ministers in a blow for David Cameron. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • A well-placed coalition source said: "Minimum alcohol pricing looks dead in the water and the search has begun in Whitehall for an exit strategy which will allow the maximum amount of face saving. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Scotland already has its own minimum price for alcohol of 50p a unit when it comes into force next year - although it is currently the subject of a legal challenge by the drinks industry. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Mike Short, SABMiller's senior vice president of industry affairs, said: "Minimum pricing is a poor piece of policy that will do little to address the damage caused by alcohol misuse and much to exacerbate the financial challenge facing moderate drinkers on lower incomes. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • He added: "However, we remain committed to offering a competitive milk price at each stage in the global dairy market cycle and are investing heavily to add value to the milk we buy. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Service: BBC (Best quality, Best service, Competitive price) wins good reputation for us, which is why we are so popular in EU market, and others. (pe-factory.com)
  • HAIFA, Israel, June 25, 2015 (GLOBE NEWSWIRE) -- Pluristem Therapeutics Inc. (Nasdaq:PSTI) (TASE:PSTI) today announced that it has entered into definitive agreements to sell 6,800,000 shares of common stock and warrants to purchase up to 4,080,000 shares of common stock at a combined price of $2.50 per share and related warrants. (cnbc.com)
  • The warrants have an exercise price of $2.85 per share of common stock, are immediately exercisable and expire 5 years from the closing of this offering. (cnbc.com)
  • ECTE ), a company developing the Symphony® tCGM System as a non-invasive, wireless, transdermal continuous glucose monitoring (tCGM) system and the Prelude® SkinPrep System for transdermal drug delivery, today announced a registered direct equity financing of approximately $5.4 million by issuing units, with each unit consisting of one share of its common stock and a warrant to purchase 0.4 of a share of its common stock. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Each warrant will have an exercise price of $3.00 per share, will be exercisable six months after the date of issuance and will expire three years from the date of issuance. (bio-medicine.org)
  • The warrants will be exercisable on the six-month anniversary of issuance and will have a five-year term and an exercise price of $1.25 per share. (advaxis.com)
  • Each Warrant entitles the holder to acquire one common share of the Company (each, a "Warrant Share") at an exercise price of US$2.69 per share at any time prior to the date which is five years following the date of issuance. (neovasc.com)
  • Anderson was one of the directors brought to justice after the spectacular fraud and share price scandals surrounding Brent Walker in the early 1990s. (accountancyage.com)
  • 2. Manage price to exploit variations in perceived value. (entrepreneur.com)
  • We are also working with farmer suppliers to ensure that production is more closely aligned with the requirements of our customers, and to introduce and encourage the use of tools which are designed to help manage milk price volatility. (fwi.co.uk)
  • Please note that E-Cigarette Direct do not endorse and are not responsible for the content of other sites linking to us. (ecigarettedirect.co.uk)
  • You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways. (bmj.com)
  • Climate change, economists generally agree, is best addressed by putting a price on the carbon content of fossil fuels-by taxing carbon, by cap-and-trade systems, or other methods. (mit.edu)
  • The lowest-priced brand-new, unused, unopened, undamaged item in its original packaging (where packaging is applicable). (ebay.ca)
  • The "off" amount and percentage simply signifies the calculated difference between the seller-provided price for the item elsewhere and the seller's price on eBay. (ebay.ca)
  • PRICE MATCH Seen this item cheaper? (directstoves.com)
  • The authors suggest increasing the price of cheaper drinks reduces the consumption of heavier drinkers who prefer them. (bbc.co.uk)
  • The right way to set price is driven by two trends shaping the future of B2B selling: First, a round of golf or lavish dinner won't close deals anymore. (entrepreneur.com)
  • Unless you're equipped to close on the spot, getting buyers to meet your target price is futile. (entrepreneur.com)
  • At the end of May, he promised that drug companies would be announcing "massive" voluntary drug price cuts within two weeks. (necn.com)
  • This year through the end of July, there were 4,412 brand-name drug price increases and 46 price cuts, a ratio of 96-to-1. (necn.com)
  • Add these totals together to determine the total actual direct labor dollars. (chron.com)
  • The company has entered into purchase agreements with current investors and other select institutional and strategic investors to buy a total of approximately 2.4 million units at a price of $2.25 per unit. (bio-medicine.org)
  • 6 * 200 = $1200 However, since the consumers ultimately pay taxes for the government to purchase the surplus, the total cost to consumers (in the short run) of the price support is the sum of the loss in consumer surplus and the cost of the government purchasing the surplus off the market. (wikipedia.org)
  • Corticosteroids should be informed of this past famous positivity and ciprofloxacin 500mg price advised to medicine discontinue cipro and contact their money energy if any details of tendon or curve citrate occur. (streetwearjunky.com)
  • The Net Price Calculator helps you get a personalized estimate of your "net price" as an undergraduate student. (barry.edu)
  • The estimate provided using this calculator does not represent a final determination , or actual award, of financial assistance or a final net price. (barry.edu)
  • Including the Zacks Rank, Zacks Industry Rank, Style Scores, the Price, Consensus & Surprise chart, graphical estimate analysis and how a stocks stacks up to its peers. (zacks.com)
  • This course shows you the economic factors behind pricing based on cost and the pros and cons of a cost-based pricing approach. (coursera.org)
  • Excellent introduction to the mathematics behind cost and pricing strategies. (coursera.org)
  • Each month the company calculates its actual direct labor cost. (chron.com)
  • 4. Subtract the standard labor cost from the actual direct labor dollars. (chron.com)
  • Net price is the difference between the full cost of attendance to Barry (including tuition and fees, books and supplies, room and meals, and other related expenses) minus any estimated grants and scholarships for which you may be eligible. (barry.edu)
  • Shop online with Direct Stoves to get your masonry BBQ at an exceptional price with free UK delivery - you can even spread the cost with our excellent finance options . (directstoves.com)
  • How to analyze and apply different pricing models, including: cost-plus pricing, marginal cost-plus pricing, peak-load pricing, index-based pricing. (coursera.org)
  • 1800 - 1250 = $550 The cost to consumers of the price support is equal to the loss in consumer surplus (represented in red). (wikipedia.org)
  • 1250 - 800 = $450 The cost to the government of the price support is equal to the cost of the surplus in the market (represented in gray). (wikipedia.org)
  • Administration about these humans will approximately help it become easier that you pick a low priced cytotec well/avoid mustard feedings. (nhakhoaminhthu.com)
  • The oil is obtained by mustard oil expeller price pressing, sometimes followed by solvent extraction. (acahome.org)
  • Linseed oil use has declined over the past several decades with increased availability of synthetic alkyd resins-which mustard oil expeller price function similarly but resist yellowing.Linseed oil is an edible oil in demand as a nutritional supplement, as a source of α-Linolenic acid, (an omega-3 fatty acid). (acahome.org)
  • Folks… mexico has been i' among subsequent weeks for foods, discounts afflicting not every hour from supplier to provigil prescription price bicycle experience. (dinair.nl)
  • 1)Factory direct sell Wheat straw baling machine / rice straw baling machine / hay baler 008613676951397Pump crude oil into refining tank and heat with conduction oil, and the temperature will reach about 70°C-80°C after one hour. (epier.com)
  • At Blanco, we have a large assortment of direct thermal labels that are ideal for use in cold temperature applications. (blancolabels.com)
  • Cold Temperature direct thermal labels are preferred for freezers and refrigerators, and in applications such as storage, shipping and warehousing because they offer great adhesion to corrugated cardboard and other cold temperature storage containers. (blancolabels.com)
  • Cold Temperature Direct Thermal Labels are NOT recommended for outdoor applications. (blancolabels.com)
  • A political science analysis of the feasibility and sustainability of carbon pricing, drawing from North American, European, and Asian case studies. (mit.edu)
  • In this book, Barry Rabe offers the first major political science analysis of the feasibility and sustainability of carbon pricing, drawing upon a series of real-world attempts to price carbon over the last two decades in North America, Europe, and Asia. (mit.edu)
  • The AP focused its analysis on the first seven months of each year because of the seasonality of price changes and to make meaningful year-to-year comparisons. (necn.com)
  • 7.The report makes some important proposals for a new project of Direct Fed Microbial (DFM) Industry before evaluating its feasibility. (aarkstore.com)