The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.
The presence of co-existing or additional diseases with reference to an initial diagnosis or with reference to the index condition that is the subject of study. Comorbidity may affect the ability of affected individuals to function and also their survival; it may be used as a prognostic indicator for length of hospital stay, cost factors, and outcome or survival.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The status of health in rural populations.
Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
A heterogeneous group of disorders characterized by HYPERGLYCEMIA and GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The status of health in urban populations.
The genetic constitution of the individual, comprising the ALLELES present at each GENETIC LOCUS.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
A form of bronchial disorder with three distinct components: airway hyper-responsiveness (RESPIRATORY HYPERSENSITIVITY), airway INFLAMMATION, and intermittent AIRWAY OBSTRUCTION. It is characterized by spasmodic contraction of airway smooth muscle, WHEEZING, and dyspnea (DYSPNEA, PAROXYSMAL).
A parliamentary democracy with a constitutional monarch in southeast Asia, consisting of 11 states (West Malaysia) on the Malay Peninsula and two states (East Malaysia) on the island of BORNEO. It is also called the Federation of Malaysia. Its capital is Kuala Lumpur. Before 1963 it was the Union of Malaya. It reorganized in 1948 as the Federation of Malaya, becoming independent from British Malaya in 1957 and becoming Malaysia in 1963 as a federation of Malaya, Sabah, Sarawak, and Singapore (which seceded in 1965). The form Malay- probably derives from the Tamil malay, mountain, with reference to its geography. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p715 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p329)
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
The constant presence of diseases or infectious agents within a given geographic area or population group. It may also refer to the usual prevalence of a given disease with such area or group. It includes holoendemic and hyperendemic diseases. A holoendemic disease is one for which a high prevalent level of infection begins early in life and affects most of the child population, leading to a state of equilibrium such that the adult population shows evidence of the disease much less commonly than do children (malaria in many communities is a holoendemic disease). A hyperendemic disease is one that is constantly present at a high incidence and/or prevalence rate and affects all groups equally. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed, p53, 78, 80)
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is above certain standard of acceptable or desirable weight. In the scale of BODY MASS INDEX, overweight is defined as having a BMI of 25.0-29.9 kg/m2. Overweight may or may not be due to increases in body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE), hence overweight does not equal "over fat".
A cluster of metabolic risk factors for CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES and TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS. The major components of metabolic syndrome X include excess ABDOMINAL FAT; atherogenic DYSLIPIDEMIA; HYPERTENSION; HYPERGLYCEMIA; INSULIN RESISTANCE; a proinflammatory state; and a prothrombotic (THROMBOSIS) state. (from AHA/NHLBI/ADA Conference Proceedings, Circulation 2004; 109:551-556)
Divisions of the year according to some regularly recurrent phenomena usually astronomical or climatic. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Former kingdom, located on Korea Peninsula between Sea of Japan and Yellow Sea on east coast of Asia. In 1948, the kingdom ceased and two independent countries were formed, divided by the 38th parallel.
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by HEPATITIS C VIRUS, a single-stranded RNA virus. Its incubation period is 30-90 days. Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily by contaminated blood parenterally, and is often associated with transfusion and intravenous drug abuse. However, in a significant number of cases, the source of hepatitis C infection is unknown.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Sexual activities of humans.
Diseases caused by factors involved in one's employment.
A country in western Europe bordered by the Atlantic Ocean, the English Channel, the Mediterranean Sea, and the countries of Belgium, Germany, Italy, Spain, Switzerland, the principalities of Andorra and Monaco, and by the duchy of Luxembourg. Its capital is Paris.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
Psychiatric illness or diseases manifested by breakdowns in the adaptational process expressed primarily as abnormalities of thought, feeling, and behavior producing either distress or impairment of function.
Individuals enrolled in a school or formal educational program.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Studies in which a number of subjects are selected from all subjects in a defined population. Conclusions based on sample results may be attributed only to the population sampled.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
The condition of harboring an infective organism without manifesting symptoms of infection. The organism must be readily transmissible to another susceptible host.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
The capital is Seoul. The country, established September 9, 1948, is located on the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. Its northern border is shared with the Democratic People's Republic of Korea.
Noises, normal and abnormal, heard on auscultation over any part of the RESPIRATORY TRACT.
INFLAMMATION of the LIVER in humans caused by a member of the ORTHOHEPADNAVIRUS genus, HEPATITIS B VIRUS. It is primarily transmitted by parenteral exposure, such as transfusion of contaminated blood or blood products, but can also be transmitted via sexual or intimate personal contact.
Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.
Substances that reduce the growth or reproduction of BACTERIA.
Diseases due to or propagated by sexual contact.
Neoplasms of the skin and mucous membranes caused by papillomaviruses. They are usually benign but some have a high risk for malignant progression.
Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.
A subclass of DIABETES MELLITUS that is not INSULIN-responsive or dependent (NIDDM). It is characterized initially by INSULIN RESISTANCE and HYPERINSULINEMIA; and eventually by GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; HYPERGLYCEMIA; and overt diabetes. Type II diabetes mellitus is no longer considered a disease exclusively found in adults. Patients seldom develop KETOSIS but often exhibit OBESITY.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.
Animate or inanimate sources which normally harbor disease-causing organisms and thus serve as potential sources of disease outbreaks. Reservoirs are distinguished from vectors (DISEASE VECTORS) and carriers, which are agents of disease transmission rather than continuing sources of potential disease outbreaks.
Places where animals are slaughtered and dressed for market.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.
Studies of the number of cases where human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is present in a specific population at a designated time. The presence in a given individual is determined by the finding of HIV antibodies in the serum (HIV SEROPOSITIVITY).
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
Abuse, overuse, or misuse of a substance by its injection into a vein.
Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.
An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Diseases of domestic cattle of the genus Bos. It includes diseases of cows, yaks, and zebus.
Individual members of North American ethnic groups with ancient historic ancestral origins in Asia.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the southeastern and eastern areas of the Asian continent.
A set of statistical methods used to group variables or observations into strongly inter-related subgroups. In epidemiology, it may be used to analyze a closely grouped series of events or cases of disease or other health-related phenomenon with well-defined distribution patterns in relation to time or place or both.
Educational institutions.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
A republic in central Africa lying east of CHAD and the CENTRAL AFRICAN REPUBLIC and west of NIGERIA. The capital is Yaounde.
Studies designed to examine associations, commonly, hypothesized causal relations. They are usually concerned with identifying or measuring the effects of risk factors or exposures. The common types of analytic study are CASE-CONTROL STUDIES; COHORT STUDIES; and CROSS-SECTIONAL STUDIES.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.
A pruritic papulovesicular dermatitis occurring as a reaction to many endogenous and exogenous agents (Dorland, 27th ed).
Disorders related to substance abuse.
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.
Undertaking a task involving a challenge for achievement or a desirable goal in which there is a lack of certainty or a fear of failure. It may also include the exhibiting of certain behaviors whose outcomes may present a risk to the individual or to those associated with him or her.
Typical way of life or manner of living characteristic of an individual or group. (From APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed)
A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
A republic stretching from the Indian Ocean east to New Guinea, comprising six main islands: Java, Sumatra, Bali, Kalimantan (the Indonesian portion of the island of Borneo), Sulawesi (formerly known as the Celebes) and Irian Jaya (the western part of New Guinea). Its capital is Djakarta. The ethnic groups living there are largely Chinese, Arab, Eurasian, Indian, and Pakistani; 85% of the peoples are of the Islamic faith.
The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.
The technique that deals with the measurement of the size, weight, and proportions of the human or other primate body.
The inability to see or the loss or absence of perception of visual stimuli. This condition may be the result of EYE DISEASES; OPTIC NERVE DISEASES; OPTIC CHIASM diseases; or BRAIN DISEASES affecting the VISUAL PATHWAYS or OCCIPITAL LOBE.
Animals considered to be wild or feral or not adapted for domestic use. It does not include wild animals in zoos for which ANIMALS, ZOO is available.
Antibodies to the HEPATITIS C ANTIGENS including antibodies to envelope, core, and non-structural proteins.
Simultaneous infection of a host organism by two or more pathogens. In virology, coinfection commonly refers to simultaneous infection of a single cell by two or more different viruses.
A country in northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula Its capital is Cairo.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
Localized destruction of the tooth surface initiated by decalcification of the enamel followed by enzymatic lysis of organic structures and leading to cavity formation. If left unchecked, the cavity may penetrate the enamel and dentin and reach the pulp.
The ability of bacteria to resist or to become tolerant to chemotherapeutic agents, antimicrobial agents, or antibiotics. This resistance may be acquired through gene mutation or foreign DNA in transmissible plasmids (R FACTORS).
Conditions or pathological processes associated with the disease of diabetes mellitus. Due to the impaired control of BLOOD GLUCOSE level in diabetic patients, pathological processes develop in numerous tissues and organs including the EYE, the KIDNEY, the BLOOD VESSELS, and the NERVE TISSUE.
Crafts, trades, professions, or other means of earning a living.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
Sexual attraction or relationship between males.
Immunoglobulins produced in response to VIRAL ANTIGENS.
Any tests that demonstrate the relative efficacy of different chemotherapeutic agents against specific microorganisms (i.e., bacteria, fungi, viruses).
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Depressive states usually of moderate intensity in contrast with major depression present in neurotic and psychotic disorders.
Telephone surveys are conducted to monitor prevalence of the major behavioral risks among adults associated with premature MORBIDITY and MORTALITY. The data collected is in regard to actual behaviors, rather than on attitudes or knowledge. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) established the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) in 1984.
Married or single individuals who share sexual relations.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents that occurs as a result of one's occupation.
Commonly known as parasitic worms, this group includes the ACANTHOCEPHALA; NEMATODA; and PLATYHELMINTHS. Some authors consider certain species of LEECHES that can become temporarily parasitic as helminths.
The age, developmental stage, or period of life at which a disease or the initial symptoms or manifestations of a disease appear in an individual.
The practice of indulging in sexual relations for money.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Those hepatitis B antigens found on the surface of the Dane particle and on the 20 nm spherical and tubular particles. Several subspecificities of the surface antigen are known. These were formerly called the Australia antigen.
The systems and processes involved in the establishment, support, management, and operation of registers, e.g., disease registers.
Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.
A family of small, non-enveloped DNA viruses infecting birds and most mammals, especially humans. They are grouped into multiple genera, but the viruses are highly host-species specific and tissue-restricted. They are commonly divided into hundreds of papillomavirus "types", each with specific gene function and gene control regions, despite sequence homology. Human papillomaviruses are found in the genera ALPHAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; BETAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; GAMMAPAPILLOMAVIRUS; and MUPAPILLOMAVIRUS.
Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).
A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.
Discontinuation of the habit of smoking, the inhaling and exhaling of tobacco smoke.
Infections with organisms of the genus HELICOBACTER, particularly, in humans, HELICOBACTER PYLORI. The clinical manifestations are focused in the stomach, usually the gastric mucosa and antrum, and the upper duodenum. This infection plays a major role in the pathogenesis of type B gastritis and peptic ulcer disease.
A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.
Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
A spiral bacterium active as a human gastric pathogen. It is a gram-negative, urease-positive, curved or slightly spiral organism initially isolated in 1982 from patients with lesions of gastritis or peptic ulcers in Western Australia. Helicobacter pylori was originally classified in the genus CAMPYLOBACTER, but RNA sequencing, cellular fatty acid profiles, growth patterns, and other taxonomic characteristics indicate that the micro-organism should be included in the genus HELICOBACTER. It has been officially transferred to Helicobacter gen. nov. (see Int J Syst Bacteriol 1989 Oct;39(4):297-405).
A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A chronic infection of the CONJUNCTIVA and CORNEA caused by CHLAMYDIA TRACHOMATIS.
The proportion of patients with a particular disease during a given year per given unit of population.
Method for obtaining information through verbal responses, written or oral, from subjects.
Monitoring of rate of occurrence of specific conditions to assess the stability or change in health levels of a population. It is also the study of disease rates in a specific cohort such as in a geographic area or population subgroup to estimate trends in a larger population. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)

Helicobacter pylori infection, garlic intake and precancerous lesions in a Chinese population at low risk of gastric cancer. (1/39136)

BACKGROUND: Cangshan County of Shandong Province has one of the lowest rates of gastric cancer (GC) in China. While intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) are less common in Cangshan than in areas of Shandong at high risk of GC, these precursor lesions nevertheless affect about 20% of adults age > or = 55. SUBJECTS AND SETTING: In order to evaluate determinants of IM and DYS in Cangshan County, a low risk area of GC a survey was conducted among 214 adults who participated in a gastroscopic screening survey in Cangshan County in 1994. METHOD: A dietary interview and measurement of serum Helicobacter pylori antibodies were performed. RESULTS: The prevalence of H. pylori was lowest (19%) among those with normal gastric mucosa, rising steadily to 35% for superficial gastritis (SG), 56% for chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG), 80% for IM, and 100% for DYS. The prevalence odds of precancerous lesions were compared with the odds of normal histology or SG. The odds ratio (OR) or CAG associated with H. pylori positivity was 4.2 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.7-10.0), while the OR of IM/DYS associated with H. pylori positivity was 31.5 (95% CI: 5.2-187). After adjusting for H. pylori infection, drinking alcohol was a risk factor for CAG (OR = 3.2, 95% CI: 1.1-9.2) and IM/DYS (OR = 7.8, 95% CI: 1.3-47.7). On the other hand, consumption of garlic showed non-significant protective effects and an inverse association with H. pylori infection. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study suggest that infection with H. pylori is a risk factor and garlic may be protective, in the development and progression of advanced precancerous gastric lesions in an area of China at relatively low risk of GC.  (+info)

Precancerous lesions in two counties of China with contrasting gastric cancer risk. (2/39136)

BACKGROUND: Gastric cancer (GC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and shows remarkable geographical variation even within countries such as China. Linqu County in Shandong Province of northeast China has a GC rate that is 15 times higher than that of Cangshan County in Shandong, even though these counties are within 200 miles of each other. METHOD: In order to evaluate the frequency of precancerous gastric lesions in Linqu and Cangshan Counties we examined 3400 adults in Linqu County and 224 adults in Cangshan County. An endoscopic examination with four biopsies was performed in each individual of the two populations. RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal metaplasia (IM) and dysplasia (DYS) was 30% and 15.1%, respectively, in Linqu compared to 7.9% and 5.6% in Cangshan (P < 0.01). Within these histological categories, advanced grades were found more often in Linqu than in Cangshan. The prevalences of IM and DYS were more common at each biopsy site in Linqu, where the lesions also tended to affect multiple sites. CONCLUSIONS: The findings of this study support the concept that IM and DYS are closely correlated with risks of GC and represent late stages in the multistep process of gastric carcinogenesis.  (+info)

Cardiovascular disease in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus: similar rates but different risk factors in the US compared with Europe. (3/39136)

BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) in insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) has been linked to renal disease. However, little is known concerning international variation in the correlations with hyperglycaemia and standard CVD risk factors. METHODS: A cross-sectional comparison was made of prevalence rates and risk factor associations in two large studies of IDDM subjects: the Pittsburgh Epidemiology of Diabetes Complications Study (EDC) and the EURODIAB IDDM Complications Study from 31 centres in Europe. Subgroups of each were chosen to be comparable by age and duration of diabetes. The EDC population comprises 286 men (mean duration 20.1 years) and 281 women (mean duration 19.9 years); EURODIAB 608 men (mean duration 18.1 years) and 607 women (mean duration 18.9 years). The mean age of both populations was 28 years. Cardiovascular disease was defined by a past medical history of myocardial infarction, angina, and/or the Minnesota ECG codes (1.1-1.3, 4.1-4.3, 5.1-5.3, 7.1). RESULTS: Overall prevalence of CVD was similar in the two populations (i.e. men 8.6% versus 8.0%, women 7.4% versus 8.5%, EURODIAB versus EDC respectively), although EDC women had a higher prevalence of angina (3.9% versus 0.5%, P < 0.001). Multivariate modelling suggests that glycaemic control (HbA1c) is not related to CVD in men. Age and high density lipoprotein cholesterol predict CVD in EURODIAB, while triglycerides and hypertension predict CVD in EDC. For women in both populations, age and hypertension (or renal disease) are independent predictors. HbA1c is also an independent predictor-inversely in EURODIAB women (P < 0.008) and positively in EDC women (P = 0.03). Renal disease was more strongly linked to CVD in EDC than in EURODIAB. CONCLUSIONS: Despite a similar prevalence of CVD, risk factor associations appear to differ in the two study populations. Glycaemic control (HbA1c) does not show a consistent or strong relationship to CVD.  (+info)

Body mass decrease after initial gain following smoking cessation. (4/39136)

BACKGROUND: Although smoking cessation is strongly associated with subsequent weight gain, it is not clear whether the initial gain in weight after smoking cessation remains over time. METHOD: Cross-sectional analyses were made, using data from periodic health examinations for workers, on the relationship between body mass index (BMI) and the length of smoking cessation. In addition, linear regression coefficients of BMI on the length of cessation were estimated according to alcohol intake and sport activity, to examine the modifying effect of these factors on the weight of former smokers. RESULTS: Means of BMI were 23.1 kg/m2, 23.3 kg/m2, 23.6 kg/m2 for light/medium smokers, heavy smokers and never smokers, respectively. Among former smokers who had smoked > or = 25 cigarettes a day, odds ratio (OR) of BMI >25 kg/m2 were 1.88 (95% confidence interval [CI] : 1.05-3.35), 1.32 (95% CI : 0.74-2.34), 0.66 (95% CI: 0.33-1.31) for those with 2-4 years, 5-7 years, and 8-10 years of smoking cessation, respectively. The corresponding OR among those who previously consumed <25 cigarettes a day were 1.06 (95% CI: 0.58-1.94), 1.00 (95% CI: 0.58-1.71), and 1.49 (95% CI: 0.95-2.32). CONCLUSIONS: The results suggest that although heavy smokers may experience large weight gain and weigh more than never smokers in the few years after smoking cessation, they thereafter lose weight to the never smoker level, while light and moderate smokers gain weight up to the never smoker level without any excess after smoking cessation.  (+info)

Health status of Persian Gulf War veterans: self-reported symptoms, environmental exposures and the effect of stress. (5/39136)

BACKGROUND: Most US troops returned home from the Persian Gulf War (PGW) by Spring 1991 and many began reporting increased health symptoms and medical problems soon after. This investigation examines the relationships between several Gulf-service environmental exposures and health symptom reporting, and the role of traumatic psychological stress on the exposure-health symptom relationships. METHODS: Stratified, random samples of two cohorts of PGW veterans, from the New England area (n = 220) and from the New Orleans area (n = 71), were selected from larger cohorts being followed longitudinally since arrival home from the Gulf. A group of PGW-era veterans deployed to Germany (n = 50) served as a comparison group. The study protocol included questionnaires, a neuropsychological test battery, an environmental interview, and psychological diagnostic interviews. This report focuses on self-reported health symptoms and exposures of participants who completed a 52-item health symptom checklist and a checklist of environmental exposures. RESULTS: The prevalence of reported symptoms was greater in both Persian Gulf-deployed cohorts compared to the Germany cohort. Analyses of the body-system symptom scores (BSS), weighted to account for sampling design, and adjusted by age, sex, and education, indicated that Persian Gulf-deployed veterans were more likely to report neurological, pulmonary, gastrointestinal, cardiac, dermatological, musculoskeletal, psychological and neuropsychological system symptoms than Germany veterans. Using a priori hypotheses about the toxicant effects of exposure to specific toxicants, the relationships between self-reported exposures and body-system symptom groupings were examined through multiple regression analyses, controlling for war-zone exposure and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Self-reported exposures to pesticides, debris from Scuds, chemical and biological warfare (CBW) agents, and smoke from tent heaters each were significantly related to increased reporting of specific predicted BSS groupings. CONCLUSIONS: Veterans deployed to the Persian Gulf have higher self-reported prevalence of health symptoms compared to PGW veterans who were deployed only as far as Germany. Several Gulf-service environmental exposures are associated with increased health symptom reporting involving predicted body-systems, after adjusting for war-zone stressor exposures and PTSD.  (+info)

Obstetric and neonatal outcome following chronic hypertension in pregnancy among different ethnic groups. (6/39136)

We retrospectively studied pre-eclampsia rate and obstetric outcome in a cohort of 436 pregnancies amongst 318 women of different ethnic backgrounds attending an antenatal hypertension clinic from 1980-1997, identifying 152 women (213 pregnancies) with chronic essential hypertension. The ethnic breakdown was: White, 64 (30.0%) pregnancies in 48 (31.5%) women; Black/Afro-Caribbean, 79 (37.1%) pregnancies in 56 (36.8%) women; and Indo-Asians, 70 (32.3%) pregnancies in 48 (31.6%) women. The prevalences of pre-eclampsia in White, Black and Indo-Asian women were 17.2%, 12.7% and 18.6%, respectively (p = 0.58). Pregnancies of Indo-Asian women were of shorter gestation, and babies in this group also had lower birth weight and ponderal index compared to those of White and Black women (all p < 0.05). The proportions of overall perinatal mortality were 1.6% for Whites (1/64), 3.8% for Blacks (3/79) and 10.0% for Indo-Asians (7/70), suggesting increased risk in the Indo-Asian group. Indo-Asian women with chronic essential hypertension need careful antenatal care and observation during pregnancy.  (+info)

Different factors influencing the expression of Raynaud's phenomenon in men and women. (7/39136)

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the risk profile for Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) is different between men and women. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study of 800 women and 725 men participating in the Framingham Offspring Study, the association of age, marital status, smoking, alcohol use, diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia with prevalent RP was examined in men and women separately, after adjusting for relevant confounders. RESULTS: The prevalence of RP was 9.6% (n = 77) in women and 5.8% (n = 42) in men. In women, marital status and alcohol use were each associated with prevalent RP (for marital status adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.3, 95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.4-3.9; for alcohol use OR 2.2, 95% CI 1.0-5.2), whereas these factors were not associated with RP in men (marital status OR 1.4, 95% CI 0.6-3.5; alcohol use OR 1.0, 95% CI 0.2-4.4). In men, older age (OR 2.3, 95% CI 1.0-5.2) and smoking (OR 2.6, 95% CI 1.1-6.3) were associated with prevalent RP; these factors were not associated with RP in women (older age OR 0.8, 95% CI 0.4-1.6; smoking OR 0.7, 95% CI 0.4-1.1). Diabetes, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia were not associated with RP in either sex. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that risk factors for RP differ between men and women. Age and smoking were associated with RP in men only, while the associations of marital status and alcohol use with RP were observed in women only. These findings suggest that different mechanisms influence the expression of RP in men and women.  (+info)

Premature morbidity from cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases in women with systemic lupus erythematosus. (8/39136)

OBJECTIVE: To determine rates of morbidity due to cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases among women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). METHODS: I used the California Hospital Discharge Database, which contains information on all discharges from acute care hospitals in California, to identify women with SLE who had been hospitalized for treatment of either acute myocardial infarction (AMI), congestive heart failure (CHF), or cerebrovascular accident (CVA) from 1991 to 1994. I compared the proportions of hospitalizations for each cause among women with SLE with those in a group of women without SLE, for 3 age strata (18-44 years, 45-64 years, and > or =65 years). RESULTS: Compared with young women without SLE, young women with SLE were 2.27 times more likely to be hospitalized because of AMI (95% confidence interval [95% CI] 1.08-3.46), 3.80 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CHF (95% CI 2.41-5.19), and 2.05 times more likely to be hospitalized because of CVA (95% CI 1.17-2.93). Among middle-aged women with SLE, the frequencies of hospitalization for AMI and CVA did not differ from those of the comparison group, but the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (odds ratio [OR] 1.39, 95% CI 1.05-1.73). Among elderly women with SLE, the risk of hospitalization for AMI was significantly lower (OR 0.70, 95% CI 0.51-0.89), the risk of hospitalization for CHF was higher (OR 1.25, 95% CI 1.01-1.49), and the risk of hospitalization for CVA was not significantly different from those in the comparison group. CONCLUSION: Young women with SLE are at substantially increased risk of AMI, CHF, and CVA. The relative odds of these conditions decrease with age among women with SLE.  (+info)

Prevalence Over Time and Risk Factors for Sexually Transmissible Infections Among Newly Arrived Female Sex Workers in Timika, Indonesia, at TheBody.com, the complete HIV/AIDS resource.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Population-based prevalence of smoking in psychiatric inpatients. T2 - a focus on acute suicide risk and major diagnostic groups. AU - Lineberry, Timothy W.. AU - Allen, Josiah D.. AU - Nash, Jessica. AU - Galardy, Christine W.. PY - 2009/11. Y1 - 2009/11. N2 - Objective: The aim of the study was to define the extent of current and lifetime smoking by diagnostic groups and suicide risk as reason for admission in a geographically defined psychiatric inpatient cohort. Design: The study used a population-based retrospective chart review. Methods: Smoking status and discharge diagnoses for Olmsted County, Minnesota, inpatients aged 18 to 65 admitted for psychiatric hospitalization in 2004 and 2005 were abstracted from the electronic medical record. Diagnostic groups were compared to each other using χ2 tests and Fisher exact test to analyze smoking status within the inpatient sample with significance defined as P ≤ .05. Results: Eighty percent (80.41) of our sample of 776 patients ...
People spend a considerable amount of time at work over the course of their lives, which makes the workplace important to health and aging. However, little is known about the potential long-term effects of work-related stress on late-life health. This study aims to examine work-related stress in late midlife and educational attainment in relation to serious health problems in old age. Data from nationally representative Swedish surveys were used in the analyses (n = 1,502). Follow-up time was 20-24 years. Logistic regressions were used to examine work-related stress (self-reported job demands, job control, and job strain) in relation to serious health problems measured as none, serious problems in one health domain, and serious problems in two or three health domains (complex health problems). While not all results were statistically significant, high job demands were associated with higher odds of serious health problems among women but lower odds of serious health problems among men. Job control was
BACKGROUND: Hypertension has become a global health challenge given its high prevalence and but low awareness and detection. Whether the actual prevalence of hypertension has been estimated is important, especially for the poor. This study aimed to measure tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence of hypertension and compare the inequity between them in China. METHODS: Data were derived from China Health and Nutrition Survey (CHNS) conducted in 2011. By using the multistage, stratified, random sampling method, 12,168 respondents aged 18 or older were identified for analysis. Both tested prevalence (systolic blood pressure ≥ 140 mmHg or/and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 90 mmHg or /and current use any of antihypertensive medication) and self-reported prevalence (ever diagnosed with hypertension by a doctor) were used to measure the prevalence of hypertension. The concentration index was employed to measure the extent of inequality in tested prevalence and self-reported prevalence. A ...
This is a list of countries (and some territories) by the annual prevalence of cocaine use as percentage of the population aged 15-64 (unless otherwise indicated). The primary sources of information are the World Drug Report 2014 (WDR 2014), and the World Drug Report 2006 (WDR 2006), published by the United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC). The indicator is the annual prevalence rate which is the percentage of the youth and adult population who have consumed the drug at least once in the past year. List of countries by prevalence of cocaine use by percentage of population List of Countries by Prevalence of Opiates Use List of Countries by Prevalence of Cannabis Use World Drug Report 2014 (interactive map). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2014. World Drug Report 2006 (interactive map). United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. 2006. [1] [2] SENDA, National study of drug use in the general population, pg. 18. StatAnnex-Consumption (PDF ...
HIV prevalence at any given age is the difference between the cumulative numbers of people that have become infected with HIV up to this age minus the number who have died, expressed as a percentage of the total number alive at this age. At older ages, changes in HIV prevalence are slow to reflect changes in the rate of new infections (HIV incidence) because the average duration of infection is long. Declines in HIV prevalence can reflect saturation of infection among those individuals who are most vulnerable, and rising mortality, rather than behaviour change. Increases in HIV prevalence can reflect increasing numbers of individuals receiving antiretroviral therapy, and living longer. However at younger ages, trends in HIV prevalence are a better indication of recent trends in HIV incidence and risk behaviour since young people are likely to only recently have initiated sexual or injecting drug behaviours. In addition, young people who have recently been infected with HIV are not likely to have ...
The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of chronic diseases in women of childbearing age and investigate the influence of these diseases on pregnancy and birth. This analysis is the first population-based study in which all chronic diseases could be taken into consideration. In the SNiP, every fifth pregnant woman suffers from at least one chronic disease, and higher prevalence rates have been reported in the literature. In an American study analyzing 6.294 women of childbearing age, 26.6% of the participants had one of the more prevalent chronic diseases. In contrast, 39.1% of all women who were not pregnant reported that they were chronically ill [8]. The population-based prevalences rates in the SNiP data are consistently lower than those found in the literature. However, in this study the prevalence rates in young mothers have been contrasted to all women in childbearing age. The prevalence of some chronic diseases is lower during pregnancy (e.g., epilepsy, asthma, and some other ...
Diabetes represents a major health problem and a significant burden on healthcare systems and societies overall. This is particularly the case in countries like Mexico, where the prevalence of diabetes among the population 20-79 years old was 15.9% in 2011. This was the highest in the The Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD)1 and ranked number 9 worldwide.2 According to the national estimates in Mexico, the self-reported prevalence of diabetes among the population aged 60 and older was 24% in 2012, and in the period between 2000 and 2012, the prevalence doubled among those aged 70 and older from 10% to 20%, and among those aged 60-69 the prevalence grew 1.5 times, going from 18% to 26%.3 Population ageing and the growing prevalence of diabetes raise concerns about the increased burden on social, health and family systems because of the known consequences of this disease. People with diabetes may experience additional health complications,4 5 greater social needs,6 loss ...
Diabetes prevalence data for adults (≥20 years of age) were derived from studies meeting the following criteria: a defined, population-based sample and diagnosis of diabetes based on optimal WHO criteria (a venous plasma glucose concentration of ,11.1 mmol/l 2 h after a 75-g glucose tolerance test). The exceptions to the latter criterion were the study in China, for which a test meal was used (4), and the study in Tanzania (5), in which fasting glucose alone gave a higher prevalence of diabetes than a previous study that used the optimal WHO criteria.. Prevalence estimates for type 1 diabetes for people ,20 years of age for individual countries were estimated from available incidence data using methods described in the International Diabetes Federation (IDF) Diabetes Atlas 2000 (6). Population-based data are not available for type 2 diabetes in people ,20 years of age, and this group has been excluded from these estimates.. Age- and sex-specific estimates for diabetes prevalence were ...
This study provides a global estimate of the prevalence of DR and the severe stages of DR (PDR, DME) using individual-level data from population-based studies worldwide. On the basis of the data from all 35 studies on more than 20,000 participants with diabetes, we estimated that among individuals with diabetes, the overall prevalence of any DR was 34.6%, PDR was 7.0%, DME was 6.8%, and VTDR was 10.2%. Analyses confined only to studies with similar methodologies and ophthalmologic definitions showed that the age-standardized prevalence of any DR was 35.4%, PDR was 7.2%, DME was 7.4%, and VTDR was 11.7%, among individuals with diabetes. The prevalence estimates of any DR and VTDR were similar in men and women and were highest in African Americans and lowest in Asians. Prevalence rates were substantially higher in those with type 1 diabetes and increased with duration of diabetes, and values for HbA1c, blood pressure, and cholesterol. Extrapolated to the world diabetes population in 2010, we ...
Click on the links below for summary of survey findings. Instructions. 1)Scroll the mouse to the state/bar/line chart to obtain prevalence figure. 2)Use the scroller at the right side of the dashboard to obtain state prevalence figures according to years The change of shading on the map indicate a change in state prevalence between the years when the NHMS survey is conducted.Moving the scroller bar will also lead to the display of a new bar chart to its respective year. 3)Click on the noncommunicable diseases in the text boxes above the map/chart. 4)Highlight specific region/bar and click to obtain specific prevalence data. ...
This study is among the first systematic attempts to estimate the prevalence of COPD across the world regions using spirometry-based data. The estimates presented here are based on the age range starting from 30 years, while many of the previous reviews were based on people aged 40 years or older. An appreciable prevalence of COPD has been reported in younger population groups, adding to uncertainties over the current epidemiological situation globally.. In the current study, we estimated a global prevalence of 10.7% (7.3%-14.0%) in 1990 and 11.7% (8.4%-15.0%) in 2010, corresponding to 227 and 384 million of affected cases in 1990 and 2010, respectively. This estimate is an order of magnitude higher than the one presented in the 2001 World Health Report, estimating a world-wide prevalence of COPD of 10.1 per 1000 population (12.1 per 1000 men and 8.1 per 1000 women) [157]. A 2006 global review conducted by Halbert and colleagues reported a pooled prevalence of 9.2% (7.2-11.0), based on 26 ...
In South Africa, persistence of the HIV epidemic and associated gender and racial disparities is a major concern after more than 20 years of democratic dispensation and efforts to create a more healthy and equal society. This paper profiles HIV prevalence and related factors among Black African men and women compared to other race groups in South Africa using the 2012 population-based national household HIV survey. This secondary data analysis was based on the 2012 population-based nationally representative multi-stage stratified cluster random household sample. Bivariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to assess the relationship between HIV prevalence and associated factors by gender and racial profile. Overall HIV prevalence was significantly higher (p | 0.001) among both Black African males (16.6%; 95% CI: 15.0-18.4) and females (24.1%; 95% CI: 22.4-26.0) compared to their counterparts from other races. Among Black African males, increased risk of HIV was significantly associated
Due to the wide range of reported prevalence of Molar-Incisor-Hypomineralisation (MIH) found in regional studies, the aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of MIH in school children at different areas in Germany and to compare the findings to other studies. In the compulsory dental school examination, the first permanent molars, permanent incisors and second primary molars were examined for the presence of MIH according to EAPD criteria (Lygidakis et al., 2010; Weerheijm et al., 2003) in 2395 children attending 2nd to 4th grade (mean age 8.1 ±0.8 years, range 7- 10 years) in four regions in Germany. Examinations were performed by five calibrated examiners (Kappa| 0.9) on clean teeth after brushing. The MIH prevalence at the four regions differed considerably (Düsseldorf 14.6 %, Hamburg 14.0 %, Heidelberg 6.0 %, Greifswald 4.3%) with a mean prevalence of 10.1 % (10.7 % boys, 9.5 % girls, χ2-test: p= 0.57). The caries prevalence was low in general, but children with MIH exhibited
This study demonstrated statistically significant differences in the sensitivities, specificities and positive likelihood ratios between the high- and low-prevalence populations (table 2), providing evidence that the diagnostic performance of junior doctors in interpreting x-rays does vary with prevalence. There was evidence that the sensitivity depended on the x-rays being interpreted, and although such dependence could not be demonstrated for individual x-ray types (due to sample size), it was demonstrated for broader categories of x-rays. Since the x-ray type is an indicator of the type of target disorder and therefore patient, this implies that the diagnostic performance does depend to some degree on both the type of x-ray being interpreted and the target disorder being sought.. However, this was an independent effect: analysis of the interaction between prevalence and x-ray group was not significant. The effect of the junior doctors performance varying with prevalence occurred irrespective ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Workplace bullying in the UK NHS: a questionnaire and interview study on prevalence, impact and barriers to reporting. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Global prevalence and determinants of mortality among patients with COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. AU - Abate, Semagn Mekonnen. AU - Checkol, Yigrem Ali. AU - Mantefardo, Bahiru. PY - 2021/4/1. Y1 - 2021/4/1. N2 - Background: The challenge of COVID-19 is very high globally due to a lack of proven treatment and the complexity of its transmission. The prevalence of in-hospital mortality among patients with COVID-19 was very high which ranged from 1 to 52% of hospital admission. The prevalence of mortality among intensive care patients with COVID-19 was very high which ranged from 6% to 86% of admitted patients. Methods: A three-stage search strategy was conducted on PubMed/Medline; Science direct Cochrane Library. The Heterogeneity among the included studies was checked with forest plot, χ2 test, I2 test, and the p-values. Publication bias was checked with a funnel plot and the objective diagnostic test was conducted with Eggers correlation, Beggs regression ...
Period prevalence is frequently measured in studies based on administrative data such as that from health maintenance organizations. For example, treated prevalence and drug utilization prevalence are important measures that are typically defined in relationship to a specified time period. Often one wishes to compare administrative data with...
The International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood (ISAAC) was designed to compare prevalence of asthma and allergy between populations in different countries and trends over time. Phase I showed considerable variations in the prevalence of current wheeze and in this months Thorax Pearce and colleagues report phase III of the ISAAC study where the phase I survey was repeated after an interval of 5-10 years. The results of phase III show that international differences in asthma symptom prevalence have reduced, especially in the 13-14 age group, with decreases in Western Europe and in English speaking countries. There was an increase in prevalence in regions where previously there was low prevalence, such as Latin America. This important and intriguing study shows that there is still an overall rise in the global burden of asthma probably due to increased awareness, although prevalence differences have lessened ...
The data needs to be interpreted with caution, especially for the less frequent conditions, as the uncertainty intervals associated with these figures is quite wide.. A decline is observed in prevalence of visual impairment for each of the eye conditions except Diabetic Retinopathy and the various eye conditions collated under the Other category, where the crude prevalence increased. The considerable increase in the prevalence of diabetes in recent years has contributed to this and the data suggests that eye health services are not managing to keep up with the rising prevalence of diabetes.. The decline in the prevalence of Trachoma is particularly encouraging over the 25-year period. In contrast, given that Uncorrected Refractive Error is the major cause of visual impairment, one would have wished for a greater decline in the prevalence of this condition - the Myopia epidemic is likely to be slowing this rate of decline.. ...
HIV prevalence in Kenya increased to 7.8% in 2007, a slight increase from the 6.7% prevalence recorded in 2003, according to a survey released by the ...
Adult, Age Distribution, Asia; Southeastern/epidemiology, Bangladesh/epidemiology, Chronic Disease/*epidemiology, Educational Status, Female, Health Surveys, Humans, India/epidemiology, Male, Middle Aged, Prevalence, Sex Distribution ...
Latest global prevalence data shows 253 million people with visual impairment-and a staggering 1.1 billion people with near vision impairment--in 2015.
World Health Organization. (‎2008)‎. Worldwide prevalence of anaemia 1993-2005 : WHO global database on anaemia. / Edited by Bruno de Benoist, Erin McLean, Ines Egli and Mary Cogswell. World Health Organization. https://apps.who.int/iris/handle/10665/43894 ...
Discussion. The effects of social context on the nutritional status of populations We attempted to build explanatory models of wasting prevalence in children under 5 years of age for Africa, Latin America, and Asia using secondary datasets. The results suggested that explanatory models of wasting prevalence must differ across regions. In Asia, measures of the population disease burden (incidence of measles as an immediate factor, measures of environmental health (percentage of the population with access to safe water as an underlying factor), and measures of the presence of basic health services and mother- and child- caring practices (LBW as an underlying factor), explained 64% of the variability in wasting prevalence. More distal determinants of malnutrition, representing the distribution of resources in a society, were not predictive of wasting prevalence in Asia.. In Africa and Latin America, there seemed to be a time trend in wasting prevalence. In Africa, wasting prevalence approximately ...
Despite a marked increase in submitted data, there are still numerous countries lacking national prevalence data. There is a need to inform and motivate governments and agencies to collect, and report to WHO, national data on the prevalence of deficiency and, whenever possible, vitamin A programme coverage conditions prevailing at the time that population assessment data were collected. We hope that readers will find this report useful and feel free to share any comments with us ([email protected]). We also hope that this information will contribute to our common goal to eliminate vitamin A deficiency as a public health problem. ...
California autism prevalence trends from 1931-2014 and comparison to national ASD data from IDEA and ADDM authored by Mark Blaxill, Cindy Nevison and Walter Zahorodny was published last night in the Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders (JADD). The paper...
Definition of prevalence rate in the Legal Dictionary - by Free online English dictionary and encyclopedia. What is prevalence rate? Meaning of prevalence rate as a legal term. What does prevalence rate mean in law?
The 2008 South Africa National HIV Prevalence, Incidence, Behavior and Communication Survey is the third in a series of national population-based surveys conducted for surveillance of the HIV epidemic in South Africa. The previous two surveys were conducted in 2002 and 2005. It was designed to investigate the overall HIV prevalence and incidence as well as HIV-related behaviour and health. It enables the measurement of trends and changes in the epidemic over time, and presentation of essential data for national indicator reporting. A total of 23,369 individuals were sampled for the 2008 survey.. ...
Health,Exceeding rates observed in previous research a new study found four ...Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is a common sexually transmitt...Participation in the study involved quarterly visits to a primary c...During the course of the study 49 of 60 subjects tested positive f...,Very,high,prevalence,of,virus,linked,to,cervical,cancer,found,in,adolescent,women,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Estimation of pre-immunisation prevalence of HPV and distribution of HPV types is fundamental to understanding the subsequent impact of HPV vaccination. We describe the type specific prevalence of HPV in females aged 20-21 in Scotland who attended or defaulted from cervical screening using three specimen types; from attenders liquid based cytology and from defaulters urine or self-taken swabs. Residual liquid based cytology samples (n = 2148), collected from women aged 20-21 attending for their first smear were genotyped for HPV. A sample (n = 709) from women who had defaulted from screening was also made available for HPV testing through the use of postal testing kits (either urine samples (n = 378) or self-taken swabs (n = 331)). Estimates of prevalence weighted by deprivation, and for the postal testing kit, also by reminder status and specimen type were calculated for each HPV type. The distribution of HPV types were compared between specimen types and the occurrence of multiple high-risk infections
1) Cocaine, any form.. (2) For Belgium National 2001 and for Metropolitan France 1995: amphetamine and ecstasy.. (3) For Spain: ecstasy and other synthetic drugs.. (4) The most recent general population survey reported by Italy display a wide variation in results compared with the previous surveys which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. (5) The most recent General population surveys reported by the Netherlands display a wide variation in results compared with 2005 which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. This table aims to provide an overview of national surveys. Exceptionally, some relevant regional surveys are presented. Some city surveys reported by countries were not included as they tend to produce higher prevalence estimates, which are ...
1) Cocaine, any form.. (2) For Belgium National 2001 and for Metropolitan France 1995: amphetamine and ecstasy.. (3) For Spain: ecstasy and other synthetic drugs.. (4) The most recent general population survey reported by Italy display a wide variation in results compared with the previous surveys which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. (5) The most recent General population surveys reported by the Netherlands display a wide variation in results compared with 2005 which may reflect methodological differences. The data is provided for information, but given the lack of comparability between surveys should be treated with caution.. This table aims to provide an overview of national surveys. Exceptionally, some relevant regional surveys are presented. Some city surveys reported by countries were not included as they tend to produce higher prevalence estimates, which are ...
OBJECTIVE: To assess the trends in the incidence and prevalence rates of type 1 diabetes (T1D) among children and adolescents in the Netherlands. METHODS: A population-based cohort study was conducted in the Dutch PHARMO record linkage system (1998-2011). All children and adolescents aged ≤19 yr with at least one insulin dispensing ... read more (as a proxy for T1D) were identified and the numbers of incident and prevalent cases (numerators) were calculated. Overall age-adjusted (0-19 yr) incidence and prevalence rates together with age- and sex-specific rates of T1D and their 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using data from the Dutch Central Bureau of Statistics as denominator. Trends over time were assessed using Joinpoint regression software (National Cancer Institute, Bethesda, MD, USA). RESULTS: In 2011, the overall age-adjusted incidence and prevalence rates of T1D were 25.2/100 000 (95% CI, 23.7-26.8) person-years (PY) and 174.4/100 000 (95% CI, 170.2-178.5) children, ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is an important endocrine disorder of dogs. The objectives of this study were to estimate prevalence and incidence of DM in dogs, and to explore risk factors for DM and the survival of DM cases in primary-care clinics in the UK. A case-control study nested in the cohort of dogs (n = 480,469) aged ≥3 years presenting at 430 VetCompass clinics was used to identify risk factors for DM, using multivariable logistic regression. Overall 409 new and 863 pre-existing DM cases (total 1272) were identified in 2016, giving an apparent annual prevalence of 0.26% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.25-0.28%), and an annual incidence risk of 0.09% (95%CI: 0.08-0.09%) in dogs aged ≥3 years. Factors associated with increased odds for DM diagnosis were all age categories | 8 years, female entire dogs (odds ratio (OR): 3.03, 95% CI 1.69-5.44, p | 0.001) and male neutered dogs (OR: 1.99, 95% CI 1.18-3.34, p = 0.010) compared to male entire dogs, Border Terriers (OR: 3.37, 95% CI 1.04-10.98, p = 0
The results of this study demonstrated prevalence of CKD stage 3 and 4-5 in patients with hypertension to be 33.2 and 4.3%, respectively. A decline in GFR in patients with hypertension was independently associated with cardiac and vascular complications which included CAD, stroke, PAD, and heart failure.. Prevalence of CKD has increased over the past 20 years [1] as a result of greater proportion of older people in the population and a corresponding increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes and hypertension [1]. Uncontrolled hypertension is a major risk factor for CKD and patients with CKD have an increased risk of hypertension not only from related stiffening of arteries, but also related to volume overload. A world-wide study showed that the prevalence of CKD significantly increases in patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease such as hypertension [15]. Prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy was as high as 50% in patients with GFR less than 30 ...
The following dashboard provides figures for observed (or limited duration) cancer prevalence in England. This observed prevalence counts the number of people that were diagnosed with a cancer between 1995 and 2017 and were still alive on the 31st December 2017. Cancer prevalence is useful to understand how many people in the population are living with a cancer diagnosis. There are different ways to measure different types of cancer prevalence - a summary of the different methods is available here . Cancer prevalence is a product of both cancer incidence and survival and should be interpreted with these factors in mind, especially if making comparisons across tumour groups or populations. For example, a cancer with high incidence but poor survival outcomes could have similar prevalence to a tumour type with lower incidence but high survival rates. The dashboard presents prevalence counts and rates for Clinical Commissioning Groups, Sustainability and Transformation Partnerships and Cancer ...
Self reported prevalence and health-seeking behavior for chronic conditions was compared with a similar survey conducted three years ago in the same population. We found that the prevalence rates of overall self-reported chronic conditions and that of diabetes and hypertension increased significantly in the last three years. Similar to the earlier study, the majority of the patients sought care from private sector and in fact we found significant increase in proportions of patients seeking care from private sector over the time.. The already high and rising prevalence of self-reported chronic conditions among poor is of great concern. Studies in India show that many chronic conditions (like, diabetes and hypertension) remains undiagnosed, and hence the actual prevalence of these conditions in population could be much higher [20, 22]. The awareness provided by the community health assistants about chronic conditions, diabetes and hypertension among people and healthcare providers in KG Halli over ...
2016. This dataset is a de-identified summary table of vision and eye health data indicators from VSP, stratified by all available combinations of age group, race/ethnicity, gender, and state. VSP claims for VEHSS provides a convenience sample of vision insurance members representing approximately more than 1 in 4 of the U.S. population. VSP uses a web-based claims submissions system to collect and process claims. The denominator of the rates represents persons with VSP benefits as reported by employers, and is subject to some uncertainty. VSP data for VEHSS include Service Utilization and Eye Health Condition indicators. Certain ophthalmic conditions and procedures are covered by health insurance and are not covered by managed vision insurance, claims based eye disease prevalence may therefore be expected to undercount true prevalence. Person level claims and person counts are not publically available. Reported rates were suppressed for de-identification to ensure protection of patient privacy. ...
Calculating prevalences and incidences Page 1 of c:\data\hs161\pre-inc-key -points.wpd calculating prevalences and incidences 1. prevalence = no. of cases population size a. prevalence can be...Incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted ... Cdc act sht. incidence, prevalence, and cost of sexually transmitted infections in the united states. february 2013. national center for hiv/aids, viral hepatitis...
Morbidity is the condition of being ill, diseased, or unhealthy. Both prevalence, as well as incidence, have significance for doctors and scientists and they analyze the figures of both to decide … The quality of being morbid; morbidness. morbidity: [ mor-bid´ĭ-te ] a diseased condition or state. See also morbidity rate . n 1. the state of being morbid 2. Prevalence vs Incidence Knowing the difference between prevalence and incidence can be of use due to the fact that prevalence and incidence are terms used in medical terminology to indicate how widespread a disease may be as well as the rate of its occurrence. The rate of incidence of a disease. This can include acute illnesses (which have a sudden onset and improve or worsen in a short period of time), as well as chronic illnesses (which can present and progress slowly over a long period of time). Incidence is often confused with prevalence. The easy way to remember the difference is that prevalence is the proportion of cases in the ...
This report includes data from MEASURE DHS surveys. It is an update of the 2008 and 2010 documents of the same name. The data are cross-sectional and provide a snapshot of the current situation in HIV prevalence in the 34 countries that included HIV testing in their surveys. The first section gives a summary of surveys with HIV prevalence. Followed by HIV testing in MEASURE DHS Surveys among others. The report covers all the continents of the world and sometimes individual countries.. ...
A high overall prevalence of psychological distress (32.9 % and 81 % according to the K-10 score ≥28 and K-10 score ≥16, respectively) was found in this large sample of tuberculosis public primary care patients in South Africa. Caseness of psychological distress or common mental disorder was assessed using two different cut-offs (K-10 score ≥28 and K-10 score ≥16), as found in two different previous validation studies in South Africa [26, 27]. The uncertainty regarding the correct K-10 cut-off for this study group is a major limitation of this study.. Several studies showed that the K-10 had good psychometric properties [25, 26] and can discriminate between cases and non-cases reported in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) [15, 34]. The finding of 32.9 % to 81 % (using cut off scores of 28 and 16 respectively) the prevalence of psychological distress in this study is in line with the prevalence rates of depression or common mental disorders in most other ...
hi every one. could some one list for me the prevalence of gynaecological tumors. commonest to least common. where is ovarian cancer rated.in percentages?. thnx. This discussion is related to |a href...
Results Prevalence of MDRD CKD stage 3-5 was 6% (5% in males, 7% in females). It varied with age, ranging from 1% of males and 2% of females aged 16-54 to 31% of males and 36% of females aged 75 and over. There was an inverse socio-economic gradient. CKD stage 4-5 (eGFR,30) was rare. Prevalence of CKDEPi was slightly lower especially in females and at younger ages. Prevalence of albuminuria was 9%, higher in males (10% vs 8%) and with a strong inverse socio-economic gradient in males. The overall prevalence of CKD stages 1-5 was 14% in males and 13% in females. Only 1.5% of males and 1.3% of females reported being told by a doctor they had CKD.. ...
The high rates of smoking in men found in this study signal an urgent need for smoking prevention and cessation efforts; tobacco control initiatives are needed to maintain or decrease the currently low smoking prevalence in women.
With each sexual encounter, they face a greater chance of encountering an infected partner than those in lower prevalence settings.2 Acknowledging the inequity in STD rates by race or ethnicity is one of the first steps in empowering affected communities to organize and focus on this problem. With each sexual encounter, they face a greater chance of encountering an infected partner than those in lower prevalence settings.2 Acknowledging the inequity in STD rates by race or ethnicity is one of the first steps in empowering affected communities to organize and focus on this problem. Early treatment decreases the chance that you will infect others. With each sexual encounter, they face a greater chance of encountering an infected partner than those in lower prevalence settings.2 Acknowledging the inequity in STD rates by race or ethnicity is one of the first steps in empowering affected communities to organize and focus on this problem. Most people infected with HSV-2 are not aware of their ...
Today, NHS Digital published the findings of a new Adult Psychiatric Morbidity Survey. But what does that mean and is it important? Our director, Carol Povey, explains in the video and blog below.
The predictive value of a model can be confirmed by comparing its forecasts with real-world observations. The model was calibrated using HCV prevalence by age and gender in the year 2000, as reported by NHANES.[1] The incidence was back-calculated and the model was used to fit reported prevalence in 2000. Total prevalence in other years, prevalence and incidence by sequelae, and mortality were calculated. A 2010 incidence of 16,020 (13,510-19,510) was forecasted versus the reported incidence of 17,000.[29] The wide CI for incidence was driven by the large uncertainty in reported prevalence.[1] According to the study by Davis et al.,[15] HCV incidence peaked in 1989 when it was 11.5 times higher than the incidence in 1950. This corresponded to a peak incidence of 274,000 in a single year. A 2010 prevalence of 2.5 (2.1-3.2) million cases was estimated, matching the most recent NHANES data that showed 2.5 million cases in the 2009-2010.[30] In comparison, Davis et al.[15] reported an HCV prevalence ...
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM in Guangxi Province with the second highest estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in China in 2011. Methods: We collected demographic and behavioral data from national sentinel surveillance and HIV/syphilis blood samples in five annual cross-sectional surveys from 2008 to 2012.. We analyzed HIV and syphilis prevalence trends stratified by social/behavioral characteristics. Results: HIV prevalence climbed steadily from 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 3.0) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0) in 2012. Syphilis prevalence increased steadily from 5.1% (95% CI: 4.0 to 6.0) in 2008 to 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.0) in 2012.. HIV prevalence rose notably among MSM who were ,=25 years of age, never married, did not engage in sexual intercourse with women in the past six ...
Men who have sex with men (MSM) represent the fastest growing key population for incident HIV cases in China. We examined five consecutive years of HIV and syphilis prevalence and risk factors data among MSM in Guangxi Province with the second highest estimated number of people living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHAs) in China in 2011. We collected demographic and behavioral data from national sentinel surveillance and HIV/syphilis blood samples in five annual cross-sectional surveys from 2008 to 2012. We analyzed HIV and syphilis prevalence trends stratified by social/behavioral characteristics. HIV prevalence climbed steadily from 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.0 to 3.0) in 2008 to 3.7% (95% CI: 3.0 to 5.0) in 2012. Syphilis prevalence increased steadily from 5.1% (95% CI: 4.0 to 6.0) in 2008 to 8.4% (95% CI: 7.0 to 10.0) in 2012. HIV prevalence rose notably among MSM who were ≤25 years of age, never married, did not engage in sexual intercourse with women in the past six months, and had not been tested
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BACKGROUND: Trachoma prevalence surveys provide the evidence base for district and community-wide implementation of the SAFE strategy, and are used to evaluate the impact of trachoma control interventions. An economic analysis was performed to estimate the cost of trachoma prevalence surveys conducted between 2006 and 2010 from 8 national trachoma control programs in Africa.
Background: Hypertension is one of the common medical conditions observed among patients aged 50 years and elder living with HIV (EPLWH) and to date no systematic review has estimated its global prevalence. Purpose: To conduct a systematic review to estimate the global prevalence of hypertension among EPLWH. Data Sources: PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, the Cochrane Library, and Global Health databases for relevant publications up till May 25, 2018. Study Selection: Observational studies (cohort or cross-sectional studies) that estimated the prevalence of hypertension among EPLWH. Data Extraction: Required data were extracted independently by three reviewers and the main outcome was hypertension prevalence among EPLWH. Data Synthesis: The 24 (n = 29,987) eligible studies included were conducted in North America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. A low level bias threat to the estimated hypertension prevalence rates was observed. The global prevalence of hypertension among EPLWH was estimated at 42.0% (95% CI ...
The aims of this survey were (1) to estimate the prevalence of known diabetes mellitus in 1988 in Casale Monferrato (Northern Italy); (2) to validate different data sources available in Italy; (3) to...
PURPOSE: Following a first phase of trachoma mapping in Malawi with the Global Trachoma Mapping Project, we identified and mapped trachoma districts previously suspected to be non-endemic, although adjacent to districts with estimated trachoma prevalences indicating a public health problem.
The prevalence of HIV in our first national biobehavioural surveillance survey of FSW was 4.5%, considerably higher than the no infections (0.0%) and 2.7% prevalence measured in previous surveys among FSW in Iran.8 In a recent survey among FSW in Shiraz using respondent driven sampling, HIV prevalence was reported at 4.7%9 which is comparable to what we observed in our study. It is of concern that we have documented high levels of drug use and injection drug use in this population. The high rate of drug injection in this sample illustrates a link between FSW and PWID; the population most severely affected by HIV in Iran. HIV prevalence among FSW who injected drugs was more than three times that among those who did not inject drugs, and it was comparable to HIV prevalence among PWID in Iran (15.1%).2 The high prevalence of injection drug use in our study was also similar to another study among FSW in Iran,10 corroborating the role of drug injection in the spread of HIV among and between other ...
Multidrug resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MDRSA) has become a global problem and it makes the patient management very difficult. Hence, the knowledge of current trend of MDRSA in hospital environment as well as in the community is necessary. The objective of this retrospective study was to isolate Staphylococcus aureus and to determine the prevalence rate of MDRSA in a tertiary care hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. The samples were collected from various departments. Standard microbiological procedures were carried out for isolation and culture. The overall prevalence rate of 18.6% MDRSA was observed among varied samples. The highest numbers of MDRSA were isolated from pus and wound swabs. We also analyzed antimicrobial susceptibility to various antibiotics in the isolated strains. We observed a lower rate of MDRSA prevalence in our study as compared to various other studies. The knowledge of prevalence and antimicrobial resistance will be helpful to select the appropriate antibiotic
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence and risk factors for stroke in Type 2 diabetic patients in Taiwan. T2 - A cross-sectional survey of a national sample by telephone interview. AU - Tseng, Chin Hsiao. AU - Chong, C. K.. AU - Sheu, J. J.. AU - Wu, T. H.. AU - Tseng, C. P.. PY - 2005/4. Y1 - 2005/4. N2 - Aims: To determine the prevalence and risk factors for stroke in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and the age-specific prevalence odds ratios (POR) in comparison with the general population in Taiwan. Methods: A total of 16 994 T2DM patients were randomly selected for telephone interview from a group covered by the National Health Insurance programme. Lifetime prevalence of stroke was calculated and various risk factors were analysed. Age-specific POR was calculated using previously reported prevalence of stroke in the general population from a nationwide survey across Taiwan. Standardized prevalence and POR were also calculated using the 2000-2025 population of the World Health Organization. ...
The point prevalence survey of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and antimicrobial use organized by the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC-PPS) and the Global Point Prevalence Survey of antimicrobial consumption (Global-PPS) were simultaneously performed in Belgian acute care hospitals in 2017. Belgian acute care hospitals were invited to participate in either the ECDC or Global-PPS. Hospital/ward/patient-level data were collected between September-December 2017. All patients present in the wards at 8 a.m. on the day of the PPS were included. The data of the ECDC and Global-PPS on antimicrobial consumption were pooled. Detailed data on HAIs were analysed for ECDC-PPS. Overall, 110 Belgian acute care hospital sites participated in the ECDC and Global-PPS (countrywide participation rate: 81.4%, 28,007 patients). Overall, a crude prevalence of patients with at least one antimicrobial of 27.1% (95% confidence interval (CI) 26.5-27.6%) was found. The most frequently reported
The global prevalence of physiologically described chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) in adults aged 40 yr is approximately 9-10 %. (compelled expiratory quantity in 1 sec) to FVC (compelled vital capability) proportion 0.70. COPD is normally seen as a an accelerated drop in FEV1. Co morbidities connected with COPD are cardiovascular disorders (coronary artery disease and persistent heart failing), hypertension, metabolic illnesses (diabetes mellitus, metabolic symptoms and weight problems), bone tissue disease (osteoporosis and osteopenia), heart stroke, lung cancers, cachexia, skeletal muscles weakness, anaemia, unhappiness and cognitive drop. The evaluation of COPD must determine the severe nature of the condition, its effect on the health position and the chance of future occasions (in 196415 in rural Delhi. The prevalence was 3.36 % in men and 2.54 % in females within this study. Viswanathan in 196616 reported 2.12 % prevalence in men and 1.33 % in females in Patna. Radha and ...
Search and download thousands of Swedish university dissertations (essays). Full text. Free. Dissertation: Epidemiology of osteoarthritis in Sweden. Register and cohort studies on prevalence and mortality.
Congenital heart disease (CHD) is the commonest birth defect. Studies estimating the prevalence of CHD in school-age children could therefore contribute to quantifying unmet health needs for diagnosis and treatment, particularly in lower-income countries. Data at school age are considerably sparser, and individual studies have generally been of small size. We conducted a literature-based meta-analysis to investigate global trends over a 40-year period. Studies reporting on CHD prevalence in school-age children (4-18 years old) from 1970 to 2017 were identified from PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science and Google Scholar. According to the inclusion criteria, 42 studies including 2,638,475 children, reporting the prevalence of unrepaired CHDs (both pre-school diagnoses and first-time school-age diagnoses), and nine studies including 395,571 children, specifically reporting the prevalence of CHD first diagnosed at school ages, were included. Data were combined using random-effects models. The prevalence of
|i|Background|/i|. In China, the prevalence of diabetes has increased significantly over recent decades, owing to the county’s rapidly aging population. Although many studies have examined the prevalence of diabetes worldwide, there has been little analysis of the inequalities in its prevalence and treatment among middle-aged and elderly people. |i|Objectives|/i|. This study evaluates influence factors and inequality in respect to the prevalence of diabetes and medication treatment among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults. |i|Methods|/i|. Data were obtained from the China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study, a nationally representative household survey of middle-aged and elderly people (i.e., 45 years of age or older). Logistic regression models and the concentration index were used to estimate socioeconomic factors and inequalities in diabetes prevalence and treatment. |i|Results|/i|. The prevalence of self-reported diabetes among middle-aged and elderly Chinese adults was 8.4%;
According to health department deputy director general Yogan Pillay the increase in HIV prevalence could be due to the governments rapidly expanding antiretroviral treatment (ART) programme. The study has found that about two million (31.5%) of the 6.4-million HIV infected people in SA is now on ART. ART makes people live longer, so we now have more HIV-infected people who survive and thus a bigger proportion of people with HIV, he said. Pillay, however, pointed out that we would only be able to fully understand the reasons behind the increase in infections once we have results on the HIV incidence [the rate at which new HIV infections have increased]. The household survey will only release HIV incidence results later this year. The study also found that, while more people are aware of their HIV status, condom use has declined in all age groups. In 2008 85.2% of males between 15 and 24 said they were using a condom during their last sexual encounter, but only 67.4% reported doing so in ...
Objective: Until recently, HIV prevalence has been based on estimates from antenatal sentinel surveys which have been found to overestimate HIV prevalence among the general population. Multiple studies have shown women to be disproportionately affected by HIV and AIDS epidemic. Design: Data for this study were based on the first Nigerian population household-based HIV biomarker survey of 2007, which used a multi-stage probability sampling technique. Methods: Respondents were selected through probability sampling (male age 15 - 64 years and female 15 - 49 years). This paper, therefore, examined the correlates of marital status and HIV prevalence among women in Nigeria. Results: A descriptive analysis of the data showed that HIV prevalence of women that were formerly married: divorced, separated or widowed were more than double that of those who were currently married/cohabiting with a sexual partner; and more than three times those that were never married. Bivariate and multivariate levels of
Background and Purpose-The estimates on the prevalence and the risk of rupture of intracranial saccular aneurysms vary widely between studies. We conducted a systematic review on prevalence and risk of rupture of intracranial aneurysms and classified the data according to study design, study population, and aneurysm characteristics.. Methods-We searched for studies published between 1955 and 1996 by means of a MEDLINE search and a cumulative review of the reference lists of all relevant publications. Two authors independently assessed eligibility of all studies and extracted data on study design and on numbers and characteristics of patients and aneurysms.. Results-For data on prevalence we found 23 studies, totalling 56 304 patients; 6685 (12%) of these patients were from 15 angiography studies. Prevalence was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, 0.4% to 0.5%) in retrospective autopsy studies, 3.6% (3.1 to 4.1) for prospective autopsy studies, 3.7% (3.0 to 4.4) in retrospective angiography studies, ...
Results show that the overall self-reported obesity prevalence in the U.S. was 26.7 percent, an increase of 1.1 percentage points from 2007.
The sample size was determine using the formula for prevalence study described in Lwanga and Lemeshow [13]. The critical value of specified confidence interval of 95 % is 1.96. Anticipated population prevalence of PAD was taken as 3.5 % and the absolute precision required on either side of the proportion (1.0 %). Since cluster sampling method was adopted the effect of clustering was overcome by making a correction for design effect. The design effect was taken as 2.0. An additional 12 % was added to account for non response among participants. Thus, the minimum sample size required to detect the expected prevalence of PAD in the community with 95 % confidence interval and with 1 % precision was 2912.. A prevalidated, interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to obtain data. Socio-demographic characteristics such as age, sex, ethnicity, religion, level of education, and monthly household income were obtained. The age was verified by supportive documents. Medical history and duration of ...
We have presented detailed age specific prevalences of dementia and dementia subtypes that indicate Alzheimers disease as the main contribution to the exponential increase of dementia with age. Our data also show a consistent trend of a higher risk of dementia with lower educational level. This effect of educational status could not be explained by a confounding effect of cardiovascular disease.. All recent population based studies on the prevalence of dementia with standardised diagnostic criteria show an exponential increase with age and a predominance of Alzheimers disease as the cause of the dementia. However, age specific prevalences vary considerably between studies. This may be due to study design, population sampling methods, or real geographical variations.. Our study is the largest European study of its kind, allowing more precise estimates of prevalence. Compared with a pooled reanalysis of 12 European studies,3 our study showed slightly lower prevalences below the age of 75 and ...
A study released by University at Buffalo was able to use artificial intelligence to establish trends in the United States pertaining to type 2 diabetes.. Published in Scientific Reports, the research group of the study used machine learning, a form of artificial intelligence, to establish the prevalence of type 2 diabetes among the general population.. According to the journal report in Nature: Our results indicate that a non-parametric GW-RF model shows a high potential for explaining spatial heterogeneity of, and predicting, T2D prevalence over traditional local and global models when inputting six major risk factors. Some of these predictions, however, are marginal.. The authors continued by stating, These findings of spatial heterogeneity using GW-RF demonstrate the need to consider local factors in prevention approaches. Spatial analysis of T2D and associated risk factor prevalence offers useful information for targeting the geographic area for prevention and disease ...
Our survey has shown that type 2 diabetes has a minimum UK prevalence of 0.21/100 000 children under 16 years, and has significant clinical differences compared to both type 1 diabetes and MODY. This is the first reported survey of childhood type 2 diabetes to provide case definitions, national minimum prevalence estimates, and comparisons with other diabetes types.. Our crude minimum prevalence estimates for type 2 diabetes show that we are still in a low prevalence type 2 diabetes child population. The national prevalence of 0.21/100 000 is far lower than the prevalence of 3.8/100 000 that we previously reported in Birmingham children.16 This suggests that there may be large regional variations in type 2 diabetes prevalence which may reflect differences in regional ethnic composition. The reported prevalence of type 2 diabetes in North America is 5-45% of diabetic children; our prevalence of 0.16% of diabetic children is far lower than this.17. Our survey almost certainly underestimates type 2 ...
Dr. Rossitza Vatcheva-Dobrevska (Head of the National Reference Centre for Healthcare-Associated Infections) and Dr. Emma Keuleyan (APUA-Bulgaria President) gave an overview of infection control measures being implemented in Bulgaria. The incidence of healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) dropped from 12.7% in 2007 to 11.2% in 2008, and 10.2% in 2009. Over the past five years, the recorded incidence decreased by approximately 3%. From 1999 to 2009, the incidence decreased by approximately 10% (21.1% to 10.2%). In a national point prevalence survey conducted in 2006 among 23 acute-care hospitals in Bulgaria, the overall prevalence rate of HAI was 2.43%. Highest prevalence rates were found in intensive care units (15.2%) and surgical wards (4.1%). Of all HAIs, the most common types were surgical site infections (43.18%), pneumonia (27.27%), urinary tract infections (20.45%), and primary bloodstream infection (9.09%). Dr. Keuleyan cites lack of resources within current practice to handle AMR ...
Demographics: In 2016, 26.5 million people had asthma; 60% were female and 23% were aged younger than 18 years. Among children, asthma was more prevalent in boys, but among adults, more women than men had asthma. Although asthma was more common in women across ethnic groups, there were disparities in prevalence: non-Hispanic black women had the highest prevalence (11.8%), followed by non-Hispanic white (10.6%), Hispanic (9.1%), and other non-Hispanic women (8.4%). Prevalence initially decreased between ages 15 to 19 years and 25 to 34 years, but increased in non-Hispanic black and white women aged 35 to 64 years. In other non-Hispanic and Hispanic women, however, prevalence increased from age 15 to 19 years to age 20 to 24 years; declined in those aged 25 to 34 years; and increased in those aged 35 to 64 years.. Lifetime Prevalence: The 2016 National Health Interview Survey reported 43.3 million lifetime asthma cases; 21.6% were children (,18 years), most aged 5 to 14 years. Overall, across age ...
OBJECTIVES: To assess and compare the prevalence of parkinsonism and Parkinsons disease in five European populations that were surveyed with similar methodology and diagnostic criteria. METHODS: Joint analysis of five community surveys--Gironde (France), eight centres in Italy, Rotterdam (The Netherlands), Girona (Spain), and Pamplona (Spain)--in which subjects were screened in person for parkinsonism. Overall, these surveys comprised 14,636 participants aged 65 years or older. RESULTS: The overall prevalence (per 100 population), age adjusted to the 1991 European standard population, was 2.3 for parkinsonism and 1.6 for Parkinsons disease. The overall prevalence of parkinsonism for the age groups 65 to 69, 70 to 74, 75 to 79, 80 to 84, and 85 to 89 years was respectively, 0.9, 1.5, 3.7, 5.0, and 5.1. The corresponding age specific figures for Parkinsons disease were 0.6, 1.0, 2.7, 3.6, and 3.5. After adjusting for age and sex, the prevalence figures did not differ significantly across ...
In our nationwide prevalence study, we found that over one-fifth of sampled duodenoscopes were contaminated according to AM20 definition, with 39% of Dutch ERCP centres having at least one contaminated duodenoscope intended to be ready for patient use. Furthermore, MGO were cultured on 15% of the sampled duodenoscopes, indicating the presence of organic residue of previously treated patients. Our observations coincide with worldwide reported outbreaks indicating that exogenous transmission of bacteria and associated infections and even viral infections related to contaminated duodenoscopes continue to threaten patients undergoing ERCP.1-4 20 Therefore, stringent measures are required to lower the number of contaminated duodenoscopes in order to minimise the risk of interpatient microbial transmission during ERCP and to prevent future outbreaks.. The prevalence of duodenoscope contamination in this study was in line with reports from several retrospective single tertiary centre studies.18 21 22 ...
Officials from the United Nations Joint Programme on HIV/AIDS report that Cambodia now has the highest HIV prevalence rate in Asia, with about 1.5% of the nations population infected with the virus, the San Francisco Chronicle reports. Among female sex workers in the country, the prevalence rate is estimated to be 40%. Government officials have launched a multifaceted campaign to fight HIV in the country, including a national law requiring sex workers in brothels, which are legal in the country, to use condoms. About 20 Cambodians become infected with HIV every day. ...
Discussion The overall prevalence of MS among adult men from Oaxaca was higher than in Mexican-Americans (41.2% vs 31.9%, respectively), who have the highest prevalence of MS in the USA.32 Using the NCEP ATP-III definition, Aguilar-Salinas et al.33 found a national MS prevalence of 26.6% in Mexican men and women aged 20-69 years. In a recent population-based study in Mexico City, a higher MS prevalence rate was observed (39.9%).34 The prevalence of MS in the present study is high but no previous studies on MS in rural or urban areas in Oaxaca are available for comparison. We found a significant association between family history of type 2 diabetes and MS. A family history of diabetes is a marker of genetic predisposition to components of MS, as shown by Hunt et al.35 who reported that in non-obese subjects, the odds ratios were 2.5 (95% CI:1.1 6.1) and 2.9 (95% CI:1.2 7.0) for history of diabetes and hypertension. These and other results may imply that family history is associated with the ...
The purpose of the present study was to assess the prevalence of pressure ulcers and the use of Dutch guidelines for the prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers. A survey of 16,344 patients in 89 health care institutions on 1 day showed a mean prevalence of pressure ulcers of 23.1%. It was found that Dutch guidelines on some aspects of prevention and treatment of pressure ulcers were not being followed. Only 53% of the patients who should have been positioned on a support surface were positioned on such a device. Fewer than one-third of the patients who should have been repositioned, should have received nutritional support, or should have been educated received these interventions, and only 33.6% of all pressure ulcers were dressed as recommended. More attention to the dissemination and implementation of the guidelines is needed to reduce this high prevalence of pressure ulcers ...
We expected DES subjects to show greater lifetime psychopathology and poorer social functioning than controls. Both groups showed high rates of lifetime depression, lifetime alcoholism, and current psychiatric symptoms in excess of community norms.. The only diagnosis on which DES subjects exceeded their unexposed brothers was Major Depressive Disorder (MDD). DES-exposed men had almost twice the prevalence of at least one episode of MDD and had significantly more recurrent episodes.. The relatively small number of subjects with concomitant lack of statistical power may have contributed to the difficulty obtaining significant effects. ...
Background. This study sets out to estimate the prevalence and the degree of severity of bronchial obstruction in an adult population with three different diagnostic criteria: the European Respiratory Society (ERS), the American Thoracic Society (ATS), and the World Health Organization (WHO) defined as Global Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD). Methods. 1514 subjects underwent complete medical evaluation and spirometry. Results. The prevalence of bronchial obstruction was respectively 27.5% (ERS), 33% (GOLD), and 47.3% (ATS). The prevalence of bronchial obstruction in the smoker group was 33.4% (ERS), 38.1% (GOLD), and 52.3% (ATS). The prevalence of obstruction in the ex-smoker group was 33% (ERS), 41.4% (GOLD), and 57.1% (ATS). The prevalence of obstruction in the non-smoker group was 21.1% (ERS), 24.9% (GOLD), and 38.6% (ATS). Conclusions. The results show that the prevalence of airway obstruction increases proportionally with age; the cigarette smoking represents an important conditioning ...
Background: This paper brings together data from a variety of reports to provide a basis for assessing future steps for responding to and monitoring the HIV epidemic in Zimbabwe.. Method: Data reported from four antenatal clinic (ANC) surveys conducted between 2000 and 2004, two small local studies in Zimbabwe conducted from 1997 through 2003, four general population surveys from 1999 through 2003, and service statistics covering 1990 through 2004 were used to describe recent trends in HIV prevalence and incidence, behaviour change, and programme provision.. Results: HIV prevalence among pregnant women attending ANCs declined substantially from 32.1% in 2000 to 23.9% in 2004. The local studies confirmed the decline in prevalence. However, prevalence continued to be high. Sexual behaviour data from surveys suggests a reduction in sexual experience before age 15 years among both males and females age 15-19 years, and in the proportions of males and females aged 15-29 years reporting non-regular ...
Os acromiale (OA) results from a failure of consolidation between the ossification centers of the acromial epiphysis. Its prevalence and its interactions with ancestry, gender, laterality, and side have been variously reported in the literature. The aims of this review are to provide an accurate estimate of OA prevalence and to investigate its association with other variables in an attempt to comprehend its etiology. Twenty‐three studies met the inclusion criteria. The results of meta‐analyses of large‐sample studies revealed: (a) a crude overall prevalence of 7.0%, (b) a crude cadaveric prevalence of 7.6%, (c) a crude archeological (skeletal) prevalence of 5.6%, (d) a crude radiological prevalence of 4.2%, (e) a true anatomical prevalence of 9.6%, (f) a significantly higher frequency in persons of black ancestry than in persons of white, Native American and Middle Eastern ancestries (OR ≈ 3), (g) significantly higher unilateral and bilateral frequencies in black ancestry (OR of 2 and 4, ...
This systematic review examined trends in the prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and identified its risk factors among adults in Vietnam. PubMed, Web of Science, Wiley Online Library, and Scopus databases were searched to identify relevant literature. The search yielded 10 studies, including 2 national surveys and 8 regional investigations. National prevalence estimates of T2DM were 2.7% in 2002 and 5.4% in 2012. The estimates for the northern region were 1.4% in 1994 and 3.7% in 2012 and those for the southern region were 3.8% in 2004, 7.0% in 2008, and 12.4% in 2010. The major determinants of T2DM included older age, urban residence, high levels of body and abdominal fat, physical inactivity, sedentary lifestyle, genetic factors, and hypertension. The prevalence rate by gender was variable in both national and regional studies. There was insufficient information available on some potentially important risk factors such as smoking, dietary intake, income, and educational level. Our ...
Nosocomial infection is one of the leading problems in the health system, therefore it is directly related to increased costs and hospitalization time. The prevalence rate of nosocomial infection in terms of geographic region, type of hospital, the patient, and the calculating method even in various regions of the country is different. According to the WHO report, the prevalence of the nosocomial infection in developed countries is below 5%, however, in developing countries, this rate is different (6). In this study, the incidence of nosocomial infection is about 1.1%, which is not comparable to the global statistics in developing countries; a study conducted in Benin, in 2012, patients from the same ward were studied in the same day in each hospital for real estimation of nosocomial infection, and data showed that the prevalence rate of nosocomial infection was 19.1% (10). Other studies, especially from developing countries, reported the prevalence rate of 13.9% - 17.9% (11, 12). The prevalence ...
Urban-rural comparisons of the prevalence of diabetes were made in a cohort of 2567 rural and 6190 urban participants aged 45 to 64, in the Puerto Rico Heart Health Program. The prevalence of diabetes in the urban population was more than double that in the rural. Consistent with this, blood glucose concentrations were significantly higher in urban than in rural populations.. The prevalence of diabetes increased with age and relative weight. It was associated with elevations of serum cholesterol, blood pressure, and fasting serum triglycerides. A positive family history was found more commonly in diabetics than in nondiabetics. If there was a history in both a sibling and a parent, there was at least a threefold increased prevalence over those with no family history.. The reason for the higher prevalence of diabetes in the urban than in the rural area is elusive. In obese men, the urban and rural prevalence rates are the same, but, among relatively lean men, the prevalence in the urban area is ...
Author summary Trachoma is a bacterial infection, which, with repeated infections over time, can lead to blindness. The WHO is aiming to eliminate trachoma as a public health problem by 2020, however at low prevalence levels the relationship between infection and disease prevalence is non-linear, making the interpretation of data from the two diagnostic tests challenging. However, it is hard to know if this is an expected outcome or a biological inconsistency. Sero-surveillance is being considered as an additional tool to understand transmission when infection and disease prevalence data provide different information. We highlight, through mathematical modelling, that a lack of strong correlation between infection and disease prevalence data at low levels of transmission seen in epidemiological data is not unexpected and demonstrate that multiple sero-surveillance surveys should be conducted from at least 2 different age groups in order to accurately estimate epidemiological parameters that will help to
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prevalence of Perceived Experiences of Emotional, Physical, Sexual, and Health Care Abuse in a Swedish Male Patient Sample. AU - Swahnberg, Katarina. AU - Hearn, Jeff. AU - Wijma, Barbro. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The aim of the present study was to estimate the prevalence of and current suffering from emotional abuse (EA), physical abuse (PA), and sexual abuse (SA) and abuse in health care (AHC) among male Swedish patients and compare prevalences of abuse between female and male patients at a Swedish university hospital. For data collection we used the NorVold Abuse Questionnaire, which has been validated in a female sample and in the present study. The lifetime prevalences were EA = 12.8%, PA = 45.7%, SA = 3.8%, and AHC = 8.1%. Current suffering from abuse among participants was 1% to 9%. The women reported higher rates than men of current suffering from all kinds of abuse and more severe forms of abuse, such as life-threatening PA. Health care staff should be aware of the ...
Urgency. Multiple studies have addressed issues of CHF epidemiology both in Russia and abroad; however obtained data are inconsistent, largely due to different methods for evaluation of CHF prevalence. Aim. To study CHF prevalence based on standardized evaluation of clinical symptoms and echoCG. Materials and methods. A representative sample was studied in the Ryazan region including 953 families, 2098 people with mean age of 44.8±0.01 years. Patients with suspected CHF were identified by the presence of cardiovascular disease with dyspnea, asthenia, tachycardia and edema. 222 patients with suspected CHF underwent an in-patient examination with measurement of CHF FC by clinical condition scale (CCS) and evaluation of the LV structure and function condition using echoCG. Results. Prevalence of suspected I-IV FC CHF was 11.1% in the Ryazan region. After the in-patient examination the diagnosis of CHF was verified in 167 people. Most patients with CHF had disturbed LV diastolic function, often ...
A recent report in news health documents sentiments from top university researchers who criticize people and governments for being supremely arrogant in ignoring the importance of sleep. The researchers from Oxford, Cambridge, Harvard, Manchester and Surrey universities told BBCs Day of the Body Clock that lack of sleep was leading to serious health problems. The …. Top Universities Criticize Society for Neglecting Sleep Read More ». ...
2. Vaccines. I really dislike writing anything about vaccines, mostly because regardless of how factual I aimed to be, any mention of vaccines is usually followed by a dozen of friendly emails. But Ive received several emails asking how the CDC numbers affect the vaccine theory. The CDC study does not address this issue at all, and the data say little about this theory. However, some reasonable conclusions can be made.. - If the increases in diagnoses among 8 year olds from 2002 to 2006 are due to real increases in true prevalence. and. - If vaccines play a role in the incidence of autism. - Then a 50% increase in the prevalence during the 4 year period should be accompanied by a noticeable change in vaccination practices during key years.. Specifically, the 2002 CDC study was based on children born in 1994 and the new CDC study was done with children born in 1998. Thus, given the striking increases in prevalence rates among the 1998 children, you would expect that compared to those born in ...
A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2016 to May 2016 at Guto Gida District, Nekemte, Ethiopia to determine the prevalence of bovine schistosomosis. Simple random sampling method was used to select the study animals and sedimentation technique was applied for finding Schistosoma eggs from fresh fecal samples. Out of 384 fecal samples examined, 22 were found positive indicating an overall prevalence of 5.7% schistosomosis in the study area. The prevalence of bovine schistosomosis was higher in Jirenga kebele (9.1%) than Gaarii kebele (4.6%) and Dalo kebele (3.7%). However, no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of bovine schistosomiasis in relation to origin was found. Similarly, there was no statistically significant difference observed between both sexes (P>0.05). The prevalence in body condition category was reported relatively higher in poor body condition (8.4%) and lower in good body condition (3.8%). However, no statistically significant differences appreciated
Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for cardiovascular and other noncommunicable diseases in high-, low- and middle-income countries. Nepal, a low-income country in South Asia, is undergoing an epidemiological transition. Although the reported national prevalence of physical inactivity is relatively low, studies in urban and peri-urban localities have always shown higher prevalence. Therefore, this study aimed to measure physical activity in three domains-work, travel and leisure-in a peri-urban community and assess its variations across different sociodemographic correlates. ...
Our survey results showed that the AD prevalence rate ranged between 26.2% and 35.9%. Children living in polluted areas (near industrial and central urban areas) had about 10% higher prevalence of AD than those living in coastal or suburban areas. The chi-square test demonstrated that this local difference was statistically significant before and after adjustment of major confounder such as parental AD history and education. The results of the logistic regression analysis showed that AD prevalence was significantly associated independently with socio-economic indices and indoor/outdoor environmental factors. The multivariate analysis indicated that statistically significant and robust association between several environmental factors (ventilation status, exposure to diesel exhaust, and outdoor PM10/O3 pollution) and the prevalence of AD was found after adjustment by confounders. The adjusted odd ratios for the AD prevalence were 1.24 (95% CI: 1.03-1.49) and 1.79 (95% CI: 1.17-2.75) with increase ...
Question - IS having blood in urine indicates serious health problem?. Ask a Doctor about diagnosis, treatment and medication for Urinary retention, Ask a Urologist
Prevalence worldwide[edit]. The prevalence of unions in various countries can be measured by the concept of "union density", ...
Prevalence of use of specific therapies. The most common CAM therapies used in the US in 2002 were prayer (45%), herbalism (19 ... Prevalence of use. According to recent research, the increasing popularity of the CAM needs to be explained by moral ... Further information: Regulation of alternative medicine and Regulation and prevalence of homeopathy ...
Sequence and prevalence[edit]. Figure 2. Mechanism for transcription initiation at the TATA box. Transcription factors, TATA ... "Prevalence of the initiator over the TATA box in human and yeast genes and identification of DNA motifs enriched in human TATA ...
Prevalence[edit]. Morton's toe is a minority variant of foot shape. Its recorded prevalence varies in different populations, ...
Prevalence[edit]. The percentage of union election campaigns accompanied by illegal firings increased during the Reagan ... The prevalence of unions in various countries can be assessed using the measure "union density". The definition of union ...
Prevalence[edit]. At the international level the senpai-kōhai relation has spread through martial arts, in which the members of ...
Attributes, characteristics and prevalence[edit]. Boterberg et al. (2016) describe high SPS as a "temperamental or personality ...
Prevalence[edit]. According to a study on vaginal practices by the World Health Organization published in 2011, one of the ways ... July 2011). "Prevalence, motivations, and adverse effects of vaginal practices in Africa and Asia: findings from a multicountry ...
Prevalence[edit]. Of the 64% of married or in-union women worldwide using some form of contraception, approximately one third ( ...
Prevalence[edit]. The estimated prevalence of Jacobsen syndrome is believed to be approximately 1 out of every 100,000 births. ...
5.1 Prevalence of manual resuscitator use. *5.2 Inability of professional providers to use manual resuscitators within ... Prevalence of manual resuscitator use[edit]. Manual resuscitators are commonly used for temporary ventilation support, ... Two factors appear to make the public particularly at risk from complications from manual resuscitators: (1) their prevalence ...
Prevalence of use[edit]. The use of herbal remedies is more prevalent in patients with chronic diseases such as cancer, ... Egede, LE; Ye, X; Zheng, D; Silverstein, MD (February 2002). "The prevalence and pattern of complementary and alternative ... education and social class are also shown to have association with prevalence of herbal remedies use.[26] ...
Prevalence and legality[edit]. The prevalence of frotteurism is unknown. The DSM estimates that 10%-14% of men seen in clinical ... settings for paraphilias or hypersexuality have frotteuristic disorder, indicating that the population prevalence is lower. ...
Prevalence and frequency[edit]. In 2016, a meta-analytic study by David Saunders and colleagues [45] on 34 lucid dreaming ... Subsequently, Stephen LaBerge studied the prevalence of being able to control the dream scenario among lucid dreams, and found ... The subjects then reported the diminishment of their nightmare prevalence from 2-3 times a week to 2-3 times per month. ...
Prevalence and Etiology[edit]. With about 100 cases studies, the incidence of the disorder is not precisely known.[9] ... Ganser syndrome is also sometimes referred to as "prison psychosis," emphasizing its prevalence among prisoners, generating ...
Prevalence[edit]. Approximately 43 to 75% of horses have blood in the trachea and bronchi following a single post-race ... Hillidge, CJ; Whitlock, TW (May 1986). "Sex variation in the prevalence of exercise-induced pulmonary haemorrhage in racing ...
In swine, the prevalence varies from country to country, and regionally. Long-standing meat inspection programs in some ... European countries have drastically lowered prevalence rates among domestic swine. Domestic swine can be exposed to the ...
Prevalence[edit]. A number of studies have examined the prevalence of link rot within the World Wide Web, in academic ...
Prevalence[edit]. Epidemiological surveys, in the US[70] and the UK[38] converge in estimating the prevalence of DLD in five- ... prevalence of [DLD] in racial/ethnic groups was highest in Native Americans, with African Americans being the next highest, ... Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Tomblin, J. Bruce; McSweeny, Jane L. (1 December 1999). "Prevalence of Speech Delay in 6-Year-Old ... year-olds at around 7%. Therefore, the prevalence is one in every 15 children. By these statistics, in a classroom of 30 ...
Prevalence[edit]. Since there is no regular autoantibody screening, patients with LADA are at risk of being diagnosed with type ... Unnikrishnan AG, Singh SK, Sanjeevi CB (December 2004). "Prevalence of GAD65 antibodies in lean subjects with type 2 diabetes ... 2 diabetes, which makes it difficult to estimate the prevalence of LADA.[4] Globally, it is estimated that about 8.5% of adults ...
Prevalence, identity and relationships. In the United States, the ratio of trans men within the general population is unclear, ... "Estimating the Prevalence of Transsexualism".. *^ Joanne Herman (2006-05-11). "There are more of us than you think". Advocate. ...
Prevalence. Main articles: Level of support for evolution and Creationism by country ...
4 The Prevalence of YouTube. *5 The remix. *6 Commercial economies vs. sharing economies ...
Myth of flat-Earth prevalence. Main article: Myth of the Flat Earth ...
Prevalence[edit]. In 2010, corporations donated $15 billion to nonprofit organizations, which represents a 22% increase over ...
Prevalence[edit]. A 2004 survey by the National Alcohol Beverage Control Association found that more than 500 municipalities in ...
Prevalence[edit]. There are about 3,000,000 active spicules at any one time on the Sun's chromosphere.[2] An individual spicule ...
Prevalence[edit]. A 2012 comScore study found 35% of U.S. consumers reported showrooming and of those, half were between 25 and ... However, three years of data collected and analyzed by Deloitte, refutes the prevalence of showrooming. Deloitte found that, in ...
Prevalence and statistical analysis[edit]. According to the National Crime Victimization Survey (NCVS) conducted by the U.S. ...
Research is needed to determine the prevalence of the disorder in those who have never been in therapy, and the prevalence ... Changing prevalence[edit]. Rates of diagnosed DID were increasing, reaching a peak of approximately 40,000 cases by the end of ... There is little systematic data on the prevalence of DID.[71] It occurs more commonly in young adults[71] and declines with age ... Sar, V. (2007). "Prevalence of dissociative disorders among women in the general population". Psychiatry Research. 149 (1-3): ...
Learn about the latest STI prevalence, incidence, and cost estimates, published in the Journal, Sexually Transmitted Diseases. ... Sexually Transmitted Infections Prevalence, Incidence, and Cost Estimates in the United States. Sexually transmitted infections ... CDC released updated STI prevalence, incidence, and cost estimates as part of a special issue in the journal Sexually ... Media Fact Sheet: Incidence, Prevalence, and Cost of Sexually Transmitted Infections in the United States ...
Population Estimates and Prevalence Tables: By Year. 2016 Data. *Population Estimates and Prevalence Tables ... Population Estimates and Prevalence Tables. †Use of trade names and commercial sources does not imply endorsement by the U.S. ...
The prevalence of different population groups according to geographical area of the world is:. *America: 0-5% of the population ... The prevalence of different population groups according to geographical area of the world is:. *Americas: 0-3% of population is ... The Maldives has a particularly high prevalence of thalassemia in Asia (16% of the population), alongside other countries with ... Thalassemia Prevalence. News-Medical, viewed 22 May 2019, https://www.news-medical.net/health/Thalassemia-Prevalence.aspx. ...
Hookworm prevalence (moderate/high). Not reported. 15%. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. ... Ascaris prevalence (moderate/high). Not reported. 16%. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. ... Trichuris prevalence (moderate/high). Not reported. 10%. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. ... STH prevalence (moderate/high). Not reported. Not reported. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Unknown. Less than 10% ...
The prevalence of weekly heartburn and other symptoms associated with acid reflux rose by almost 50% over the last decade, ... The prevalence of weekly heartburn and other symptoms of acid reflux rose nearly 50% over the last decade, according to one of ... In Jensens study, the number of people reporting any acid reflux symptoms rose by 30%, and the prevalence of the most severe ...
Source for information on Incidence and Prevalence: Encyclopedia of Public Health dictionary. ... prevalence have precise yet different meanings. Incidence means the number of new episodes of an illness, injury, or other ... INCIDENCE AND PREVALENCE. The words "incidence" and "prevalence" have precise yet different meanings. Incidence means the ... Because a "point" has no dimensions, it is illogical to allude to a prevalence "rate." However, the term "period prevalence" (e ...
Incidence and Prevalence. The incidence of pediatric dysphagia refers to the number of new cases identified in a specified ... Prevalence is estimated to be 30%-80% for children with developmental disorders (Arvedson, 2008; Brackett, Arvedson, & Manno, ... It is reported that the prevalence of pediatric dysphagia is increasing due to improved survival rates of children born ... Estimated reports of the incidence and prevalence of pediatric feeding/swallowing impairment vary widely due to multiple ...
prevalence Total:3. * 2019-05-28 22:02 Crimean-Congo fever prevalence cut to half TEHRAN- The prevalence of Crimean-Congo ... Low prevalence of leprosy in Iran TEHRAN- Leprosy prevalence is less than one in every 10,000 people in the country, announced ... TEHRAN - A new study has revealed that drinking hot tea has substantially increased the prevalence of esophageal cancer in ...
Evidence from the Canadian National Population Health Survey suggests that the prevalence of frailty, which is linked to ... "The prevalence of frailty increases with age in older adults, but frailty is largely unreported for younger adults, where its ... We estimated the prevalence and outcomes of frailty, in relation to accumulation of deficits, across the adult lifespan." ... May 3, 2011 - The prevalence of frailty, which is linked to earlier death, increases throughout adulthood and not just after ...
... By Christina A. Samuels. - July 27, 2015 5 min read ... Why does autism prevalence matter?. Baio explained that having a good handle on the number of people with autism helps ... Autism prevalence rates have soared in the last two years, from 1 in 150 children in 2000 to 1 in 68 children in 2010, ... But in concurrence with Baio, Mandell said that the prevalence numbers are most valuable if they can be combined with research ...
Prevalence:How common is it?. In some places, FGM is a relatively new practice that communities have adopted from neighboring ...
The prevalence is increasing rapidly in numerous industrialized nations worldwide. This ... more ... Is the prevalence of obesity increasing globally?. Updated: Jun 09, 2021 * Author: Osama Hamdy, MD, PhD; Chief Editor: Romesh ... Prevalence of obesity and trends in the distribution of body mass index among US adults, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012 Feb 1. 307(5): ... Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999-2010. JAMA. 2012 Feb 1. 307(5):483- ...
Prevalence of symptoms of dyspepsia.. BMJ 1989; 298 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.298.6672.526-c (Published 25 February 1989 ...
Cancer prevalence is defined as the total number of people living with cancer at any point in time. It includes people ... Cancer Prevalence: How Many People Have Cancer?. What is cancer prevalence?. Cancer prevalence is defined as the number of ... Cancer prevalence is determined by how often a cancer occurs (incidence) and by how long people normally live after diagnosis ( ... For example, although lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in both men and women, the prevalence count for lung cancer ...
Points: Prevalence of urinary incontinence Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 296 :1741 ... Points: Prevalence of urinary incontinence. Br Med J (Clin Res Ed) 1988; 296 doi: https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.296.6638.1741-b ( ...
Regarding lifetime prevalence estimates, there were no sex differences in the prevalence of AN or SBED, whereas BN, BED, and ... "Study Examines Prevalence Of Eating Disorders Among Adolescents." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 7 Mar. 2011. Web.. 24 ... The prevalence of these disorders is higher than previously expected in this age range, and the patterns of comorbidity, role ... Although the lifetime prevalence estimates of eating disorders from population-based studies of adults are relatively low, ...
Fitz J et al (2014) Seasonal prevalence of Lyme disease spirochaetes in a heterothermic mammal, the Edible dormouse (Glis glis ... Mehlhorn H. (2016) Borreliosis: Seasonal Prevalence of Lyme Disease Spirochetes. In: Mehlhorn H. (eds) Encyclopedia of ... show a clear seasonable prevalence of these spirochetes. These hosts become infected by tick bites during their activity phases ...
This brief estimates the prevalence of, perceptions about, and reported effects of unplanned births among reproductive-age ...
Editorial: The rising prevalence of autism.. Fombonne E.. Abstract. The first autism surveys were simple head counts of ... Prevalence was low, ranging from 0.4 to 2/1,000 in the 1960s and 1970s. Today, the methodology of surveys has become more ... As such, prevalence differences between studies are hazardous to evaluate and whether observed discrepancies are due to method ...
Whilst the data on male circumcision and HIV-2 prevalence were obtained in different years, making it difficult to link the two ... The authors found that cities with higher male circumcision rates in 1950 generally tended to have lower HIV-2 prevalence at ... Whilst male circumcision is known to be associated with reduced HIV-1 prevalence, because the foreskin is highly vulnerable to ... The researchers then matched HIV-2 prevalence with the estimated male circumcision frequency in each city to identify any ...
Duplicate and salami publication: a prevalence study of journal policies - International Journal of Epidemiology - Oxford ... Duplicate and salami publication: a prevalence study of journal policies - International Journal of Epidemiology - Oxford ...
ASTHMA PREVALENCE (OCCURRENCE). Asthma prevalence is the number of people in an area who have asthma. More than 25 million ... Asthma Capitals 2019: Estimated Asthma Prevalence. In AAFAs Asthma Capitals 2019 Report. , we ranked cities based on three ... health outcomes: asthma prevalence, asthma-related emergency department visits and asthma-related mortality rates. The outcomes ...
... was 27 Percent of Women Aged 15-49. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Samoa rank in Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods)?. #. 96 Countries. Percent of Women Aged 15-49. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... Since 2009, Samoa Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods) decreased by 1.3points year on year. At 26.9 Percent of Women Aged 15- ... Samoa - Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods) Percent of Women Aged 15-49 - 1995 to 2014 ...
Do all U2713HM monitors have cross hatching or just most? By cross hatching, I am referring to the thin diagonal lines that appear in the bottom half
The higher prevalence is more likely to be explained by a combination of the inclusion of surveys reporting higher prevalence ... 1, which shows sex-specific estimates of diabetes prevalence by age. Globally, diabetes prevalence is similar in men and women ... a single estimate of diabetes prevalence was used. In the current estimates, on the advice of local experts, the prevalence of ... RESULTS-The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. The total ...
... was 34 Percent of Women Aged 15-49. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Pakistan rank in Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods)?. #. 96 Countries. Percent of Women Aged 15-49. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... Since 2013, Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods) fell by 0.7points year on year. With 34.2 Percent of Women Aged 15- ... Pakistan - Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods) Percent of Women Aged 15-49 - 1969 to 2018 ...
Published in The The Prevalence of Humbug and Other Essays (Cornell University Press, 1983. It would be a wonderful thing for ... The Prevalence of Humbug. Max Black. A greatly expanded version of the Stanton Griffis Lecture at the Cornell Medical School, ... Given the prevalence and effectiveness of such indirect ways of achieving the disreputable benefits of lying, it is surprising ... This conclusion might appeal to anybody impressed by the prevalence of humbug; but before succumbing to its attractive cynicism ...
71 Prevalence and progression of the juvenile pattern in the electrocardiogram of adolescents Joyee Basu, Aneil Malhotra, ... Pulmonary hypertension: prevalence and mortality in the Armadale echocardiography cohort Geoff Strange, David Playford, Simon ... Prevalence, timing of diagnosis and mortality of newborns with congenital heart defects: a population-based study Babak ... Utility of self-reported diagnosis and electrocardiogram Q-waves for estimating myocardial infarction prevalence: an ...
The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders varied widely depending on location, from 1 in 210 children in Alabama to 1 in 47 ... In 2002, 1 in 150 kids were estimated to have autism and in 2006 the prevalence increased to 1 in 110. ... and how much is due to a true increase in prevalence is not known, the report says. Better identification of autistic children ...
Pediatric readmission prevalence and variability across hospitals.. Berry JG1, Toomey SL, Zaslavsky AM, Jha AK, Nakamura MM, ... To determine the prevalence of pediatric readmissions and the magnitude of variation in pediatric readmission rates across ... For the 10 admission diagnoses with the highest readmission prevalence, the adjusted rates were 17.0% to 66.0% greater in ... readmissions following admission for any diagnosis and for the 10 admission diagnoses with the highest readmission prevalence. ...
  • The words "incidence" and "prevalence" have precise yet different meanings. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Pediatric feeding and/or swallowing impairment incidence and prevalence data from the review papers cited below reflect this high variability. (asha.org)
  • The true incidence and prevalence of balance system disorders in adults and children are unknown. (asha.org)
  • The actual incidence and prevalence of müllerian anomalies in the general population are unknown. (medscape.com)
  • Other factors that affect reporting irregularities in incidence and prevalence rates include nonstandardization of classification systems, nonuniform diagnostic modalities, and different study populations of women. (medscape.com)
  • Studies on estimated HIV Incidence and Prevalence Introduction In the era of HIV global pandemic, estimating incidence and prevalence correctly is critical, as it becomes a strong tool for authorities to decide next action, to mitigate infection rate and its multiple consequences to society. (bartleby.com)
  • This study aimed to determine the prevalence and severity of COPD in Copenhagen using data from the 4th examination of The Copenhagen City Heart Study, to investigate the relationship between tobacco consumption and COPD, and to characterize the subjects with COPD with regard to BMI, dyspnoea, treatment with respiratory medication and co-morbidities. (nih.gov)
  • To determine the prevalence and characteristics of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) among first grade students (6- to 7-year-olds) in a representative Midwestern US community. (aappublications.org)
  • The aims are to determine the prevalence of hearing loss in an unscreened birth cohort of 85-year olds, and to identify differences in audiometric results between two birth cohorts, born 28-29 years apart. (gu.se)
  • WASHINGTON -- The Clinton administration Monday will announce several initiatives designed to improve mental-health services, including a major study to determine the prevalence of mental illness in America and the best ways to treat it. (wsj.com)
  • This prompted a study to determine the prevalence of avocado induced symptoms and skin reactivity in a group of atopic patients. (ingentaconnect.com)
  • A large, nationally representative survey in 2013 of adults in China finds that the estimated overall prevalence of diabetes was about 11 percent and that of prediabetes was nearly 36 percent, according to a study published by JAMA . (eurekalert.org)
  • Conclusions: This study revealed an overall prevalence of 8.9% for Cryptosporidium among children of ages 0-5 years that attended the Limbe Regional Hospital. (gu.se)
  • The overall prevalence of physical, psychological, sexual and any form of violence among women of Eastern India were 16%, 52%, 25% and 56% respectively. (bartleby.com)
  • Our study aim was to determine if the prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia among U.S. adults has continued to climb in the new millennium," said Dr. Hyon Choi, Professor of Medicine in the Section of Rheumatology and the Clinical Epidemiology Unit at Boston University School of Medicine in Massachusetts and senior investigator of the present study. (disabled-world.com)
  • The present work focuses on the unresolved issues of the epidemiology and treatment of BV in order to provide valid methods for treatment studies of this condition and to describe the prevalence of BV in defined populations. (diva-portal.org)
  • In epidemiology, prevalence is the proportion of a particular population found to be affected by a medical condition (typically a disease or a risk factor such as smoking or seat-belt use) at a specific time. (wikipedia.org)
  • We investigate the prevalence of reciprocity in the population, the correlation between trust and positive and negative reciprocal inclinations within person, the individual determinants of reciprocity, and the relationship with psychological measures of personality. (repec.org)
  • In the second study, we use the knowledge gained from study one to investigate the prevalence of BV in a cohort from the population of Åland. (diva-portal.org)
  • As the proportion of older people increases, there is a need to investigate the prevalence of "disabling hearing loss" to calculate future rehabilitation need. (gu.se)
  • 2 A recent study found that the prevalence of IBD increased from 2001 to 2018 among Medicare beneficiaries of all race and ethnicity groups, with a higher increase rate among non-Hispanic Black adults. (cdc.gov)
  • Prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease among adults aged ≥18 years - United States, 2015. (cdc.gov)
  • The prevalence of frailty increases with age in older adults, but frailty is largely unreported for younger adults, where its associated risk is less clear," write Kenneth Rockwood, MD, from Dalhousie University and the Centre for Health Care of the Elderly in Halifax, Nova Scotia, and colleagues. (medscape.com)
  • An additional study reported a 12-month prevalence of vestibular vertigo in adults to be roughly 5% and an incidence to be 1.4% (Neuhauser, 2007). (asha.org)
  • Although the lifetime prevalence estimates of eating disorders from population-based studies of adults are relatively low, their severity and dramatic effects have been repeatedly demonstrated through elevated rates of impairment, medical complications, other illnesses, death and suicide, according to background information in the article. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Based on DSM-IV screening of 11,422 adults for ADHD in 10 countries in the Americas, Europe and the Middle East, the estimates of worldwide adult ADHD prevalence averaged 3.4% (Fayyad et al. (chadd.org)
  • The new Diabetes Prevalence Model, produced by PHE's National Cardiovascular Intelligence Network (NCVIN) and launched today at the PHE Conference at Warwick University, estimates the total number of adults with both Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes in England. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • We carried out a cross-sectional survey to study the prevalence and the characteristics of current and former smoking among Omani adults. (who.int)
  • Our study aim was to determine if the prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia among U.S. adults has continued to climb in the new millennium. (disabled-world.com)
  • Prevalence of increased uric acid levels (hyperuricemia) also rose, affecting 43.3 million (21%) adults in the U.S. (disabled-world.com)
  • In line with recent analyses in the U.S. and Europe, a July 16 paper in the journal Lancet reported a substantial drop in dementia prevalence among older adults in England over the last two decades. (alzforum.org)
  • In order to assess the prevalence data for patterns of use of tobacco by adults and the factors affecting this use, Gary Giovino et al analyzed the data from Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS). (medindia.net)
  • The NESARC-III results indicate that the prevalence rates of 12-month and lifetime DSM-5 DUD were 3.9% and 9.9%, respectively, representing approximately 9,131,250 and 23,310,135 US adults, respectively. (drugwarfacts.org)
  • This report tracks national and state-level data on the use of preventive services and the prevalence of risk factors among adults aged 50 to 64. (aarp.org)
  • There are approximately 2,100,000 [1,700,000 - 2,700,000] people living with HIV in India and there is a prevalence rate of 0.3% [0.2% - 0.3%] for adults aged 15 to 49 ("HIV and AIDS Estimates in 2013," 2013). (bartleby.com)
  • However, the term "period prevalence" (e.g., annual prevalence) is used to describe states or events that have occurred at some time during a designated period(e.g., a year). (encyclopedia.com)
  • It was realized that children from parents with primary level of education, children whose parents did not respect exclusive breastfeeding and those whose parents were giving them pipe borne water for drinking recorded a higher prevalence. (gu.se)
  • Editorial: The rising prevalence of autism. (nih.gov)
  • Overall, the panelists thought their comments confirm that soil-pica exists, but they refrained from providing quantitative estimates of the prevalence of soil-pica behavior, largely because the available studies are limited in duration and not based on a population that represents all groups of children. (cdc.gov)
  • Given the increasing prevalence of obesity, it is likely that these figures provide an underestimate of future diabetes prevalence. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The number of people with diabetes is increasing due to population growth, aging, urbanization, and increasing prevalence of obesity and physical inactivity. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • 2018. Thalassemia Prevalence . (news-medical.net)
  • With 34.2 Percent of Women Aged 15-49 in 2018, the country was number 65 comparing other countries in Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods). (nationmaster.com)
  • The term "lifetime prevalence" is a useful way to express the concept of the total number of people (or the proportion of all people) who get a particular condition, such as diabetes or breast cancer, during the course of an average lifetime. (encyclopedia.com)
  • OBJECTIVE -The goal of this study was to estimate the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people of all ages with diabetes for years 2000 and 2030. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS -Data on diabetes prevalence by age and sex from a limited number of countries were extrapolated to all 191 World Health Organization member states and applied to United Nations' population estimates for 2000 and 2030. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • RESULTS -The prevalence of diabetes for all age-groups worldwide was estimated to be 2.8% in 2000 and 4.4% in 2030. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The prevalence of diabetes is higher in men than women, but there are more women with diabetes than men. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Quantifying the prevalence of diabetes and the number of people affected by diabetes, now and in the future, is important to allow rational planning and allocation of resources. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Estimates of current and future diabetes prevalence have been published previously ( 1 - 3 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
  • This report provides estimates of the global prevalence of diabetes in the year 2000 (as used in the World Health Organization [WHO] Global Burden of Disease Study) and projections for 2030. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • It provides a sequel to the report describing estimates of the global burden of diabetes in 1990 ( 2 ) using newer data and different methods for estimating age-specific prevalence. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • The exceptions to the latter criterion were the study in China, for which a test meal was used ( 4 ), and the study in Tanzania ( 5 ), in which fasting glucose alone gave a higher prevalence of diabetes than a previous study that used the optimal WHO criteria. (diabetesjournals.org)
  • Prevalence refers to the number of people currently diagnosed with diabetes. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • As part of QOF, general practices will register the number of people with diabetes and therefore prevalence figures are available. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • Using QOF figures with estimates from the Diabetes Prevalence Model 2016 (Public Health England) and 2012 APHO Diabetes Prevalence Model, there are an estimated 4.5 million people with diabetes in the UK. (diabetes.org.uk)
  • The first representative study on prevalence of selected chronic diseases in Nepal conducted by the Nepal Health Research Council with support from the Ministry of Health and Population, revealed that diabetes was more than double (11.3 per cent) among urban participants compared to rural participants (5.5 per cent). (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • The report has also revealed that the prevalence of diabetes was more in men than in females, 11 per cent and 6.7 per cent, respectively. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Though there was high prevalence of diabetes, people were ignorant of the disease. (thehimalayantimes.com)
  • Previous studies have shown increasing prevalence of diabetes in China, which now has the world's largest diabetes epidemic. (eurekalert.org)
  • Tibetan and Muslim Chinese had significantly lower prevalence of diabetes than Han participants (14.7 percent for Han, 4.3 percent for Tibetan, and 10.6 percent for Muslim). (eurekalert.org)
  • The authors write that the prevalence of diabetes of 10.9 percent was only slightly lower than the prevalence of total diabetes in the U.S. population (12-14 percent) in 2011-2012. (eurekalert.org)
  • age-adjusted prevalence of diabetes is 3 to 5 times higher in First Nations than in the general population" (Introduction section, para. (bartleby.com)
  • The exact prevalence rate of gestational diabetes mellitus is unknown but in the United States it is estimated to affect anywhere from one to 14 percent of pregnancies (Desisto, Shin, & Sharma, 2014). (bartleby.com)
  • Meanwhile, the northeast German population now has a worse metabolic risk profile, as indicated by the increased prevalence of obesity and diabetes. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Is the prevalence of obesity increasing globally? (medscape.com)
  • Prevalence of self-reported clinically diagnosed sleep apnea according to obesity status in men and women: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2005-2006. (medscape.com)
  • Gout prevalence swells in US over last 2 decades - Increase in obesity and hypertension are likely contributors. (disabled-world.com)
  • Greater frequency of obesity and hypertension may be associated with the jump in prevalence rates according to the findings now available in Arthritis & Rheumatism , a journal published by Wiley-Blackwell on behalf of the American College of Rheumatology (ACR). (disabled-world.com)
  • After adjusting for obesity or hypertension, the differences in prevalence rates were substantially lessened. (disabled-world.com)
  • Regarding lifetime prevalence estimates, there were no sex differences in the prevalence of AN or SBED, whereas BN, BED, and SAN were more prevalent in girls. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Using a light-weight crawler built for the KaZaA file-sharing network, we study the prevalence of malware in this popular P2P network, the malware's propagation behavior in the P2P network environment and the characteristics of infected hosts. (psu.edu)
  • To assess the prevalence of patients exposed to PIMs at hospital discharge according to the 2003 and 2012 versions of Beers' criteria and to evaluate the risk of adverse clinical events, re-hospitalization and all-cause mortality at 3-month follow-up. (mendeley.com)
  • This study was therefore, designed to assess the prevalence and risk factors associated with Cryptosporidiosis among children within the ages 0-5 years suffering from diarrhea and being attended to at the Limbe Regional Hospital. (gu.se)
  • As such, prevalence differences between studies are hazardous to evaluate and whether observed discrepancies are due to method factors or true differences in population parameters, cannot be determined. (nih.gov)
  • Very, very, slight differences in the calibration of the instruments in one culture or the other could easily result in differences in prevalence by 1 or 2%," Constantino said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The authors note that differences from previous higher prevalence estimates for 2010 may be due to an alternate method of measuring hemoglobin A1c. (eurekalert.org)
  • Differences in the use of preventive services and the prevalence of risk factors also varied across states, at time considerably. (aarp.org)
  • Previous epidemiological studies indicate large cross-national differences in prevalence of depression. (cambridge.org)
  • Large cross-national variations in depression prevalence cannot be attributed to 'category fallacy' (cross-national differences in the nature or validity of depressive disorder). (cambridge.org)
  • Cross-national differences in the onset and outcome of depression may reflect either true prevalence differences or differences in diagnostic threshold. (cambridge.org)
  • In a descriptive analysis of US special education data published in March 2005 in Pediatrics Electronic Pages , 2 my colleagues and I plotted special education classification prevalence birth-cohort curves and compared trends visually (the vertical distance between birth cohorts capturing the secular trend). (aappublications.org)
  • The Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP) addresses prevalence trends for common risk factors in a region in northeast Germany. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Social trends in recent years can be expected to impact on age- and sex-specific prevalence of risk factors and diseases in northeastern Germany. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • One of the central goals of SHIP-Trend was to identify the trends in prevalence of common risk factors and diseases in northeastern Germany. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • In an epidemiologic survey based on a search of all available medical records for 1955 to 1980 at the city's three general hospitals the prevalence in Saskatoon of probable multiple sclerosis was found to be 111/100,000 and that of combined probable and possible multiple sclerosis 134/100,000 on Jan. 1, 1977. (cmaj.ca)
  • In visual perception, target prevalence describes the salience (or visibility) of an object or objects in the environment and influences visual search. (wikipedia.org)
  • An experiment similar to an x-ray baggage search at an airport reveals how likely one is to make errors when searching for low-prevalence targets. (wikipedia.org)
  • Eye-tracking data suggests that many errors at low prevalence were attributable to participants terminating the search without finding the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • And, a common cancer with shorter survival may have a lower prevalence count than a less common cancer with longer survival. (cancer.org)
  • However, the Chinese-American population in the USA has a similar prevalence of peanut allergy as other US populations. (news-medical.net)
  • In addition, an ongoing Irish study found similar prevalence rates of subtype 2 (papulopustular) rosacea in both indoor and outdoor workers. (rosacea.org)
  • Southern states tended to have the highest prevalence of risk factors. (aarp.org)
  • Idaho, Mississippi, and Montana were tied for the lowest-ranking state more often than any other state, reflecting some of the lowest preventive service utilization rates and highest prevalence of risk factors in the nation. (aarp.org)
  • Despite a marked increase in submitted data, there are still numerous countries lacking national prevalence data. (who.int)
  • Investigators analyzed the incidence of Alzheimer disease among residents aged 65 and over in a biracial Chicago community, and extrapolated the data to national prevalence based on census projections and population figures. (lww.com)
  • On the rescaled plots, we now can see that as autism prevalence increases with most successive birth cohort for ages 6 through 9, MR prevalence is decreasing (corresponds to the negative sign in Shattuck's models). (aappublications.org)
  • Prevalence of Febrile Seizures, Epilepsy, and Other Paroxysmal Attacks in a Swedish Cohort of 4-Year-Old Children. (gu.se)
  • Results: Based on the WHO criteria, the prevalence of "disabling hearing loss" was 45% for men and 43% for women in the latest birth cohort. (gu.se)
  • The prevalence increased with age and was higher among males. (nih.gov)
  • The authors found that cities with higher male circumcision rates in 1950 generally tended to have lower HIV-2 prevalence at the time of the first serosurveys in 1985-91. (eurekalert.org)
  • The original plots emphasize the large annual percent increase in the low-prevalence autism classification while obscuring the smaller (in percentage terms) changes in the higher-prevalence MR classification. (aappublications.org)
  • Autism prevalence worldwide may be higher than originally thought by experts, according to a recent study which underscores the need for better detection, assessment and services. (foxbusiness.com)
  • LONDON (Reuters) - The prevalence of COVID-19 infections in England is much higher than it was at the end of August but there are signs that growth in infection rate is slowing, a study by Imperial College said on Thursday. (reuters.com)
  • The main difference in the prevalence of patients receiving a PIM according to the two versions of Beers' criteria involved prescriptions of benzodiazepines for insomnia or agitation, chronic use of non-benzodiazepine hypnotics, prescription of antipsychotics in people with dementia and oral iron at dosage higher than 325 mg/day. (mendeley.com)
  • At higher-prevalence centres, depression was associated with lower levels of impairment. (cambridge.org)
  • At 1 year follow-up, higher prevalence centres had both significantly higher rates of depression onset ( t = 3·11, P = 0·002) and higher rates of persistence among those depressed at baseline ( t = 2·49, P = 0·013). (cambridge.org)
  • The prevalence of HIV among women in Gambia is higher (7.6 per 1000) than other West African countries (3.1 per 1000). (bartleby.com)
  • The prevalence of HIV is higher among women (30%) than men (19%) (Ministry of Health [Lesotho] & ICF International, 2014). (bartleby.com)
  • Taking employment into consideration, employed individuals in Lesotho have higher prevalence of HIV than unemployed for both men and women. (bartleby.com)
  • Men reported higher prevalence of all forms of violence apart from sexual violence. (bartleby.com)
  • Hispanic youth had a higher prevalence in all but the last time period, while African-American children were least likely to be affected for all time periods. (rochester.edu)
  • This indicates that lower interest rates have not resulted in a higher prevalence of zombies. (nationalbanken.dk)
  • Areas of low [socioeconomic status] are perhaps the neighborhoods that need playgrounds the most due to the increased likelihood of those areas having a higher prevalence of youth who are overweight or obese. (planetizen.com)
  • The higher prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF), reported at 8% (likely an underestimation because only new-onset AF is reported and no entry values are given) versus 1.2% in the Framingham population again suggests a selected population. (ahajournals.org)
  • Although cues suggested a higher target probability, searchers took longer to respond "no" (suggesting that the prevalence effect is ingrained). (wikipedia.org)
  • The standard estimate of prevalence is the proportion of positive results obtained from the application of a diagnostic test to a random sample of individuals drawn from the population of interest. (hindawi.com)
  • John Constantino, MD, a child psychiatrist at Washington University in St. Louis, said in an interview that it is important to have the conversation about what the threshold should be for diagnosing an ASD, adding that the difference in prevalence between the CDC estimate and the South Korean study could be due to difficulties in calibrating diagnostic instruments for different cultures. (medpagetoday.com)
  • A meta-analysis of 175 research studies worldwide on ADHD prevalence in children aged 18 and under found an overall pooled estimate of 7.2% (Thomas et al. (chadd.org)
  • From the final multidisciplinary case findings, 3 techniques were used to estimate prevalence. (aappublications.org)
  • The Center for Disease Control and Prevention's June 5 edition of their Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report gives the first ever estimate of the prevalence of neurological disorder Tourette's Syndrome (TS). (emaxhealth.com)
  • The prevalence of autism spectrum disorders varied widely depending on location, from 1 in 210 children in Alabama to 1 in 47 children in Utah, the report says. (livescience.com)
  • In a recent study of autism prevalence using a total population sample, an international team of investigators from the U.S., South Korea and Canada estimated the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) in South Korea to be 2.64%, approximately one in 38 children. (foxbusiness.com)
  • Using federal special education data to judge autism's true prevalence is problematic, however. (edweek.org)
  • All non-asthmatic participants aged 35 years or older with adequate lung function data were included for the final prevalence analyses (n = 5,299). (nih.gov)
  • Whilst the data on male circumcision and HIV-2 prevalence were obtained in different years, making it difficult to link the two directly, the authors state that HIV-2 may only have been able to achieve high prevalence in West African cities where a substantial proportion of the population was uncircumcised. (eurekalert.org)
  • 1 Diagnostic substitution is one factor potentially contributing to the large observed increase in autism prevalence and, unlike many other possible factors, empirical evaluation of this factor can actually be approached by using existing administrative data. (aappublications.org)
  • However, the graphs also demonstrate that, at least in the US aggregate data, the increases in autism classification prevalence are greater in absolute terms (the distance between lines is farther) than the MR decreases, suggesting that any offset by MR alone would not be complete. (aappublications.org)
  • In the end, we may have to live with the fact that although administrative data suggest the potential for some diagnostic substitution, it remains difficult to confidently ascribe all of the observed autism prevalence increase to this particular phenomenon. (aappublications.org)
  • The 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) interviewed parents and reports the following ADHD prevalence data among children ages 2-17 (Danielson et al. (chadd.org)
  • This paper gives a broad account of the methodology and data used by FAO for estimating the prevalence of undernourishment. (fao.org)
  • So far, no data has been published on its prevalence among children with diarrhea in Cameroon. (gu.se)
  • Though not commenting specifically on the prevalence of soil-pica behavior, several panelists noted relevant data documented in the scientific literature. (cdc.gov)
  • There is a need to inform and motivate governments and agencies to collect, and report to WHO, national data on the prevalence of deficiency and, whenever possible, vitamin A programme coverage conditions prevailing at the time that population assessment data were collected. (who.int)
  • If one considers the denominator or total population of Olmsted County (124 272), 9 the prevalence of disease on the basis of these data would be only 0.67%, which is approximately 28% of that in the Framingham study, 7 suggesting that only more severely affected subjects are being identified. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the Strong Heart Study, 10 which used the same criteria for MVP, a prevalence of 1.7% was reported in a population of similar age, but the authors noted that the studies were limited and the appropriate prevalence should be ≥2%, which approximates the Framingham data. (ahajournals.org)
  • In the Western world, the prevalence can be as high as 1 in 200 individuals in some populations. (news-medical.net)
  • 2 Unfortunately, our understanding of the prevalence, complication rate, and associations of mitral valve prolapse has been clouded by the use of varying techniques, changing diagnostic criteria, and conclusions drawn from highly selected referral populations. (ahajournals.org)
  • Mehlhorn H. (2016) Borreliosis: Seasonal Prevalence of Lyme Disease Spirochetes. (springer.com)
  • In West African cities, male circumcision rates in 1950 were negatively correlated with HIV-2 prevalence from 1985, according to a study published December 7, 2016 in the open-access journal PLOS ONE by João Sousa from the University of Leuven, Belgium, and colleagues. (eurekalert.org)
  • The Maldives has a particularly high prevalence of thalassemia in Asia (16% of the population), alongside other countries with tropical climates such as India and Thailand. (news-medical.net)
  • There is a very high prevalence of osteopenia/osteoporosis among male patients with pulmonary disease, according to a new study from researchers in California. (redorbit.com)
  • The high prevalence of bone disease we found in male patients referred to our pulmonary rehabilitation program suggests that routine screening should also be performed in men with pulmonary disease. (redorbit.com)
  • Selected respondents were invited for a short dermatological examination, which confirmed the high self reported prevalence and also identified a substantial proportion of mild cases which were not reported. (ilo.org)
  • When centres were divided into three groups according to prevalence rates, the symptom pattern or latent structure of depressive illness was generally similar at low-, medium-, and high-prevalence centres. (cambridge.org)
  • In psychology, the prevalence effect is the phenomenon that one is more likely to miss (or fail to detect) a target with a low prevalence (or frequency) than a target with a high prevalence or frequency. (wikipedia.org)
  • When targets are frequent (above 50-percent prevalence), fast "no" responses often lead to mistakes and "no" reaction times are slower than "yes" times in high-prevalence searches. (wikipedia.org)
  • With a low prevalence, participants missed about 40 percent of the rare targets and responded more rapidly to target-absent trails than they did in high-prevalence conditions. (wikipedia.org)
  • thus, the prevalence of the disease among residents was 64/100,000. (cmaj.ca)
  • The prevalence was 77/100,000 among Saskatchewan-born residents, including those born in Saskatoon, and 48/100,000 among immigrants from other provinces and outside Canada. (cmaj.ca)
  • Since 2009, Samoa Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods) decreased by 1.3points year on year. (nationmaster.com)
  • At 26.9 Percent of Women Aged 15-49 in 2014, the country was ranked number 79 comparing other countries in Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods). (nationmaster.com)
  • How does Samoa rank in Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods)? (nationmaster.com)
  • Since 2013, Pakistan Contraceptive Prevalence (Any Methods) fell by 0.7points year on year. (nationmaster.com)
  • The other panelists stressed that a clear, unambiguous definition of soil-pica must be crafted so that ATSDR can quantify the prevalence using the various methods discussed in Section 3.3. (cdc.gov)
  • TEHRAN- Leprosy prevalence is less than one in every 10,000 people in the country, announced the director of national program for prevention of tuberculosis and leprosy at the Ministry of Health. (tehrantimes.com)
  • Autism prevalence rates have soared in the last two years, from 1 in 150 children in 2000 to 1 in 68 children in 2010, according the most recent autism surveillance report issued by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention . (edweek.org)
  • we ranked cities based on three health outcomes: asthma prevalence, asthma-related emergency department visits and asthma-related mortality rates . (aafa.org)
  • These prevalence and incidence rates were two to three time greater than those reported for other Canadian cities. (cmaj.ca)
  • These scenarios did increase prevalence estimates, but not to 1991 levels, lending credence to the drop in dementia rates in the past two decades. (alzforum.org)
  • When discussing the prevalence of soil-pica, two panelists suggested that ATSDR view soil ingestion rates as a continuum, possibly by characterizing the distribution of these rates (SD, JM). (cdc.gov)
  • When participants had a chance to correct their responses, their miss rates were reduced (demonstrating that if motor responses contribute to the prevalence effect, there is a perceptual effect if the task is difficult). (wikipedia.org)
  • Retrieved on May 22, 2019 from https://www.news-medical.net/health/Thalassemia-Prevalence.aspx. (news-medical.net)
  • We estimated the prevalence and outcomes of frailty, in relation to accumulation of deficits, across the adult lifespan. (medscape.com)
  • For both men and women, HIV prevalence increases with age and then declines. (bartleby.com)
  • Cancer prevalence is determined by how often a cancer occurs ( incidence ) and by how long people normally live after diagnosis ( survival ). (cancer.org)
  • In 2006-2010, the prevalence was 1.5, but the researchers speculate the lower figure may be the due to delayed diagnosis, among other factors. (rochester.edu)
  • This population-based study, covering all types of paroxysmal attacks in preschool children revealed a total prevalence of nearly 6%, the largest group being FS. (gu.se)
  • The second was: "What is the prevalence rate of soil-pica behavior among children, especially preschool children? (cdc.gov)
  • We found that the prevalences of gout and hyperuricemia continue to be substantial in the U.S. adult population. (disabled-world.com)
  • Wu found that apparent increases in prevalence "melted away when she took into account methodological changes over time," Brayne said. (alzforum.org)
  • It was found that the prevalence effect is a consequence of bottom-up experience and unaffected by top-down control. (wikipedia.org)
  • Researchers found that when observers repeatedly pressed the same key for target-absent trials in low-prevalence blocks, they tended to press the same key too fast even if they could see the target. (wikipedia.org)
  • Prevalence means the total number of health-related states or events that exist in a specified population at a particular point in time, regardless of when these began or how long they have existed. (encyclopedia.com)
  • May 3, 2011 - The prevalence of frailty, which is linked to earlier death, increases throughout adulthood and not just after age 65 years, according to results from the Canadian National Population Health Survey reported online April 26 in the Canadian Medical Association Journal . (medscape.com)
  • Little is known about the prevalence or correlates of these disorders from population-based surveys of adolescents. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Prevalence of Gout and Hyperuricemia in the US General Population. (disabled-world.com)
  • We used sensitive laboratory techniques to ascertain the prevalence of MGUS in a large population in a well-defined geographic area. (nih.gov)
  • 6 Recent studies that used these criteria have shed new light on the prevalence and complications of MVP in the general population, 7 although less is known about the natural history of MVP as diagnosed by these new criteria. (ahajournals.org)
  • Prevalence is the number of disease cases present in a particular population at a given time, whereas incidence is the number of new cases that develop during a specified time period. (wikipedia.org)
  • With advancing age, the prevalence of frailty increased from 2.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.7% - 2.4%) for participants younger than 30 years to 22.4% (95% CI, 19.0% - 25.8%) for those older than 65 years. (medscape.com)
  • Here we present the first large-based measure of prevalence with a sample of 20 000 participants, which does not rely on self-referral. (nih.gov)
  • To account for possible skewing due to difficulty enrolling participants, the researchers tested various scenarios that could have nudged the 2011 prevalence figures upward. (alzforum.org)
  • Eye tracking experiments demonstrate that a large prevalence effect can occur across a group of participants with targets of similar appearance. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even with this difference, participants made more errors when the target prevalence was low and allowing observers to correct their decisions does not counteract a low prevalence effect. (wikipedia.org)
  • In Australia, severe peanut reaction has a prevalence of only 0.25% and fatalities in those aged under five years are rare. (news-medical.net)
  • and 4) prevalence of severe anemia (defined as hemoglobin less than or equal to 5 g/dl). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Exactly how much of the rise in diagnoses is due to increased awareness of the disorder and better identification of those who have it, and how much is due to a true increase in prevalence is not known, the report says. (livescience.com)
  • Whether findings from a recent study that more than doubled the estimated prevalence of autism represent a true increase, an expansion of what is considered a disorder, or both, remains in question. (medpagetoday.com)
  • That study also reported a relative increase in the prevalence of ASDs of 40% to 60% over a five-year period. (medpagetoday.com)
  • However, research suggests that there has recently been a vast increase in the prevalence of targeted violence against women during and after armed conflict, as well as a change in the type of and motivation for such violence. (stopvaw.org)
  • The study, based on nearly 14 million test results from more than 2 million patient visits, is believed to be the largest to suggest that increased prevalence of the two allergens, which have been associated with climate change, are largely responsible for an increase in allergies in the United States. (disabled-world.com)
  • Mold, as a precipitation-affected aero-allergen, may also increase in prevalence with a warmer climate. (disabled-world.com)
  • The purpose of this pilot study is to evaluate the use of (1) 'malaria prevalence', (2) 'malaria incidence' and (3) 'malaria mortality' as a measure of malaria transmission in The Gambia, while mosquito insecticides (larvicides) are used to control malaria-carrying mosquitoes. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Despite this confusion, an understanding of the prevalence of mitral valve prolapse and the identification of subgroups most susceptible to complications remain important because MVP is the most common cause of valve repair/replacement for isolated mitral regurgitation in the United States, 3 and the thickened leaflets form a recognized substrate for bacterial endocarditis. (ahajournals.org)
  • While our latest findings show some early evidence that the growth of new cases may have slowed, suggesting efforts to control the infection are working, the prevalence of infection is the highest that we have recorded to date," Imperial's Professor Paul Elliott said. (reuters.com)
  • These findings suggest that, all else remaining equal, the prevalence of snooping attacks may grow, as more people adopt smartphones, and motivate further e ffort into improving defenses. (usenix.org)
  • The researchers then matched HIV-2 prevalence with the estimated male circumcision frequency in each city to identify any correlation. (eurekalert.org)
  • TEHRAN - A new study has revealed that drinking hot tea has substantially increased the prevalence of esophageal cancer in Iranian province of Golestan, said the deputy health minister for research, technology and medical education. (tehrantimes.com)
  • Cancer Prevalence: How Many People Have Cancer? (cancer.org)
  • Cancer prevalence is defined as the number of living people who have ever been diagnosed with cancer. (cancer.org)
  • Asthma prevalence is the number of people in an area who have asthma. (aafa.org)
  • The latest study implied 411,000 people had the coronavirus, with prevalence increasing in all age groups. (reuters.com)
  • The prevalence of hypertension increases with advanced age to the point where more than half of people aged 60 to 69 years old and approximately three fourth of those aged 70 years and older are affected. (omicsonline.org)
  • Prevalence answers "How many people have this disease right now? (wikipedia.org)
  • The prevalence increased to 3.4% for individuals 60 years of age or older (von Brevern et al. (asha.org)
  • New study shows the prevalence of gout in the U.S. has risen over the last twenty years and now affects 8.3 million (4%) of Americans. (disabled-world.com)
  • There was a significant relationship (p = 0.041) between prevalence of Cryptosporidium and the presence of diarrhea in children within the ages 0-5 years in the Limbe Regional Hospital. (gu.se)
  • The prevalence of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), a premalignant plasma-cell disorder, among persons 50 years of age or older has not been accurately determined. (nih.gov)
  • The prevalence of MGUS was 5.3 percent among persons 70 years of age or older and 7.5 percent among those 85 years of age or older. (nih.gov)
  • While most vertebrate hosts harbor for shorter or longer periods, the typically shaped bacteria (time-depending on the activity of their immune system), cattle, and the heterothermic edible dormouse ( Glis glis ) show a clear seasonable prevalence of these spirochetes. (springer.com)
  • It is not whether, but how much, the expanding definition of ASDs has contributed to the increases in prevalence seen, both over time and in the South Korean study, he said. (medpagetoday.com)
  • In this study, dementia prevalence hardly budged, though the study was smaller and had a shorter time period than the UK analysis, Brayne noted. (alzforum.org)
  • The regional prevalence of risk factors can vary over time. (aerzteblatt.de)
  • Use of Clinical Preventive Services and Prevalence of Health Risk Fact. (aarp.org)
  • It examines the use of four disease screenings, two immunizations, and two composite measures indicating individuals were up-to-date with select clinical preventive services, as well as the prevalence of five risk factors. (aarp.org)