Voluntary authorization, by a patient or research subject, with full comprehension of the risks involved, for diagnostic or investigative procedures, and for medical and surgical treatment.
Documents describing a medical treatment or research project, including proposed procedures, risks, and alternatives, that are to be signed by an individual, or the individual's proxy, to indicate his/her understanding of the document and a willingness to undergo the treatment or to participate in the research.
An institutional policy of granting authority to health personnel to perform procedures on patients or to remove organs from cadavers for transplantation unless an objection is registered by family members or by the patient prior to death. This also includes emergency care of minors without prior parental consent.
Informed consent given by a parent on behalf of a minor or otherwise incompetent child.
Informed consent given by someone other than the patient or research subject.
The ability to understand the nature and effect of the act in which the individual is engaged. (From Black's Law Dictionary, 6th ed).
A person who has not attained the age at which full civil rights are accorded.
Persons who are enrolled in research studies or who are otherwise the subjects of research.
Voluntary authorization by a person not of usual legal age for diagnostic or investigative procedures, or for medical and surgical treatment. (from English A, Shaw FE, McCauley MM, Fishbein DB Pediatrics 121:Suppl Jan 2008 pp S85-7).
Human experimentation that is not intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed. Phase I drug studies (CLINICAL TRIALS, PHASE I AS TOPIC) and research involving healthy volunteers are examples of nontherapeutic human experimentation.
The use of humans as investigational subjects.
The moral obligations governing the conduct of research. Used for discussions of research ethics as a general topic.
Revealing of information, by oral or written communication.
The act or fact of grasping the meaning, nature, or importance of; understanding. (American Heritage Dictionary, 4th ed) Includes understanding by a patient or research subject of information disclosed orally or in writing.
Self-directing freedom and especially moral independence. An ethical principle holds that the autonomy of persons ought to be respected. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Facilities that collect, store, and distribute tissues, e.g., cell lines, microorganisms, blood, sperm, milk, breast tissue, for use by others. Other uses may include transplantation and comparison of diseased tissues in the identification of cancer.
Human experimentation that is intended to benefit the subjects on whom it is performed.
The principles of professional conduct concerning the rights and duties of the physician, relations with patients and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the physician in patient care and interpersonal relations with patient families.
Hospital or other institutional committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects. Federal regulations (the "Common Rule" (45 CFR 46)) mandate the use of these committees to monitor federally-funded biomedical and behavioral research involving human subjects.
Refusal to take part in activities or procedures that are requested or expected of an individual. This may include refusal by HEALTH PERSONNEL to participate in specific medical procedures or refusal by PATIENTS or members of the public to take part in clinical trials or health promotion programs.
The privacy of information and its protection against unauthorized disclosure.
Research into the cause, transmission, amelioration, elimination, or enhancement of inherited disorders and traits.
Promotion and protection of the rights of children; frequently through a legal process.
Fundamental claims of patients, as expressed in statutes, declarations, or generally accepted moral principles. (Bioethics Thesaurus) The term is used for discussions of patient rights as a group of many rights, as in a hospital's posting of a list of patient rights.
The state or quality of being kind, charitable, or beneficial. (from American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th ed). The ethical principle of BENEFICENCE requires producing net benefit over harm. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Research that involves the application of the natural sciences, especially biology and physiology, to medicine.
The kind of action or activity proper to the judiciary, particularly its responsibility for decision making.
Interference with the FREEDOM or PERSONAL AUTONOMY of another person, with justifications referring to the promotion of the person's good or the prevention of harm to the person. (from Cambridge Dictionary of Philosophy, 1995); more generally, not allowing a person to make decisions on his or her own behalf.
A legal concept for individuals who are designated to act on behalf of persons who are considered incapable of acting in their own behalf, e.g., minors and persons found to be not mentally competent.
The identification, analysis, and resolution of moral problems that arise in the care of patients. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
Promotion and protection of the rights of patients, frequently through a legal process.
The administrative procedures involved with acquiring TISSUES or organs for TRANSPLANTATION through various programs, systems, or organizations. These procedures include obtaining consent from TISSUE DONORS and arranging for transportation of donated tissues and organs, after TISSUE HARVESTING, to HOSPITALS for processing and transplantation.
Centers for acquiring, characterizing, and storing organs or tissue for future use.
The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
The attitude of a significant portion of a population toward any given proposition, based upon a measurable amount of factual evidence, and involving some degree of reflection, analysis, and reasoning.
Patient involvement in the decision-making process in matters pertaining to health.
Interaction between research personnel and research subjects.
Clusters of topics that fall within the domain of BIOETHICS, the field of study concerned with value questions that arise in biomedicine and health care delivery.
Standards of conduct that distinguish right from wrong.
Truthful revelation of information, specifically when the information disclosed is likely to be psychologically painful ("bad news") to the recipient (e.g., revelation to a patient or a patient's family of the patient's DIAGNOSIS or PROGNOSIS) or embarrassing to the teller (e.g., revelation of medical errors).
The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.
Duties that are based in ETHICS, rather than in law.
Works about pre-planned studies of the safety, efficacy, or optimum dosage schedule (if appropriate) of one or more diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques selected according to predetermined criteria of eligibility and observed for predefined evidence of favorable and unfavorable effects. This concept includes clinical trials conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
The state of being free from intrusion or disturbance in one's private life or affairs. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, 1993)
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
Patient or client refusal of or resistance to medical, psychological, or psychiatric treatment. (APA, Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 8th ed.)
A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.
The interactions between physician and patient.
Persons with psychiatric illnesses or diseases, particularly psychotic and severe mood disorders.
Committees established by professional societies, health facilities, or other institutions to consider decisions that have bioethical implications. The role of these committees may include consultation, education, mediation, and/or review of policies and practices. Committees that consider the ethical dimensions of patient care are ETHICS COMMITTEES, CLINICAL; committees established to protect the welfare of research subjects are ETHICS COMMITTEES, RESEARCH.
A formal process of examination of patient care or research proposals for conformity with ethical standards. The review is usually conducted by an organized clinical or research ethics committee (CLINICAL ETHICS COMMITTEES or RESEARCH ETHICS COMMITTEES), sometimes by a subset of such a committee, an ad hoc group, or an individual ethicist (ETHICISTS).
Great Britain is not a medical term, but a geographical name for the largest island in the British Isles, which comprises England, Scotland, and Wales, forming the major part of the United Kingdom.
A health professional's obligation to breach patient CONFIDENTIALITY to warn third parties of the danger of their being assaulted or of contracting a serious infection.
Persons as individuals (e.g., ABORTION APPLICANTS) or as members of a group (e.g., HISPANIC AMERICANS). It is not used for members of the various professions (e.g., PHYSICIANS) or occupations (e.g., LIBRARIANS) for which OCCUPATIONAL GROUPS is available.
A branch of applied ethics that studies the value implications of practices and developments in life sciences, medicine, and health care.
An international agreement of the World Medical Association which offers guidelines for conducting experiments using human subjects. It was adopted in 1962 and revised by the 18th World Medical Assembly at Helsinki, Finland in 1964. Subsequent revisions were made in 1975, 1983, 1989, and 1996. (From Encyclopedia of Bioethics, rev ed, 1995)
Individual's rights to obtain and use information collected or generated by others.
Exercise of governmental authority to control conduct.
The introduction of error due to systematic differences in the characteristics between those selected and those not selected for a given study. In sampling bias, error is the result of failure to ensure that all members of the reference population have a known chance of selection in the sample.
Committees of professional personnel who have responsibility for determining policies, procedures, and controls related to professional matters in health facilities.
A situation in which an individual might benefit personally from official or professional actions. It includes a conflict between a person's private interests and official responsibilities in a position of trust. The term is not restricted to government officials. The concept refers both to actual conflict of interest and the appearance or perception of conflict.
The science or philosophy of law. Also, the application of the principles of law and justice to health and medicine.
Those individuals engaged in research.
Individuals supplying living tissue, organs, cells, blood or blood components for transfer or transplantation to histocompatible recipients.
The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.
Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.
An enduring, learned predisposition to behave in a consistent way toward a given class of objects, or a persistent mental and/or neural state of readiness to react to a certain class of objects, not as they are but as they are conceived to be.
Failure of a professional person, a physician or lawyer, to render proper services through reprehensible ignorance or negligence or through criminal intent, especially when injury or loss follows. (Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed)
Conception after the death of the male or female biological parent through techniques such as the use of gametes that have been stored during his or her lifetime or that were collected immediately after his or her death.
Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
The philosophy or code pertaining to what is ideal in human character and conduct. Also, the field of study dealing with the principles of morality.
The branch of medicine concerned with the evaluation and initial treatment of urgent and emergent medical problems, such as those caused by accidents, trauma, sudden illness, poisoning, or disasters. Emergency medical care can be provided at the hospital or at sites outside the medical facility.
Organized procedures for establishing patient identity, including use of bracelets, etc.
Confidence in or reliance on a person or thing.
Systematic organization, storage, retrieval, and dissemination of specialized information, especially of a scientific or technical nature (From ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983). It often involves authenticating or validating information.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.
Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.
The obligations and accountability assumed in carrying out actions or ideas on behalf of others.
Programs in which participation is not required.
The interactions between the professional person and the family.
A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.
A person authorized to decide or act for another person, for example, a person having durable power of attorney.
Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).
The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.
Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.
The protection of genetic information about an individual, family, or population group, from unauthorized disclosure.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
A state of prolonged irreversible cessation of all brain activity, including lower brain stem function with the complete absence of voluntary movements, responses to stimuli, brain stem reflexes, and spontaneous respirations. Reversible conditions which mimic this clinical state (e.g., sedative overdose, hypothermia, etc.) are excluded prior to making the determination of brain death. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp348-9)
The principles of proper conduct concerning the rights and duties of the professional, relations with patients or consumers and fellow practitioners, as well as actions of the professional and interpersonal relations with patient or consumer families. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)
The use of force or intimidation to obtain compliance.
Utilization or disposal of an embryo that is fertilized but not immediately transplanted and resulting course of action.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
The rights of individuals to act and make decisions without external constraints.
Groups that serve as a standard for comparison in experimental studies. They are similar in relevant characteristics to the experimental group but do not receive the experimental intervention.
Individuals participating in the health care system for the purpose of receiving therapeutic, diagnostic, or preventive procedures.
Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.
Laws and regulations, pertaining to the field of medicine, proposed for enactment or enacted by a legislative body.
Materials, frequently computer applications, that combine some or all of text, sound, graphics, animation, and video into integrated packages. (Thesaurus of ERIC Descriptors, 1994)
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Auditory and visual instructional materials.
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Systematic statements of principles or rules of appropriate professional conduct, usually established by professional societies.
Reporting to parents or guardians about care to be provided to a minor (MINORS).
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)
The alterations of modes of medical practice, induced by the threat of liability, for the principal purposes of forestalling lawsuits by patients as well as providing good legal defense in the event that such lawsuits are instituted.
A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
The commitment in writing, as authentic evidence, of something having legal importance. The concept includes certificates of birth, death, etc., as well as hospital, medical, and other institutional records.
An approach to ethics that focuses on theories of the importance of general principles such as respect for autonomy, beneficence/nonmaleficence, and justice.
The circulation or wide dispersal of information.
Misunderstanding among individuals, frequently research subjects, of scientific methods such as randomization and placebo controls.
Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.
Works about studies performed to evaluate the safety of diagnostic, therapeutic, or prophylactic drugs, devices, or techniques in healthy subjects and to determine the safe dosage range (if appropriate). These tests also are used to determine pharmacologic and pharmacokinetic properties (toxicity, metabolism, absorption, elimination, and preferred route of administration). They involve a small number of persons and usually last about 1 year. This concept includes phase I studies conducted both in the U.S. and in other countries.
Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.
The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.
Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
Declarations by patients, made in advance of a situation in which they may be incompetent to decide about their own care, stating their treatment preferences or authorizing a third party to make decisions for them. (Bioethics Thesaurus)
A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.
Professional nurses who have completed postgraduate training in the administration of anesthetics and who function under the responsibility of the operating surgeon.
Consideration and concern for others, as opposed to self-love or egoism, which can be a motivating influence.
Payment, or other means of making amends, for a wrong or injury.
Postmortem examination of the body.
Differences of opinion or disagreements that may arise, for example, between health professionals and patients or their families, or against a political regime.
A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.
One of the principal schools of medical philosophy in ancient Greece and Rome. It developed in Alexandria between 270 and 220 B.C., the only one to have any success in reviving the essentials of the Hippocratic concept. The Empiricists declared that the search for ultimate causes of phenomena was vain, but they were active in endeavoring to discover immediate causes. The "tripod of the Empirics" was their own chance observations (experience), learning obtained from contemporaries and predecessors (experience of others), and, in the case of new diseases, the formation of conclusions from other diseases which they resembled (analogy). Empiricism enjoyed sporadic continuing popularity in later centuries up to the nineteenth. (From Castiglioni, A History of Medicine, 2d ed, p186; Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but 'England' is not a medical term and does not have a medical definition. England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom, known for its rich history, cultural heritage, and contributions to medical science. However, in a medical context, it may refer to the location of a patient, healthcare provider, or research study, but it is not a term with a specific medical meaning.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
The ethical and/or legal obligation of a health provider or researcher to communicate with a former patient or research subject about advances in research relevant to a treatment or to a genetic or other diagnostic test provided earlier, or about proposed new uses of blood or tissue samples taken in the past for another purpose.
Irreversible cessation of all bodily functions, manifested by absence of spontaneous breathing and total loss of cardiovascular and cerebral functions.
Expectation of real uncertainty on the part of the investigator regarding the comparative therapeutic merits of each arm in a trial.
The restoration to life or consciousness of one apparently dead. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Experimentation on STEM CELLS and on the use of stem cells.
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
A specialty in which manual or operative procedures are used in the treatment of disease, injuries, or deformities.
The level of governmental organization and function at the national or country-wide level.
Medical philosophy is a branch of philosophy that deals with the concepts, values, and nature of medicine, including its ethical implications, epistemological foundations, and societal impact, aimed at informing and improving medical practice, research, and education.
Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)
Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.
The human being as a non-anatomical and non-zoological entity. The emphasis is on the philosophical or artistic treatment of the human being, and includes lay and social attitudes toward the body in history. (From J. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.

Consent to treatment and the mentally incapacitated adult. (1/33)

Doctors are sometimes faced with adult patients who lack the mental capacity to consent to treatment. In a questionnaire, 120 doctors in a district general hospital were asked what action they would take if such a patient had a clear need for elective treatment. Of the 89 who replied, 57 said they would seek consent from relatives or others; 11 of these, nevertheless, stated that treatment could proceed without such consent. These results, and inquiries about other options, pointed to widespread misunderstanding of the law. In English law, no one can give legally valid consent on behalf of another adult. When an individual is unable to give consent, common law allows a doctor to protect a patient's best interests by treating him or her in accordance with a responsible body of medical opinion.  (+info)

Avoiding anomalous newborns: preemptive abortion, treatment thresholds and the case of baby Messenger. (2/33)

In its American context the case of baby Messenger, a preterm infant disconnected from life-support by his father and allowed to die has generated debate about neonatal treatment protocols. Limited by the legal and ethical norms of the United States, this case did not consider treatment protocols that might be available in other countries such as Denmark and Israel: threshold protocols whereby certain classes of newborns are not treated, and preemptive abortion allowing one to choose late-term abortion rather than risk delivery. Each offers a viable and ethically sound avenue for dealing with the economic and social expense of anomalous newborns by aborting or not treating those most likely to burden the health care system. Objections that these protocols are antithetical to American bioethical principles are considered but rejected as each policy answers to economic justice, utility and respect for autonomy.  (+info)

Presumed consent in emergency neonatal research. (3/33)

Current methods of obtaining consent for emergency neonatal research are flawed. They risk aggravating the distress of parents of preterm and other sick neonates. This distress, and the inevitable time constraints, compromise understanding and voluntariness, essential components of adequately informed consent. Current practice may be unjust in over-representing babies of more vulnerable and deprived parents. The research findings may thus not be generalisable. Informing parents antenatally about the possible need for emergency neonatal research, with presumed consent and scope for opting out, would address these problems. It would spare parents of sick neonates, already terrified by their baby's illness, further distress. Experience with opting out suggests that recruitment might increase, thus generating earlier results, without compromising parental understanding of the nature and purpose of the research.  (+info)

Sexualization of the doctor-patient relationship: is it ever ethically permissible? (4/33)

Whilst having sexual relationships with current patients is clearly unethical, the ethics of such a relationship between a doctor and former patient is more debatable. In this review of the current evidence, based on major articles listed in Medline and Bioethicsline in the past 15 years, the argument is made here that such relationships are almost always unethical due to the persistence of transference, the unequal power distribution in the original doctor-patient relationship and the ethical implications that arise from both these factors especially with respect to the patient's autonomy and ability to consent, even when a former patient. Only in very particular circumstances could such relationships be ethically permissible.  (+info)

HIV antibody testing: summary of BMA guidance.(5/33)

 (+info)

A necessary inhumanity? (6/33)

It is argued that the phrase "Necessary Inhumanity" more accurately describes the alienation required of doctors in some circumstances, than do modern sanitised coinages such as 'clinical detachment.' 'Detachment' and 'objectivity' imply separation, not engagement: creating distance not only from patients, but from the self: the process may well be required, but where it becomes too extreme or prolonged, it can damage everybody, including patients, family members, doctors themselves, and wider society. An awareness of the history of health care in the context of our society might assist self reflection--might help keep initiates in touch with the culture they have been induced to leave and might help them remain humane despite the bruising process of training.  (+info)

DNA databanks and consent: a suggested policy option involving an authorization model. (7/33)

BACKGROUND: Genetic databases are becoming increasingly common as a means of determining the relationship between lifestyle, environmental exposures and genetic diseases. These databases rely on large numbers of research subjects contributing their genetic material to successfully explore the genetic basis of disease. However, as all possible research questions that can be posed of the data are unknown, an unresolved ethical issue is the status of informed consent for future research uses of genetic material. DISCUSSION: In this paper, we discuss the difficulties of an informed consent model for future ineffable uses of genetic data. We argue that variations on consent, such as presumed consent, blanket consent or constructed consent fail to meet the standards required by current informed consent doctrine and are distortions of the original concept. In this paper, we propose the concept of an authorization model whereby participants in genetic data banks are able to exercise a certain amount of control over future uses of genetic data. We argue this preserves the autonomy of individuals at the same time as allowing them to give permission and discretion to researchers for certain types of research. SUMMARY: The authorization model represents a step forward in the debate about informed consent in genetic databases. The move towards an authorization model would require changes in the regulatory and legislative environments. Additionally, empirical support of the utility and acceptability of authorization is required.  (+info)

Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey? (8/33)

In the wake of scandals about the unauthorised retention of organs following postmortem examination, the issue of valid consent (or the lack of it) has returned to the forefront. Emphasis is put on obtaining explicit authorisation from the patient or family prior to any medical intervention, including those involving the dead. Although the controversies in the UK arose from the retention of human material for education or research rather than therapy, concern has been expressed that public mistrust could also adversely affect organ donation for transplantation. At the same time, however, the British Medical Association (BMA) continues to call for a shift to a system of presumed consent for organ transplantation. This apparent inconsistency can be justified because valid distinctions exist between the reasons requiring explicit consent for retention and the acceptability of presumed consent for transplantation. This paper argues for introducing a system of presumed consent for organ donation, given the overwhelming expressions of public support for transplantation. Ongoing legislative review in the UK provides an ideal chance to alter the default position to one where potential donors can simply acquiesce or opt out of donation. Combined with consultation with their relatives, this could be a much better method of realising individuals' wishes. It would also achieve a better balance between the duties owed to the deceased and those owed to people awaiting a transplant.  (+info)

Informed consent is a process in medical care where patients are provided with all relevant information about their health status, proposed treatments, potential risks and benefits, and alternative options. This allows patients to make informed decisions regarding their healthcare and understand the consequences of their choices. The process includes ensuring that the patient has adequate mental capacity to make such decisions, is fully aware of the implications, and gives their voluntary agreement for the proposed treatment or procedure. It's a fundamental principle in medical ethics and is required by law in many jurisdictions to protect patients' rights.

Consent forms are documents used in medical settings to obtain a patient's voluntary and informed agreement to undergo a specific medical procedure, treatment, or participate in research. These forms typically outline the nature of the proposed intervention, its purpose, risks, benefits, alternatives, and any potential complications or side effects. The patient is provided with sufficient time and opportunity to ask questions, seek clarification, and discuss concerns with their healthcare provider before making a decision. By signing the consent form, the patient acknowledges that they have been fully informed about the proposed intervention and understand its implications. Consent forms serve as legal records of the patient's authorization for the medical procedure or treatment, protecting both the patient and the healthcare provider in case of any disputes or complications.

Presumed consent, in the context of medical and transplantation law, refers to a policy or practice where it is assumed that an individual gives consent for organ donation after death, unless they have explicitly opted out or expressed their objection prior to their death. This means that if there is no clear evidence of the deceased person's wishes regarding organ donation, it is presumed that they would have wanted to donate their organs to help save lives. Presumed consent systems aim to increase the number of available organs for transplantation and reduce the need for potential recipients to wait on transplant lists. However, such policies can be controversial, as they rely on assumptions about a deceased person's wishes, which may not always align with their true intentions or beliefs.

Parental consent refers to the legal right and obligation of parents or guardians to make decisions on behalf of a minor child, including providing authorization for medical treatment. The specific requirements for parental consent may vary depending on jurisdiction, but generally, it involves providing written permission for a medical procedure or treatment after being fully informed about the nature, risks, benefits, and alternatives of the proposed care.

In some cases, parental consent may be required for routine medical procedures, while in other situations, it may only be necessary for more invasive or higher-risk treatments. Healthcare providers must obtain appropriate parental consent before performing medical procedures on minors to ensure that they are acting within the bounds of the law and protecting the best interests of their patients.

It's important to note that in some circumstances, such as when a minor is mature enough to make their own healthcare decisions or if seeking treatment for certain sensitive issues (such as reproductive health), parental consent may not be required, and the minor may be able to provide informed consent themselves.

Third-party consent is a legal concept in medical law that refers to a situation where a person who is not the patient or healthcare provider grants permission for medical treatment or release of confidential medical information about the patient. This typically occurs when the patient is unable to make decisions for themselves due to incapacity, such as being unconscious or having a mental illness.

The third party may be a legally appointed guardian, a close family member, or someone else who has been given legal authority to make healthcare decisions on behalf of the patient. It's important to note that laws regarding third-party consent vary by jurisdiction and can be subject to specific requirements and limitations.

In general, medical professionals are required to ensure that any third-party consent is informed, voluntary, and meets the legal standards for decision-making authority before proceeding with treatment or releasing confidential information.

Mental competency, also known as mental capacity, is a legal term that refers to a person's ability to make informed decisions and understand the nature and consequences of their actions. In a medical context, mental competency is often assessed in patients who are making decisions about their own medical care, such as whether to consent to a particular treatment or procedure.

A determination of mental competency typically involves an evaluation of a person's ability to:

* Understand and retain information about their medical condition and the proposed treatment
* Evaluate the risks and benefits of different treatment options
* Make and communicate a clear and consistent decision based on this information
* Understand the potential consequences of their decision

Mental competency can be affected by various factors, including mental illness, cognitive impairment, substance abuse, or developmental disabilities. A healthcare provider may seek a formal evaluation of a patient's mental competency if there are concerns about their ability to make informed decisions about their care. This evaluation may involve input from psychiatrists, psychologists, or other mental health professionals.

It is important to note that mental competency is not the same as legal competency, which refers to a person's ability to understand and participate in legal proceedings. A person may be deemed mentally competent for medical purposes but not for legal purposes, or vice versa.

In medical and legal contexts, a minor is a person who has not yet reached the age of majority. The age of majority varies depending on the jurisdiction but is generally 18 or 21 years old. Minors are considered to be legally incompetent to make certain decisions for themselves, such as consenting to medical treatment or signing a contract. Therefore, in healthcare settings, minors typically require the consent of a parent or guardian before receiving medical care, except in specific circumstances where the minor is deemed mature enough to make their own decisions (e.g., emancipated minors).

A research subject, also commonly referred to as a "human subject" or "participant," is an individual who takes part in a research study or clinical trial. Research subjects are essential for the advancement of medical and scientific knowledge, as they provide data that can help researchers understand various phenomena, develop new treatments, and improve existing ones.

The term "research subject" emphasizes the ethical considerations involved in conducting research with human participants. It highlights the importance of protecting their rights, dignity, and well-being throughout the study. Researchers must obtain informed consent from subjects before enrolling them in a study, ensuring that they understand the purpose, procedures, potential risks, and benefits associated with the research.

Additionally, researchers are required to follow strict guidelines and regulations to minimize any harm or discomfort to the research subjects during the study. These guidelines may include requirements for data confidentiality, privacy protection, and monitoring of adverse events. Overall, treating research subjects with respect and care is crucial in maintaining the integrity of medical research and ensuring its societal benefits.

Informed consent is the process by which a person voluntarily confirms their understanding and agreement to a proposed medical intervention, treatment, or experiment. In the case of minors (individuals who have not yet reached the legal age of majority), informed consent can be more complex.

Informed consent by minors refers to the concept that, under certain circumstances, minors may have the capacity to provide informed consent for their own medical treatment. This is based on the principle that individuals have the right to make decisions about their own health and bodies, even if they are not yet legally adults.

The specifics of informed consent by minors can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the individual's circumstances. In some cases, a minor may be able to provide informed consent if they are deemed mature enough to understand the nature and consequences of the proposed medical intervention. This is often referred to as "emancipated minor" status.

In other cases, a minor may not have the capacity to provide informed consent, and permission must be sought from a parent or guardian. However, in emergency situations where seeking permission from a parent or guardian is not possible or would cause undue delay, healthcare providers may provide necessary medical treatment without prior consent.

Overall, informed consent by minors involves a careful assessment of the individual's capacity to understand and make decisions about their own medical care, taking into account their age, development, maturity, and other relevant factors.

Nontherapeutic human experimentation refers to medical research studies in which the primary goal is not to directly benefit the participants, but rather to advance scientific knowledge or develop new medical technologies. These studies often involve some level of risk or discomfort for the participants, and may include the administration of experimental treatments, procedures, or interventions.

Nontherapeutic human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials, observational studies, and other types of research involving human subjects. In these studies, researchers must carefully weigh the potential benefits of the research against the risks to the participants, and ensure that all participants are fully informed of the nature of the study, its purposes, and any potential risks or benefits before providing their consent to participate.

It's important to note that nontherapeutic human experimentation is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, designed to protect the rights and welfare of research participants. These guidelines and regulations are intended to ensure that all research involving human subjects is conducted in a responsible and ethical manner, with the goal of advancing scientific knowledge while minimizing harm to participants.

Human experimentation is a branch of medical research that involves conducting experiments on human subjects. According to the World Medical Association's Declaration of Helsinki, which sets ethical standards for medical research involving human subjects, human experimentation is defined as "systematic study designed to develop or contribute to generalizable knowledge."

Human experimentation can take many forms, including clinical trials of new drugs or medical devices, observational studies, and interventional studies. In all cases, the principles of informed consent, risk minimization, and respect for the autonomy and dignity of the research subjects must be strictly adhered to.

Human experimentation has a controversial history, with many instances of unethical practices and abuse, such as the notorious Tuskegee syphilis study in which African American men were deliberately left untreated for syphilis without their informed consent. As a result, there are strict regulations and guidelines governing human experimentation to ensure that it is conducted ethically and with the utmost respect for the rights and welfare of research subjects.

Research ethics refers to the principles and guidelines that govern the conduct of research involving human participants or animals. The overarching goal of research ethics is to ensure that research is conducted in a way that respects the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of all those involved. Research ethics are designed to prevent harm, promote fairness, and maintain trust between researchers and study participants.

Some key principles of research ethics include:

1. Respect for Persons: This means treating all individuals with respect and dignity, and recognizing their autonomy and right to make informed decisions about participating in research.
2. Beneficence: Researchers have a duty to maximize the benefits of research while minimizing potential harms.
3. Justice: Research should be conducted fairly, without discrimination or bias, and should benefit all those who are affected by it.
4. Confidentiality: Researchers must protect the privacy and confidentiality of study participants, including their personal information and data.
5. Informed Consent: Participants must give their voluntary and informed consent to participate in research, after being fully informed about the nature of the study, its risks and benefits, and their rights as a participant.

Research ethics are typically overseen by institutional review boards (IRBs) or research ethics committees (RECs), which review research proposals and monitor ongoing studies to ensure that they comply with ethical guidelines. Researchers who violate these guidelines may face sanctions, including loss of funding, suspension or revocation of their research privileges, or legal action.

In medical terms, disclosure generally refers to the act of revealing or sharing confidential or sensitive information with another person or entity. This can include disclosing a patient's medical history, diagnosis, treatment plan, or other personal health information to the patient themselves, their family members, or other healthcare providers involved in their care.

Disclosure is an important aspect of informed consent, as patients have the right to know their medical condition and the risks and benefits of various treatment options. Healthcare providers are required to disclose relevant information to their patients in a clear and understandable manner, so that they can make informed decisions about their healthcare.

In some cases, disclosure may also be required by law or professional ethical standards, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of injuries or illnesses, or when there is a concern for patient safety. It is important for healthcare providers to carefully consider the potential risks and benefits of disclosure in each individual case, and to ensure that they are acting in the best interests of their patients while also protecting their privacy and confidentiality.

Comprehension, in a medical context, usually refers to the ability to understand and interpret spoken or written language, as well as gestures and expressions. It is a key component of communication and cognitive functioning. Difficulties with comprehension can be a symptom of various neurological conditions, such as aphasia (a disorder caused by damage to the language areas of the brain), learning disabilities, or dementia. Assessment of comprehension is often part of neuropsychological evaluations and speech-language pathology assessments.

"Personal Autonomy" is not a medical term per se, but it is often used in medical ethics and patient care. It refers to the ability of an individual to make informed decisions about their own health and healthcare, based on their own values, beliefs, and preferences, without undue influence or coercion from others. This includes the right to accept or refuse medical treatment, to maintain confidentiality, and to participate in shared decision-making with healthcare providers. Personal autonomy is recognized as a fundamental principle in medical ethics and patient rights, and is protected by laws and regulations in many countries.

A Biological Specimen Bank, also known as a biobank or tissue bank, is a type of medical facility that collects, stores, and distributes biological samples for research purposes. These samples can include tissues, cells, DNA, blood, and other bodily fluids, and are often collected during medical procedures or from donors who have given their informed consent. The samples are then cataloged and stored in specialized conditions to preserve their quality and integrity.

Biobanks play a critical role in advancing medical research by providing researchers with access to large numbers of well-characterized biological samples. This allows them to study the underlying causes of diseases, develop new diagnostic tests and treatments, and evaluate the safety and effectiveness of drugs and other therapies. Biobanks may be established for specific research projects or as part of larger, more comprehensive efforts to build biomedical research infrastructure.

It is important to note that the use of biological specimens in research is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, which are designed to protect the privacy and interests of donors and ensure that the samples are used responsibly and for legitimate scientific purposes.

Therapeutic human experimentation, also known as clinical research or clinical trials, is a branch of medical research that involves the testing of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or procedures on human subjects. The goal of this type of research is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of these interventions in order to determine whether they should be approved for use in clinical practice.

The term "therapeutic" is used to distinguish this type of research from non-therapeutic research, which does not involve direct medical benefit to the participant. In therapeutic human experimentation, participants may receive some potential direct medical benefit from their participation, although they may also experience risks or side effects.

Therapeutic human experimentation is subject to strict ethical guidelines and regulations, including informed consent, risk-benefit analysis, and independent review by ethics committees or institutional review boards (IRBs). These safeguards are designed to protect the rights and welfare of research participants and ensure that the research is conducted in a responsible and transparent manner.

Medical ethics is a branch of ethics that deals with moral issues in medical care, research, and practice. It provides a framework for addressing questions related to patient autonomy, informed consent, confidentiality, distributive justice, beneficentia (doing good), and non-maleficence (not doing harm). Medical ethics also involves the application of ethical principles such as respect for persons, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice to specific medical cases and situations. It is a crucial component of medical education and practice, helping healthcare professionals make informed decisions that promote patient well-being while respecting their rights and dignity.

An Ethics Committee for Research, also known as an Institutional Review Board (IRB), is a group that has been formally designated to review, approve, monitor, and revise biomedical and behavioral research involving humans. The purpose of the committee is to ensure that the rights and welfare of the participants are protected and that the risks involved in the research are minimized and reasonable in relation to the anticipated benefits.

The committee typically includes members with various backgrounds, including scientists, non-scientists, and community members. They review the research protocol, informed consent documents, and any other relevant materials to ensure that they meet ethical standards and regulations. The committee also monitors the progress of the research to ensure that it continues to be conducted in an ethical manner.

The role of ethics committees for research is critical in protecting human subjects from harm and ensuring that research is conducted with integrity, respect, and transparency.

"Refusal to Participate" is not a medical term per se, but it can be used in a medical context to describe a situation where a patient declines to undergo a recommended medical procedure, treatment, or testing. This decision is typically made after the healthcare provider has explained the risks, benefits, and alternatives of the proposed intervention, and the patient has been given ample opportunity to ask questions and seek additional information.

The reasons for refusal to participate can vary widely, from personal beliefs and values, fear or anxiety about the procedure, mistrust of the medical system, perceived lack of necessity, financial constraints, or concerns about potential side effects or complications. It is essential for healthcare providers to respect patients' autonomy and decision-making capacity, even if they disagree with the refusal. In such cases, it is crucial to document the refusal in the medical record, discuss the consequences of not undergoing the recommended intervention, and provide ongoing support and care as appropriate.

Confidentiality is a legal and ethical principle in medicine that refers to the obligation of healthcare professionals to protect the personal and sensitive information of their patients. This information, which can include medical history, diagnosis, treatment plans, and other private details, is shared between the patient and the healthcare provider with the expectation that it will be kept confidential and not disclosed to third parties without the patient's consent.

Confidentiality is a fundamental component of the trust relationship between patients and healthcare providers, as it helps to ensure that patients feel safe and comfortable sharing sensitive information with their doctors, nurses, and other members of their healthcare team. It also helps to protect patients' privacy rights and uphold their autonomy in making informed decisions about their healthcare.

There are some limited circumstances in which confidentiality may be breached, such as when there is a legal obligation to report certain types of information (e.g., suspected child abuse or neglect), or when the disclosure is necessary to protect the health and safety of the patient or others. However, these exceptions are typically narrowly defined and subject to strict guidelines and safeguards to ensure that confidentiality is protected as much as possible.

Genetic research is a branch of biomedical science that involves the study of genes, their functions, and heredity. It aims to understand how genetic variations contribute to human health and disease by using various scientific approaches such as genetics, genomics, molecular biology, biochemistry, and bioinformatics.

Genetic research can be conducted on humans, animals, or plants, and it can focus on a variety of areas including:

1. Identifying genes associated with specific diseases or traits
2. Understanding how genes are regulated and expressed
3. Investigating the role of genetic mutations in disease development
4. Developing new diagnostic tests and treatments based on genetic information
5. Exploring evolutionary relationships between species
6. Examining ethical, legal, and social implications of genetic research.

Genetic research has led to significant advances in our understanding of many diseases, including cancer, diabetes, heart disease, and neurological disorders. It also holds great promise for personalized medicine, which tailors treatments to individual patients based on their genetic makeup.

Child advocacy refers to the act or process of advocating, supporting, or defending the rights and interests of children, particularly those who are vulnerable or at risk due to abuse, neglect, poverty, discrimination, or other challenging circumstances. Child advocacy can take many forms, including:

1. Direct services: Providing support and assistance to individual children and families, such as counseling, case management, legal representation, and medical care.
2. Systems reform: Working to change laws, policies, and practices that affect the lives of children, such as advocating for stronger child abuse reporting laws or better funding for child welfare services.
3. Education and awareness-raising: Providing information and resources to communities, professionals, and policymakers about the needs and rights of children, with the goal of promoting positive attitudes and behaviors towards children and families.
4. Research and evaluation: Conducting studies and evaluations to better understand the effectiveness of child advocacy interventions and to inform policy and practice.

Child advocates may work in a variety of settings, including nonprofit organizations, government agencies, schools, hospitals, and legal clinics. They may also be volunteers or community members who are committed to promoting the well-being of children.

Patient rights refer to the ethical principles, legal regulations, and professional guidelines that protect and ensure the autonomy, dignity, and well-being of patients during healthcare encounters. These rights encompass various aspects of patient care, including informed consent, privacy, confidentiality, access to medical records, freedom from abuse and discrimination, pain management, and communication with healthcare providers.

The specific components of patient rights may vary depending on the jurisdiction and legal framework but generally include:

1. Right to receive information: Patients have the right to obtain accurate, clear, and comprehensive information about their health status, diagnosis, treatment options, benefits, risks, and prognosis in a manner they can understand. This includes the right to ask questions and seek clarification.
2. Informed consent: Patients have the right to make informed decisions about their care based on complete and accurate information. They must be given sufficient time and support to consider their options and provide voluntary, informed consent before any treatment or procedure is performed.
3. Privacy and confidentiality: Patients have the right to privacy during medical examinations and treatments. Healthcare providers must protect patients' personal and medical information from unauthorized access, disclosure, or use.
4. Access to medical records: Patients have the right to access their medical records and obtain copies of them in a timely manner. They can also request amendments to their records if they believe there are errors or inaccuracies.
5. Freedom from discrimination: Patients have the right to receive care without discrimination based on race, ethnicity, national origin, religion, sex, sexual orientation, gender identity, age, disability, or socioeconomic status.
6. Pain management: Patients have the right to appropriate pain assessment and management, including access to palliative and hospice care when appropriate.
7. Refusal of treatment: Patients have the right to refuse any treatment or procedure, even if it may be life-saving, as long as they are competent to make that decision and understand the consequences.
8. Communication and language assistance: Patients have the right to clear, effective communication with their healthcare providers, including access to interpreters or other necessary language assistance services.
9. Respect and dignity: Patients have the right to be treated with respect, dignity, and consideration during all aspects of their care.
10. Complaint resolution: Patients have the right to voice concerns about their care and receive timely responses from healthcare providers or institutions. They also have the right to file complaints with regulatory bodies if necessary.

Beneficence is a principle in medical ethics that means to act in the best interest of the patient. It involves providing benefits and balancing benefits against risks and harms. Healthcare providers are expected to promote well-being, prevent harm, and remove harmful conditions for their patients. Beneficence also includes considerations such as respecting autonomy, being honest and transparent, and ensuring fairness and justice in the provision of healthcare.

Biomedical research is a branch of scientific research that involves the study of biological processes and diseases in order to develop new treatments and therapies. This type of research often involves the use of laboratory techniques, such as cell culture and genetic engineering, as well as clinical trials in humans. The goal of biomedical research is to advance our understanding of how living organisms function and to find ways to prevent and treat various medical conditions. It encompasses a wide range of disciplines, including molecular biology, genetics, immunology, pharmacology, and neuroscience, among others. Ultimately, the aim of biomedical research is to improve human health and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Judicial Role" is not a term that is typically used in medical definitions. It is a legal term that refers to the role and responsibilities of a judge in the administration of justice. This includes presiding over trials, interpreting and applying laws, and ensuring fair and impartial proceedings.

Paternalism, in the context of medical ethics, refers to the practice of healthcare providers making decisions for their patients without obtaining their consent, due to the belief that they know what is best for the patient. This approach can be seen as patronizing and disempowering, as it does not take into account the autonomy and preferences of the patient.

Paternalism can manifest in various forms, such as withholding information from patients, making treatment decisions without consulting them, or coercing patients to follow a particular course of action. While paternalistic attitudes may stem from a desire to protect patients, they can also undermine trust and lead to poorer health outcomes.

Modern medical ethics emphasizes the importance of informed consent, shared decision-making, and respect for patient autonomy, all of which are seen as essential components of ethical healthcare practice.

A legal guardian is an individual who has been appointed by a court to make decisions on behalf of a minor child or an adult who is incapacitated and unable to make decisions for themselves. The legal guardian is responsible for ensuring the well-being and safety of the person in their care, and may be responsible for making decisions related to their education, medical treatment, financial affairs, and living arrangements.

In the context of medical care, a legal guardian may be asked to make important decisions about a patient's treatment, such as whether to consent to surgery or other medical procedures. They may also be responsible for ensuring that the patient receives appropriate medical care and follows through with recommended treatments.

It is important to note that the specific powers and responsibilities of a legal guardian can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the individual circumstances of the case. In general, however, a legal guardian is expected to act in the best interests of the person they are responsible for caring for.

Clinical ethics refers to the branch of applied ethics that deals with ethical issues in clinical settings, such as hospitals and other healthcare facilities. It involves the application of moral principles and values to decision-making in clinical practice, with the aim of promoting patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice.

Clinical ethics often involves addressing complex ethical dilemmas that arise in the context of patient care, such as end-of-life decisions, informed consent, confidentiality, resource allocation, and research involving human subjects. Clinical ethicists may work as part of an institutional ethics committee or provide consultation services to healthcare providers, patients, and families facing ethical challenges.

The principles of clinical ethics are grounded in respect for patient autonomy, which includes the right to make informed decisions about their own care. Beneficence refers to the obligation to act in the best interests of the patient, while non-maleficence involves avoiding harm to the patient. Justice requires fair and equitable distribution of healthcare resources and respect for the rights and dignity of all patients.

Effective clinical ethics decision-making also involves careful consideration of contextual factors, such as cultural differences, religious beliefs, and social values, that may influence ethical judgments in particular cases. Clinical ethicists use a variety of methods to analyze ethical issues, including case consultation, ethical analysis frameworks, and moral deliberation processes that involve all stakeholders in the decision-making process.

Patient advocacy refers to the process of supporting and empowering patients to make informed decisions about their healthcare. Patient advocates may help patients communicate with healthcare providers, access necessary resources and services, understand their health conditions and treatment options, and navigate complex healthcare systems. They may also work to promote patient-centered care, raise awareness of patient rights and concerns, and advocate for policies that improve the quality and accessibility of healthcare services. Patient advocacy can be provided by healthcare professionals, family members, friends, or dedicated patient advocates.

Tissue and organ procurement is the process of obtaining viable tissues and organs from deceased or living donors for the purpose of transplantation, research, or education. This procedure is performed by trained medical professionals in a sterile environment, adhering to strict medical standards and ethical guidelines. The tissues and organs that can be procured include hearts, lungs, livers, kidneys, pancreases, intestines, corneas, skin, bones, tendons, and heart valves. The process involves a thorough medical evaluation of the donor, as well as consent from the donor or their next of kin. After procurement, the tissues and organs are preserved and transported to recipients in need.

A Tissue Bank is a specialized facility that collects, stores, and distributes human tissues for medical research, transplantation, or therapeutic purposes. These tissues can include organs, bones, skin, heart valves, tendons, and other bodily tissues that can be used for various medical applications.

Tissue banks follow strict regulations and guidelines to ensure the safety and quality of the tissues they handle. They implement rigorous screening and testing procedures to minimize the risk of disease transmission and maintain the integrity of the tissues. The tissues are stored under specific conditions, such as temperature and humidity, to preserve their function and viability until they are needed for use.

Tissue banks play a critical role in advancing medical research and improving patient outcomes by providing researchers and clinicians with access to high-quality human tissues for study and transplantation.

Decision-making is the cognitive process of selecting a course of action from among multiple alternatives. In a medical context, decision-making refers to the process by which healthcare professionals and patients make choices about medical tests, treatments, or management options based on a thorough evaluation of available information, including the patient's preferences, values, and circumstances.

The decision-making process in medicine typically involves several steps:

1. Identifying the problem or issue that requires a decision.
2. Gathering relevant information about the patient's medical history, current condition, diagnostic test results, treatment options, and potential outcomes.
3. Considering the benefits, risks, and uncertainties associated with each option.
4. Evaluating the patient's preferences, values, and goals.
5. Selecting the most appropriate course of action based on a careful weighing of the available evidence and the patient's individual needs and circumstances.
6. Communicating the decision to the patient and ensuring that they understand the rationale behind it, as well as any potential risks or benefits.
7. Monitoring the outcomes of the decision and adjusting the course of action as needed based on ongoing evaluation and feedback.

Effective decision-making in medicine requires a thorough understanding of medical evidence, clinical expertise, and patient preferences. It also involves careful consideration of ethical principles, such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. Ultimately, the goal of decision-making in healthcare is to promote the best possible outcomes for patients while minimizing harm and respecting their individual needs and values.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "public opinion" is not a term that has a medical definition. Public opinion refers to the collective views, attitudes, and beliefs held by a group or society about a particular issue or topic. It is typically formed through interaction, discussion, and various forms of communication within a community or population. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medicine, I'd be happy to help with those!

Patient participation refers to the active involvement of patients in their own healthcare process. This includes:

1. Making informed decisions about their health and treatment options in partnership with healthcare professionals.
2. Communicating effectively with healthcare providers to ensure their needs, preferences, and values are taken into account.
3. Monitoring their own health status and seeking appropriate care when needed.
4. Providing feedback on the quality of care they receive to help improve healthcare services.

Patient participation is considered a key component of patient-centered care, which aims to treat patients as whole persons with unique needs, values, and preferences, rather than simply treating their medical conditions. It is also an essential element of shared decision-making, where patients and healthcare providers work together to make informed decisions based on the best available evidence and the patient's individual circumstances.

"Researcher-Subject Relations" generally refers to the interactions and relationship between researchers (including scientists, clinicians, and social scientists) and the individuals who participate in research studies as subjects or participants. This relationship is governed by ethical principles that aim to protect the rights and welfare of research subjects, while also allowing for the production of valid and reliable research findings.

The Belmont Report, a foundational document in the ethics of human subjects research in the United States, outlines three key ethical principles that should guide researcher-subject relations: respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. These principles require researchers to obtain informed consent from potential research subjects, to minimize risks and maximize benefits, and to ensure fairness in the selection and treatment of research subjects.

Researcher-subject relations can take many forms, depending on the nature of the research and the characteristics of the research subjects. In some cases, research subjects may be patients who are receiving medical care, while in other cases they may be healthy volunteers who are participating in a study for compensation or other incentives. Researchers must be transparent about the purposes of the research, the potential risks and benefits, and the rights and responsibilities of research subjects, and must ensure that these issues are communicated in a clear and understandable manner.

Effective researcher-subject relations require trust, respect, and communication, as well as an understanding of the ethical principles and regulations that govern human subjects research. By building strong relationships with research subjects, researchers can help to ensure that their studies are conducted ethically and responsibly, while also producing valuable insights and knowledge that can benefit society as a whole.

Bioethical issues refer to the ethical dilemmas and challenges that arise in biological research, healthcare, and medical technology. These issues often involve conflicts between scientific or medical advancements and moral, social, legal, and cultural values. Examples of bioethical issues include:

1. End-of-life care: Decisions about life-sustaining treatments, such as artificial nutrition and hydration, mechanical ventilation, and do-not-resuscitate orders, can raise ethical questions about the quality of life, patient autonomy, and the role of healthcare providers.
2. Genetic testing and screening: The use of genetic information for medical decision-making, predictive testing, and reproductive choices can have significant implications for individuals, families, and society, raising concerns about privacy, discrimination, and informed consent.
3. Organ transplantation: Issues surrounding organ donation and allocation, such as fairness, scarcity, and the definition of death, can create ethical dilemmas that require careful consideration of medical, legal, and moral principles.
4. Stem cell research: The use of embryonic stem cells for research and therapy raises questions about the moral status of embryos, potential therapeutic benefits, and the role of government in regulating scientific research.
5. Assisted reproductive technologies (ART): Techniques such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), surrogacy, and gamete donation can challenge traditional notions of family, parenthood, and reproduction, leading to debates about the rights and interests of children, parents, and society.
6. Mental health treatment: The use of psychotropic medications, electroconvulsive therapy (ECT), and other interventions for mental illness can raise concerns about patient autonomy, informed consent, and the balance between therapeutic benefits and potential risks.
7. Public health emergencies: Responses to infectious disease outbreaks, bioterrorism, and other public health crises can involve difficult decisions about resource allocation, individual rights, and the role of government in protecting population health.
8. Research involving human subjects: The ethical conduct of clinical trials, observational studies, and other research that involves human participants requires careful consideration of issues such as informed consent, risk-benefit analysis, and respect for participant autonomy and privacy.
9. Health care access and financing: Debates about health care reform, insurance coverage, and affordability can raise questions about the role of government in ensuring access to essential medical services, the balance between individual rights and social responsibility, and the ethical implications of rationing limited resources.
10. Global health ethics: Issues such as international cooperation, resource distribution, and cultural sensitivity can challenge traditional notions of global justice, human rights, and the responsibilities of wealthy nations to address health disparities in low- and middle-income countries.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "morals" is not a term that has a medical definition. Morals refer to personal or societal beliefs about right and wrong behavior. It is a concept that falls under the realm of ethics, philosophy, and sociology rather than medicine. If you have any questions related to medical terminologies or concepts, I would be happy to help clarify those for you.

"Truth disclosure" is not a standard term in medicine, but it may refer to the act of revealing or expressing the truth, particularly in the context of medical communication. This can include:

1. Informed Consent: Disclosing all relevant information about a medical treatment or procedure, including its risks and benefits, so that a patient can make an informed decision about their care.
2. Breaking Bad News: Communicating difficult medical news to patients honestly, clearly, and compassionately, such as telling a patient they have a serious illness.
3. Medical Error Disclosure: Admitting and explaining mistakes made in the course of medical treatment, including any harm that may have resulted.
4. Research Integrity: Disclosing all relevant information and conflicts of interest in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

The term "truth disclosure" is not commonly used in these contexts, but the principle of honesty and transparency in medical communication is a fundamental aspect of ethical medical practice.

Patient education, as defined by the US National Library of Medicine's Medical Subject Headings (MeSH), is "the teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs. It includes the patient's understanding of his or her condition and the necessary procedures for self, assisted, or professional care." This encompasses a wide range of activities and interventions aimed at helping patients and their families understand their medical conditions, treatment options, self-care skills, and overall health management. Effective patient education can lead to improved health outcomes, increased patient satisfaction, and better use of healthcare resources.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Moral Obligations" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. The term "moral obligations" is more related to ethics and philosophy, referring to the duties or actions that are considered right or wrong based on a set of moral principles or values.

However, in a broader sense, healthcare professionals may use the term "moral obligations" to refer to their professional responsibility and commitment to providing compassionate, respectful, and high-quality care to all patients, regardless of their background, beliefs, or circumstances. This concept is closely related to medical ethics and professionalism, which provide guidelines for ethical decision-making in clinical practice.

Clinical trials are research studies that involve human participants and are designed to evaluate the safety and efficacy of new medical treatments, drugs, devices, or behavioral interventions. The purpose of clinical trials is to determine whether a new intervention is safe, effective, and beneficial for patients, as well as to compare it with currently available treatments. Clinical trials follow a series of phases, each with specific goals and criteria, before a new intervention can be approved by regulatory authorities for widespread use.

Clinical trials are conducted according to a protocol, which is a detailed plan that outlines the study's objectives, design, methodology, statistical analysis, and ethical considerations. The protocol is developed and reviewed by a team of medical experts, statisticians, and ethicists, and it must be approved by an institutional review board (IRB) before the trial can begin.

Participation in clinical trials is voluntary, and participants must provide informed consent before enrolling in the study. Informed consent involves providing potential participants with detailed information about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, benefits, and alternatives, as well as their rights as research subjects. Participants can withdraw from the study at any time without penalty or loss of benefits to which they are entitled.

Clinical trials are essential for advancing medical knowledge and improving patient care. They help researchers identify new treatments, diagnostic tools, and prevention strategies that can benefit patients and improve public health. However, clinical trials also pose potential risks to participants, including adverse effects from experimental interventions, time commitment, and inconvenience. Therefore, it is important for researchers to carefully design and conduct clinical trials to minimize risks and ensure that the benefits outweigh the risks.

In the context of healthcare, privacy is often referred to as the state of being free from unauthorized intrusion or observation in regards to one's personal health information. This includes maintaining confidentiality, restricting access to only those who have a legitimate need for the information, and protecting the information from being shared, disclosed, or used inappropriately. It is a fundamental right of individuals and is essential for maintaining trust in the healthcare system.

A questionnaire in the medical context is a standardized, systematic, and structured tool used to gather information from individuals regarding their symptoms, medical history, lifestyle, or other health-related factors. It typically consists of a series of written questions that can be either self-administered or administered by an interviewer. Questionnaires are widely used in various areas of healthcare, including clinical research, epidemiological studies, patient care, and health services evaluation to collect data that can inform diagnosis, treatment planning, and population health management. They provide a consistent and organized method for obtaining information from large groups or individual patients, helping to ensure accurate and comprehensive data collection while minimizing bias and variability in the information gathered.

Treatment refusal, in a medical context, refers to the situation where a patient declines or denies recommended medical treatment or intervention for their health condition. This decision is made with full understanding and awareness of the potential consequences of not receiving the proposed medical care.

It's important to note that patients have the right to accept or refuse medical treatments based on their personal values, beliefs, and preferences. Healthcare providers must respect this right, while also ensuring that patients are well-informed about their health status, treatment options, and associated benefits, risks, and outcomes. In some cases, it might be necessary to explore the reasons behind the refusal and address any concerns or misconceptions the patient may have, in order to support informed decision-making.

A research design in medical or healthcare research is a systematic plan that guides the execution and reporting of research to address a specific research question or objective. It outlines the overall strategy for collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data to draw valid conclusions. The design includes details about the type of study (e.g., experimental, observational), sampling methods, data collection techniques, data analysis approaches, and any potential sources of bias or confounding that need to be controlled for. A well-defined research design helps ensure that the results are reliable, generalizable, and relevant to the research question, ultimately contributing to evidence-based practice in medicine and healthcare.

Physician-patient relations, also known as doctor-patient relationships, refer to the interaction and communication between healthcare professionals and their patients. This relationship is founded on trust, respect, and understanding, with the physician providing medical care and treatment based on the patient's needs and best interests. Effective physician-patient relations involve clear communication, informed consent, shared decision-making, and confidentiality. A positive and collaborative relationship can lead to better health outcomes, improved patient satisfaction, and increased adherence to treatment plans.

Mentally ill persons are individuals who have been diagnosed with a mental disorder or mental illness, which is characterized by a syndrome of symptoms that significantly interferes with their cognitive, emotional, and/or behavioral abilities. These disorders can range from mild to severe and may include conditions such as depression, anxiety disorders, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, and personality disorders, among others. It's important to note that a mental illness is not the same as intellectual disability or developmental disorder, although these conditions can also co-occur with mental illnesses.

Mentally ill persons require appropriate evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment from qualified mental health professionals to help them manage their symptoms and improve their quality of life. It's essential to approach mentally ill individuals with compassion, respect, and understanding, as stigma and discrimination can exacerbate their challenges and hinder their recovery.

Ethics committees, also known as institutional review boards (IRBs), are groups responsible for reviewing and approving research studies involving human subjects. The primary goal of these committees is to ensure that the rights and welfare of study participants are protected, and that the research is conducted in an ethical manner.

Ethics committees typically consist of a diverse group of individuals with expertise in various fields, such as medicine, law, ethics, and community representation. They review the proposed research protocol, informed consent documents, and other relevant materials to ensure that they meet ethical standards and regulations.

The committee assesses several key factors when reviewing a study, including:

1. Risks vs. benefits: The potential risks of the study must be minimized and reasonable in relation to the anticipated benefits.
2. Informed consent: Participants must be adequately informed about the study's purpose, procedures, risks, and benefits, and provide their voluntary consent.
3. Selection and recruitment: Participants should be selected fairly and without discrimination, and recruitment methods should be unbiased.
4. Confidentiality: The privacy and confidentiality of participants' information must be protected throughout the study.
5. Monitoring and reporting: There should be mechanisms in place for monitoring the study's progress and ensuring that any adverse events are reported and addressed promptly.

Ethics committees play a critical role in protecting human subjects and upholding ethical standards in research. They provide oversight and guidance to researchers, helping to ensure that studies are conducted with integrity and respect for participants' rights and welfare.

An ethical review is the process of evaluating and assessing a research study or project that involves human participants, medical interventions, or personal data, to ensure that it is conducted in accordance with ethical principles and standards. The purpose of an ethical review is to protect the rights and welfare of the participants and to minimize any potential harm or risks associated with the research.

The ethical review is typically conducted by an independent committee called an Institutional Review Board (IRB), Research Ethics Committee (REC), or Ethics Review Board (ERB). The committee reviews the study protocol, informed consent procedures, recruitment methods, data collection and management plans, and potential conflicts of interest.

The ethical review process is guided by several key principles, including respect for persons, beneficence, and justice. These principles require that researchers obtain informed consent from participants, avoid causing harm, minimize risks, maximize benefits, and ensure fairness in the selection and treatment of research participants.

Overall, an ethical review is a critical component of responsible conduct in research and helps to ensure that studies are conducted with integrity, transparency, and respect for the rights and welfare of human participants.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "Great Britain" is not a medical concept or condition. It is a geographical and political term referring to the largest island in the British Isles, on which the majority of England, Scotland, and Wales are located. It's also used to refer to the political union of these three countries, which is called the United Kingdom. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.

The "duty to warn" is a legal and ethical obligation that healthcare professionals have to inform their patients or others who may be at risk of harm from the actions or behaviors of their patient. This duty arises from the principle of non-maleficence, which requires doctors to avoid causing harm to their patients.

In the context of medical practice, the duty to warn typically applies when a patient has a mental illness or condition that makes them a danger to themselves or others. For example, if a psychiatrist determines that their patient poses a serious threat of violence to a specific individual, they may have a legal and ethical obligation to warn that person or take other steps to protect them from harm.

The specifics of the duty to warn can vary depending on the jurisdiction and the circumstances involved. In some cases, healthcare professionals may be required to report certain types of threats or behaviors to law enforcement authorities. Ultimately, the goal of the duty to warn is to prevent harm and promote the safety and well-being of patients and others who may be at risk.

In medical terms, "persons" is not a term that has a specific definition. It generally refers to an individual human being who is receiving medical care or attention. In legal and ethical contexts, the term "person" may refer more broadly to any entity (such as a corporation) that is recognized by law as having rights and responsibilities, but this usage is not typically found in medical discourse.

It's worth noting that there are some specific medical contexts where the term "person" may be used differently. For example, in discussions of end-of-life care or organ donation, the concept of "personhood" may be invoked to refer to the qualities or characteristics that make an individual human being unique and deserving of moral respect. However, these uses of the term are more philosophical than medical in nature.

Bioethics is a branch of ethics that deals with the ethical issues and dilemmas arising from biological and medical research and practices. It involves the study of moral principles, values, and conduct in relation to medicine, healthcare, biotechnology, and life sciences. The field of bioethics addresses questions and concerns related to topics such as end-of-life care, genetic engineering, cloning, stem cell research, organ donation, patient autonomy, informed consent, and the allocation of scarce medical resources. Bioethicists aim to provide guidance and recommendations for addressing these complex issues in a way that respects individual rights, promotes social justice, and upholds ethical integrity.

The Helsinki Declaration is not a medical definition, but rather it is a set of ethical principles that guide medical research involving human subjects. It was adopted by the 18th World Medical Assembly in Helsinki, Finland, in 1964 and has been revised several times since then, with the latest revision in 2013.

The Declaration outlines the responsibilities of physicians and researchers in conducting medical research and sets standards for the treatment of human subjects. It emphasizes the importance of respecting the autonomy and dignity of research participants, obtaining their informed consent, ensuring their safety and well-being, and protecting their privacy and confidentiality.

The Helsinki Declaration is widely regarded as a foundational document in medical ethics and has been endorsed by medical associations and research institutions around the world. It serves as a guide for researchers, ethical review committees, and regulatory bodies in ensuring that medical research is conducted in an ethical and responsible manner.

"Access to information," in a medical context, refers to the ability of individuals, patients, healthcare providers, and researchers to obtain, request, and disseminate health-related data, records, research findings, and other important information. This includes access to personal medical records, clinical trial results, evidence-based practices, and public health statistics.

Promoting access to information is crucial for informed decision-making, ensuring transparency, advancing medical research, improving patient care, and enhancing overall healthcare system performance. Various laws, regulations, and policies at the local, national, and international levels aim to protect and facilitate access to information while balancing privacy concerns, data security, and intellectual property rights.

Government regulation in the context of medicine refers to the rules, guidelines, and laws established by government agencies to control, monitor, and standardize various aspects of healthcare. These regulations are designed to protect patients, promote public health, ensure quality of care, and regulate the healthcare industry. Examples of government regulation in medicine include:

1. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regulations for drug approval, medical device clearance, and food safety.
2. Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services (CMS) regulations for healthcare reimbursement, quality measures, and program eligibility.
3. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) regulations for workplace safety in healthcare settings.
4. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) regulations to minimize environmental impacts from healthcare facilities and pharmaceutical manufacturing.
5. State medical boards' regulations for licensing, disciplining, and monitoring physicians and other healthcare professionals.
6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) regulations for patient privacy and data security.
7. Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments (CLIA) regulations for laboratory testing quality and standards.
8. Federal Trade Commission (FTC) regulations to prevent deceptive or unfair trade practices in healthcare marketing and advertising.
9. Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) guidelines for evidence-based practice and patient safety.
10. Public Health Service Act (PHSA) regulations related to infectious diseases, bioterrorism preparedness, and substance abuse treatment.

Selection bias is a type of statistical bias that occurs when the sample used in a study is not representative of the population as a whole, typically because of the way the sample was selected or because some members of the intended sample were excluded. This can lead to skewed or inaccurate results, as the sample may not accurately reflect the characteristics and behaviors of the entire population.

Selection bias can occur in various ways, such as through self-selection (when individuals choose whether or not to participate in a study), through the use of nonrandom sampling methods (such as convenience sampling or snowball sampling), or through the exclusion of certain groups or individuals from the sample. This type of bias is particularly problematic in observational studies, as it can be difficult to control for all of the factors that may influence the results.

To minimize the risk of selection bias, researchers often use random sampling methods (such as simple random sampling or stratified random sampling) to ensure that the sample is representative of the population. They may also take steps to increase the diversity of the sample and to reduce the likelihood of self-selection. By carefully designing and implementing their studies, researchers can help to minimize the impact of selection bias on their results and improve the validity and reliability of their findings.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Professional Staff Committees" is not a medical term or concept. Instead, it likely refers to committees made up of professional staff members in a hospital, healthcare organization, or other professional setting. These committees typically consist of department heads, managers, and other experienced professionals who collaborate on various aspects of organizational operations, such as policy-making, quality improvement, patient care standards, and staff development. They serve as platforms for discussion, decision-making, and problem-solving to ensure the smooth functioning and continuous improvement of the organization's services.

A conflict of interest (COI) is a situation in which a person or organization has dual loyalties or is in a position to exploit their professional or personal relationships for personal or institutional gain. In the medical field, COIs can arise when healthcare providers, researchers, or institutions have financial or other interests that may influence their judgment or actions in providing care, conducting research, or making recommendations.

Examples of conflicts of interest in medicine include:

* A physician who has a financial relationship with a pharmaceutical company and receives compensation for promoting the company's products to patients or colleagues.
* A researcher who owns stock in a company that is funding their study and may stand to benefit financially from positive results.
* An institution that accepts funding from industry partners for research or educational programs, which could potentially influence the outcomes of the research or bias the education provided.

COIs can compromise the integrity of medical research, patient care, and professional judgment. Therefore, it is essential to disclose and manage COIs transparently to maintain trust in the healthcare system and ensure that decisions are made in the best interests of patients and society as a whole.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Jurisprudence" is not a term typically used in medical definitions. Jurisprudence refers to the theory and philosophy of law, or the study of legal systems, principles, and practices. It is a subject that falls under the purview of lawyers, judges, and scholars of law. If you have any questions about medical terminology, I'd be happy to help with those!

Research personnel, in the context of medical and scientific research, refers to individuals who are involved in the design, conduct, or reporting of research studies. This can include, but is not limited to, principal investigators, co-investigators, research assistants, research coordinators, data managers, biostatisticians, and laboratory technicians. These individuals may have various levels of education, training, and expertise, and their roles and responsibilities will depend on the specific research study and their individual qualifications. It is important for research personnel to adhere to ethical guidelines and regulations in order to ensure the integrity and validity of research findings.

A tissue donor is an individual who has agreed to allow organs and tissues to be removed from their body after death for the purpose of transplantation to restore the health or save the life of another person. The tissues that can be donated include corneas, heart valves, skin, bone, tendons, ligaments, veins, and cartilage. These tissues can enhance the quality of life for many recipients and are often used in reconstructive surgeries. It is important to note that tissue donation does not interfere with an open casket funeral or other cultural or religious practices related to death and grieving.

In the medical context, communication refers to the process of exchanging information, ideas, or feelings between two or more individuals in order to facilitate understanding, cooperation, and decision-making. Effective communication is critical in healthcare settings to ensure that patients receive accurate diagnoses, treatment plans, and follow-up care. It involves not only verbal and written communication but also nonverbal cues such as body language and facial expressions.

Healthcare providers must communicate clearly and empathetically with their patients to build trust, address concerns, and ensure that they understand their medical condition and treatment options. Similarly, healthcare teams must communicate effectively with each other to coordinate care, avoid errors, and provide the best possible outcomes for their patients. Communication skills are essential for all healthcare professionals, including physicians, nurses, therapists, and social workers.

Legal liability, in the context of medical law, refers to a legal obligation or responsibility that a healthcare professional or facility may have for their actions or negligence that results in harm or injury to a patient. This can include failure to provide appropriate care, misdiagnosis, medication errors, or other breaches of the standard of care. If a healthcare provider is found to be legally liable, they may be required to pay damages to the injured party. It's important to note that legal liability is different from medical malpractice, which refers to a specific type of negligence committed by a healthcare professional.

In the context of medical terminology, "attitude" generally refers to the position or posture of a patient's body or a part of it. It can also refer to the mental set or disposition that a person has towards their health, illness, or healthcare providers. However, it is not a term that has a specific medical definition like other medical terminologies do.

For example, in orthopedics, "attitude" may be used to describe the position of a limb or joint during an examination or surgical procedure. In psychology, "attitude" may refer to a person's feelings, beliefs, and behaviors towards a particular object, issue, or idea related to their health.

Therefore, the meaning of "attitude" in medical terminology can vary depending on the context in which it is used.

Medical malpractice is a legal term that refers to the breach of the duty of care by a healthcare provider, such as a doctor, nurse, or hospital, resulting in harm to the patient. This breach could be due to negligence, misconduct, or a failure to provide appropriate treatment. The standard of care expected from healthcare providers is based on established medical practices and standards within the relevant medical community.

To prove medical malpractice, four key elements must typically be demonstrated:

1. Duty of Care: A healthcare provider-patient relationship must exist, establishing a duty of care.
2. Breach of Duty: The healthcare provider must have failed to meet the standard of care expected in their field or specialty.
3. Causation: The breach of duty must be directly linked to the patient's injury or harm.
4. Damages: The patient must have suffered harm, such as physical injury, emotional distress, financial loss, or other negative consequences due to the healthcare provider's actions or inactions.

Medical malpractice cases can result in significant financial compensation for the victim and may also lead to changes in medical practices and policies to prevent similar incidents from happening in the future.

Posthumous conception is a medical and reproductive procedure where an individual's sperm or egg, which have been retrieved and stored before their death, are used to create offspring after they have passed away. This may involve in vitro fertilization (IVF) techniques and the subsequent transfer of resulting embryos to a surrogate mother for gestation. It is important to note that this procedure raises various ethical, legal, and social issues that require careful consideration and regulation.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "parents" is not a term that has a medical definition. In general usage, parents are the two people (typically) who bring up and care for a child, or who have given birth to or adopted a child. They are responsible for the child's housing, food, clothing, education, and medical care. Is there a specific medical or healthcare-related context you had in mind? I would be happy to help further if I can.

'Vulnerable populations' is a term used in public health and medicine to refer to groups of individuals who are at a higher risk of negative health outcomes or have limited access to healthcare services. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors, including:

1. Age: Older adults and children, especially those with chronic medical conditions, are often considered vulnerable populations due to their increased susceptibility to illness and reduced ability to access care.
2. Race/Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities may face barriers to healthcare access, discrimination, and systemic inequities that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
3. Socioeconomic status: Individuals with low income, limited education, or unstable housing are more likely to experience health disparities due to reduced access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living environments.
4. Disability status: People with disabilities may face physical, communication, or attitudinal barriers that limit their ability to access healthcare services and contribute to poorer health outcomes.
5. Sexual orientation and gender identity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals often experience discrimination and stigma in healthcare settings, which can negatively impact their health and access to care.
6. Immigration status: Undocumented immigrants and refugees may face legal barriers to healthcare access, language barriers, and fear of deportation that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
7. Geographic location: Rural areas and urban "food deserts" often lack adequate healthcare resources and access, leading to health disparities for residents in these regions.
8. Incarceration status: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system may experience limited access to healthcare services and face unique health challenges related to their incarceration.
9. Mental health status: People with mental illness or substance use disorders are often considered vulnerable populations due to stigma, discrimination, and reduced access to quality care.

It is important to note that these factors can intersect and compound the vulnerabilities faced by individuals within these groups. Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations requires a comprehensive approach that addresses social determinants of health, systemic inequities, and barriers to healthcare access.

Ethics is a branch of philosophy that involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong conduct. In the medical field, ethics refers to the principles that guide doctors, nurses, and other healthcare professionals in making decisions about patient care. These principles often include respect for autonomy (the right of patients to make their own decisions), non-maleficence (doing no harm), beneficence (acting in the best interests of the patient), and justice (fairness in the distribution of resources). Medical ethics may also involve considerations of confidentiality, informed consent, and end-of-life decision making.

Emergency medicine is a medical specialty that focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of acute illnesses or injuries that require immediate medical attention. This can include conditions such as severe trauma, cardiac arrest, stroke, respiratory distress, and other life-threatening situations. Emergency medicine physicians, also known as emergency doctors or ER doctors, are trained to provide rapid assessment, diagnosis, and treatment in a fast-paced and often unpredictable environment. They work closely with other healthcare professionals, such as nurses, paramedics, and specialists, to ensure that patients receive the best possible care in a timely manner. Emergency medicine is a critical component of the healthcare system, providing essential services for patients who require immediate medical attention, 24 hours a day, 7 days a week.

A Patient Identification System is a type of healthcare software that is designed to accurately and reliably identify patients across various encounters, locations, and care settings within a healthcare organization or system. The primary goal of these systems is to ensure that each patient's health information is linked to the correct medical record, thereby reducing the risk of errors due to misidentification.

Patient Identification Systems typically use a variety of methods to identify patients, such as demographic data (e.g., name, date of birth, gender, address), biometric data (e.g., fingerprints, iris scans), and other unique identifiers (e.g., medical record numbers, health insurance numbers). These systems may also include features for matching patient records across different healthcare organizations or systems, as well as tools for reconciling discrepancies in patient information.

The use of Patient Identification Systems can help to improve the quality and safety of healthcare by reducing the risk of medical errors due to misidentification, enhancing the accuracy of clinical decision-making, and facilitating more effective communication and coordination of care among healthcare providers.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "trust" is a general concept and not a medical term with a specific definition. It can be used in various contexts, including healthcare relationships between patients and healthcare providers. In this context, trust refers to the confidence and reliance that patients have on the competence, professionalism, honesty, and integrity of their healthcare providers.

However, if you're looking for a medical term related to "trust," there is a psychological concept called "interpersonal trust" which can be assessed using the "Trust Scale." Interpersonal trust refers to an individual's general willingness to rely on and be vulnerable to others across various situations. This concept might be relevant in some medical or healthcare research contexts, particularly those involving patient-provider communication, adherence to treatment plans, and therapeutic relationships.

In a medical context, documentation refers to the process of recording and maintaining written or electronic records of a patient's health status, medical history, treatment plans, medications, and other relevant information. The purpose of medical documentation is to provide clear and accurate communication among healthcare providers, to support clinical decision-making, to ensure continuity of care, to meet legal and regulatory requirements, and to facilitate research and quality improvement initiatives.

Medical documentation typically includes various types of records such as:

1. Patient's demographic information, including name, date of birth, gender, and contact details.
2. Medical history, including past illnesses, surgeries, allergies, and family medical history.
3. Physical examination findings, laboratory and diagnostic test results, and diagnoses.
4. Treatment plans, including medications, therapies, procedures, and follow-up care.
5. Progress notes, which document the patient's response to treatment and any changes in their condition over time.
6. Consultation notes, which record communication between healthcare providers regarding a patient's care.
7. Discharge summaries, which provide an overview of the patient's hospital stay, including diagnoses, treatments, and follow-up plans.

Medical documentation must be clear, concise, accurate, and timely, and it should adhere to legal and ethical standards. Healthcare providers are responsible for maintaining the confidentiality of patients' medical records and ensuring that they are accessible only to authorized personnel.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

A randomized controlled trial (RCT) is a type of clinical study in which participants are randomly assigned to receive either the experimental intervention or the control condition, which may be a standard of care, placebo, or no treatment. The goal of an RCT is to minimize bias and ensure that the results are due to the intervention being tested rather than other factors. This design allows for a comparison between the two groups to determine if there is a significant difference in outcomes. RCTs are often considered the gold standard for evaluating the safety and efficacy of medical interventions, as they provide a high level of evidence for causal relationships between the intervention and health outcomes.

An "attitude to health" is a set of beliefs, values, and behaviors that an individual holds regarding their own health and well-being. It encompasses their overall approach to maintaining good health, preventing illness, seeking medical care, and managing any existing health conditions.

A positive attitude to health typically includes:

1. A belief in the importance of self-care and taking responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in regular exercise, eating a balanced diet, getting enough sleep, and avoiding harmful behaviors such as smoking and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Regular check-ups and screenings to detect potential health issues early on.
4. Seeking medical care when necessary and following recommended treatment plans.
5. A willingness to learn about and implement new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Developing a strong support network of family, friends, and healthcare professionals.

On the other hand, a negative attitude to health may involve:

1. Neglecting self-care and failing to take responsibility for one's own health.
2. Engaging in unhealthy behaviors such as sedentary lifestyle, poor diet, lack of sleep, smoking, and excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Avoidance of regular check-ups and screenings, leading to delayed detection and treatment of potential health issues.
4. Resistance to seeking medical care or following recommended treatment plans.
5. Closed-mindedness towards new healthy habits and lifestyle changes.
6. Lack of a support network or reluctance to seek help from others.

Overall, an individual's attitude to health can significantly impact their physical and mental well-being, as well as their ability to manage and overcome any health challenges that may arise.

I'm not able to provide a medical definition of "social responsibility" as it is not a term that has a specific meaning within the field of medicine. However, I can tell you that social responsibility generally refers to the idea that individuals and organizations have a duty to act in the best interests of society and to contribute to its overall well-being. This might involve taking actions to protect the environment, promote social justice, or support the needs of vulnerable populations. In a medical context, this could mean providing care to underserved communities, engaging in public health advocacy, or conducting research that addresses important societal issues.

I'm happy to help, but I must clarify that the term "voluntary programs" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a more general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to refer to initiatives or activities that individuals willingly choose to participate in.

In the context of healthcare and medicine, voluntary programs might include wellness initiatives, smoking cessation support groups, or community health education classes. These programs are typically designed to promote healthy behaviors, prevent illnesses, or manage existing medical conditions. Participants engage in these activities voluntarily, without any external pressure or coercion, and can choose to discontinue their involvement at any time.

It is essential to understand that the specifics of a "voluntary program" may vary depending on the context and setting. If you are looking for information about a particular type of voluntary program in healthcare or medicine, please provide more details so I can offer a more precise response.

I couldn't find a medical definition specifically for "professional-family relations," as it is more commonly referred to as "professional-patient relationship" in the medical field. However, I can provide you with the definition of professional-patient relationship:

A professional-patient relationship is a formal relationship between a healthcare provider and a patient, characterized by trust, honesty, and mutual respect. The healthcare provider has a duty to act in the best interest of the patient, providing competent and ethical care, while maintaining appropriate boundaries and confidentiality. Effective communication, shared decision-making, and informed consent are essential components of this relationship.

Family members may also be involved in the professional-patient relationship, particularly when the patient is unable to make decisions for themselves or when family involvement is necessary for the patient's care. In these cases, healthcare providers must communicate clearly and respectfully with family members while still maintaining the primary focus on the patient's needs and autonomy.

The term "family" in a medical context often refers to a group of individuals who are related by blood, marriage, or adoption and who consider themselves to be a single household. This can include spouses, parents, children, siblings, grandparents, and other extended family members. In some cases, the term may also be used more broadly to refer to any close-knit group of people who provide emotional and social support for one another, regardless of their biological or legal relationship.

In healthcare settings, understanding a patient's family dynamics can be important for providing effective care. Family members may be involved in decision-making about medical treatments, providing care and support at home, and communicating with healthcare providers. Additionally, cultural beliefs and values within families can influence health behaviors and attitudes towards medical care, making it essential for healthcare professionals to take a culturally sensitive approach when working with patients and their families.

In the context of medicine, a proxy is an individual who is authorized to make healthcare decisions on behalf of another person, also known as the principal, when the principal is unable to make or communicate their own decisions. This may be due to factors such as incapacity, illness, or injury. The proxy is typically appointed through legal documents such as advance directives, health care powers of attorney, or guardianship arrangements. It's important for individuals to establish clear advance care plans and choose a trusted proxy to ensure their healthcare wishes are respected when they cannot speak for themselves.

"Health Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices" (HKAP) is a term used in public health to refer to the knowledge, beliefs, assumptions, and behaviors that individuals possess or engage in that are related to health. Here's a brief definition of each component:

1. Health Knowledge: Refers to the factual information and understanding that individuals have about various health-related topics, such as anatomy, physiology, disease processes, and healthy behaviors.
2. Attitudes: Represent the positive or negative evaluations, feelings, or dispositions that people hold towards certain health issues, practices, or services. These attitudes can influence their willingness to adopt and maintain healthy behaviors.
3. Practices: Encompass the specific actions or habits that individuals engage in related to their health, such as dietary choices, exercise routines, hygiene practices, and use of healthcare services.

HKAP is a multidimensional concept that helps public health professionals understand and address various factors influencing individual and community health outcomes. By assessing and addressing knowledge gaps, negative attitudes, or unhealthy practices, interventions can be designed to promote positive behavior change and improve overall health status.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Human Rights" is a social, political, and legal concept, rather than a medical one. Human rights are basic rights and freedoms to which all individuals are entitled, regardless of nationality, sex, ethnicity, religion, language, or any other status. They include civil and political rights, such as the right to life, liberty, and freedom of expression; as well as social, cultural and economic rights, like the right to participate in culture, the right to food, and the right to work and receive an education.

However, in the context of healthcare, human rights are crucial. The Universal Declaration of Human Rights recognizes the right to medical care and the right to enjoy the highest attainable standard of physical and mental health. Healthcare providers have a responsibility to respect and protect their patients' human rights, ensuring that they receive care without discrimination, that their privacy is protected, and that they are involved in decisions regarding their healthcare.

Violations of human rights can significantly impact an individual's health and well-being, making the promotion and protection of human rights a critical public health issue.

AIDS serodiagnosis refers to the detection and confirmation of HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus) infection through the identification of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to the virus. These antibodies are typically detected in blood samples using various testing methods, such as ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay) and Western blot. A positive result in both tests indicates a high probability of HIV infection and progression to AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome), provided the individual has not been recently infected, as it may take several weeks for the antibodies to develop and become detectable. Regular testing and early diagnosis are crucial for timely medical intervention, treatment, and prevention of further transmission.

Genetic privacy is the right to control access to and use of one's genetic information. It refers to the protection of an individual's genetic data from unauthorized or unwanted disclosure, collection, storage, use, or dissemination. Genetic privacy is a subset of medical privacy and is becoming increasingly important as advances in genetic testing and research make it possible to identify and analyze an individual's DNA.

Genetic information can reveal sensitive personal details about an individual's health status, ancestry, and susceptibility to certain diseases. As such, the unauthorized disclosure or misuse of this information can have serious consequences for an individual's privacy, employment opportunities, insurance coverage, and overall well-being. Therefore, genetic privacy is a critical component of medical ethics and healthcare policy, and it is protected by various laws and regulations in many countries around the world.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Brain death is a legal and medical determination that an individual has died because their brain has irreversibly lost all functions necessary for life. It is characterized by the absence of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness to stimuli, and the inability to breathe without mechanical support. Brain death is different from a vegetative state or coma, where there may still be some brain activity.

The determination of brain death involves a series of tests and examinations to confirm the absence of brain function. These tests are typically performed by trained medical professionals and may include clinical assessments, imaging studies, and electroencephalograms (EEGs) to confirm the absence of electrical activity in the brain.

Brain death is an important concept in medicine because it allows for the organ donation process to proceed, potentially saving the lives of others. In many jurisdictions, brain death is legally equivalent to cardiopulmonary death, which means that once a person has been declared brain dead, they are considered deceased and their organs can be removed for transplantation.

Professional ethics in the medical field are a set of principles that guide physicians and other healthcare professionals in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and society. These ethical standards are based on values such as respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice. They help to ensure that medical professionals provide high-quality care that is safe, effective, and respectful of patients' rights and dignity.

Some key principles of professional ethics in medicine include:

1. Respect for autonomy: Healthcare professionals should respect patients' right to make their own decisions about their healthcare, including the right to refuse treatment.
2. Non-maleficence: Medical professionals have a duty to avoid causing harm to their patients. This includes avoiding unnecessary tests or treatments that may cause harm or waste resources.
3. Beneficence: Healthcare professionals have a duty to act in the best interests of their patients and to promote their well-being.
4. Justice: Medical professionals should treat all patients fairly and without discrimination, and should work to ensure that healthcare resources are distributed equitably.
5. Confidentiality: Medical professionals have a duty to keep patient information confidential, unless the patient gives permission to share it or there is a legal or ethical obligation to disclose it.
6. Professional competence: Medical professionals have a duty to maintain their knowledge and skills, and to provide care that meets accepted standards of practice.
7. Honesty and integrity: Medical professionals should be honest and truthful in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and other stakeholders. They should avoid conflicts of interest and should disclose any potential conflicts to patients and others.
8. Responsibility to society: Medical professionals have a responsibility to contribute to the health and well-being of society as a whole, including advocating for policies that promote public health and addressing health disparities.

Research, in the context of medicine, is a systematic and rigorous process of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting information in order to increase our understanding, develop new knowledge, or evaluate current practices and interventions. It can involve various methodologies such as observational studies, experiments, surveys, or literature reviews. The goal of medical research is to advance health care by identifying new treatments, improving diagnostic techniques, and developing prevention strategies. Medical research is typically conducted by teams of researchers including clinicians, scientists, and other healthcare professionals. It is subject to ethical guidelines and regulations to ensure that it is conducted responsibly and with the best interests of patients in mind.

Coercion, in a medical context, refers to the use of threat, manipulation, or intimidation to force someone to make a specific healthcare decision that they might not have made willingly or that is against their better judgment. This can occur in various situations, such as when a patient is pressured to undergo a treatment they do not fully understand or agree with, or when a healthcare provider makes decisions on behalf of an incapacitated patient without considering their previously expressed wishes or values. Coercion undermines the principles of informed consent and autonomy and can lead to negative outcomes for patients, including decreased trust in their healthcare providers and poorer health outcomes.

Embryo disposition is the term used to describe the process of determining what will be done with embryos that were created through in vitro fertilization (IVF) and are no longer needed or wanted by the individuals who produced them. This can include options such as donating them to other couples or individuals who are trying to conceive, donating them for research purposes, storing them for potential future use, or discarding them. The decision about embryo disposition is often a complex and emotional one, and it may involve ethical, legal, and religious considerations. It is typically made by the individuals who produced the embryos, in consultation with their healthcare provider and/or a mental health professional. In some cases, courts or other legal authorities may become involved in the decision-making process.

Operative surgical procedures refer to medical interventions that involve manual manipulation of tissues, structures, or organs in the body, typically performed in an operating room setting under sterile conditions. These procedures are carried out with the use of specialized instruments, such as scalpels, forceps, and scissors, and may require regional or general anesthesia to ensure patient comfort and safety.

Operative surgical procedures can range from relatively minor interventions, such as a biopsy or the removal of a small lesion, to more complex and extensive surgeries, such as open heart surgery or total joint replacement. The specific goals of operative surgical procedures may include the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions, the repair or reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs, or the prevention of further disease progression.

Regardless of the type or complexity of the procedure, all operative surgical procedures require careful planning, execution, and postoperative management to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "freedom" is a philosophical or abstract concept and not a medical term. It refers to the power or right to act, speak, or think as one wants without hindrance or restraint. It does not have a specific medical definition. If you have any medical concerns or questions, I'd be happy to try to help answer those for you.

A control group, in the context of medical research or clinical trials, is a group of participants in a study who do not receive the experimental intervention or treatment that is being tested. Instead, they typically receive standard of care, a placebo, or no treatment at all. The control group serves as a comparison group to help researchers evaluate the effectiveness and safety of the new intervention or treatment being studied. By comparing the outcomes of the experimental group (those who received the new intervention) to the control group, researchers can determine whether any observed differences in outcomes are likely due to the intervention itself, rather than other factors.

In medical terms, a patient is an individual who receives medical attention, treatment, or care from a healthcare professional or provider. This could be in the context of seeking help for a specific health concern, receiving ongoing management for a chronic condition, or being under observation as part of preventative healthcare. The term "patient" implies a level of trust and vulnerability, where the individual places their health and well-being in the hands of a medical expert. It's important to note that patients have rights and responsibilities too, including informed consent, confidentiality, and active participation in their own care.

Medical records are organized, detailed collections of information about a patient's health history, including their symptoms, diagnoses, treatments, medications, test results, and any other relevant data. These records are created and maintained by healthcare professionals during the course of providing medical care and serve as an essential tool for continuity, communication, and decision-making in healthcare. They may exist in paper form, electronic health records (EHRs), or a combination of both. Medical records also play a critical role in research, quality improvement, public health, reimbursement, and legal proceedings.

Medical legislation refers to laws and regulations that govern the practice of medicine and related healthcare fields. These laws are established by federal, state, or local governments to ensure that medical professionals provide safe, ethical, and effective care to their patients. They cover a wide range of issues including:

1. Licensing and certification of healthcare providers
2. Standards of care and professional conduct
3. Patient rights and privacy (e.g., HIPAA)
4. Prescription medication use and abuse
5. Medical malpractice and liability
6. Healthcare facility accreditation and safety
7. Public health and prevention measures
8. Research involving human subjects
9. Reimbursement for medical services (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid)
10. Telemedicine and telehealth practices

Medical legislation aims to protect both patients and healthcare providers while maintaining a high standard of care and promoting the overall health of the population.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "multimedia" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. Multimedia generally refers to the use of multiple forms of media, such as text, audio, video, graphics, and animation, in a single interactive presentation or platform. It is often used in various fields including education, entertainment, marketing, and some areas of healthcare for purposes like training, patient education, and therapy. However, it does not have a specific medical meaning itself.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Audiovisual aids are educational tools that utilize both visual and auditory senses to facilitate learning and communication. These aids can include various forms of technology such as projectors, televisions, computers, and mobile devices, as well as traditional materials like posters, charts, and models. In a medical context, audiovisual aids may be used in lectures, presentations, or patient education to help illustrate complex concepts, demonstrate procedures, or provide information in a clear and engaging way. They can be particularly useful for individuals who learn best through visual or auditory means, and can help to improve comprehension and retention of information.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

A Code of Ethics is a set of principles and guidelines that outline appropriate behavior and conduct for individuals within a particular profession or organization. In the medical field, Codes of Ethics are designed to uphold the values of respect for autonomy, non-maleficence, beneficence, and justice, which are fundamental to the practice of ethical medicine.

The Code of Ethics for medical professionals may include guidelines on issues such as patient confidentiality, informed consent, conflicts of interest, and professional competence. These codes serve as a framework for decision-making and help to ensure that healthcare providers maintain high standards of conduct and behavior in their interactions with patients, colleagues, and the broader community.

The American Medical Association (AMA) and other medical organizations have developed Codes of Ethics that provide specific guidance for medical professionals on ethical issues that may arise in the course of their work. These codes are regularly reviewed and updated to reflect changes in medical practice and societal values.

Parental notification is a term used in the context of medical care, particularly in situations involving minors (individuals who are under the age of majority, which is 18 years old in most states in the US). It refers to the practice of informing or notifying a parent, legal guardian, or other responsible adult relative of a minor's decision to seek certain medical services, treatments, or procedures.

In some cases, parental notification may be required by law before a minor can receive specific medical interventions, such as abortion, mental health treatment, or certain surgical procedures. The specific requirements for parental notification vary depending on the jurisdiction and the type of medical service being sought.

The purpose of parental notification is to ensure that parents or guardians are involved in important medical decisions affecting their minor children, and to provide an opportunity for them to offer guidance, support, and consent. However, there may be exceptions to parental notification requirements in cases where the minor is mature enough to make informed decisions about their own health care, or when notifying a parent could put the minor at risk of harm or abuse.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

I must apologize, but there seems to be a misunderstanding. The term "internationality" is not a commonly used medical term with a specific definition in the field of medicine or healthcare. It is a more general term that can refer to the quality or state of being international or global in scope, relevance, or application. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to try and help clarify those for you.

Defensive medicine is a term used in the medical field to describe the practice of healthcare providers ordering tests, treatments, or procedures primarily to reduce their risk of liability, rather than to provide the most appropriate care for the patient's medical condition. This behavior can be driven by fear of malpractice lawsuits and the desire to avoid any potential legal consequences.

Defensive medicine can take two main forms:

1. **Offensive defensive medicine**: This refers to the practice of ordering additional tests, consultations, or treatments that go beyond what is medically necessary to confirm a diagnosis or guide treatment. The goal here is to create a more comprehensive medical record that could help defend against potential malpractice claims in the future.
2. **Defensive defensive medicine**: This involves avoiding high-risk procedures or patients and may even lead to the denial of care for certain individuals due to fear of legal repercussions. Healthcare providers might also refrain from treating patients with complex medical conditions or those who have a history of suing physicians.

While defensive medicine is intended to protect healthcare providers, it can result in unnecessary costs, overtreatment, and potentially even patient harm due to additional procedures or treatments that may not be medically indicated. The practice remains controversial, as some argue that it is necessary to protect providers from frivolous lawsuits, while others believe it contributes to the rising healthcare costs without improving patient outcomes.

'Guidelines' in the medical context are systematically developed statements or sets of recommendations designed to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available evidence, including scientific studies, expert opinions, and patient values. Guidelines may cover a wide range of topics, such as diagnosis, treatment, prevention, screening, and management of various diseases and conditions. They aim to standardize care, improve patient outcomes, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote efficient use of healthcare resources.

'Pregnant women' refers to female individuals who have conceived and are in the process of carrying a developing fetus inside their womb (uterus) until childbirth. This state is typically marked by various physiological changes, including hormonal fluctuations, weight gain, and growth of the uterus and breasts, among others. Pregnancy usually lasts for about 40 weeks, starting from the first day of the woman's last menstrual period (LMP) and is divided into three trimesters. Each trimester is characterized by different developmental milestones in the fetus. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor the health and wellbeing of both the mother and the developing fetus, and to address any potential complications that may arise during pregnancy.

'Healthcare Records' or 'Medical Records' are defined as systematic collections of comprehensive information about a patient's health status, including their medical history, demographics, medications, treatment plans, progress notes, laboratory test results, imaging studies, and any other relevant healthcare-related information. These records serve as a vital tool for healthcare providers to make informed decisions regarding diagnosis, treatment, and ongoing care of patients. They also play a crucial role in maintaining continuity of care, supporting research and education, ensuring legal and ethical compliance, and improving overall healthcare quality and safety. Healthcare records may be maintained in paper form or digitally, following specific standards and regulations to ensure accuracy, confidentiality, and easy accessibility.

Principle-Based Ethics is a framework for moral decision-making that involves the application of several fundamental ethical principles. These principles include:

1. Respect for Autonomy: This principle recognizes and respects an individual's right to make their own decisions, as long as they do not harm others or infringe upon their rights.
2. Nonmaleficence: This principle requires that healthcare providers should not cause harm to their patients. They should avoid doing anything that could potentially harm their patients, unless the potential benefits of an action outweigh its risks.
3. Beneficence: This principle requires healthcare providers to act in the best interests of their patients and promote their well-being. Healthcare providers should take positive actions to benefit their patients and prevent harm.
4. Justice: This principle requires that healthcare resources be distributed fairly and equitably among all members of society, regardless of their social status or ability to pay.

These principles serve as a foundation for ethical decision-making in healthcare and provide guidance for making difficult moral choices. They are often used in conjunction with other ethical theories and frameworks, such as consequentialism and virtue ethics, to help healthcare providers make informed and responsible decisions that promote the well-being of their patients while also respecting their autonomy and rights.

I'm happy to help! However, I must clarify that "information dissemination" is not a medical term per se, but rather a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine. It refers to the process of spreading or distributing information to a specific audience or the public.

In the context of medicine and healthcare, information dissemination often relates to sharing clinical guidelines, research findings, public health messages, or patient education materials with healthcare professionals, patients, or the general public. This can occur through various channels, such as scientific conferences, peer-reviewed journals, newsletters, websites, social media platforms, and other communication methods.

The goal of information dissemination in medicine is to ensure that accurate, evidence-based, and up-to-date information reaches the intended audience, ultimately improving healthcare quality, patient outcomes, and decision-making processes.

Therapeutic misconception is a term used in medical ethics to describe the situation where research subjects fail to understand the primary purpose of a clinical trial and instead view it as a treatment for their personal illness. This can occur when participants do not fully comprehend the difference between standard medical care and experimental treatments, and they may believe that the experimental treatment is specifically tailored to their needs or that it has greater benefits than it actually does.

Therapeutic misconception can lead to participants making uninformed decisions about participating in clinical trials, potentially compromising their ability to provide informed consent. It can also result in unrealistic expectations and disappointment if the experimental treatment is not as effective as they hoped. Therefore, it is essential for researchers to ensure that potential trial participants fully understand the nature of the study and the distinction between therapeutic and research objectives before obtaining their informed consent.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

Phase I clinical trials are the first stage of testing a new medical treatment or intervention in human subjects. The primary goal of a Phase I trial is to evaluate the safety and tolerability of the experimental treatment, as well as to determine an appropriate dosage range. These studies typically involve a small number of healthy volunteers or patients with the condition of interest, and are designed to assess the pharmacokinetics (how the body absorbs, distributes, metabolizes, and excretes the drug) and pharmacodynamics (the biological effects of the drug on the body) of the experimental treatment. Phase I trials may also provide initial evidence of efficacy, but this is not their primary objective. Overall, the data from Phase I trials help researchers determine whether it is safe to proceed to larger-scale testing in Phase II clinical trials.

Data collection in the medical context refers to the systematic gathering of information relevant to a specific research question or clinical situation. This process involves identifying and recording data elements, such as demographic characteristics, medical history, physical examination findings, laboratory results, and imaging studies, from various sources including patient interviews, medical records, and diagnostic tests. The data collected is used to support clinical decision-making, inform research hypotheses, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. It is essential that data collection is performed in a standardized and unbiased manner to ensure the validity and reliability of the results.

Patient acceptance of health care refers to the willingness and ability of a patient to follow and engage in a recommended treatment plan or healthcare regimen. This involves understanding the proposed medical interventions, considering their potential benefits and risks, and making an informed decision to proceed with the recommended course of action.

The factors that influence patient acceptance can include:

1. Patient's understanding of their condition and treatment options
2. Trust in their healthcare provider
3. Personal beliefs and values related to health and illness
4. Cultural, linguistic, or socioeconomic barriers
5. Emotional responses to the diagnosis or proposed treatment
6. Practical considerations, such as cost, time commitment, or potential side effects

Healthcare providers play a crucial role in facilitating patient acceptance by clearly communicating information, addressing concerns and questions, and providing support throughout the decision-making process. Encouraging shared decision-making and tailoring care plans to individual patient needs and preferences can also enhance patient acceptance of health care.

The "attitude of health personnel" refers to the overall disposition, behavior, and approach that healthcare professionals exhibit towards their patients or clients. This encompasses various aspects such as:

1. Interpersonal skills: The ability to communicate effectively, listen actively, and build rapport with patients.
2. Professionalism: Adherence to ethical principles, confidentiality, and maintaining a non-judgmental attitude.
3. Compassion and empathy: Showing genuine concern for the patient's well-being and understanding their feelings and experiences.
4. Cultural sensitivity: Respecting and acknowledging the cultural backgrounds, beliefs, and values of patients.
5. Competence: Demonstrating knowledge, skills, and expertise in providing healthcare services.
6. Collaboration: Working together with other healthcare professionals to ensure comprehensive care for the patient.
7. Patient-centeredness: Focusing on the individual needs, preferences, and goals of the patient in the decision-making process.
8. Commitment to continuous learning and improvement: Staying updated with the latest developments in the field and seeking opportunities to enhance one's skills and knowledge.

A positive attitude of health personnel contributes significantly to patient satisfaction, adherence to treatment plans, and overall healthcare outcomes.

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Advance directives are legal documents that allow individuals to express their wishes and preferences regarding medical treatment in the event that they become unable to make decisions for themselves due to serious illness or injury. These documents typically include a living will, which outlines the types of treatments an individual wants or doesn't want to receive in specific circumstances, and a healthcare power of attorney, which designates a trusted person to make medical decisions on their behalf.

Advance directives are an important tool for ensuring that individuals receive the medical care they desire, even when they cannot communicate their wishes themselves. They can also help to prevent family members from having to make difficult decisions about medical treatment without knowing what their loved one would have wanted. It is important for individuals to discuss their advance directives with their healthcare providers and loved ones to ensure that everyone understands their wishes and can carry them out if necessary.

"Focus groups" is a term from the field of social science research, rather than medicine. It does not have a specific medical definition. However, focus groups are sometimes used in medical research to gather data and insights from a small group of people on a specific topic or product. This can include gathering feedback on patient experiences, testing prototypes of medical devices or treatments, or exploring attitudes and perceptions related to health issues. The goal is to gain a deeper understanding of the perspectives and needs of the target population through facilitated group discussion.

A Nurse Anesthetist, also known as a Certified Registered Nurse Anesthetist (CRNA), is an advanced practice registered nurse who provides anesthesia and related care before and after surgical, therapeutic, diagnostic, and obstetrical procedures. They hold at least a master's degree in nursing from an accredited program and have passed a national certification exam.

Their responsibilities typically include conducting pre-anesthesia assessments, developing and implementing an anesthetic plan, administering anesthesia, monitoring the patient during the procedure, managing any emergencies that may arise, and providing post-anesthesia care. They work in a variety of settings including hospitals, ambulatory surgery centers, and physician offices.

Altruism is a term used in the medical and psychological fields to describe selfless behavior that is done with the intention of benefiting another person, often at the expense or risk of the person performing the act. Altruistic behaviors can include a wide range of actions, from small acts of kindness to more significant sacrifices, such as donating an organ to save the life of someone else.

Altruism is often motivated by feelings of empathy and compassion for others, and it can have positive effects on both the giver and the recipient. Research has shown that engaging in altruistic behaviors can improve mental health and well-being, reduce stress, and even increase lifespan.

While altruism is often viewed as a positive trait, there is some debate among psychologists and philosophers about whether true altruism exists, or if all acts of kindness are ultimately motivated by self-interest. Nonetheless, the concept of altruism remains an important one in medicine and psychology, as it helps to explain why people sometimes act in ways that put others' needs before their own.

"Compensation and redress" are terms often used in the context of medical law and ethics to refer to the process of addressing harm or injury caused to a patient as a result of medical negligence or malpractice.

Compensation refers to the financial reparation awarded to the victim or their family to cover damages such as medical expenses, lost wages, and pain and suffering. The aim of compensation is to restore the victim to the position they were in before the harm occurred, to the extent that money can.

Redress, on the other hand, refers to the broader process of addressing and remedying the harm caused. This may include an apology, changes to hospital policies or procedures, or disciplinary action against the healthcare provider responsible for the negligence. The goal of redress is to acknowledge the harm that was caused and to take steps to prevent similar incidents from occurring in the future.

Together, compensation and redress aim to provide a measure of justice and closure for victims of medical harm, while also promoting accountability and transparency within the healthcare system.

An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or obduction, is a medical procedure in which a qualified professional (usually a pathologist) examines a deceased person's body to determine the cause and manner of death. This process may involve various investigative techniques, such as incisions to study internal organs, tissue sampling, microscopic examination, toxicology testing, and other laboratory analyses. The primary purpose of an autopsy is to gather objective evidence about the medical conditions and factors contributing to the individual's demise, which can be essential for legal, insurance, or public health purposes. Additionally, autopsies can provide valuable insights into disease processes and aid in advancing medical knowledge.

"Dissent and disputes" in a medical context generally refer to disagreements or differences of opinion among healthcare professionals, researchers, or patients regarding medical diagnoses, treatments, policies, or ethical issues. These disputes can arise from various factors such as differing clinical experiences, conflicting scientific evidence, differing values and beliefs, or lack of clear guidelines. Dissent and disputes can be resolved through open communication, evidence-based decision making, consensus building, and, when necessary, mediation or arbitration. It is essential to address dissent and disputes in a respectful and constructive manner to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients and to advance medical knowledge and practice.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "organizational policy" is not a medical term. It falls under the broader category of management or administrative terminology.

An organizational policy generally refers to a formal statement or set of guidelines that outline an organization's approved course of action or conduct regarding various matters. These policies guide decision-making and help ensure consistent action across the organization. They can cover a wide range of topics, including (but not limited to) employee behavior, data security, patient care standards, and operational procedures.

In a healthcare setting, organizational policies play a crucial role in maintaining quality of care, ensuring patient safety, and complying with relevant laws and regulations.

Empiricism is a theory or philosophy in which knowledge or belief is based on experience, particularly observations and experiments. In the medical context, empirical treatments are those that are applied based on previous experiences or observed outcomes, rather than being derived from an underlying scientific understanding of the disease process. Empirical evidence is information gathered through direct observation or experimentation, without relying on theory or hypothesis. It is often used in medicine to guide treatment decisions when there is a lack of strong scientific evidence to support a particular course of action.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "England" is not a medical term or concept. It is one of the four constituent countries that make up the United Kingdom, along with Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland. England is located in the southern part of Great Britain, which is the largest island of the British Isles.

If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

I apologize, but "Canada" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country located in North America, known for its vast wilderness, multicultural cities, and significant natural resources. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terms, I would be happy to help answer those!

The "duty to recontact" is not a formal medical term, but rather a concept that refers to the ethical obligation of healthcare providers to inform and follow up with their patients if new information becomes available that may affect their previous medical diagnoses or treatments. This duty arises from the principle of respect for autonomy, which requires healthcare providers to involve their patients in decision-making about their care based on complete and accurate information.

In some cases, new research or clinical guidelines may emerge that call into question a previous diagnosis or treatment recommendation. In such situations, healthcare providers may have a duty to recontact their patients to inform them of the new information and discuss any necessary changes to their care plan. The specifics of this duty may vary depending on factors such as the significance of the new information, the potential risks and benefits of different treatment options, and the patient's individual circumstances and preferences. Ultimately, the goal of the duty to recontact is to ensure that patients receive the best possible care based on current medical knowledge and standards.

Death is the cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living organism. It is characterized by the loss of brainstem reflexes, unresponsiveness, and apnea (no breathing). In medical terms, death can be defined as:

1. Cardiopulmonary Death: The irreversible cessation of circulatory and respiratory functions.
2. Brain Death: The irreversible loss of all brain function, including the brainstem. This is often used as a definition of death when performing organ donation.

It's important to note that the exact definition of death can vary somewhat based on cultural, religious, and legal perspectives.

Therapeutic equipoise is a concept in clinical research ethics, particularly in the context of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). It refers to a state of genuine uncertainty among experts about the superiority of one treatment over another. In other words, there is no consensus in the medical community regarding which therapy or intervention is more beneficial or harmful.

In this situation, conducting an RCT would be ethically acceptable because it aims to generate new evidence that could help resolve the uncertainty and potentially benefit future patients. Both the experimental and control interventions should have a reasonable chance of benefiting the patient, and neither should be clearly superior or inferior to the other. This ensures that participants are not exposed to unnecessary risks and that they receive potentially beneficial treatments.

It is important to note that therapeutic equipoise does not imply that all treatments are equally effective or safe; rather, it reflects a lack of consensus among experts about which treatment is better.

Resuscitation is a medical term that refers to the process of reversing cardiopulmonary arrest or preventing further deterioration of someone in cardiac or respiratory arrest. It involves a series of interventions aimed at restoring spontaneous blood circulation and breathing, thereby preventing or minimizing tissue damage due to lack of oxygen.

The most common form of resuscitation is cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR), which combines chest compressions to manually pump blood through the body with rescue breaths to provide oxygen to the lungs. In a hospital setting, more advanced techniques such as defibrillation, medication administration, and intubation may also be used as part of the resuscitation process.

The goal of resuscitation is to stabilize the patient's condition and prevent further harm while treating the underlying cause of the arrest. Successful resuscitation can lead to a full recovery or, in some cases, result in varying degrees of neurological impairment depending on the severity and duration of the cardiac or respiratory arrest.

Stem cell research is a branch of medical science that focuses on the study and application of stem cells, which are undifferentiated or unspecialized cells with the ability to differentiate into various specialized cell types in the body. These cells have the potential to regenerate and repair damaged tissues and organs, making them a promising area of research for the development of new treatments for a wide range of diseases and conditions, including cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, heart disease, and more.

Stem cell research involves several key areas, such as:

1. Isolation and culture: Scientists isolate stem cells from various sources, such as embryos, umbilical cord blood, or adult tissues, and grow them in a lab to study their properties and behaviors.
2. Differentiation: Researchers induce stem cells to differentiate into specific cell types, such as heart cells, brain cells, or pancreatic cells, by exposing them to various growth factors and other chemical signals.
3. Genetic modification: Scientists may modify the genes of stem cells to enhance their therapeutic potential or to study the effects of genetic mutations on cell behavior and development.
4. Transplantation: In some cases, researchers transplant stem cells into animal models or human patients to investigate their ability to repair damaged tissues and organs.
5. Ethical considerations: Stem cell research raises several ethical concerns related to the use of embryonic stem cells, which are derived from human embryos. These concerns have led to ongoing debates about the limits and regulations surrounding this area of research.

Overall, stem cell research holds great promise for the development of new medical treatments and therapies, but it also requires careful consideration of ethical issues and rigorous scientific investigation to ensure its safety and effectiveness.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

General surgery is a surgical specialty that focuses on the abdominal organs, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, gallbladder and bile ducts, and often the thyroid gland. General surgeons may also deal with diseases involving the skin, breast, soft tissue, and hernias. They employ a wide range of surgical procedures, using both traditional and laparoscopic techniques.

This definition is consistent with the guidelines provided by professional medical organizations such as the American College of Surgeons and the Royal College of Surgeons. However, it's important to note that specific practices can vary based on factors like geographical location, training, and individual expertise.

The Federal Government, in the context of medical definitions, typically refers to the national government of a country that has a federal system of government. In such a system, power is divided between the national government and regional or state governments. The Federal Government is responsible for matters that affect the entire nation, such as foreign policy, national defense, and regulating interstate commerce, including certain aspects of healthcare policy and regulation.

In the United States, for example, the Federal Government plays a significant role in healthcare through programs like Medicare, Medicaid, and the Affordable Care Act (ACA), which are designed to ensure access to affordable healthcare services for specific populations or address broader health reform initiatives. The Federal Government also regulates food and drugs through agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). These federal entities work to ensure the safety, efficacy, and security of medical products, foods, and public health.

Medical philosophy is a branch of philosophy that deals with the concepts, issues, and arguments specific to medicine and healthcare. It involves the application of philosophical inquiry and reasoning to various aspects of medicine, such as:

1. Ethics: Examining moral principles and values that guide medical practice, including patient autonomy, beneficence, non-maleficence, and justice. This includes issues related to end-of-life care, informed consent, research ethics, and resource allocation.
2. Epistemology: Exploring the nature of knowledge in medicine, including how medical knowledge is acquired, validated, and disseminated. It also involves examining the limitations and uncertainties of medical knowledge.
3. Metaphysics: Examining the fundamental nature of reality as it relates to medicine, such as the nature of disease, health, and the human body. This includes exploring questions about the mind-body relationship and the role of emergent properties in understanding health and illness.
4. Logic and Rationality: Applying logical reasoning and critical thinking skills to medical decision making, including the evaluation of evidence, the assessment of risks and benefits, and the formulation of clinical guidelines.
5. Aesthetics: Exploring the role of values and subjective experience in medicine, such as the importance of empathy, compassion, and communication in the patient-physician relationship. This also includes examining the ethical implications of medical aesthetics, such as cosmetic surgery and enhancement technologies.

Medical philosophy is an interdisciplinary field that draws on insights from a variety of disciplines, including philosophy, medicine, ethics, law, psychology, and sociology. It seeks to provide a deeper understanding of the complex issues that arise in medical practice and to inform the development of evidence-based, ethical, and compassionate healthcare policies and practices.

Qualitative research is a methodological approach in social sciences and healthcare research that focuses on understanding the meanings, experiences, and perspectives of individuals or groups within a specific context. It aims to gather detailed, rich data through various techniques such as interviews, focus groups, observations, and content analysis. The findings from qualitative research are typically descriptive and exploratory, providing insights into processes, perceptions, and experiences that may not be captured through quantitative methods.

In medical research, qualitative research can be used to explore patients' experiences of illness, healthcare providers' perspectives on patient care, or the cultural and social factors that influence health behaviors. It is often used in combination with quantitative methods to provide a more comprehensive understanding of complex health issues.

Practice guidelines, also known as clinical practice guidelines, are systematically developed statements that aim to assist healthcare professionals and patients in making informed decisions about appropriate health care for specific clinical circumstances. They are based on a thorough evaluation of the available scientific evidence, consensus of expert opinion, and consideration of patient preferences. Practice guidelines can cover a wide range of topics, including diagnosis, management, prevention, and treatment options for various medical conditions. They are intended to improve the quality and consistency of care, reduce unnecessary variations in practice, and promote evidence-based medicine. However, they should not replace clinical judgment or individualized patient care.

A human body is a complex structure made up of many different types of cells, tissues, and organs that work together to maintain life. It is composed of head, neck, trunk, arms and legs. The human body is divided into several organ systems that perform specific functions necessary for survival. These include the cardiovascular system (heart and blood vessels), respiratory system (lungs and airways), digestive system (stomach, intestines, liver, pancreas), nervous system (brain, spinal cord, nerves), endocrine system (glands and hormones), musculoskeletal system (bones, muscles, joints), immune system (white blood cells, lymphatic system) and reproductive system. Each of these systems is made up of specialized cells and tissues that work together to perform specific functions that are essential for the overall health and well-being of the individual.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

The second consent process is presumed consent, which does not need direct consent from the donor or the next of kin. Presumed ... There are two types of consent being reviewed; explicit consent and presumed consent. Explicit consent consists of the donor ... anyone who has not refused consent to donate is a donor). In terms of an opt-out or presumed consent system, it is assumed that ... and some did not allow any without consent of the family. In 2006 when the UAGA was revised, the idea of presumed consent was ...
"Organ Donation (Presumed Consent) Bill 2008-09". Parliament of the United Kingdom. 19 June 2009. Archived from the original on ... Browne presented a private member's bill entitled the Organ Donation (Presumed Consent) Bill 2008-09. The Bill aimed to address ...
... known as presumed consent, or deemed consent. The act allows hospitals to presume that people aged 18 or over, who have been ... requesting that they consider the issue of presumed consent. The Committee presented its report, Inquiry into Presumed Consent ... The ODTF's second report, published in November 2008, unanimously opposed a change in the law to a system of presumed consent. ... According to those in favour of presumed-consent, an opt-out system increases the number of organs available for transplant. ...
Looze, KD; Shroff, S (2012). "Can presumed consent overcome organ shortage in India? Lessons from the Belgian experience". ... 1] 'One consent saves 9 lives' "Sharing organs, saving lives". The Hindu. 23 January 2012. Retrieved 13 November 2013. "Making ...
"Organ donation: Presumed consent to start in December 2015". BBC News. 10 September 2013. Retrieved 13 March 2019. "EU ...
Presumed Consent) Amendment Act. As Minister of Affordability and Utilities, Matt Jones also sponsored Bill 2; Inflation Relief ...
Deasy's words were echoed in The Observer's editorial which called for an enforcement of presumed consent. The following day, ... Editorial (13 September 2009). "Organ donation: Why we should move to 'presumed consent'". The Observer. Retrieved 17 September ...
"Organ transplant and presumed consent: towards an 'opting out' system". Retrieved 1 June 2020. "Has the Deceased Donation ... Organs and tissues from a person declared legally dead can be donated after consent from the family has been obtained. ...
In common law jurisdictions, adults are presumed competent to consent. This presumption can be rebutted, for instance, in ... One form of digital consent is dynamic consent, which invites participants to provide consent in a granular way, and makes it ... Informed consent is codified in both national and international law. 'Free consent' is a cognate term in the International ... Electronic consent methods have been used to support indexing and retrieval of consent data, thus enhancing the ability to ...
Presumed Consent) House of Commons debates, 11 April 2000". Retrieved 5 July 2022. Smith, Rebecca (14 January 2009). "Presumed ... In April 2000, he introduced a private member's bill to presume consent for organ donation, a measure still being considered ... consent for organ donation could increase transplants by a quarter". The Daily Telegraph. London. Archived from the original on ...
... derives force from its tacit consent; which consent is presumed from the inveterate or immemorial usage of the community." ... although under the Sewel convention it will not do so in devolved matters without the Scottish Parliament's consent. The Human ...
Lack of such consent is presumed unless the operator proves the contrary. Processing of personal data for the purposes ... Lack of such prior consent is presumed unless the sender proves the contrary. The law provides for immediate cessation of ... Consent of the individual is required for processing of his personal data. This rule doesn't apply where such processing is ... Namely, express consent should be obtained from the individual before marketing communications are sent to him by email or SMS ...
"Families' wishes could be over-ruled under new presumed consent for organ donation". The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the ... As chairman of Kidney Wales Foundation, Aggarwal campaigned and provided evidence from 2007 onwards for a deemed consent or ' ...
He was also part of a campaign for presumed consent on organ donation. Foulkes did not seek re-election in the 2011 Scottish ... government and campaigned for presumed consent for organ donation. He stood down from the Scottish Parliament at the 2011 ...
In: Peter Singer, Helga Kuhse eds., Companion to Bioethics, Wiley-Blackwell 2009, Second Edition, 321- Can Consent be Presumed ... Other topics that he published on include: the meaning of consent in Locke's political philosophy, the relation between ... "Made by Contrivance, and the Consent of Men": Abstract Principle and Historical Fact in Locke's Political Philosophy. ...
Scott, Ori; Jacobson MD PhD, Eyal (2007). "Implementing Presumed Consent for Organ Donation in Israel: Public, Religious and ... Catholics believe that organ donation is a moral act when carried out with the consent of the donor. The Catechism of the ... It is not morally acceptable if the donor or his proxy has not given explicit consent. Moreover, it is not morally admissible ...
Meanwhile, Druzane has presumed him dead and consented to marry the knight Macabron. On the wedding day of Druzane and Macabron ... Bovo returns to their forest abode; failing to find her or the twins, he now also presumes her to have fallen prey. Despairing ...
One way to accomplish this goal is for states to implement policies of presumed consent. With presumed consent laws (also known ... Presumed consent policies have already been adopted in various countries, including Brazil, certain jurisdictions of the United ... "Formula to Stop the Illegal Organ Trade: Presumed Consent Laws and Mandatory Reporting Requirements for Doctors". Human Rights ... Glaser, Sheri R. (2007). "Formula to Stop the Illegal Organ Trade: Presumed Consent Laws and Mandatory Reporting Requirements ...
... who favored presumed consent. However, Texas implemented such a program, requiring drivers to make a choice on organ donation ... "presumed consent") models of policy formation. The approach has most frequently been applied to cadaveric organ donation, but ...
Introducing presumed consent for organ donation (unless otherwise stated by a person or relative(s); applies only to people who ...
The non-consent of the victim shall be presumed if she is less than fourteen years of age. Article 345 [s amended by ... Age of consent reform Age of consent Ages of consent in Africa Ages of consent in Europe Ages of consent in North America Ages ... The law presumes non-consent of male victims less than 14 too. There is a prison sentence (maximum 10 years) for male victims ... The non-consent of the victim shall be presumed if he is less than fourteen years. Article 347 [s amended by LEGISLATIVE DECREE ...
... common law is presumed to be applied. Several states permit minors to legally consent to medical treatment without parental ... In the United States, a typical statute lists: "Who may consent [or withhold consent for] surgical or medical treatment or ... Knight, Kimberly N. (5 August 2014). "Consent of Minors to Medical Treatment". Siskinds LLP. Retrieved 29 March 2019. "Consent ... Consent to Treatment; § 20-9-602. Consent Generally - Definition". 2019 Arkansas Code. 2019. Retrieved 2 August 2021 - via ...
272 & 267). For sexual relations with children aged 12-15, violence is legally presumed until otherwise proven (Art. 272-1). In ... of consent reform Age of consent Ages of consent in Africa Ages of consent in Asia Ages of consent in Europe Ages of consent in ... Unrestricted: age from which one is deemed able to consent to having sex with anyone else at or above the age of consent or the ... 279). The age of consent in Suriname is 16 for heterosexuals (altered from 14 in 2009).[citation needed] The age of consent is ...
Volume 12: Issue 20 Glaser, Sheri R. (2007). "Formula to Stop the Illegal Organ Trade: Presumed Consent Laws and Mandatory ... "Formula to Stop the Illegal Organ Trade: Presumed Consent Laws and Mandatory Reporting Requirements for Doctors". Human Rights ... If consent is obtained from the potential donor or the potential donor's survivors, the next step is to perform a match between ... Other patients reported that their kidneys were removed without their consent after they underwent procedures for other reasons ...
The signature of the father is presumed to have been forged on the application. The 65-year-old father blames a religious ... Anton's mother left Finland with Anton without the consent of the father on 5 March 2008. The Russian Embassy in Finland ...
India follows informed consent, unlike Spain and some of the other European countries that follow presumed consent. There are ... One consent saves 9 lives'". The Times of India. Retrieved 4 November 2013. "Organ donor card launched in Tamil". Expressindia. ... For the first time in India it was possible for the deceased to donate their organs and tissues provided the family consented ...
The consent of the holders for the treatment of the data is presumed unless they express their refusal. This scheme operates ... Provided the consent of the holders for the processing of data is required. Transfers to countries without an adequate level of ... Are important principles of consent, information and purpose, under which managers can only make the processing of personal ... The law takes the general model of the principles of legality, consent, information, quality, purpose, loyalty, proportionality ...
A defendant shall not be presumed to be incapable of violating this section because of marriage to the complainant. Sexual ... of consent Age of consent reform Ages of consent in Africa Ages of consent in Asia Ages of consent in Europe Ages of consent in ... The age of consent in Pennsylvania is 16 years of age for sexual consent. The age of consent was lowered from 16 to 14 in 1976 ... Age-of-consent laws historically only applied when a female was younger than her male partner. By 2015 ages of consent were ...
... ack of consent is presumed where rape was committed by force, or by threat of force or coercion",: 7 or whenever a person was " ... There is no freely given consent or affirmative consent; Section 22.011 (b) implies that a person's consent is always present, ... without her consent, or with her consent, if the consent is obtained by force or by means of threats or intimidation of any ... "without the consent of such other person, or with such person's consent if the consent is obtained by force or means of threats ...
In many countries, it is presumed that someone who is less than fully conscious cannot give consent to anything. This can be ... relevant in cases of sexual assault, euthanasia, or patients giving informed consent with regard to starting or stopping a ...
Illinois, New York Consider Presumed Consent Organ Harvesting Bills (2010). by APFLI , May 16, 2015 , Euthanasia / Assisted ... senator is pushing legislation that would allow doctors to harvest organs from citizens who have not explicitly given consent ...
... "presumed consent" - the practice whereby everyone in the state is presumed to consent to being an organ donor, unless he or she ... then consent should be presumed, following the majority.. But does the legislature have the right to presume the consent ... Presuming that people consent to donating their organs would have to dramatically increase the number of available organs. I ... This website suggests that the opt-out rate in European countries that have Presumed Consent is 2%. Wow.) Would it be a good ...
Let me get this straight: In the state with high levels of consent, we need presumed consent? The majority gets to rope in the ... The "presumed consent" system is common in Europe and is credited with dramatically raising donation rates. In the U.S., ... Presumed consent would just be another in a long series of broken public policy promises, reducing trust in government and in ... I would opt out in a presumed consent regime, and instruct my wife to donate my organs if I died. ...
Rather than having to seek proof of consent from a deceased patient, we would assume their donor status until proven otherwise. ... Bill 194 proposing the "Law establishing a presumption of consent to the donation of organs or tissues after death" was tabled ... He says he favors "all measures to improve organ and tissue donation, beyond the question of consent". ... by signing a sticker on the back of their health insurance card or by registering in the register of refusals of consent. ...
37614314.7.3001.5149). All patients provided written informed consent.. We defined a case as illness in a person in the city of ... Asymptomatic retinochoroiditis in the right eye, detected in baseline examination (VA 0.0) of a 27-year-old man in a presumed ... In 2015, an outbreak of presumed waterborne toxoplasmosis occurred in Gouveia, Brazil. We conducted a 3-year prospective study ... Flowchart of patients in study of ocular involvement associated with a presumed waterborne toxoplasmosis outbreak, Brazil. ...
The second consent process is presumed consent, which does not need direct consent from the donor or the next of kin. Presumed ... There are two types of consent being reviewed; explicit consent and presumed consent. Explicit consent consists of the donor ... anyone who has not refused consent to donate is a donor). In terms of an opt-out or presumed consent system, it is assumed that ... and some did not allow any without consent of the family. In 2006 when the UAGA was revised, the idea of presumed consent was ...
The revised law provides for a shift to presumed consent in the broad sense. This means that people who do not wish to donate ... Organ transplantation: presumed or express consent?. Organ transplantation is an evidenced-based therapy. It finds its ... The 2022 popular vote for the principle of presumed consent regarding organ donation will lead to an adaptation of the ... In the absence of a declaration, the will to donate is in principle presumed. The relatives, as it is currently the case, must ...
Democrat and Chronicle: Presumed consent idea for organ donation stirs debate June 25, 2010 ...
This is known as the Presumed Consent. This study aimed to explore presumed consent as the right of patients in emergency ... Conclusion: In accordance with the laws and regulations on informed consent in emergency conditions or called presumed consent ... Juridical Review of Presumed Consent as the Right of Patients in Emergency Conditions Authors. * Rindy Alief Puspitasari Master ... The implementation of presumed consent as a patients right by General Physician of PKU Muhammadiyah Sukoharjo Hospital has ...
Alan Jay Pakula was an American film director, writer and producer. He was nominated for three Academy Awards: Best Picture for To Kill a Mockingbird, Best Di
The law presumes an accused person is innocent. The accused has the right to an initial hearing before a judge, to ask for bail ... The legal age of consent is 18. There is no statutory rape law, but the penalty for rape of a minor under age 12 is 15 to 20 ... Media reported that gang members were presumed responsible for the deaths.. Early and Forced Marriage: The minimum legal age ... for marriage is 21, although with parental consent boys may marry at 18 and girls at 16. According to government statistics, 10 ...
After informed consent was obtained, saliva samples were obtained as a source of genomic DNA, and screening of KRT3 and KRT12 ... Identification of presumed pathogenic KRT3 and KRT12 gene mutations associated with Meesmann corneal dystrophy Judy L. Chen, ... Informed consent was obtained from all subjects according to the tenets of the Declaration of Helsinki, and the study adhered ... Before this report, no keratin mutations in the head domain of either K3 or K12 had been identified that are presumed to cause ...
... "presumed consent" the law. That is, every adult will be considered to consent to have their organs harvested at death unless ... What is to be the fate for those communities if their consent is to be "presumed." This type of legislation deserves a big, fat ... Now the state "presumes" to control our deaths. Par Beryl Wajsman le 19 juin 2019 It doesnt seem to stop does it? Government ... they have "opted out" by going online or signing a "do not consent" card. For the first time a government will have a say in ...
Ohio Supreme Court willing to "presume" proper conduct in executive session More ... Local governments: Be careful using consent agendas More Local governments: The end of the virtual public meeting? All is not ...
Relative consentor presumed consent? Organ donation attitudes and behaviour. J Costa-Font, C Rudisill, M Salcher-Konrad ...
Consent of owner presumed. 2(4). For the purposes of this Act the consent of the owner shall be presumed in the absence of ... Revocation of consent. 2(2). Where a mercantile agent has, with the consent of the owner, been in possession of goods or of ... HER MAJESTY, by and with the advice and consent of the Legislative Assembly of Manitoba, enacts as follows:. Definitions. 1(1) ... Where a mercantile agent is, with the consent of the owner, in possession of goods or of the documents of title to goods, any ...
Should the patient sign an informed consent document before he receives the treatment? Should every patient who is treated by a ... To aggressively implement a presumed but still unproven "best practice" is essentially a clinical experiment. ... I consent to having NYR add my email to their mailing list.. ... I consent to having NYR add my email to their mailing list.. ... I consent to having NYR add my email to their mailing list.. ...
"Affirmative consent" is a fuzzy concept even for adults, which is why one of them taught 10th graders in California that they ... But the consent standard has better known and less polarizing critics who cite the lack of due process inherent in affirmative ... Chances are he was never accused of rape months after a sexual encounter because the consent did not consist of a continuous ... The Post report fails to note that affirmative consent essentially shifts the burden of proof onto the accused student, which ...
For adults, who are presumed mature enough to consent to have sex for money. I dont think there are any prostitution ... The age of consent (16 in WA) does not apply when money is exchanged or force is involved. Even if a 17 year old says s/he " ... Washingtons age of consent is 16 compared with Californias 18.. So "toeing the line" in CA would be 17, and 14/15 in WA.. ... I was merely pointing out that the difference in ages of consent between CA and WA would be a reason for the disparity in teen ...
Presumed consent for transplantation: a dead issue after Alder Hey?. V English et al., Journal of Medical Ethics, 2003 ... The UK Human Tissue Act and consent: surrendering a fundamental principle to transplantation needs? ... The UK Human Tissue Act and consent: surrendering a fundamental principle to transplantation needs? ... The UK Human Tissue Act and consent: surrendering a fundamental principle to transplantation needs? ...
ICI events are frequently recorded and made available within the ICI Edition later on; the audiences consent is presumed; ...
Janssen A, Gevers S. Explicit or presumed consent and organ donation post-mortem: does it matter?. Med Law. 2005 Sep. 24(3):575 ... Verheijde JL, Rady MY, McGregor J. Presumed consent for organ preservation in uncontrolled donation after cardiac death in the ... After consent for donation is obtained, the OPO assumes responsibility for the donor patients care in conjunction with the OPO ... If consent were obtained from these potential donors, as many as 180,000 additional recipients would be helped annually. ...
We now live in a world where every individual is presumed "diseased" until proven innocent. As people give up their liberties ... The Common Pass will force individuals to submit their body sovereignty, consent and health privacy to a doctor to fulfill all ...
Such illnesses were apparently presumed not to affect understanding or motivation.. Of the five authorised to consent to ... In re Alex (2004), the Family Court considered whether authority to consent for hormonal treatment should be given to guardians ... Most of the fifty-six children went before the court for authorisation to consent to receive cross-sex hormones. In the ... For example, such a principle might be used to justify parental consent to the surgical removal of a girls clitoris for ...
Consent of the husband is presumed unless the contrary is shown by clear and convincing evidence. Children conceived before the ... A child born or conceived during a marriage is presumed to be the legitimate child of both spouses for the same purposes. ... Any child conceived following artificial insemination of a married woman with the consent of her husband shall be treated as ... I) The mans name appears with his written consent on the BC as the childs father; or ...
... that such benefit could be presumed from respondents consent to the postpetition financing order. Although it was contested ... action and designates a particular party empowered to take it is surely among the least appropriate in which to presume ... action and designates a particular party empowered to take it is surely among the least appropriate in which to presume ... action and designates a particular party empowered to take it is surely among the least appropriate in which to presume ...
Switzerland - Presumed Consent - Organ donation: direct democracy and the law. January 19 - Every adult who dies should ...
Because of this right, we have the concept of informed consent. Informed Consent All 50 states have laws that require informed ... Some people may not be competent to give consent. While adults are generally presumed competent to give informed consent, ... Informed Consent. All 50 states have laws that require informed consent. While the laws may vary, the general principle is that ... In order for a patient to give informed consent, a doctor should discuss, in easy to understand terms:. *The diagnosis of your ...
In stepparent adoptions with a blood relative, the birth mother, father, or presumed father must give consent ... How do I revoke consent?. The person who gave consent must file within 60 days of the adoption petition to revoke consent. The ... How do I execute consent?. A petition for adoption must contain a consent for that adoption. Consent granted by the parent must ... When consent is not needed. When the parental rights have been involuntarily terminated, the childs best interests considered ...
  • Affirmative consent" is a fuzzy concept even for adults, which is why one of them taught 10th graders in California that they must say "yes" every 10 minutes during sex or it becomes rape. (thecollegefix.com)
  • While adults are generally presumed competent to give informed consent, children and mentally ill adults are often presumed incompetent. (findlaw.com)
  • However, as with adults, this consent is only valid if given voluntarily and not under undue influence or pressure by anyone else. (cqc.org.uk)
  • Now, all adults in Wales are presumed to be donors, unless they have recorded that they wish to opt out of the scheme. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • in which the presumption of consent is generally accepted) in a nationally representative sample of US adults 50 years of age or older. (medscape.com)
  • An Illinois senator is pushing legislation that would allow doctors to harvest organs from citizens who have not explicitly given consent for the procedure. (physiciansforlife.org)
  • But should be really presume that people intend to donate their organs? (blogspot.com)
  • If a referendum showed that a majority of people would donate their organs if the situation arose, then consent should be presumed, following the majority. (blogspot.com)
  • Presuming that people consent to donating their organs would have to dramatically increase the number of available organs. (blogspot.com)
  • When it was being pitched to a wary public, we were solemnly assured that only those who specifically agreed to donate their organs ahead of time, or with consent from family after death, would be donors. (cbc-network.org)
  • Now, we see advocacy to do away with specific consent - in other words to the concept of "donation" - and replace it with organ conscription, in which the state could take your organs unless you specifically opted out beforehand - a system called "presumed consent. (cbc-network.org)
  • I would opt out in a presumed consent regime, and instruct my wife to donate my organs if I died. (cbc-network.org)
  • Concretely, Quebecers who do not want their organs removed would be responsible for indicating their refusal by signing a sticker on the back of their health insurance card or by registering in the register of refusals of consent. (globaldomainsnews.com)
  • Bill 194 proposing the "Law establishing a presumption of consent to the donation of organs or tissues after death" was tabled on Wednesday by the member for Frontenac, André Fortin. (globaldomainsnews.com)
  • For dead donors, the process begins with verifying that the person is undoubtedly deceased, determining whether any organs could be donated, and obtaining consent for the donation of any usable organs. (wikipedia.org)
  • That is, every adult will be considered to consent to have their organs harvested at death unless they have "opted out" by going online or signing a "do not consent" card. (themetropolitain.ca)
  • Tis the season ofthe illusion of choice: When "the people" "consent to be governed" by anignorant and incompetent majority. (gazette-tribune.com)
  • Nonetheless, the presumption of consent to thrombolysis for ischemic stroke has recently been endorsed by professional societies. (medscape.com)
  • Because the presumption of consent is generally accepted for CPR, this finding provides empirical support for policy positions recently taken by professional societies that favor the use of thrombolysis for stroke in emergency circumstances under a presumption of consent," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • The most revolutionary among these bills would have the state start studying something called "presumed consent" - the practice whereby everyone in the state is presumed to consent to being an organ donor, unless he or she actively opts out. (blogspot.com)
  • Rather than having to seek proof of consent from a deceased patient, we would assume their donor status until proven otherwise. (globaldomainsnews.com)
  • Organ donation is the process when a person allows an organ of their own to be removed and transplanted to another person, legally, either by consent while the donor is alive or dead with the assent of the next of kin. (wikipedia.org)
  • For living donors, organ donation typically involves extensive testing before the donation, including psychological evaluation to determine whether the would-be donor understands and consents to the donation. (wikipedia.org)
  • Logan had filled out an organ donor card just a short time before his death.The Nova Scotia government cynically decided to use that tragic anniversary and dovetail on Logan's courage to become the first jurisdiction in North America to introduce legislation that will make "presumed consent" the law. (themetropolitain.ca)
  • A public opinion survey: is presumed consent the answer to kidney shortage in Hong Kong? (bmj.com)
  • The petition shall be the joint petition of the birth parent or parent by adoption and such parent's spouse or other person with a legitimate interest, but the birth parent or parent by adoption shall unite in the petition for the purpose of indicating consent to the prayer thereof only. (virginia.gov)
  • Trespass laws punish presence on property unauthorized by the possessor thereof and conclusively presume injury from that presence. (justia.com)
  • Consideration of different approaches for pre-clinic vaccination status checks, student involvement in the vaccination decision, online consent, workforce sharing between health districts and effective programme planning time were identified for improving future SIA implementation. (who.int)
  • For the purposes of this Act the consent of the owner shall be presumed in the absence of evidence to the contrary. (gov.mb.ca)
  • Consent of the husband is presumed unless the contrary is shown by clear and convincing evidence. (ssa.gov)
  • C. If an acknowledged, adjudicated, presumed, or putative birth parent or parent by adoption of a child refuses to consent to the adoption of a child by the spouse of the other birth parent or parent by adoption of the child or other person with a legitimate interest, the court shall determine whether consent to the adoption is withheld contrary to the best interests of the child. (virginia.gov)
  • If the court determines that consent to the adoption is withheld contrary to the best interests of the child, the court may order the adoption and change of name without referring the matter to the local director. (virginia.gov)
  • The order of reference may include a requirement that the local director investigate factors relevant to determining whether consent of a birth parent is withheld contrary to the best interests of the child, including factors set forth in § 63.2-1205 . (virginia.gov)
  • Tracking the language of other bills and campus codes, the Maryland measure requires consent for "each act within the course of sexual activity" - which could mean anything from changing positions during intercourse to each kiss and touch preceding intercourse. (thecollegefix.com)
  • If the conditions are not all met, however, or there is reason to believe that the child is under pressure to give consent or is being exploited, there would be grounds to break confidentiality. (cqc.org.uk)
  • When an incapacitated older patient's treatment preferences are unknown and surrogate decision makers are unavailable, there are equally strong empirical grounds for presuming individual consent to thrombolysis for stroke as for presuming individual consent to CPR. (medscape.com)
  • Chances are he was never accused of rape months after a sexual encounter because the consent did not consist of a continuous stream of "yes" statements. (thecollegefix.com)
  • Then, doctors apply the principle of "presumed"or "implied" consent, using their professional judgment to do what is best for the child. (kidshealth.org)
  • Similarly, in England, the Organ Donation (Deemed Consent) Bill recently passed its last hurdle in parliament and should be rolled out next year. (cardiff.ac.uk)
  • The Post report fails to note that affirmative consent essentially shifts the burden of proof onto the accused student, which in the vast majority of cases is a male being accused by a female. (thecollegefix.com)
  • 3] The city's contention is essentially that the railroads have consented to open their property to the general public for a limited and specific purpose only, namely, for the use of the transportation facilities offered, that petitioners admittedly came onto the property for other purposes, and that the railroads may therefore demand their removal and arrest and prosecution for trespass. (justia.com)
  • Up until the late 1970s, spousal rape legally did not exist - a woman was presumed to consent to her husband as part of her wifely duties. (salon.com)
  • Nevada and Connecticut state that marriage is not a defense if force or threat of force is used, which presumes that, for nonforcible rape, marriage is a defense even if the couple is not cohabitating. (salon.com)
  • This leads into the Miscommunication Rape Myth , the idea that men and women simply don't communicate the same way, so women's "soft refusals" are seen as consent by men. (salon.com)
  • The Common Pass will force individuals to submit their body sovereignty, consent and health privacy to a doctor to fulfill all the requirements for travel, which may include various health screenings and vaccinations that are required for entry into each country, state or province -- as if vaccination is some foolproof, holy stamp of immunity . (naturalnews.com)
  • Access to life-saving vaccines should not be conditioned on a consumer's consent to provide personal data not necessary for the vaccination administration," wrote Sara Cable, the state AG office's data privacy chief. (beckershospitalreview.com)
  • Nor can consent to such data collection or marketing be presumed based on a consumer's desire to obtain a vaccination. (beckershospitalreview.com)
  • Key areas discussed were pre-programme planning, implementation, resources, consent materials, media activity and future directions for school vaccination programme delivery. (who.int)
  • In certain situations, informed consent is not required. (findlaw.com)
  • In these situations, a parent or court appointed guardian will be responsible for consenting on the patient's behalf. (findlaw.com)
  • Other situations that need informed consent include blood transfusions , anesthesia , and vaccines . (kidshealth.org)
  • Even if a 17 year old says s/he "wanted" to sell sex, legally they are not allowed to consent to selling their bodies and are considered a victim. (thestranger.com)
  • It inexplicably cites the National Coalition for Men, whose president said affirmative consent is driven by "people who don't like men that much," as the face of the opposition. (thecollegefix.com)
  • Some people may not be competent to give consent. (findlaw.com)
  • In life-threatening emergencies involving incapacitated patients without surrogates, clinicians may intervene without obtaining informed consent, applying the presumption that reasonable people would consent to treatment in such circumstances," the researchers write. (medscape.com)
  • Let me get this straight: In the state with high levels of consent, we need presumed consent? (cbc-network.org)
  • The high court ruled that employees must affirmatively consent before a union may withhold fees from their paychecks, meaning the system must be "opt in," not "opt out. (fee.org)
  • The Foundation reserves the right to grant, withhold, or condition such consent in its sole discretion. (rwjf.org)
  • Informed consent is a legal term that means a person is fully aware of the facts of a situation (such as a surgical procedure) before agreeing to it. (kidshealth.org)
  • You'll be asked to sign a written consent form before the surgery, procedure, or treatment. (kidshealth.org)
  • But the consent standard has better known and less polarizing critics who cite the lack of due process inherent in affirmative consent, including the Foundation for Individual Rights in Education and the Maryland-based female-led advocacy group Stop Abusive and Violent Environments . (thecollegefix.com)
  • Gillick competence is concerned with determining a child's capacity to consent. (cqc.org.uk)
  • Additionally, a child may have the capacity to consent to some treatments but not others. (cqc.org.uk)
  • The right of younger children to provide independent consent is proportionate to their competence - a child's age alone is clearly an unreliable predictor of his or her competence to make decisions. (cqc.org.uk)
  • When consenting children to medical treatment, the terms 'Gillick competence' and 'Fraser guidelines' are frequently used interchangeably despite there being a clear distinction between them. (cqc.org.uk)
  • It appears they are concerned that consent is harder to define in the spousal relationship, where, I guess, sex at any time is presumed to be part of the deal. (salon.com)
  • Barriers to the SIA implementation included lead time, consent processes, interagency collaboration, access to the targeted cohort and the impact of introducing a SIA to an already demanding curriculum and school programme immunization schedule. (who.int)
  • Any child conceived following artificial insemination of a married woman with the consent of her husband shall be treated as their child. (ssa.gov)
  • Both measures would define consent as "clear, unambiguous, knowing, informed and voluntary agreement between all participants to engage in each act within the course of sexual activity. (thecollegefix.com)
  • Is therea legal difference between self-governance and consenting to be governed? (gazette-tribune.com)
  • Regarding the processing of your personal data, the relevant legal basis is your consent in accordance with Article 6 Paragraph 1 lit. (eex.com)
  • In rare emergencies, a parent might not be available to give consent for a treatment for a young child - for example, if an unconscious patient comes into the ER. (kidshealth.org)
  • Health care professionals obtaining informed consent must be qualified to explain the potential harms and benefits of the intervention and to answer appropriate questions. (msdmanuals.com)
  • and thereby taking authority to themselves without his consent. (godtube.com)
  • The Bankruptcy Court ruled for Hartford, and the District Court affirmed, but the en bane Eighth Circuit reversed, concluding that § 506(c) could not be invoked by an administrative claimant. (justia.com)
  • The Man who claims no relationship to the CREATED SOCIAL SECURITY ACCOUNT TAXPAYER PERSON will either have (a) no standing in the Court, or (b) GENERAL PARTNERSHIP presumed which makes one fully liable. (ecclesia.org)
  • A child born or conceived during a marriage is presumed to be the legitimate child of both spouses for the same purposes. (ssa.gov)
  • If a child passes the Gillick test, he or she is considered 'Gillick competent' to consent to that medical treatment or intervention. (cqc.org.uk)
  • Consent of the patient is a prerequisite for any medical intervention. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Failure to provide information and get informed consent can leave a doctor vulnerable to medical malpractice, negligence, or battery claims . (findlaw.com)
  • When you're not in a condition to consent, but emergency medical action is necessary to save you, a doctor is not required to get informed consent. (findlaw.com)
  • Consenting to these technologies will allow us to process data such as browsing behavior or unique IDs on this site. (cbc-network.org)
  • a) GDPR) or on the basis of a presumed consent on the condition that you will welcome the call. (eex.com)
  • It would "provide instruction on affirmative consent as part of a specified curriculum in specified grades in public schools in the county beginning in the 2017-2018 school year. (thecollegefix.com)
  • The age of consent (16 in WA) does not apply when money is exchanged or force is involved. (thestranger.com)
  • For interventions considered routine and unlikely to cause harm (eg, routine phlebotomy, placement of an IV line), circumstances are typically considered to imply consent. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Fraser guidelines, on the other hand, are used specifically to decide if a child can consent to contraceptive or sexual health advice and treatment. (cqc.org.uk)
  • If a child does not pass the Gillick test, then the consent of a person with parental responsibility (or sometimes the courts) is needed in order to proceed with treatment. (cqc.org.uk)
  • It was determined that children under 16 can consent if they have sufficient understanding and intelligence to fully understand what is involved in a proposed treatment, including its purpose, nature, likely effects and risks, chances of success and the availability of other options. (cqc.org.uk)
  • They are named after one of the Lords responsible for the Gillick judgement but who went on to address the specific issue of giving contraceptive advice and treatment to those under 16 without parental consent. (cqc.org.uk)
  • If a doctor has treated you without first getting your informed consent and you suffered an injury as a result, consult with an experienced personal injury attorney for help. (findlaw.com)
  • All patients provided written informed consent.We included patients with documented influenza virus infection during periods when they were undergoing mechanical ventilation and/or during periods when they were breathing on their own. (cdc.gov)
  • If you can't be there to sign the form, you'll be contacted by phone to give your consent. (kidshealth.org)
  • Prior consent to use Content for any commercial purpose (e.g., book publishing) or to use Marks for any purpose (whether commercial or noncommercial) must be obtained from the Foundation in writing. (rwjf.org)