A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Technique using an instrument system for making, processing, and displaying one or more measurements on individual cells obtained from a cell suspension. Cells are usually stained with one or more fluorescent dyes specific to cell components of interest, e.g., DNA, and fluorescence of each cell is measured as it rapidly transverses the excitation beam (laser or mercury arc lamp). Fluorescence provides a quantitative measure of various biochemical and biophysical properties of the cell, as well as a basis for cell sorting. Other measurable optical parameters include light absorption and light scattering, the latter being applicable to the measurement of cell size, shape, density, granularity, and stain uptake.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The change in gene frequency in a population due to migration of gametes or individuals (ANIMAL MIGRATION) across population barriers. In contrast, in GENETIC DRIFT the cause of gene frequency changes are not a result of population or gamete movement.
Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
The study of the deformation and flow of matter, usually liquids or fluids, and of the plastic flow of solids. The concept covers consistency, dilatancy, liquefaction, resistance to flow, shearing, thixotrophy, and VISCOSITY.
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 3.4.99.19.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
The position or attitude of the body.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
The continuous visual field seen by a subject through space and time.
A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Measurement of the maximum rate of airflow attained during a FORCED VITAL CAPACITY determination. Common abbreviations are PEFR and PFR.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Small uniformly-sized spherical particles, of micrometer dimensions, frequently labeled with radioisotopes or various reagents acting as tags or markers.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The analysis of a chemical substance by inserting a sample into a carrier stream of reagent using a sample injection valve that propels the sample downstream where mixing occurs in a coiled tube, then passes into a flow-through detector and a recorder or other data handling device.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
The veins and arteries of the HEART.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS supplying the abdominal VISCERA.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
The motion of fluids, especially noncompressible liquids, under the influence of internal and external forces.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
The deformation and flow behavior of BLOOD and its elements i.e., PLASMA; ERYTHROCYTES; WHITE BLOOD CELLS; and BLOOD PLATELETS.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The act of BREATHING in.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
The inferior part of the lower extremity between the KNEE and the ANKLE.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
The circulation of BLOOD through the LIVER.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The posture of an individual lying face up.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
The smallest divisions of the arteries located between the muscular arteries and the capillaries.
Maintenance of blood flow to an organ despite obstruction of a principal vessel. Blood flow is maintained through small vessels.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
The main artery of the thigh, a continuation of the external iliac artery.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
The neural systems which act on VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE to control blood vessel diameter. The major neural control is through the sympathetic nervous system.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
The volume of packed RED BLOOD CELLS in a blood specimen. The volume is measured by centrifugation in a tube with graduated markings, or with automated blood cell counters. It is an indicator of erythrocyte status in disease. For example, ANEMIA shows a low value; POLYCYTHEMIA, a high value.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The arterial blood vessels supplying the CEREBRUM.
A hypoperfusion of the BLOOD through an organ or tissue caused by a PATHOLOGIC CONSTRICTION or obstruction of its BLOOD VESSELS, or an absence of BLOOD CIRCULATION.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
Freedom from activity.
The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.
A clinical manifestation of abnormal increase in the amount of carbon dioxide in arterial blood.
An NADPH-dependent enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of L-ARGININE and OXYGEN to produce CITRULLINE and NITRIC OXIDE.
An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.
A “sonic nozzle” (also known as “Critical Flow Venturi” or “Critical Flow Nozzle”) is a ... ... Flow Rate Is Not Affected by Downstream Flow Disturbances. *Mass Flow is Constant with Varying Downstream Pressure ... flow meter calibration flow meter flow metering mass flow meter mass flow metering calibration gas flow mass flow gas flow ... "Critical Flow Nozzle") is a flow meter that can be used as a calibration standard for gas flow meters or any flow measurement ...
They deliver discharge pressures up to 40 bar (580.2 psi) and flow volumes up to 80 000 m3/h (47 086 cfm). Also comes in ... T-Series centrifugal compressors process reactor pressures of up to 40 bar (580.2 psi) and flow volumes up to 80 000 m3/h (47 ... Built for maximum reliability they handle discharge pressures of 40 bar and flow volumes up to 80 000 m3/h (47 086 cfm) ... Oil-free medium pressure screw compressor with high pressure piston booster ZD (VSD) ...
Proven performance, upstream and downstream. DDHF pumps incorporate proven solutions to common materials, pressure, flow rate, ... Enhanced oil recovery injection: treated seawater, seawater, CO₂ injection, oil flow line ... pressures reaching 670 bar, and temperatures up to 450°C. ... High pressure and temperature capabilities: 670 bar, 450°C. * ...
These can be used to control flow rate or downstream pressure. Other elements required are pressure or flow sensors, PID ... To control flow rates, you need to use a pneumatic control valve with a pneumatic positioner operating on (0.2-1 kg/cm2) with ... These valves are again actuated by controllers( on -off , PID) connected to the level switches, pressure sensors or temp ... current to pressure convertor or an electroneumatic positioner ( 4-20mA control signal). ...
The variable speed drive allows automatic adjustment of flow and pressure to match the demands of the generator unit and, when ... It also ensures the air supply is kept clean to protect downstream equipment and production processes. The smooth bore helps ... Oil-free medium pressure screw compressor with high pressure piston booster ZD (VSD) ... the flow can be up rated by adjusting the pressure setting of the VSD compressor. Modified Gas Packing (MGP) methods are ...
Highly reliable with a long life, Marelli multi-stage pumps are capable of reaching massive flow rates and pressures. They are ... Reliable, high efficiency performance with highly engineered API pumps for critical upstream and downstream services.. ... chemical and general industries requiring high-pressure and flow. These pumps were originally manufactured under the Marelli ... With flows as high as 66,000 gpm (15,000 m³/hr) Marelli has a pump that will fit your application. ...
... adjustable flow lubricator module and a three-way lockable shut-off valve. The valve is vented to relieve downstream pressure ... Ram Speed Control via an infinitely variable valve allows instant adjustment of air flow to the dual cylinders. A minimum ... Lower the pressure to suit the job, reduce air consumption and preserve tooling. ... The unit consists of an adjustable filter/regulator module with pressure gauge, ...
The rotary filter of the Gneuss SFneos Series offer a pressure and process constant function. They convince with simple and ... Melt purity and quality downstream of the filtration system are permanently achieved. Rheologically optimized melt flow ... Constant pressure and process consistency. The SFneos Filtration Systems work continuously, process and pressure constant. They ... When a pressure increase upstream of the filter due to contamination is registered, the filter disk is indexed by means of a ...
The oil pressure you see on your gauge is a reflection of the oils flow and downstream flow resistance. Before doing anything ... I would double check the oil pressure with an oil pressure gauge of known accuracy. It could just be that your gauge is way out ... Hi-Flow vs Normal Thermostat? fraso replied to B.Liesbergs topic in Buick - Pre War ... Hi-Flow vs Normal Thermostat? fraso replied to B.Liesbergs topic in Buick - Pre War ...
... primary gas flow standard has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology with a ... A new pressure, volume, temperature, and time (PVTt) ... meter under test from the pressure variations in the downstream ... The PVTt systems at NIST consist of a flow source, valves for diverting the flow, a collection tank, a vacuum pump, pressure ... A new pressure, volume, temperature, and time (PVTt) primary gas flow standard has been constructed at the National Institute ...
Experiments were performed to measure the velocity and wall pressure fields downstream of spoilers mounted on the rigid floor ... Surface Pressure Fluctuations in Separated-Reattached Flows Behind Notched Spoilers. 2007-05-15 ... One objective was to investigate the spatial coherence and phase of the wall pressure fluctuations downstream of notched ... To this end, experiments were performed to characterize the surface pressure field downstream of straight and notched spoilers ...
Enables constant pressure, reducing possible damage to fragile media such as cells and enabling higher downstream process ... More from Fluid & Gas Flow Equipment. Fluid & Gas Flow Equipment Make Your Own Test Strips AZCO Systems Help You Control Cost ... which offers a step change in pump technology by providing higher accuracy with flow linearity independent of back-pressure. ... reducing possible damage to fragile media such as cells and enabling higher downstream process yields throughout the pressure ...
The leaflet also says that these meters minimize lifetime costs, pressure drops, and maintenance. Aside from mass and ... volumetric flow rates, these meters also measure fluid density, temperature, and concentration. The leaflet covers such ... No requirements for up and downstream pipe runs.. * No gas accumulation regardless of meter orientation. ...
OleumTech provides reliable wireless systems for downstream oil refining and petro-chem companies to monitor processes such as ... To accurately determine methane production levels and flow, our Wireless Pressure Transmitter can detect both pressure and ... Downstream (Refining) Applications. *Raw Material Tank Levels. *Flare Temperature Monitoring. *Remote Terminal Units (RTU) / ...
Then, after a longer operating period and after raising of the flow pressure of the fan assembly, when the valve of the supply ... is located downstream the filter (32) of the second throttling unit, and that the valve (40, 44, 45) comprises a ring plate ... Since supply air flows through the pipe 3, the bar 45 will be cooled quickly by the passing air flow after the heating. ... When the valve is closed, the pressure drop over the second throttling unit becomes small. The normal flow through the supply ...
... a trusted source of Thermal Flow Controllers information. ... at constant mass flow rates regardless of downstream pressure ... Find Thermal Flow Controllers related suppliers, manufacturers, products and specifications on GlobalSpec - ... Flow Series of flow computers is a family of highly flexible, modular flow computers designed for basic rate and total flow ... Mass Flow Meters and Controllers - Pressure Insensitive Mass Flow Controller -- SEC-Z700X Series ...
The resulting flow remains constant regardless of variations in upstream or downstream pressure.. A ball shuttle connects the ... ensures a constant pressure drop across an external orifice to create a pressure compensated flow control. ... The single ball shuttle allows for the decay of the pressure signal when both load ports drop to a lower pressure. ...
Among other things it requires a much higher flow rate at low injection pressure. This can be only provided by an outward- ... as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during ... The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure ... The Challenge of Precise Characterizing the Specific Large-Span Flows in Urea Dosing Systems for NOx Reduction. 2008-04-14 ...
When the flow increases, more pressure drop is created. Impulse piping routes the upstream and downstream pressures of the ... a flow computer can be used to calculate the corrected flow measurement using actual pressure, temperature and flow ... How Differential Pressure Flowmeters Work. Differential pressure flowmeters use Bernoullis equation to measure the flow of ... Because of the non-linear relationship between flow and differential pressure, the accuracy of flow measurement in the lower ...
Harth: We have designed the FWC so that it builds up only low back pressure to the exhaust gas flowing through. This is an ... Compared with the three-way catalyst and downstream uncoated particulate filter, however, it needs much less space in the ... If the back pressure is too high, this impairs the engine performance and worsens the carbon balance. ... To keep the back pressure as low as possible, we have developed innovative coating processes. These allow us, for example, to ...
The moves, in a region traditionally possessive of its refineries, power plants and pipelines, highlight the pressure on ... Saudi Aramco is weighing selling both downstream and upstream assets, two people familiar with the matter said. ... Key Indicator Shows Capital Beginning to Flow Back Into Bitcoin. Read full article. ... An indicator that has historically marked major price bottoms is pointing to a renewed flow of capital into bitcoin. ...
The cages are engineered to meet the flow/pressure differential of the specific application. ... while the second allows further control to a level as low as atmospheric pressure downstream. ... Due to pressure from above wave action and compact bedding, the 1,300-foot outfall required a rigid pressure pipeline. Hanson ... The valve continues to consistently modulate the flow into the tank without any shutdown, creating consistent water flow. 604/ ...
At that time, he observed water flowing from the downstream opening of the 24-inch, drainpipe in Dam No. 3. According to Mr. ... As piping action increased, the flow path was shortened and the exiting pressure was increased. The piping action and sludge ... 3. Piezometer - An instrument used to measure pressures in fluids. 4. Piping - The formation of natural fluid flow lines or " ... 2.9.6 Depth of Flow The depth of flow in, the stream channel at points along Buffalo Creek can be estimated from Figure 2-17 by ...
Flow to the loads supplied by the sub-circuits with zone valves is provided by a variable-speed pressure-regulated circulator. ... The piping upstream of this valve is at a higher pressure than the piping downstream of the valve. This "∆P" induces a slow, ... The system is also piped to allow flow through both boilers whenever one or more loads are active. When one boiler is on and ... Because the "primary circulator" operates whenever any of the loads are on, it creates a pressure drop across the partially ...
... northerly flow downstream of the block across Europe. ... The Greenland block is also contributing to negative pressure/ ... Currently positive pressure/geopotential height anomalies are mostly focused on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic with ... The advantage over solid rockets is they can be throttled by regulating the LO2 flow, but they cant match the power of liquid ... The advantage over solid rockets is they can be throttled by regulating the LO2 flow, but they cant match the power of liquid ...
Hydraulic control valve system manipulating a 12 ball valve to regulate pump discharge and suction pressures on a gas pipeline ... Meaning as the flow demand increases the pressure drop across the valve increases causing lower system discharge pressure. Thus ... If you open the valve all the way(then you have essentially an open pipe) and your pressure downstream is still too low then ... If you open the valve all the way(then you have essentially an open pipe) and your pressure downstream is still too low then ...
A New Experiment of a Turbulent Boundary Layer Flow at Adverse Pressure Gradient for Validation and Improvement of RANS ... Transition Downstream of an Isolated Cylindrical Roughness Element on a Flat Plate Boundary Layer ... Experimental Investigation of Mach Number and Pressure Gradient Effects on Boundary Layer Transition in Two-Dimensional Flow ... Study of Total Pressure Losses at the Engine Face of a Submerged Inlet with an Ingested Vortex ...
As the charge Is detonated off centre and because the resulting pressure wave travels with a finite velocity, the pressure ... The basic experimental system consisted of a length of rigid pipe extending from a flow source into a large sonar tank. The ... One was found to originate from the primary water hammer compressive wave downstream of the diaphragm. The other major wave was ... kg Trimonlte charge In an off-centre position, generating a peak pressure of 24 MPa. To minimise the excessive CPU demand a ...
By adding pressure and temperature can be used for mass flow. Best use is for steam. The downside is that high pressure drop is ... the swirls produced downstream of a rock in a rapidly flowing river, and the waving of a flag in the wind. Note that in all of ... That is, the whistling stops when the wind dies down, the water flows calmly around the rock when the river is not flowing ... Increasing flow increases the frequency of oscillation. A sensor detects the oscillations and a transmitter generates a flow ...
  • To control flow rates, you need to use a pneumatic control valve with a pneumatic positioner operating on (0.2-1 kg/cm2) with current to pressure convertor or an electroneumatic positioner ( 4-20mA control signal). (valtorc.com)
  • Ram Speed Control via an infinitely variable valve allows instant adjustment of air flow to the dual cylinders. (southern-tool.com)
  • The unit consists of an adjustable filter/regulator module with pressure gauge, adjustable flow lubricator module and a three-way lockable shut-off valve. (southern-tool.com)
  • The valve is vented to relieve downstream pressure in the off position per OSHA guidelines. (southern-tool.com)
  • The standard covers a flow range of 1 slm^l to 2000 slm using two collection tanks and two diverter valve systems. (nist.gov)
  • In the closed state, the valve ( 40, 44, 45 ) is arranged to connect the two throttling units in series in the flow direction of the supply air, the first throttling unit ( 21, 31 ) being located downstream the second throttling unit ( 22, 32 ), and in the open state connects the two throttling units in parallel. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • thermal mass flow sensor, a precise control valve and a microprocessor based pc-board with signal and fieldbus conversion. (globalspec.com)
  • The existing plug valve was not able to handle this flow ratio and caused cavitation that destroyed two reducers. (mswmag.com)
  • The AC control valve contains two heavy stainless steel sliding cages that maximize the full flow capacity. (mswmag.com)
  • The valve continues to consistently modulate the flow into the tank without any shutdown, creating consistent water flow. (mswmag.com)
  • Because the "primary circulator" operates whenever any of the loads are on, it creates a pressure drop across the partially closed ball valve. (pmmag.com)
  • The piping upstream of this valve is at a higher pressure than the piping downstream of the valve. (pmmag.com)
  • Hydraulic control valve system manipulating a 12' ball valve to regulate pump discharge and suction pressures on a gas pipeline. (control.com)
  • The control valve will open to 100%, but will have not have much effect on the pressure. (control.com)
  • When conditions change and the pressure rises again, not only does the mA signal have to decrease below 0 mA to begin closing the valve (see problem 1) the ball valve must travel from 100% to about 35% before any change in pressure is seen. (control.com)
  • I assume the valve opening is in response to more flow demand on the system discharge. (control.com)
  • Meaning as the flow demand increases the pressure drop across the valve increases causing lower system discharge pressure. (control.com)
  • Thus opening the valve decreases the pressure drop across it and therefore increases the system discharge pressure. (control.com)
  • If you open the valve all the way(then you have essentially an open pipe) and your pressure downstream is still too low then your pump must be too small. (control.com)
  • In this application, it is okay that the valve opens all the way and the pressure is not maintained. (control.com)
  • The 'dilemma' is when conditions change and the valve has to travel from 100% open to 35% before making a difference on the rising pressure. (control.com)
  • Many customer quotation requests provide only the line size, pressure class rating, and valve type. (powermag.com)
  • A globe valve, size-for-size, will have a higher pressure drop than a gate valve. (powermag.com)
  • The straight-through design of a gate valve offers negligible pressure drop but is a poor choice for throttling applications (Figure 2). (powermag.com)
  • It is not uncommon for a new design engineer to specify the requirement for a gate valve in a throttling application due to the lower pressure drop at the full open position. (powermag.com)
  • If the valve is allowed to develop a higher pressure drop than that provided by a line-sized valve, using a smaller valve could produce several benefits: The cost of the valve will be lower due to the smaller body size and, if the valve is to be operated with an electric, pneumatic, or hydraulic actuator, the size of the actuator will be smaller and thus less expensive. (powermag.com)
  • The RMC PressureGuard ® Compact Pressure Reducing Valve is used in water systems to limit the downstream pressure to the preset maximum. (rmc.com.au)
  • IBV Brass In-Line Valve with Flow. (sprinklerwarehouse.com)
  • Add in a pair of options and provide the IBV with an even higher degree of dependable performance: the Accu-Sync pressure regulator maintains constant downstream pressure and the Filter Sentry system keeps the valve free of debris found in reclaimed water or ponds. (sprinklerwarehouse.com)
  • Built to withstand the rigors of high-pressure situations, the IBV is the commercial-grade valve solution for years of reliable operation. (sprinklerwarehouse.com)
  • 1/4″ tube female inlet and 1/4″ tube female outlet, Protects water filter units by limiting water pressure to 550 kpa pressure reducer valve with daul check non return. (ringhotwater.com.au)
  • In an open valve, the liquid flows in a direction from the higher pressure to the lower pressure. (gmiresearch.com)
  • 3. Where a tank is at an elevation that may produce a gravity head-pressure or siphon pressure, the tank outlet shall be equipped with a device, such as a normally closed solenoid valve, which will prevent gravity or siphon flow from the tank to the engine. (wisconsin.gov)
  • This device shall be located adjacent to and downstream of the tank outlet valve. (wisconsin.gov)
  • This valve changes the steam flow that's fed to the steam jet compressor. (hanshennig.de)
  • In contrast to the control valve in the motive steam pipe, using a nozzle needle ensures consistent motive steam pressure. (hanshennig.de)
  • Ames Fire & Waterworks announced a new grooved-end automatic control valve (ACV) for reducing water pressure in fire protection systems. (phcppros.com)
  • The diaphragm-actuated, pilot-operated valve is sensitive to downstream flow and pressure fluctuations. (phcppros.com)
  • This antisurge control loop also requires fast acting antisurge valves and differential pressure transmitters , because the overall control response is a function of the response time of the antisurge valve, measurement devices and control algorithm relative to the dynamics of the compressor parameters. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • For example, if there is a Fail-Close control valve downstream and it suddenly loses air. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • The backpressure valve also ensures the last pressure drop to tankage occurs without any undue noise, vibration, or cavitation. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • Note: In some installations a pressure release valve must be inserted before the filtering installation. (toro.com.au)
  • The valve features over 20 turns from shutoff to full open, providing excellent flow control. (zimco.ca)
  • TESCOM™ High Pressure Valve Gas: High Pressure Valve for the supply of high purity gases in laboratory gas supply lines. (zimco.ca)
  • TESCOM VA and VG Series are air operated valves offering normally open/normally closed capabilities, operating pressures of 6000, 10,000, and 15,000 psig / 414, 690, and 1034 bar, very high cycle life and optional integrated solenoid valve. (zimco.ca)
  • An oversized supply valve provides the Type 800 with significantly higher flow capacities than competitive units of similar size. (itqaneg.com)
  • The Type-700BP Back Pressure Regulator is a high flow, highly accurate pneumatic relief valve with an adjustable set point. (itqaneg.com)
  • A poppet valve which is balanced by utilizing a rolling diaphragm insures a constant output pressure even during wide supply pressure variations. (itqaneg.com)
  • These valves are again actuated by controllers( on -off , PID) connected to the level switches, pressure sensors or temp sensors as the case may be. (valtorc.com)
  • Flow to the loads supplied by the sub-circuits with zone valves is provided by a variable-speed pressure-regulated circulator. (pmmag.com)
  • The circulators for Load 2 and Load 3 both have internal check valves to prevent forward heat migration and prevent reverse flow. (pmmag.com)
  • Both boilers have pressure relieve valves and drain valves. (pmmag.com)
  • using signals from neighbour installations, subsea remote operated valves, subsea pressure sensors and even a riser platform. (asme.org)
  • Apollo® PRH (36H Series) pressure reducing valves are designed for commercial, industrial, and institutional applications to reduce incoming water pressure for protection of plumbing system components and to reduce water consumption. (cooneybrothers.com)
  • Globe valves are distinguished by an element that closes parallel to the direction of flow. (powermag.com)
  • Gate and globe valves are used for initiating flow in a static line or for isolating flow in a dynamic line based on input from a handwheel or actuator. (powermag.com)
  • Constant Flow Valves provide pre-set constant downstream flow rate. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Industrial Valves refers to the mechanical devices which control or regulate the pressure or flow of liquids and gases that are running through the pipelines. (gmiresearch.com)
  • The significant factors boosting the growth of the global industrial valves market include the strong demand for industrial valves in the oil and gas production and the increasing demand for flow control equipment across the globe. (gmiresearch.com)
  • These valves allow the monitoring of variables such as upstream and downstream pressure steam position, flow rate, and measurement of temperature. (gmiresearch.com)
  • The plug valves segment is projected to grow at a higher CAGR over the forecast period owing to its increasing adoption for a wide range of flow control and isolation applications, such as sewage cleaning, sludge, clean and dirty water, and other types of services. (gmiresearch.com)
  • This condition can have catastrophic effects on the machine, so compressor manufacturers include anti-surge valves that recycle gas from the discharge to the suction when a low flow is detected. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • Mikhail explained to me that antisurge control is only needed when the gas flow is low, so most compressors are designed to have their antisurge valves closed for most of the time. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • Flow balancing control valves are used in the measurement manifold to effectively equalize the fluid flow and ensure each meter is working effectively. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • Emerson Fisher™ flow balancing valves work in cooperation with downstream backpressure control valves to ensure adequate head pressure at the meter manifold for smooth flow control. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • Find out how our pumps, valves, seals, and more can help overcome the world's toughest flow control challenges. (flowserve.com)
  • Differential pressure flowmeters use Bernoulli's equation to measure the flow of fluid in a pipe. (flowmeters.com)
  • Differential pressure flowmeters introduce a constriction in the pipe that creates a pressure drop across the flowmeter. (flowmeters.com)
  • Impulse piping routes the upstream and downstream pressures of the flowmeter to the transmitter that measures the differential pressure to determine the fluid flow. (flowmeters.com)
  • Using this relationship, 10 percent of full scale flow produces only 1 percent of the full scale differential pressure. (flowmeters.com)
  • At 10 percent of full scale flow, the differential pressure flowmeter accuracy is dependent upon the transmitter being accurate over a 100:1 range of differential pressure. (flowmeters.com)
  • Differential pressure transmitter accuracy is typically degraded at low differential pressures in its range, so flowmeter accuracy can be similarly degraded. (flowmeters.com)
  • Therefore, this non-linear relationship can have a detrimental effect on the accuracy and turndown of differential pressure flowmeters. (flowmeters.com)
  • Remember that of interest is the accuracy of the flow measurement system --- not the accuracy of the differential pressure transmitter. (flowmeters.com)
  • Negatives are that rangeability is not good due to a non-linear differential pressure signal (laminar flow elements excepted), accuracy is not the best and can deteriorate with wear and clogging. (flowmeters.com)
  • Be careful using differential pressure flowmeters for fluids with high viscosity, such as some hydrocarbons and foods, because their accuracy can be degraded when Reynolds number is low. (flowmeters.com)
  • Be careful when using differential pressure flowmeters in dirty services because the dirt can plug the impulse piping and cause incorrect measurements. (flowmeters.com)
  • However one should remember that diaphragm seals can degrade the performance of the differential pressure transmitter system, and hence, the degrade the performance of the flow measurement system. (flowmeters.com)
  • Other flow measurement technologies may perform better than differential pressure flowmeters in many applications, however differential pressure flowmeters are still used extensively due to long-standing user familiarity with the technology. (flowmeters.com)
  • Because of the non-linear relationship between flow and differential pressure, the accuracy of flow measurement in the lower portion of the flow range can be degraded. (flowmeters.com)
  • In other words, as the flow increases the differential pressure across the pump decreases(check pump curve). (control.com)
  • In a differential pressure drop device the flow is calculated by measuring the pressure drop over an obstructions inserted in the flow. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The differential pressure flow meter is based on the Bernoulli Equation where the pressure drop and the further measured signal is a function of the square flow speed. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • After the pressure difference has been generated in the differential pressure flow meter, the fluid pass through the pressure recovery exit section, where the differential pressure generated at the constricted area is partly recovered. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The float rises until the annular area between the float and tube increases sufficiently to allow a state of dynamic equilibrium between the upward differential pressure and buoyancy factors, and downward gravity factors. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Ideal for dual mechanical seal differential pressure control. (zimco.ca)
  • A new pressure, volume, temperature, and time (PVTt) primary gas flow standard has been constructed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology with an expanded uncertainty of between 0.02 % and 0.05 % (k = 2). (nist.gov)
  • 2) Evacuate the collection tank volume (Vr) with the vacuum pump.3) Wait for pressure and temperature conditions in the tank to stabilize and then acquire initial values for the tank (P: and T:). These values will be used to calculate the initial density and the initial mass of gas in the tank (m~).slm = standard liters per minute, reference conditions are 293.16 K and 101.325 kPa. (nist.gov)
  • Aside from mass and volumetric flow rates, these meters also measure fluid density, temperature, and concentration. (oilandgasonline.com)
  • The upside of this technology is low cost, multiple versions can be optimized for different fluids and goals, are approved for custody transfer (though it is being used less and less for this), it is a well understood way to measure flow, and it can be paired up with temperature/pressure sensors to provide mass flow for steam and other gasses. (flowmeters.com)
  • By adding pressure and temperature can be used for mass flow. (flowmeters.com)
  • Since many parameters can be monitored in combustion processes (gas flow rates, gas pressures, stoichiometry, temperature, etc.) this data rich environment is ideal for the application of technologically advanced gas mixing equipment. (manufacturing-today.com)
  • Mass flow meters , therefore, are not subject to the variations in the physical parameters of the fluid such as temperature, pressure, density and viscosity. (riels.it)
  • Ultrasonic flow meters exploit the capacity of materials to propagate sound, in the fluids in particular the propagation velocity of sound is a characteristic that depends on the mass density, pressure and temperature. (riels.it)
  • The resulting flow remains constant regardless of variations in upstream or downstream pressure. (sunhydraulics.com)
  • One would need to determine what can potentially happen upstream or downstream of the compressor to cause the most rapid flow drop. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • Experiments were performed to measure the velocity and wall pressure fields downstream of spoilers mounted on the rigid floor of a closed test section wind tunnel for different spoiler heights. (sae.org)
  • The characterization of spray velocity fields in the near-nozzle region is of particular importance as the velocity information is crucial in understanding the hydrodynamic processes which take place further downstream during fuel atomization and mixture formation. (sae.org)
  • The velocity at which these flowmeters turn off is typically 0.3 m/sec (1 ft/sec) for liquids, but is typically higher for gases/vapors because a higher flow of the relatively low density gas/vapor is required to operate the sensing system. (flowmeters.com)
  • When a gas accelerates through a nozzle, the velocity increase and the pressure and the gas density decrease. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The rotameter meter typically have a TurnDown Ratio up to In a velocity flowmeter the flow is calculated by measuring the speed in one or more points in the flow, and integrating the flow speed over the flow area. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The pitot tube measures the fluid flow velocity by converting the kinetic energy of the flow into potential energy. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • All the flow meters offered by Riels Instruments (with the exception of the volumetric and mass flow meters) are mean or instantaneous velocity flow meters and are therefore sensitive to the velocity distribution in the section to be measured - the distribution changes with the Reynolds Number and thus with the operating conditions. (riels.it)
  • Electromagnetic flow meters are based on Faraday's Law of Magnetic Induction, which states that a conductor (the liquid itself) immersed in a magnetic field produces at its ends an electromotive force proportional to the velocity with which the conductor crosses the flux lines of the magnetic field. (riels.it)
  • The turbine flow meters are comprised of a very light wheel, made up of a blade or rotor, that indicates the velocity of a fluid current and change it into a rotary motion, the velocity of which is dependent on the flow rate. (riels.it)
  • Natural levees are formed as sediment of larger grain size settle out on the banks of channels due to the drop in flow velocity on the edge of the channel. (angelofailla.com)
  • In the SI-system of dimensions it is the product of shaft angular velocity (in radians/second) times the square root of flow (in m3/second), divided by the pump enthalpy (in m2/s2) to the power of 0,75. (boatdesign.net)
  • the most established and popular vane type separator for vertical flow and extremely low pressure drop for speed velocity range 1 to 5 m/sec. (munters.com)
  • The static pressure distribution, the flow velocity, fluctuations of the static pressure and the swirl were measured. (elsevier.com)
  • No requirements for up and downstream pipe runs. (oilandgasonline.com)
  • Hanson Pressure Pipe supplied 84-inch E-301 pipe in 20-foot lengths. (mswmag.com)
  • Vortex shedding flowmeters use a bluff body (shedder) that is typically approximately 20% of the inside diameter of the pipe located to symmetrically traverse the flowing stream to create vortices downstream of the shedder. (flowmeters.com)
  • With an orifice plate, the fluid flow is measured through the difference in pressure from the upstream side to the downstream side of a partially obstructed pipe. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The plate obstructing the flow offers a precisely measured obstruction that narrows the pipe and forces the flowing fluid to constrict. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Smooth pipe and nozzle connection transitions to avoid dead spots in the fluid stream and minimize pressure drop. (eaton.com)
  • By design, sonic nozzles are a constant volumetric flow meter. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Volumetric flow meters indicate the flow on the basis of geometric volumes generated and calculated by a measuring device. (riels.it)
  • Volumetric flow meters are comprised of a moving component that can be a disc, piston or a gear pair which, when thrust by the fluid, set in motion a drive shaft that transfers the movement of the mobile component to the exterior of the body where it is collected by a calculation device. (riels.it)
  • Volumetric flow meters are used for fiscal readings given their high precision and are recommended for high viscosity fluids such as refined petroleum products like diesel, petrol, fuel oil, kerosene, naphta, LPG and solvents. (riels.it)
  • One of the main disadvantages of volumetric flow meters is the wear and tear of the portable measuring device and this makes it unsuitable for use with dirty or abrasive fluids. (riels.it)
  • volumetric flow range: 20. (ilkdresden.de)
  • One objective was to investigate the spatial coherence and phase of the wall pressure fluctuations downstream of notched spoilers in comparison with the same quantities for uniform spoilers. (sae.org)
  • The disturbance field, which may consist of fluctuations of pressure, entropy and vorticity, is found to be modified in passing through the shock or flame. (caltech.edu)
  • Moderate fluctuations of either vorticity (turbulence) or entropy will produce intense noise fields in the downstream flow. (caltech.edu)
  • The pressure amplitudes of the sound fields generated by entropy and vorticity fluctuations in the upstream flow are proportional, respectively, to the Mach number squared and cubed. (caltech.edu)
  • Mass flow meters exploit the Coriolis effect that occurs when a fluid flows in a rotation system. (riels.it)
  • Fluid flows from outside to inside through filter media. (indofilter.com)
  • Particulates are held securely in the filter matrix and clean fluid flows to the downstream side of cartridge. (indofilter.com)
  • Considering both the divergent section design and the flow rate, sonic nozzles may operate with an exit pressure as high as 90% of the inlet pressure. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Reliable, high efficiency performance with highly engineered API pumps for critical upstream and downstream services. (sundyne.com)
  • Process engineers utilize Marelli heavy duty pumps for refining, petrochemical, offshore, floating production storage and offloading (FPSO) operations, floating liquified natural gas (FLNG) facilities, chemical and general industries requiring high-pressure and flow. (sundyne.com)
  • With flows as high as 66,000 gpm (15,000 m³/hr) Marelli has a pump that will fit your application. (sundyne.com)
  • Sundyne is the world leader in delivering low-flow, high-head, integrally geared centrifugal pumps and compressors, sealless magnetic drive pumps and diaphragm gas compressors. (sundyne.com)
  • High combustion chamber pressures (ie at full throttle) increase the voltage required for the spark to jump the sparkplug gap in the engine. (aaca.org)
  • Description: Bronkhorst® model FG-211AV High Performance Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs) are suited for accurate measurement and control of flow ranges between 0,2…10 ln/min and 2…100 ln/min at operating pressures up to 100 bar. (globalspec.com)
  • Because a high back pressure increases the resistance to be overcome by the tailpipe emissions before they reach the exhaust system. (basf.com)
  • If the back pressure is too high, this impairs the engine performance and worsens the carbon balance. (basf.com)
  • The downside is that high pressure drop is possible at high end of the scale although negligible at midscale. (flowmeters.com)
  • The PRH provides high capacity flow with low pressure drop. (cooneybrothers.com)
  • The calculation of compressible flow through orifice plates at high dP (critical flow) appears to be carried out incorrectly in most instances. (cheresources.com)
  • Near the tips of the wing, the air is free to move from the region of high pressure into the region of low pressure. (nasa.gov)
  • 2021-5-15 · Whether you need micro-dosing/metering or the continuous high pressure pulseless flows of our gear pumps, Diener has the product range to meet your requirements. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Built to withstand the rigors of high pressure situations and provide years of reliable operation. (sprinklerwarehouse.com)
  • A turbine flow indicator is not suitable for high viscosity fluids as the blade is subject to wear and tear, making it necessary to filter the fluid to prevent solids in suspension in the fluid from damaging the instrument. (riels.it)
  • In order to achieve a pumping action, they use the energy from steam at a high level of pressure as the drive medium. (hanshennig.de)
  • High levels of tension exert more pressure on the drops, keeping them more nearly spherical. (compamed-tradefair.com)
  • Integrated safety feature against irregularly high crankcase pressure. (slx4x4.com.au)
  • its tip speed is high, but the flow channels are relatively narrow. (boatdesign.net)
  • In the other extreme, you may want a high flow at a low pressure, and alas, now you use an axial flow impeller. (boatdesign.net)
  • For ship propulsion we strive for high flows at low flow velocities (a requirement for high propulsive efficiency). (boatdesign.net)
  • So as far as this applies to skis, if I am going to use a motor that can reach high rpm's i do want the axial pump, otherwise I'll be better off with the mixed flow? (boatdesign.net)
  • Given the high incidence of subclinical PE during declotting of thrombosed AVFG and consequent elevated right heart pressures, there is real concern of paradoxical embolism in patients with PFO. (asnjournals.org)
  • It is designed to handle very large liquid fractions and slugs, yet it has a low pressure drop and a very high resistance to fouling. (munters.com)
  • This fast, high energy action will be accompanied by a large breakdown of flow patterns within the compressor, as well as vibration, noise, and significant and costly damage. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • Pipeline operators require high accuracy flow measurement for accurate billing and for the delivery of liquids to the open market. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • TESCOM™ 98 Series Filter Pressure Control: 98 Series high pressure filters offer operating pressure ratings up to 10,000psig / 690 bar with Mini In-line and TEE-Type designs. (zimco.ca)
  • Ideal for high pressure systems and high flow systems. (zimco.ca)
  • The Type-100 is a high precision, multi-stage pressure regulator. (itqaneg.com)
  • This high quality unit, available in five pressure ranges up to 100 psig (6.8 BAR), offers the same dependable performance as ControlAir's larger precision air pressure regulators. (itqaneg.com)
  • The Type 700 is designed for applications that require high flow capacity and accurate process control. (itqaneg.com)
  • The flow behavior in a disk MHD generator was studied under high-MHD interaction conditions. (elsevier.com)
  • The results show that when load resistances and seed fractions are high, a steep pressure increase appears at the upstream region in the MHD channel owing to the enhanced Lorentz force. (elsevier.com)
  • A sensor detects the oscillations and a transmitter generates a flow measurement signal. (flowmeters.com)
  • These mixes can be preprogrammed to flow at set rates, or add a smart sensor down the production line to provide feedback to the gas mixing system. (manufacturing-today.com)
  • The method according to claim 1, wherein an air flow sensor in a passageway between a chamber is provided on the upstream side of the coating curtain and ambient air and controlling the amount of air supplied in proximity of the dynamic wetting line in response to the output of the air flow metered between ambient air and the upstream side of the coating curtain to zero. (sumobrain.com)
  • and when the peak voltage falls below the lower threshold, determining that the amount of lubricant has decreased or stopped, and when the peak voltage exceeds the upper threshold, determining that the part downstream from the sensor is clogged. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • A "sonic nozzle" (also known as "Critical Flow Venturi" or "Critical Flow Nozzle") is a flow meter that can be used as a calibration standard for gas flow meters or any flow measurement device. (environmental-expert.com)
  • Description: The Nova- Flow Series of flow computers is a family of highly flexible, modular flow computers designed for basic rate and total flow display, batch control for liquid and gas flow measurement, as well as for thermal energy measurement. (globalspec.com)
  • Be careful in applications where flow measurement is required near the bottom of the flowmeter range because these flowmeters turn off at low flow rates. (flowmeters.com)
  • A new idea of introducing flow measurement in the SIS was proposed. (asme.org)
  • Flow measurement in Safety Instrumented Systems has not been used previously on the NCS. (asme.org)
  • This paper describes the principles of designing a pipeline safety system including flow measurement with focus on the hydraulic simulations and designing the safety system. (asme.org)
  • With integrated pressure measurement, it ensures the smooth running of your metering process. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Problem 2: At times, line conditions dictate that the discharge pressure cannot be maintained at setpoint. (control.com)
  • Currently, intermediate setpoints are used to prevent the pressures from overshooting (discharge) or undershooting (suction) at startup. (control.com)
  • Since recycling gas from the discharge back to the suction of a compressor wastes energy, the most economic operation is to keep the recycle flow as low as possible, thus operating closer to the surge line. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • Reversal of flow will occur if the downstream pressure becomes greater than the discharge compressor pressure. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • Variable Tonnage Control provided through the modular filter/regulator/lubricator unit delivers twelve or twenty-four tons of ram force to form up to 3/8 or 1/2 inch at maximum pressure. (southern-tool.com)
  • WHY THIS MATTERS: If you don't use a regulator, you're almost certainly using more air (SCFM) and/or pressure (PSI/BAR) than the pump needs. (versamatic.com)
  • 42MW Series instrument isolator is typically used with a SJS Series pressure tracking regulator - see SJS Series tracking regulator. (zimco.ca)
  • TESCOM™ 20-1000 Series Pressure Regulator Gas: 20-1000 Series regulator is designed with lightweight aluminum construction for onboard compressed natural gas vehicles with 7 liter engines and larger. (zimco.ca)
  • The Type-800 is a compact air regulator that supplies precise air pressure control for applications where space is limited. (itqaneg.com)
  • This pressure regulator provides the highest level of regulation accuracy and repeatability available in a compact, lightweight housing. (itqaneg.com)
  • If the inlet pressure (NPSHA) is greater than 10' (3.04 m), you should consult the pump manufacturer. (versamatic.com)
  • It is typically installed in commercial or industrial fire sprinkler systems to automatically reduce a higher inlet pressure to an adjustable lower outlet pressure. (phcppros.com)
  • To keep the back pressure as low as possible, we have developed innovative coating processes. (basf.com)
  • Limiting cases, for flow either frozen or in equilibrium with respect to the various exchange processes, help demonstrate the effects of mass transfer between phases. (caltech.edu)
  • Pressure relaxation between the two phases is examined, but is not included as a contributing factor because it is of interest only at much higher frequencies than the other relaxation processes. (caltech.edu)
  • Also known as thermocompressors or vapour compressors, steam jet compressors compress steam flows in various processes in a simple way. (hanshennig.de)
  • Throughout many chemical processes, liquid-gas separation plays a vital role in recovering lost product or in protecting downstream equipment and processes from droplets in the gas stream. (munters.com)
  • Vortex precession fluidic flowmeters are relatively insensitive to hydraulic disturbances in the fluid, so they typically have relatively short upstream and downstream straight run requirements. (flowmeters.com)
  • In the case of the shock wave, it is found that all of the the three types of disturbances are generated in comparable strength in the downstream flow by the presence of any of the three in the upstream flow. (caltech.edu)
  • For the flame front, also, it is found that all three types of disturbances are generated in the downstream flow by the presence of one of them in the upstream flow. (caltech.edu)
  • Flow output on the 41 series Direct Drive ranges from 3.5 to 5 GPM, and 2500 to 3500 PSI. (highpsi.com)
  • The SF neos Filtration Systems work continuously, process and pressure constant. (gneuss.com)
  • The rheologically optimised filtration systems with their dead-zone free melt channel design and short flow path allow gentle processing. (gneuss.com)
  • Melt purity and quality downstream of the filtration system are permanently achieved. (gneuss.com)
  • Ideal for use in filtration prior to pressure control components to protect from particulate contamination. (zimco.ca)
  • By always keeping the size of the free active screen area constant, the pressure can be kept constant during the whole production process (max. (gneuss.com)
  • A normally closed modulating element, used as a bypass compensator, ensures a constant pressure drop across an external orifice to create a pressure compensated flow control. (sunhydraulics.com)
  • In a nozzle, the area may change significantly over this relaxation zone so that the solution for a constant area duct is no longer adequate to describe the flow. (caltech.edu)
  • Highly reliable with a long life, Marelli multi-stage pumps are capable of reaching massive flow rates and pressures. (sundyne.com)
  • Pittsfield Township, Mich., pumps water from a neighboring community to a storage tank that ranges between empty and 16 feet at full, resulting in a pressure drop anywhere between 7 to 70 psi. (mswmag.com)
  • The combination of dirty, unregulated air can damage and/or shorten the life of downstream equipment like AODD pumps. (versamatic.com)
  • Air filters/regulators play a crucial role in the performance of AODD pumps, offering protection and precision control by removing solid and liquid contaminants while controlling the air flow. (versamatic.com)
  • AOBL brand solenoid 12v dc low pressure micro metering pumps automatic chlorine and chemical dosing pump Shanghai GL Environmental Technology Co., Ltd. US 69.0-98.0 Set 2 Sets (Min. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Solenoid diaphragm metering pumps are available in capacities ranging from 0.74 to 75 l/h at a back pressure of 16 to 2 bar. (contextpolitic.net)
  • With vast experience of reciprocating pumps, metering pumps, dosing pumps, chemical pumps, transfer pumps, piston pumps, and plunger pumps, Grosvenor Pumps provide a comprehensive range of pumps which cope with high temperatures and pressures. (contextpolitic.net)
  • Our pumps are typically used for chemical dosing/metering systems, boiler feed and pressure testing. (contextpolitic.net)
  • I see axial and mixed flow pumps mentioned a lot, but i have been unable to find any information on the actual differences. (boatdesign.net)
  • On the chart axial pumps are labeled for the higher Nd, but are a lower efficiency than the mixed flow pumps. (boatdesign.net)
  • typically used for liquid separation prior to compressor stations or for protecting equipment downstream like catalytic reactors, flares and others. (munters.com)
  • To accurately determine methane production levels and flow, our Wireless Pressure Transmitter can detect both pressure and vacuum present within the methane production system. (oleumtech.com)
  • The complexity of a remote flow computer, transmitter or process controller linked to the usability and data handling of a SCADA environment makes instantaneous information and historical retrieval a reality. (measurementlibrary.com)
  • Compared with the three-way catalyst and downstream uncoated particulate filter, however, it needs much less space in the engine compartment. (basf.com)
  • A progressive fall or decrease in the water surface elevation occurs as the flow moves downstream. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Closed conduit flow occurs when the flow is caused by a pressure difference in the conduit. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The mixed flow is then slowed down in the subsequent diffusor and an increase in pressure occurs at the same time. (hanshennig.de)
  • Surge is a condition that occurs in compressors when the amount of gas they are trying to compress is insufficient for the size of the compressor and the blades lose their ability to transfer energy from the shaft to the fluid, causing a reverse flow of the gas. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • Flow instability occurs when the compressor cannot produce enough pressure head to overcome the downstream resistance. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • Flow Through Orifice Plates in Compressible Flu. (cheresources.com)
  • This flow condition is often encountered on gas plants, compressor stations and pipelines where orifice plates are commonly used as a cheap and convenient way to regulate blowdown and pressurising rates. (cheresources.com)
  • Where subscript "1" indicates upstream conditions, subscript "2" indicates downstream conditions and A o is the orifice cross section area. (cheresources.com)
  • The Turn Down Ratio for orifice plates are less than Their accuracy are poor at low flow rates. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Due to simplicity and dependability, the Venturi tube flowmeter is often used in applications where it's necessary with higher Turn Down Ratios , or lower pressure drops, than the orifice plate can provide. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • As we can see, the pressure drop in orifice plates are significant higher than in the venturi tubes. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • However, with the use of a regulated pressure supply, the sonic nozzle becomes a "state-of-the-art" mass flow meter. (environmental-expert.com)
  • As an electromagnetic flow meter is an empty tube, it is suitable for dirty liquids, solids suspended in liquids, or for liquid foods. (riels.it)
  • The conditions required for the correct operation of an electromagnetic flow meter are: full tube and electrically conductive liquid. (riels.it)
  • A turbine flow meter is ideal for gases such as methane, nitrogen, air, hydrogen, etc., and fluids like water and neutral fluids. (riels.it)
  • A Vortex flow meter is ideal both for liquids and gases in pipes of limited dimensions, but it is not suitable for viscous fluids which would need to be filtered. (riels.it)
  • A mass flow meter is comprised of a U-tube which, rather than made to rotate, is made to oscillate periodically at the natural frequency. (riels.it)
  • A microprocessor ensures that the mass flow meter vibrates and to indicate and process the signals originating from the sensors. (riels.it)
  • The theory and operating principle is presented explaining how a dual-rotor turbine meter can operate as both a conventional flow meter and as a prover that measures the accuracy of the meter while under actual operating conditions. (measurementlibrary.com)
  • This precision unit is capable of handling flows up to 50 SCFM. (itqaneg.com)
  • Flow expresses the quantity of fluid (liquid, gas or steam) that passes through a section in a unit of time. (riels.it)
  • The pressure drops at the outlet of the nozzle so that the steam to be compressed can be drawn in. (hanshennig.de)
  • This steam mixture is used in the process downstream at the higher pressure level. (hanshennig.de)
  • The way steam jet compressors operate can be influenced by changing the motive steam flow. (hanshennig.de)
  • If the motive steam flow is decreased, lower motive pressure is generated in front of the motive nozzle. (hanshennig.de)
  • In the process, the pressure to accelerate the steam in the motive nozzle drops the more the motive steam flow is reduced. (hanshennig.de)
  • A nozzle needle, driven by an actuator, changes the diameter of the motive nozzle and therefore the motive steam flow. (hanshennig.de)
  • When a pressure increase upstream of the filter due to contamination is registered, the filter disk is indexed by means of a pneumatic drive. (gneuss.com)
  • It's primary function is to provide protection against over pressurization in the downstream portion of a pneumatic system. (itqaneg.com)
  • Flows in canals or vented pipelines - like drain and sewers - which are not flowing full, are typical examples. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The wing tip vortices produce a swirling flow of air behind the wing which is very strong near the wing tips and decreases toward the wing root. (nasa.gov)
  • When the downstream demand decreases, flow rates can fall below the point of stable operation. (appliedcontrol.com)
  • The single ball shuttle allows for the decay of the pressure signal when both load ports drop to a lower pressure. (sunhydraulics.com)
  • When the flow increases, more pressure drop is created. (flowmeters.com)
  • Bernoulli's equation states that the pressure drop across the constriction is proportional to the square of the flow rate. (flowmeters.com)
  • Due to relatively similar shedder widths in the various vortex shedding flowmeter designs, the pressure drop associated with these flowmeters in water service is approximately 300 mbar at 5 m/sec (5 psid at 15 ft/sec). (flowmeters.com)
  • However, due to the pressure drop when transporting gas in a very long pipeline, it is possible to operate multi design pressure systems. (asme.org)
  • Available pressure drop over the Gjo̸a pipeline was hence limited and a large diameter was necessary. (asme.org)
  • Blowdown must be achieved within the time period required to make the plant safe but at the same time without an excessive rate of pressure drop that could damage equipment. (cheresources.com)
  • The benefits are elimination of excessive amount of liquids and lower pressure drop. (munters.com)
  • When it comes to preventing surge before it happens, the overall response time required depends on the worst-case scenario for the potential flow drop event. (emersonautomationexperts.com)
  • Description: Max-Trak® 180 mass flow controllers are a family of industrial mass flow controllers from the company that has been a trusted name in industrial thermal mass flow meters for decades-Sierra Instruments. (globalspec.com)
  • Flow Transmitters - Mass Flow Controllers - MaxTrak? (globalspec.com)
  • Description: Max-Trak® is a family of industrial gas mass flow instruments from the company that has been a trusted name in industrial thermal mass flow meters for decades-Sierra Instruments. (globalspec.com)
  • These can be used to control flow rate or downstream pressure. (valtorc.com)
  • The first directs and contains the cavitation recovery, allowing it to dissipate, while the second allows further control to a level as low as atmospheric pressure downstream. (mswmag.com)
  • Therefore, the pipeline outlet pressure could not be used in a Safety Instrumented System to control pipeline inventory. (asme.org)
  • Featuring a brass body and bonnet built to handle up to 220 PSI the IBV also boasts a sturdy stainless steel flow control stem. (sprinklerwarehouse.com)
  • This situation is used in many control systems to maintain fixed, accurate, repeatable gas flow rates unaffected by the downstream pressure. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Accurate, readily available gas flow data and control capabilities are critical to many gas production, transportation and storage sites. (measurementlibrary.com)
  • These Self-Contained Models are each a 12 Volt Heavy Duty, Wheeled Pressure Washer with a Vertical Heat Chamber and Direct Drive. (highpsi.com)
  • Standard features include a roll cage frame, downstream chemical injection, a 12V ignition system, and a variable pressure wand. (highpsi.com)
  • One dominant "wind noise" generating mechanism in road vehicles is the interaction between turbulent flows and flexible structures which include side glass windows. (sae.org)
  • Flow nozzles are often used as measuring elements for air and gas flow in industrial applications. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Our simulations confirm that - as suggested by earlier semi-analytical models - the post-shock pressure loss induced by radiative losses may lead to a stationary equilibrium state characterized by a very strong focusing of the flow, with the formation of quite narrow nozzles, with cross-sectional radii as small as 10 -3 times the length scale of the jet. (aanda.org)
  • As a function of a setpoint value, the flow controller swiftly adjusts the desired flow rate. (globalspec.com)
  • The vortex frequency is directly proportional to the flow rate of the fluid. (flowmeters.com)
  • The frequency that the flow alternates between the feedback passages is directly proportional to the flow rate of the fluid. (flowmeters.com)
  • The flow rate depends mainly on the pressure difference between the ends, the distance between the ends, the area of the conduit and the hydraulic properties of the conduit - like the shape, roughness and restrictions like bends. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The height of the float is an indication of the flow rate. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Other elements required are pressure or flow sensors, PID controllers. (valtorc.com)
  • The spin vane separators are an in-line installed equipment used for removing droplets for both horizontal and vertical gas flow. (munters.com)
  • The leaflet also says that these meters minimize lifetime costs, pressure drops, and maintenance. (oilandgasonline.com)
  • Electromagnetic flow meters are ideal for precise and accurate measurements. (riels.it)
  • Vortex flow meters are based on the Law of Karman, who studied and coded the formation of whirls in fluids in motion. (riels.it)
  • Coriolis flow meters can be used independently of the nature of the fluid, on condition that it is compressed if the fluid is a gas. (riels.it)
  • Ultrasonic flow meters operate on the following principle: an electric impulse is applied to an electroacoustic transducer that turns it into a corresponding impulse of sound energy with a frequency of between 0,5 and 5 MHz. (riels.it)
  • The inferential type meters are so-called because rather than measuring the actual volume of gas passing through them, they infer the volume by measuring some other aspect of the gas flow and calculating the volume based on the measurements. (measurementlibrary.com)
  • When the two flows are mixed, some of the motive flow's kinetic energy is partly transferred to the suction flow. (hanshennig.de)
  • The ReNu SU Technology cartridges are the heart of WMFTG's Quantum pump, which offers a step change in pump technology by providing higher accuracy with flow linearity independent of back-pressure. (thomasnet.com)
  • If this is true(I don't have a schematic, I'm guessing), then the system would work as long as the pump can support the flow at the required pressure. (control.com)
  • Hence, it sounds like you are operating beyond the flow capabilities of the pump. (control.com)
  • In this blog, we'll discuss AODD pump installation tips to avoid downtime and damage-before fluid ever begins to flow through your pump. (versamatic.com)
  • In this scenario, there is fluid pressure coming into the AODD pump. (versamatic.com)
  • WHY THIS MATTERS: If the piping is smaller than the pump size, fluid will be restricted and negatively affect pump flow, efficiency, and diaphragm life. (versamatic.com)
  • By not controlling the air volume and pressure, it can cost you efficiency while shortening the life of the pump due to over-pressurization, hard startups, and additional unnecessary pump cycles. (versamatic.com)
  • Pump performance is presented in graphic form as a diagram, showing pressure as a function of flow. (boatdesign.net)
  • But the losses in the jet wake are reduced (the "impulse efficiency" is still rising) with increasing flow volume, which means that there is a propulsion optimum slightly to the right of the Nd giving max pump efficiency. (boatdesign.net)
  • From a practical standpoint for a given application an axial pump can be made with a smaller overall diameter than a mixed flow pump and therefore weighs less and takes up less room. (boatdesign.net)
  • I have heard one referred to as an axial pump and one as a mixed flow pump. (boatdesign.net)
  • I dont know if this is an accurate assumption, but does the efficiency of a mixed flow pump fall off quickly at the higher Nd? (boatdesign.net)
  • Fluids are pumped toward a "T" intersection where drops of one liquid are pinched off and flow along a "river" of the second liquid. (compamed-tradefair.com)
  • As the spherical drops flow through constriction points in the channel, they speed up and elongate. (compamed-tradefair.com)
  • Just as the mood of a party goes through stages, the tension between newly mixed liquids can change over time, and the device tracks these changes as the drops move downstream through the channel. (compamed-tradefair.com)
  • Air filters/regulators provide clean, controlled, consistent air pressure while reducing downtime and maintenance costs. (versamatic.com)
  • Senninger pressure regulators keep the pressure in your irrigation system steady and at the right level so your emitters work the way they're supposed to. (growirrigation.com)
  • The fuel spray behavior in the near nozzle region of a gasoline injector is challenging to predict due to existing pressure gradients and turbulences of the internal flow and in-nozzle cavitation. (sae.org)
  • The flow nozzle is relative simple and cheap, and available for many applications in many materials. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • In the flow of a gas-particle mixture through a nozzle, a normal shock may exist in the diverging section of the nozzle. (caltech.edu)
  • In the present work, an asymptotic solution, which accounts for the area change, is obtained for the flow of a gas-particle mixture downstream of the shock in a nozzle, under the assumption of small slip between the particles and gas. (caltech.edu)
  • Fluid flow causes the float to rise in the tube as the upward pressure differential and buoyancy of the fluid overcome the effect of gravity. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • As wells continue to be drilled deeper, encountering higher pressures and temperatures than ever before, reliable tool activation is critical. (fike.com)
  • The pipeline integrity is ensured by limiting the inventory and local maximum allowable pressure in the pipeline using inlet and outlet pressure measurements in a Safety Instrumented System (SIS). (asme.org)
  • When one boiler is on and the other is off, the flow of heated water through the unfired boiler creates heat loss through the boiler jacket and unnecessarily heats the mechanical room. (pmmag.com)
  • That is, the whistling stops when the wind dies down, the water flows calmly around the rock when the river is not flowing rapidly, and the flag does not wave in a mild breeze. (flowmeters.com)
  • Flow in water supply pipes or district heating pipes are typical examples. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • An experimental investigation of subcooled flow boiling in a rectangular mini-gap channel with the dimension of 0.5 mm × 5 mm was conducted with deionized water as the working fluid. (asme.org)
  • In the Venturi Tube the fluid flowrate is measured by reducing the cross sectional flow area in the flow path, generating a pressure difference. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • It is found that the intensity of the downstream turbulence generated by sound waves inpinging on the upstream face of the flame is proportional to the reciprocal of this Mach number times the intensity of the upstream pressure fluctuation. (caltech.edu)
  • A large fluctuation of the static pressure was observed at the upstream region where the steep pressure increase appeared. (elsevier.com)
  • Characteristics of the pressure fluctuation are found to be analogous to those of the pseudoshock observed in channels without MHD interactions. (elsevier.com)
  • Isolated top-to-bottom backwash flow ensures complete and efficient media cleaning while continuing to deliver filtered product downstream. (eaton.com)
  • Open channel flow occur when the flowing stream has a free or unconstrained surface open to the atmosphere. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • Solvay Special Chemicals· PDF fileof sulphur hexafluoride, the pressure rise as a result of thermal expansion follow - ing dielectric breakdowns is less than that with other gases and very considerably less than is the case with liquid dielectrics. (pss-technology.de)
  • Coanda effect fluidic flowmeters contain two feedback passages that alternately bring fluid back to the flowmeter inlet so as to alternately direct the flow to attach itself to one of the two internal "walls" of the flowmeter. (flowmeters.com)
  • The pitot tube are one the most used and cheapest ways to measure fluid flow, especially in air applications like ventilation and HVAC systems, even used in airplanes for speed measurent. (nebraskansforjustice.org)
  • The vane type droplet separator or mist eliminator is used for applications with horizontal gas flows. (munters.com)
  • The expansion tank connects near the hydraulic separator, which keeps the pressure within the later very stable regardless of which circulators are operating. (pmmag.com)
  • The effective angle of attack of the wing is decreased by the induced flow of the vortices and varies from wing tip to wing root. (nasa.gov)
  • This additional force is called induced drag because it faces downstream and has been "induced" by the action of the tip vortices. (nasa.gov)
  • Because of the responsiveness of these systems, changes in process conditions are immediately reported and mixtures adjusted, flow rates changed, or the system shut down in real time. (manufacturing-today.com)
  • Universal usage: exceptional for variable flow rates. (slx4x4.com.au)
  • The PRU208F8F keeps downstream pressure at 20 PSI in large systems for flow rates ranging from 20-100 GPM. (growirrigation.com)
  • It is designed with an integral by-pass relief to protect against thermal expansion downstream. (cooneybrothers.com)
  • Ability to read low end of range as a percent of maximum flow is limited compared to other technologies. (flowmeters.com)
  • Available for pressure range up to 10 bar. (munters.com)

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