A type of stress exerted uniformly in all directions. Its measure is the force exerted per unit area. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
The pressure due to the weight of fluid.
Techniques for measuring blood pressure.
Transducers that are activated by pressure changes, e.g., blood pressure.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Pressure within the cranial cavity. It is influenced by brain mass, the circulatory system, CSF dynamics, and skull rigidity.
The pressure of the fluids in the eye.
Method in which repeated blood pressure readings are made while the patient undergoes normal daily activities. It allows quantitative analysis of the high blood pressure load over time, can help distinguish between types of HYPERTENSION, and can assess the effectiveness of antihypertensive therapy.
The force per unit area that the air exerts on any surface in contact with it. Primarily used for articles pertaining to air pressure within a closed environment.
The pressure at any point in an atmosphere due solely to the weight of the atmospheric gases above the point concerned.
The blood pressure in the VEINS. It is usually measured to assess the filling PRESSURE to the HEART VENTRICLE.
The blood pressure in the ARTERIES. It is commonly measured with a SPHYGMOMANOMETER on the upper arm which represents the arterial pressure in the BRACHIAL ARTERY.
The pressure within a CARDIAC VENTRICLE. Ventricular pressure waveforms can be measured in the beating heart by catheterization or estimated using imaging techniques (e.g., DOPPLER ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY). The information is useful in evaluating the function of the MYOCARDIUM; CARDIAC VALVES; and PERICARDIUM, particularly with simultaneous measurement of other (e.g., aortic or atrial) pressures.
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The blood pressure in the central large VEINS of the body. It is distinguished from peripheral venous pressure which occurs in an extremity.
The blood pressure as recorded after wedging a CATHETER in a small PULMONARY ARTERY; believed to reflect the PRESSURE in the pulmonary CAPILLARIES.
The pressure required to prevent the passage of solvent through a semipermeable membrane that separates a pure solvent from a solution of the solvent and solute or that separates different concentrations of a solution. It is proportional to the osmolality of the solution.
Period of contraction of the HEART, especially of the HEART VENTRICLES.
The force that opposes the flow of BLOOD through a vascular bed. It is equal to the difference in BLOOD PRESSURE across the vascular bed divided by the CARDIAC OUTPUT.
The rhythmical expansion and contraction of an ARTERY produced by waves of pressure caused by the ejection of BLOOD from the left ventricle of the HEART as it contracts.
Post-systolic relaxation of the HEART, especially the HEART VENTRICLES.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
Measurement of the pressure or tension of liquids or gases with a manometer.
Manometric pressure of the CEREBROSPINAL FLUID as measured by lumbar, cerebroventricular, or cisternal puncture. Within the cranial cavity it is called INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE.
A method of mechanical ventilation in which pressure is maintained to increase the volume of gas remaining in the lungs at the end of expiration, thus reducing the shunting of blood through the lungs and improving gas exchange.
A technique of respiratory therapy, in either spontaneously breathing or mechanically ventilated patients, in which airway pressure is maintained above atmospheric pressure throughout the respiratory cycle by pressurization of the ventilatory circuit. (On-Line Medical Dictionary [Internet]. Newcastle upon Tyne(UK): The University Dept. of Medical Oncology: The CancerWEB Project; c1997-2003 [cited 2003 Apr 17]. Available from: http://cancerweb.ncl.ac.uk/omd/)
The volume of BLOOD passing through the HEART per unit of time. It is usually expressed as liters (volume) per minute so as not to be confused with STROKE VOLUME (volume per beat).
The venous pressure measured in the PORTAL VEIN.
The flow of BLOOD through or around an organ or region of the body.
Abnormally low BLOOD PRESSURE that can result in inadequate blood flow to the brain and other vital organs. Common symptom is DIZZINESS but greater negative impacts on the body occur when there is prolonged depravation of oxygen and nutrients.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.
A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC
A strain of Rattus norvegicus with elevated blood pressure used as a model for studying hypertension and stroke.
External decompression applied to the lower body. It is used to study orthostatic intolerance and the effects of gravitation and acceleration, to produce simulated hemorrhage in physiologic research, to assess cardiovascular function, and to reduce abdominal stress during childbirth.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
The position or attitude of the body.
Distensibility measure of a chamber such as the lungs (LUNG COMPLIANCE) or bladder. Compliance is expressed as a change in volume per unit change in pressure.
An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.
The act of breathing with the LUNGS, consisting of INHALATION, or the taking into the lungs of the ambient air, and of EXHALATION, or the expelling of the modified air which contains more CARBON DIOXIDE than the air taken in (Blakiston's Gould Medical Dictionary, 4th ed.). This does not include tissue respiration (= OXYGEN CONSUMPTION) or cell respiration (= CELL RESPIRATION).
The vessels carrying blood away from the heart.
A form of compensated hydrocephalus characterized clinically by a slowly progressive gait disorder (see GAIT DISORDERS, NEUROLOGIC), progressive intellectual decline, and URINARY INCONTINENCE. Spinal fluid pressure tends to be in the high normal range. This condition may result from processes which interfere with the absorption of CSF including SUBARACHNOID HEMORRHAGE, chronic MENINGITIS, and other conditions. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp631-3)
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
The physical or mechanical action of the LUNGS; DIAPHRAGM; RIBS; and CHEST WALL during respiration. It includes airflow, lung volume, neural and reflex controls, mechanoreceptors, breathing patterns, etc.
The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
The regular recurrence, in cycles of about 24 hours, of biological processes or activities, such as sensitivity to drugs and stimuli, hormone secretion, sleeping, and feeding.
The main trunk of the systemic arteries.
A colorless, odorless gas that can be formed by the body and is necessary for the respiration cycle of plants and animals.
Measurement of ocular tension (INTRAOCULAR PRESSURE) with a tonometer. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
The HEART and the BLOOD VESSELS by which BLOOD is pumped and circulated through the body.
Instruments for measuring arterial blood pressure consisting of an inflatable cuff, inflating bulb, and a gauge showing the blood pressure. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the cardiovascular system, processes, or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers and other electronic equipment.
Rhythmic, intermittent propagation of a fluid through a BLOOD VESSEL or piping system, in contrast to constant, smooth propagation, which produces laminar flow.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
Persistent high BLOOD PRESSURE due to KIDNEY DISEASES, such as those involving the renal parenchyma, the renal vasculature, or tumors that secrete RENIN.
A strain of Rattus norvegicus used as a normotensive control for the spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR).
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The short wide vessel arising from the conus arteriosus of the right ventricle and conveying unaerated blood to the lungs.
The volume of air inspired or expired during each normal, quiet respiratory cycle. Common abbreviations are TV or V with subscript T.
The hemodynamic and electrophysiological action of the left HEART VENTRICLE. Its measurement is an important aspect of the clinical evaluation of patients with heart disease to determine the effects of the disease on cardiac performance.
Treatment process involving the injection of fluid into an organ or tissue.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Increased pressure within the cranial vault. This may result from several conditions, including HYDROCEPHALUS; BRAIN EDEMA; intracranial masses; severe systemic HYPERTENSION; PSEUDOTUMOR CEREBRI; and other disorders.
Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).
Resistance and recovery from distortion of shape.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Sodium chloride used in foods.
Volume of circulating BLOOD. It is the sum of the PLASMA VOLUME and ERYTHROCYTE VOLUME.
Methods of creating machines and devices.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
Pathological conditions involving the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM including the HEART; the BLOOD VESSELS; or the PERICARDIUM.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
Measurement of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood.
Transmission of the readings of instruments to a remote location by means of wires, radio waves, or other means. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the vessels of the KIDNEY.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Contractile activity of the MYOCARDIUM.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
Enlargement of the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart. This increase in ventricular mass is attributed to sustained abnormal pressure or volume loads and is a contributor to cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.
A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
An alpha-1 adrenergic agonist used as a mydriatic, nasal decongestant, and cardiotonic agent.
Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.
Enlargement of the HEART, usually indicated by a cardiothoracic ratio above 0.50. Heart enlargement may involve the right, the left, or both HEART VENTRICLES or HEART ATRIA. Cardiomegaly is a nonspecific symptom seen in patients with chronic systolic heart failure (HEART FAILURE) or several forms of CARDIOMYOPATHIES.
The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.
A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.
The lower right and left chambers of the heart. The right ventricle pumps venous BLOOD into the LUNGS and the left ventricle pumps oxygenated blood into the systemic arterial circulation.
Sodium excretion by URINATION.
The circulation of blood through the CORONARY VESSELS of the HEART.
Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.
The contribution to barometric PRESSURE of gaseous substance in equilibrium with its solid or liquid phase.
Processes and properties of the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM as a whole or of any of its parts.
An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The movement of the BLOOD as it is pumped through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
An ocular disease, occurring in many forms, having as its primary characteristics an unstable or a sustained increase in the intraocular pressure which the eye cannot withstand without damage to its structure or impairment of its function. The consequences of the increased pressure may be manifested in a variety of symptoms, depending upon type and severity, such as excavation of the optic disk, hardness of the eyeball, corneal anesthesia, reduced visual acuity, seeing of colored halos around lights, disturbed dark adaptation, visual field defects, and headaches. (Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Either of the two principal arteries on both sides of the neck that supply blood to the head and neck; each divides into two branches, the internal carotid artery and the external carotid artery.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
A condition in which the intraocular pressure is elevated above normal and which may lead to glaucoma.
The continuation of the axillary artery; it branches into the radial and ulnar arteries.
Studies comparing two or more treatments or interventions in which the subjects or patients, upon completion of the course of one treatment, are switched to another. In the case of two treatments, A and B, half the subjects are randomly allocated to receive these in the order A, B and half to receive them in the order B, A. A criticism of this design is that effects of the first treatment may carry over into the period when the second is given. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
The posture of an individual lying face up.
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
The rate at which oxygen is used by a tissue; microliters of oxygen STPD used per milligram of tissue per hour; the rate at which oxygen enters the blood from alveolar gas, equal in the steady state to the consumption of oxygen by tissue metabolism throughout the body. (Stedman, 25th ed, p346)
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
These include the muscles of the DIAPHRAGM and the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLES.
The act of constricting.
The ENTERIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; PARASYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM; and SYMPATHETIC NERVOUS SYSTEM taken together. Generally speaking, the autonomic nervous system regulates the internal environment during both peaceful activity and physical or emotional stress. Autonomic activity is controlled and integrated by the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM, especially the HYPOTHALAMUS and the SOLITARY NUCLEUS, which receive information relayed from VISCERAL AFFERENTS.
Procedures in which placement of CARDIAC CATHETERS is performed for therapeutic or diagnostic procedures.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
The gradual irreversible changes in structure and function of an organism that occur as a result of the passage of time.
A procedure involving placement of a tube into the trachea through the mouth or nose in order to provide a patient with oxygen and anesthesia.
The act of BREATHING in.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.
The properties, processes, and behavior of biological systems under the action of mechanical forces.
Forced expiratory effort against a closed GLOTTIS.
The capability of the LUNGS to distend under pressure as measured by pulmonary volume change per unit pressure change. While not a complete description of the pressure-volume properties of the lung, it is nevertheless useful in practice as a measure of the comparative stiffness of the lung. (From Best & Taylor's Physiological Basis of Medical Practice, 12th ed, p562)
A purely physical condition which exists within any material because of strain or deformation by external forces or by non-uniform thermal expansion; expressed quantitatively in units of force per unit area.
Body ventilators that assist ventilation by applying intermittent subatmospheric pressure around the thorax, abdomen, or airway and periodically expand the chest wall and inflate the lungs. They are relatively simple to operate and do not require tracheostomy. These devices include the tank ventilators ("iron lung"), Portalung, Pneumowrap, and chest cuirass ("tortoise shell").
A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.
Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.
Measurement of intracardiac blood flow using an M-mode and/or two-dimensional (2-D) echocardiogram while simultaneously recording the spectrum of the audible Doppler signal (e.g., velocity, direction, amplitude, intensity, timing) reflected from the moving column of red blood cells.
Relatively complete absence of oxygen in one or more tissues.
A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.
Hypertension due to RENAL ARTERY OBSTRUCTION or compression.
Physical activity which is usually regular and done with the intention of improving or maintaining PHYSICAL FITNESS or HEALTH. Contrast with PHYSICAL EXERTION which is concerned largely with the physiologic and metabolic response to energy expenditure.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
The exchange of OXYGEN and CARBON DIOXIDE between alveolar air and pulmonary capillary blood that occurs across the BLOOD-AIR BARRIER.
Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.
Plethysmographic determination in which the intensity of light reflected from the skin surface and the red cells below is measured to determine the blood volume of the respective area. There are two types, transmission and reflectance.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
A widely used non-cardioselective beta-adrenergic antagonist. Propranolol has been used for MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; ARRHYTHMIA; ANGINA PECTORIS; HYPERTENSION; HYPERTHYROIDISM; MIGRAINE; PHEOCHROMOCYTOMA; and ANXIETY but adverse effects instigate replacement by newer drugs.
A significant drop in BLOOD PRESSURE after assuming a standing position. Orthostatic hypotension is a finding, and defined as a 20-mm Hg decrease in systolic pressure or a 10-mm Hg decrease in diastolic pressure 3 minutes after the person has risen from supine to standing. Symptoms generally include DIZZINESS, blurred vision, and SYNCOPE.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).
A disorder characterized by recurrent apneas during sleep despite persistent respiratory efforts. It is due to upper airway obstruction. The respiratory pauses may induce HYPERCAPNIA or HYPOXIA. Cardiac arrhythmias and elevation of systemic and pulmonary arterial pressures may occur. Frequent partial arousals occur throughout sleep, resulting in relative SLEEP DEPRIVATION and daytime tiredness. Associated conditions include OBESITY; ACROMEGALY; MYXEDEMA; micrognathia; MYOTONIC DYSTROPHY; adenotonsilar dystrophy; and NEUROMUSCULAR DISEASES. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p395)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Either of the pair of organs occupying the cavity of the thorax that effect the aeration of the blood.
Use or insertion of a tubular device into a duct, blood vessel, hollow organ, or body cavity for injecting or withdrawing fluids for diagnostic or therapeutic purposes. It differs from INTUBATION in that the tube here is used to restore or maintain patency in obstructions.
The muscular membranous segment between the PHARYNX and the STOMACH in the UPPER GASTROINTESTINAL TRACT.
Physiologically, the opposition to flow of air caused by the forces of friction. As a part of pulmonary function testing, it is the ratio of driving pressure to the rate of air flow.
The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
RESPIRATORY MUSCLE contraction during INHALATION. The work is accomplished in three phases: LUNG COMPLIANCE work, that required to expand the LUNGS against its elastic forces; tissue resistance work, that required to overcome the viscosity of the lung and chest wall structures; and AIRWAY RESISTANCE work, that required to overcome airway resistance during the movement of air into the lungs. Work of breathing does not refer to expiration, which is entirely a passive process caused by elastic recoil of the lung and chest cage. (Guyton, Textbook of Medical Physiology, 8th ed, p406)
Recording of change in the size of a part as modified by the circulation in it.
Expenditure of energy during PHYSICAL ACTIVITY. Intensity of exertion may be measured by rate of OXYGEN CONSUMPTION; HEAT produced, or HEART RATE. Perceived exertion, a psychological measure of exertion, is included.
A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A method of non-invasive, continuous measurement of MICROCIRCULATION. The technique is based on the values of the DOPPLER EFFECT of low-power laser light scattered randomly by static structures and moving tissue particulates.
The processes whereby the internal environment of an organism tends to remain balanced and stable.
A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Excessive accumulation of extravascular fluid in the lung, an indication of a serious underlying disease or disorder. Pulmonary edema prevents efficient PULMONARY GAS EXCHANGE in the PULMONARY ALVEOLI, and can be life-threatening.
Sense of awareness of self and of the environment.
The active sympathomimetic hormone from the ADRENAL MEDULLA. It stimulates both the alpha- and beta- adrenergic systems, causes systemic VASOCONSTRICTION and gastrointestinal relaxation, stimulates the HEART, and dilates BRONCHI and cerebral vessels. It is used in ASTHMA and CARDIAC FAILURE and to delay absorption of local ANESTHETICS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
The total volume of gas inspired or expired per unit of time, usually measured in liters per minute.
A non-selective inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. It has been used experimentally to induce hypertension.
Glaucoma in which the angle of the anterior chamber is open and the trabecular meshwork does not encroach on the base of the iris.
The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)
The direct continuation of the brachial trunk, originating at the bifurcation of the brachial artery opposite the neck of the radius. Its branches may be divided into three groups corresponding to the three regions in which the vessel is situated, the forearm, wrist, and hand.
The circulation of the BLOOD through the MICROVASCULAR NETWORK.
The vascular resistance to the flow of BLOOD through the CAPILLARIES portions of the peripheral vascular bed.
Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
Measurement of the amount of air that the lungs may contain at various points in the respiratory cycle.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
An antagonist of ANGIOTENSIN TYPE 1 RECEPTOR with antihypertensive activity due to the reduced pressor effect of ANGIOTENSIN II.
Mechanical devices used to produce or assist pulmonary ventilation.

Effect of intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leg compression on incidence of postoperative pulmonary embolism. (1/6480)

The incidence of pulmonary embolism and deep vein thrombosis was measured in 50 matched pairs of patients undergoing common surgical procedures with preoperative and postoperative ventilation-perfusion lung scans and the fibrinogen uptake test. One patient in each pair was treated with intravenous dextran 70 and pneumatic leggings. The incidence of pulmonary embolism among the treated patients was significantly reduced from 24% to 8%, but the incidence of deep vein thrombosis was not significantly reduced (34% to 24%).  (+info)

Acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. (2/6480)

Renal micropuncture studies have greatly changed our views on the pathophysiology of acute renal failure caused by nephrotoxins. Formerly, this type of renal insufficiency was attributed to a direct effect of the nephrotoxins on tubule epithelial permeability. According to that theory, glomerular filtration was not greatly diminished, the filtrate formed being absorbed almost quantitatively and nonselectively across damaged tubule epithelium. Studies in a wide variety of rat models have now shown glomerular filtration to be reduced to a level which will inevitably cause renal failure in and of itself. Passive backflow of filtrate across tubular epithelium is either of minor degree or nonexistent even in models where frank tubular necrosis has occurred. This failure of filtration cannot be attributed to tubular obstruction since proximal tubule pressure is distinctly subnormal in most models studied. Instead, filtration failure appears best attributed to intrarenal hemodynamic alterations. While certain facts tend to incriminate the renin-angiotensin system as the cause of the hemodynamic aberrations, others argue to the contrary. The issue is underactive investigation.  (+info)

Chronic compartment syndrome affecting the lower limb: MIBI perfusion imaging as an alternative to pressure monitoring: two case reports. (3/6480)

Intracompartmental pressure monitoring remains the primary method of diagnosing chronic compartment syndrome. MIBI perfusion imaging is widely available and offers a radionuclear imaging technique for diagnosing this condition. Although the results are not identical with those from pressure monitoring, MIBI may offer a useful screening test for this condition.  (+info)

Sperm transport in the human female genital tract and its modulation by oxytocin as assessed by hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, hysterotonography, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography. (4/6480)

The transport function of the uterus and oviducts and its modulation by oxytocin has been examined using hysterosalpingoscintigraphy, recording of intrauterine pressure, electrohysterography and Doppler sonography of the Fallopian tubes. After application to the posterior vaginal fornix, a rapid (within minutes) uptake of the labelled particles into the uterus was observed during the follicular and during the luteal phase of the cycle in all patients. Transport into the oviducts, however, could only be demonstrated during the follicular phase. Transport was directed predominantly into the tube ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle; the contralateral oviduct appeared to be functionally closed. The proportion of patients exhibiting ipsilateral transport did increase concomitant with the increase of the diameter of the dominant follicle. That ipsilateral transport has biological significance is suggested by the observation that the pregnancy rate following spontaneous intercourse or insemination was significantly higher in those women in whom ipsilateral transport could be demonstrated than in those who failed to exhibit lateralization. Oxytocin administration was followed by a dramatic increase in the amount of material transported to the ipsilateral tube, as demonstrated by radionuclide imaging and by Doppler sonography following instillation of ultrasound contrast medium. Continuous recording of intrauterine pressure before and after oxytocin administration did show an increase in basal tonus and amplitude of contractions and a reversal of the pressure gradient from a fundo-cervical to a cervico-fundal direction. These actions of oxytocin were accompanied by an increase in amplitude of potentials recorded by electrohysterography. These data support the view that uterus and Fallopian tubes represent a functional unit that is acting as a peristaltic pump and that the increasing activity of this pump during the follicular phase of the menstrual cycle is reflected by an increased transport into the oviduct ipsilateral to the ovary bearing the dominant follicle. In addition, they strongly suggest a critical role of oxytocin in this process. Failure of this mechanism appears to be a cause of subfertility or infertility, as indicated by the low pregnancy rate following intrauterine insemination or normal intercourse in the presence of patent Fallopian tubes. It may be regarded as a new nosological entity for which we propose the term tubal transport disorder (TTD). Since pregnancy rate of such patients is normal when treated with in-vitro fertilization (IVF), hysterosalpingoscintigraphy seems to be useful for the choice of treatment modalities in patients with patent Fallopian tubes suffering from infertility.  (+info)

Morphology of intraepithelial corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog. (5/6480)

Corpuscular nerve endings in the nasal respiratory mucosa of the dog were investigated by immunohistochemical staining specific for protein gene product 9.5 by light and electron microscopy. In the nasal respiratory mucosa, complex corpuscular endings, which displayed bulbous, laminar and varicose expansions, were distributed on the dorsal elevated part of the nasal septum and on the dorsal nasal concha. The endings were 300-500 microm long and 100-250 microm wide. Some axons gave rise to a single ending while others branched into 2 endings. Cryostat sections revealed that the corpuscular endings were located within the nasal respiratory epithelium. On electron microscopy, immunoreactive nerve terminals that contained organelles, including mitochondria and neurofilaments, were observed within the epithelial layer near the lumen of the nasal cavity. Some terminals contacted the goblet cell. Such terminal regions were covered by the cytoplasmic process of ciliated cells and were never exposed to the lumen of the nasal cavity. These nerve endings are probably activated by pressure changes.  (+info)

Neuronal activity in somatosensory cortex of monkeys using a precision grip. I. Receptive fields and discharge patterns. (6/6480)

Three adolescent Macaca fascicularis monkeys weighing between 3.5 and 4 kg were trained to use a precision grip to grasp a metal tab mounted on a low friction vertical track and to lift and hold it in a 12- to 25-mm position window for 1 s. The surface texture of the metal tab in contact with the fingers and the weight of the object could be varied. The activity of 386 single cells with cutaneous receptive fields contacting the metal tab were recorded in Brodmann's areas 3b, 1, 2, 5, and 7 of the somatosensory cortex. In this first of a series of papers, we describe three types of discharge pattern, the receptive-field properties, and the anatomic distribution of the neurons. The majority of the receptive fields were cutaneous and covered less than one digit, and a chi2 test did not reveal any significant differences in the Brodmann's areas representing the thumb and index finger. Two broad categories of discharge pattern cells were identified. The first category, dynamic cells, showed a brief increase in activity beginning near grip onset, which quickly subsided despite continued pressure applied to the receptive field. Some of the dynamic neurons responded to both skin indentation and release. The second category, static cells, had higher activity during the stationary holding phase of the task. These static neurons demonstrated varying degrees of sensitivity to rates of pressure change on the skin. The percentage of dynamic versus static cells was about equal for areas 3b, 2, 5, and 7. Only area 1 had a higher proportion of dynamic cells (76%). A third category was identified that contained cells with significant pregrip activity and included cortical cells with both dynamic or static discharge patterns. Cells in this category showed activity increases before movement in the absence of receptive-field stimulation, suggesting that, in addition to peripheral cutaneous input, these cells also receive strong excitation from movement-related regions of the brain.  (+info)

Low temperature and pressure stability of picornaviruses: implications for virus uncoating. (7/6480)

The family Picornaviridae includes several viruses of great economic and medical importance. Poliovirus replicates in the human digestive tract, causing disease that may range in severity from a mild infection to a fatal paralysis. The human rhinovirus is the most important etiologic agent of the common cold in adults and children. Foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) causes one of the most economically important diseases in cattle. These viruses have in common a capsid structure composed of 60 copies of four different proteins, VP1 to VP4, and their 3D structures show similar general features. In this study we describe the differences in stability against high pressure and cold denaturation of these viruses. Both poliovirus and rhinovirus are stable to high pressure at room temperature, because pressures up to 2.4 kbar are not enough to promote viral disassembly and inactivation. Within the same pressure range, FMDV particles are dramatically affected by pressure, with a loss of infectivity of more than 4 log units observed. The dissociation of polio and rhino viruses can be observed only under pressure (2.4 kbar) at low temperatures in the presence of subdenaturing concentrations of urea (1-2 M). The pressure and low temperature data reveal clear differences in stability among the three picornaviruses, FMDV being the most sensitive, polio being the most resistant, and rhino having intermediate stability. Whereas rhino and poliovirus differ little in stability (less than 10 kcal/mol at 0 degrees C), the difference in free energy between these two viruses and FMDV was remarkable (more than 200 kcal/mol of particle). These differences are crucial to understanding the different factors that control the assembly and disassembly of the virus particles during their life cycle. The inactivation of these viruses by pressure (combined or not with low temperature) has potential as a method for producing vaccines.  (+info)

Effects of tumour necrosis factor-alpha on left ventricular function in the rat isolated perfused heart: possible mechanisms for a decline in cardiac function. (8/6480)

1. The cardiac depressant actions of TNF were investigated in the isolated perfused rat heart under constant flow (10 ml min(-1)) and constant pressure (70 mmHg) conditions, using a recirculating (50 ml) mode of perfusion. 2. Under constant flow conditions TNF (20 ng ml(-1)) caused an early (< 25 min) decrease in left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), which was maintained for 90 min (LVDP after 90 min: control vs TNF; 110 +/- 4 vs 82 +/- 10 mmHg, P < 0.01). 3. The depression in cardiac function seen with TNF under constant flow conditions, was blocked by the ceramidase inhibitor N-oleoylethanolamine (NOE), 1 microM, (LVDP after 90 min: TNF vs TNF with NOE; 82 +/- 10 vs 11 +/- 5 mmHg, P < 0.05). 4. In hearts perfused at constant pressure, TNF caused a decrease in coronary flow rate (change in flow 20 min after TNF: control vs TNF; -3.0 +/- 0.9 vs -8.7 +/- 1.2 ml min(-1), P < 0.01). This was paralleled by a negative inotropic effect (change in LVDP 20 min after TNF: control vs TNF; -17 +/- 7 vs -46 +/- 6 mmHg, P < 0.01). The decline in function was more rapid and more severe than that seen under conditions of constant flow. 5. These data indicate that cardiac function can be disrupted by TNF on two levels, firstly via a direct, ceramidase dependant negative inotropic effect, and secondly via an indirect coronary vasoconstriction.  (+info)

1 Industry Overview of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.1 Definition and Specifications of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.1.1 Definition of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.1.2 Specifications of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.2 Classification of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.3 Applications of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.4 Industry Chain Structure of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.5 Industry Overview and Major Regions Status of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.5.1 Industry Overview of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.5.2 Global Major Regions Status of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.6 Industry Policy Analysis of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 1.7 Industry News Analysis of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 2 Manufacturing Cost Structure Analysis of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 2.1 Raw Material Suppliers and Price Analysis of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 2.2 Equipment Suppliers and Price Analysis of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 2.3 Labor Cost Analysis of High Pressure Cell Disrupter. 2.4 Other ...
Fan Performance Airflow rate and static pressure are closely related for fans and ventilation systems. The airflow rate delivered by a fan is measured in cubic feet per minute (cfm) against a static pressure measured in inches of water. The amount of air moved is inversely rated to the static pressure. As the resistance to airflow (static pressure) increases, the delivered airflow capacity decreases. Therefore, a fan delivers more air against a lower static pressure than a higher static pressure. Common measurements used to describe the characteristics of a fan are blade diameter, revolutions per minute (rpm) and motor horsepower. These are useful measurements but without performance characteristics such as airflow and static pressure, they give only general indicators of fan capacity. Test results comparing the performance of 36-inch diameter fans used in the ventilation of enclosed buildings can show big variability in fan performance even though they are similar size fans. At a static ...
In human subjects the triceps surae of one leg was exercised eccentrically by asking subjects to walk backwards on an inclined treadmill. Before the exercise controlled local pressure, applied to the muscle with an electromagnet, produced mild soreness, which was reduced when the pressure was combined with vibration. When delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) had set in, 24-48 h after the exercise, vibration increased pain from local pressure. Vibrating at different frequencies suggested 80 Hz as the optimal frequency. During 2-h testing post-exercise, evidence of a change in character of the effects of vibration was first detected at 6 h. It persisted up to 72 h post-exercise. When muscle pain was generated in an unexercised triceps by injection of hypertonic (5%) saline, controlled local pressure applied to the sore area increased pain levels by 32% while pressure plus vibration reduced this to 11%. In a subject with DOMS, local pressure again increased pain from saline by 32% but combining it ...
The ideal gas law can be used to find the density of air a different pressures and temperatures. The density of air is calculated using the ideal gas equation together with the ideal gas constant. The ability to calculate the density of air is important because the density of air (and other gases) varies greatly at different pressures and temperatures, yet values of the density of air are needed for a many engineering and scientific calculations, including pitot tube air velocity measurements and air resistance/drag force calculations. For many practical values of temperature and pressure air behaves like an ideal gas, so the density of air at different pressures and temperatures can be calculated using the ideal gas law.
These additional studies led to several important additional conclusions in our recent study. These are briefly enumerated here, although the interested reader is referred back to the original publication for more details ( 11).. First, PI3K and Akt are also activated by extracellular pressure and required for the stimulation of adhesion by extracellular pressure. The downstream S6 kinase is not involved, however, because rapamycin does not block the effect. This was particularly interesting because rapamycin does block the effect of increased extracellular pressure on macrophage phagocytosis ( 12). We have previously described other differences between macrophage and cancer cell signaling in response to extracellular pressure.. Second, Src activation seems to be required for PI3K activation, which is in turn required for the activation of FAK and Akt. Indeed, the p85 subunit of PI3K directly associates with FAK in increased proportions in response to increased extracellular pressure, based on ...
A method and apparatus for pressure testing the static pressure orifices and associated connections used in wind tunnels. A cylindrical module, having in one end an open hemispherical calibration pressure chamber separated from and surrounded by an annular vacuum chamber, is placed over the orifice of the system to be tested. O-rings ensure seating and a vacuum seal between the chambered end of the module and the surface around the orifice: one O-ring separates the two chambers and another separates the outer chamber from the outside environment. Ports lead from each of the chambers out the other end of the module to tubes connected to a control box consisting of calibration pressure and vacuum supply lines, bleeder valves, and guages. The calibration pressure supply may be above or below atmospheric pressure. The vacuum chamber is evacuated to seat the module and seal off the system, the center chamber is pressurized, and the control box pressure guage is monitored for changes which would indicate
TY - JOUR. T1 - Effect of ω-hydrogenation on the adsorption of fluorononanols at the hexane/water interface. T2 - Pressure effect on the adsorption of fluorononanols. AU - Takiue, Takanori. AU - Hirose, Daisuke. AU - Murakami, Daiki. AU - Sakamoto, Hiroyasu. AU - Matsubara, Hiroki. AU - Aratono, Makoto. PY - 2005/9/1. Y1 - 2005/9/1. N2 - The interfacial tension γ of the hexane solution of 1H,1H-perfluorononanol (FDFC9OH) and its ω-hydrogenated analogue, 1H,1H,9H-perfluorononanol (HDFC9OH), against water was measured as a function of pressure and concentration at 298.15 K in order to clarify the effect of ω-dipole on the orientation of fluorononanol molecules from the viewpoint of volume. The adsorbed films of both alcohols exhibit two kinds of phase transitions among three different states: the gaseous, expanded, and condensed states. The partial molar volume changes of adsorption v1-H - v1O in the expanded and condensed states were evaluated and compared between the two systems. The v1-H - ...
BACKGROUND AND AIM We have reported a novel relationship involving mechanical stimulation and vasodilation in rodent and human skin, referred to as pressure-induced vasodilation (PIV). It is unknown whether this mechanism exists in kidney and reflects the microcirculation in deep organs. Therefore, we compared the skin and kidney PIV to determine whether their changes were similar. METHODS In anesthetized mice fed a normal salt-diet, laser Doppler flux (LDF) signals were measured when an increase in local pressure was applied to the surface of the head skin with the rate of 2.2Pa/s (1mmHg/min) and to the left kidney with a rate of 4.4Pa/s (2mmHg/min). The mechanism underlying renal PIV was also investigated. The skin and kidney PIV were also compared during salt load (4% NaCl diet). RESULTS The kidney had higher baseline LDF and vascular conductance compared to those of the skin. Pressure application increased the LDF in the kidney as well as in the skin with a comparable maximal magnitude (about 25
I need to install a differential static pressure senser to control building static 1st part of my question, does the high pressure pitot tube go to the outside and low pressure pitot goes on the inside space. part 2 of my question, where is the most ideal location for the low and high pressure pitot tubes any direction would be great.......... THANKS
I read with great interest the article by Mulder et al1 on the blood pressure effect on MR CLEAN outcomes in acute stroke. The authors report a U-shaped mortality with systolic blood pressure (SBP), with an optimal SBP, or the bottom of the U being about 120 mm Hg. Either end of the U was associated with worse outcomes. The first question I ask is did the authors analyze whether … ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Pressure effects on gas-solid fluidized bed behavior. AU - Sidorenko, Igor. AU - Rhodes, Martin J. PY - 2003. Y1 - 2003. M3 - Article. VL - 1. SP - 1. EP - 33. JO - International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. JF - International Journal of Chemical Reactor Engineering. SN - 1542-6580. IS - R5. ER - ...
The viscoelastic model of the ventricle predicts that the rate of change of volume (strain rate) is a determinant of the instantaneous pressure in the ventricle during diastole. Because relaxation is not complete before the onset of filling, one cannot distinguish the individual effects of relaxation and viscosity unless the passive and active components that determine the ventricular pressure are separated. To overcome this problem, we used the method of ventricular volume clamping to compare the pressures in the fully relaxed ventricle at a given volume at zero strain rate (static pressure) and high strain rate (dynamic pressure). Six open-chest, fentanyl-anesthetized dogs were instrumented with micromanometers and an electronically controlled mitral valve occluder in series with the electromagnetic flow probe. We reasoned as follows: If there were significant viscosity, then the dynamic pressure would be higher than the static pressure. The static pressure was measured when the ventricle was ...
Exporter and Manufacturer of Hydro Static Pressure Testing Equipment, PLC Based Computerised Pressure Testing Equipment, Mumbai, India
CORSAIR Air Series™ LED high static pressure PC case fans combine high pressure air delivery with striking LED lighting. Theyre quieter than standard case fans, and help you finish your system with a dramatic look.
Ideal for Monitoring the Level of Liquids in Open or Vented Tanks The KOBOLD NDT static pressure level switch is especially suitable for the level monitoring of liquids in open or vented tanks. Because the switch never contacts the media, it is perfect
F16 High static pressure and air folw AC axial fan 1751(7Blades) 172x150x51mm metal fan 220v, US $ 0.1 - 5 / Piece, Axial Flow Fan, AC, Screw.Source from Yueqing Abbeycon Electric Co., Ltd. on Alibaba.com.
Exporter and Manufacturer of Charpy Impact Tester, Motorized Notch Cutter, Hydro Static Pressure Testing Equipment, Mumbai, India
Total (or indicated) air temperature. The total pressure, PT, is measured by means of an absolute pressure sensor (or transducer) connected to a Pitot tube facing the moving airstream. The Pitot pressure is a measure of ram air pressure (the air pressure created by vehicle motion or the air ramming into the tube). When airspeed increases, the ram air pressure is increased, which can be translated by the airspeed indicator.. The static pressure of the free airstream, PS, is measured by an absolute pressure transducer connected to a suitable orifice located where the surface pressure is nearly the same as the pressure of the surrounding atmosphere. The static pressure is obtained through a static port which most often is a flush-mounted hole on the fuselage of an aircraft located where it can access the air flow in a relatively undisturbed area. Some aircraft may have a single static port, while others may have more than one. When the aircraft climbs, static pressure will decrease.. High ...
Virtual headache specialists have explained external pressure headache and its treatment. Use our external pressure headache diagnosis tool and get proper treatment for external pressure headache.
Thirteen month ago the United States launched a total economic war against Iran. It demands its capitulation. Now Iran decided to respond in kind. It will wage a maximum pressure campaign on U.S. economic interests until the Trump administration concedes its defeat. Shipping in the Middle East will soon become very hazardous. Oil prices will go through the roof. Trump will be trapped between two choices neither of which he will like.. In early May 2018 U.S. President Trump broke the nuclear deal with Iran and sanctioned all trade with that country. Iran reacted cautiously. It hoped that the other signatories of the nuclear deal would stick to their promises and continue to trade with it. The year since proved that such expectations were wrong.. Under threat of U.S. sanctions the European partners stopped buying Iranian oil and also ended their exports to it. The new financial instrument that was supposed to allow payments between European countries and Iran has still not been implemented. It is ...
Thirteen month ago the United States launched a total economic war against Iran. It demands its capitulation. Now Iran decided to respond in kind. It will wage a maximum pressure campaign on U.S. economic interests until the Trump administration concedes its defeat. Shipping in the Middle East will soon become very hazardous. Oil prices will go through the roof. Trump will be trapped between two choices neither of which he will like.. In early May 2018 U.S. President Trump broke the nuclear deal with Iran and sanctioned all trade with that country. Iran reacted cautiously. It hoped that the other signatories of the nuclear deal would stick to their promises and continue to trade with it. The year since proved that such expectations were wrong.. Under threat of U.S. sanctions the European partners stopped buying Iranian oil and also ended their exports to it. The new financial instrument that was supposed to allow payments between European countries and Iran has still not been implemented. It is ...
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TY - JOUR. T1 - Seat-interface pressure: A pilot study of the relationship to gender, body mass index, and seating position. AU - Stinson, May. AU - Porter-Armstrong, Alison. AU - Eakin, P. PY - 2003/3. Y1 - 2003/3. N2 - Objectives: To investigate the relationship between interface pressure and gender, body mass index (BMI), and seating positions, and to evaluate the implications for clinical practice. Design: Group design. Setting: Pressure mapping laboratory. Participants: Sixty-three student volunteers (44 women, 19 men; mean age, 22.2+/-5.1y). Interventions: Seated-interface pressure was measured using the Force Sensing Array pressure mapping system. Seating positions used included recline (10degrees, 20degrees, 30degrees), foot support, and foot elevation. Main Outcome Measures: Interface pressure in the form of both average pressure (mean of the pressure sensor values) and maximum pressure (highest individual sensor value). Results: Both average and maximum pressures were independent of ...
Measurement of foot pressure distribution (FPD) is clinically useful for evaluation of foot and gait pathologies. The effects of healthy aging on FPD during walking are not well known. This study evaluated FPD during normal walking in healthy young and elderly subjects. We studied 9 young (30 ± 5.2 years), and 6 elderly subjects (68.7 ± 4.8 years). FPD was measured during normal walking speed using shoe insoles with 99 capacitive sensors. Measured parameters included gait phase characteristics, mean and maximum pressure and force, and relative load. Time-series measurements of each variable for all sensors were grouped into 9 anatomical masks. Elderly subjects had lower normalized maximum pressure for the medial and lateral calcaneal masks, and for all medial masks combined. In the medial calcaneus mask, the elderly group also had a lower absolute maximum and lower mean and normalized mean pressures and forces, compared to young subjects. Elderly subjects had lower maximum force and normalized maximum
an important role in assessing the overall condition of the patient plays a pulse pressure difference.Between the upper and lower pressure should be a number between 40-50.This figure is considered to be optimal.However, it allowed a wider range - from 30 to 50. Pulse rate may be small.High pressure and lower high-top show overload the heart.It is noted rapid heartbeat (tachycardia).This suggests that the body works hard.A large difference in pressure indicates, on the contrary, in the delayed activity of the heart.Bradycardia, developing in such a state, it provokes tissue hypoxia and CNS.In other words, when the pulse index of greater than 50 in the process of pumping blood to the heart muscle is severely strained.This may result in rapid wear.. If said another pressure difference (between the upper and lower pressure of less than 30), it shows the weakness of the muscles.In this connection it has not been sufficient to tissues of oxygen.Hypoxia is primarily affects the activity of the brain: ...
A detailed investigation of the flow properties in the turbulent near wake of a circular cone and an elliptic cone was conducted. Both the circular cone and the elliptic cone were at zero angle of attack in a Mach 6 flow. The experiments were conducted at a stagnation pressure of 800 psia with a corresponding free stream Reynolds number of 14.4 million per foot. The boundary layer at the cone shoulder was turbulent for the entire test series. Detailed radial profiles of the total temperature, total and static pressures in the supersonic regions of the wake at several axial stations are presented. In addition, the static and total pressure along the centerline of symmetry in the recirculation zone, the uo line, and the properties at the cone shoulder prior to the expansion into the base are also presented. Correlations of the distance to the downstream stagnation point, the maximum static pressure rise at the wake neck, and the axial static pressure along the axis of symmetry are made with other
This invention provides a means of measuring tissue pressure in muscle compartments and other regions in humans and other animals. An appropriate length, for example, 6 to 12 inches of thin plastic tubing, typically less than 3 mm outside diameters, is prepared as a working part of the tissue pressure transducer. A portion of the plastic tubing including the thin wall section such as a bubble is inserted into the muscle tissue for which pressure measurement is desired to be made. A fluid is circulated through the tubing at a constant flow rate. When the internal pressure of the tubing is greater than the external pressure, the bubble expands and there is no increase in the flow resistance of the system. When the pressure on the outside exceeds the normal system operating pressure, the thin wall section or bubble contacts, resistance to flow increases, and the system pressure increases. This increase in system pressure is directly proportional to tissue pressure.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Dynamic pressure - Flow relationship of the cerebral circulation during acute increase in arterial pressure. AU - Zhang, Rong. AU - Behbehani, Khosrow. AU - Levine, Benjamin D.. PY - 2009. Y1 - 2009. N2 - The physiological mechanism(s) for the regulation of the dynamic pressure-flow relationship of the cerebral circulation are not well understood. We studied the effects of acute cerebral vasoconstriction on the transfer function between spontaneous changes in blood pressure (BP) and cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) in 13 healthy subjects (30 ± 7 years). CBFV was measured in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler. BP was increased stepwise with phenylephrine infusion at 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 μg kg-1 min-1. Phenylephrine increased BP by 11, 23 and 37% from baseline, while CBFV increased (11%) only with the highest increase in BP. Cerebrovascular resistance index (BP/CBFV) increased progressively by 6, 17 and 23%, demonstrating effective steady-state autoregulation. ...
The effect of high pressure on the secondary structure of bean and pea proteins was studied using Raman spectroscopy. The proteins were pressurized at 300 and 600 Mpa. Raman spectra were obtained for samples both in the solid state and dissolved in D 2 O. The results indicated that the...
In flowing air, Static Pressure is the total pressure minus velocity pressureVelocity Pressure is the kinetic pressure in the direction of flow necessary to cause a fluid at rest to flow at a given velocity. See also Pitot Tube..... Static Pressure is the portion of the pressure that pushes equally in all directions.. ...
According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, around 776,000 individuals in the U.S. are diagnosed with herpes every year. STD tests will show that roughly one out of six people between the ages of 14 and 49 have the herpes simplex virus. Recently, researchers at Carnegie Mellon University released evidence of internal pressure within the herpes virus.. The university report noted that it has long been theorized that there is pressure inside of the herpes virus as the result of packed genetic materials. The Carnegie Mellon team has proven that theory by measuring the amount of pressure within the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In the past, measuring the internal pressure of viruses was only done with bacteriophages, or viruses that infect bacteria.. Despite billions of years of evolution separating eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages, the existence of an internal pressure capable of powering the ejection of DNA into a host cell has been conserved, said biophysicist Alex ...
The use of K-lactate in combination with new elaboration procedures and high pressure (HP) treatments may help to produce safe, salt-reduced restructured dry-cured ham with no sensory defects. The effect of K-lactate addition on the microbiota of restructured hams manufactured with a reduced salt content was evaluated after the resting period (16% weight loss) and at two drying levels (40% and 50% weight loss). Additionally, the effect of high pressure (HP) on the microbiota and sensory characteristics of hams at 50% weight loss was evaluated. K-lactate reduced a(w) and microbiota of processed hams, mainly in the inner parts, and had no effect on color or sensory parameters. HP treatment at 600 MPa provided an additional reduction in the microbiological counts, increased pink color, brightness, hardness and saltiness and reduced pastiness and adhesiveness.
In this work, the Hamiltonian of the four-body problem is considered under the effects of solar radiation pressure. The equations of motion of the infinitesimal body are obtained in the Hamiltonian canonical form. The libration points and the corresponding Jacobi constants are obtained with different values of the solar radiation pressure coefficient. The motion and its stability about each point are studied. A family of periodic orbits under the effects of the gravitational forces of the primaries and the solar radiation pressure are obtained depending on the pure numerical method. This purpose is applied to the Sun-Earth-Moon-Space craft system, and the results obtained are in a good agreement with the previous work such as (Kumari and Papadouris, 2013).
The Pressure Equipment Directive (PED) 2014/68/EU (formerly 97/23/EC)[1] of the EU sets out the standards for the design and fabrication of pressure equipment (pressure equipment means steam boilers, pressure vessels, piping, safety valves and other components and assemblies subject to pressure loading) generally over one litre in volume and having a maximum pressure more than 0.5 bar gauge. It also sets the administrative procedures requirements for the conformity assessment of pressure equipment, for the free placing on the European market without local legislative barriers. It has been mandatory throughout the EU since 30 May 2002, with 2014 revision fully effective as of 19 July 2016.[2] This is enacted in the UK as the Pressure Equipment Regulations (PER). The set out standards and regulations regarding pressure vessels and boilers safety is also very close to the US standards defined by the American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME). This enables most international inspection ...
A static pressure difference can be imposed between gass-liquid-glass interfaces by several means including gravity. Therefore, the equilibrium film thickness depends on the imposed pressure difference and the effective interface potential. A disjoining pressire p arises when the film thickness does not minimize the potential energy as a function of length, there arises a disjoining pressure p. This disjoining pressure drives the system toward mechanical equilibrium. In response to a hydrostatic pressure, the film thickness thus adjusts itself so that the disjoining pressure balances the applied pressure and mechanical equilibrium is restored. This paper predicts the disjoining pressure versus film thickness using DLVO theory for an aqueous film containing 1 mM of 1:1 electrolyte. The equilibrium thickness of a free film occurs when the effective interface potential is at a local minimum or when the disjoining pressure vanishes with a negative slope. Similar considerations are important for ...
Devices fall into two main categories: (i) floor-based, and (ii) in-shoe. The underlying technology is diverse, ranging from piezoelectric sensor arrays to light refraction, [2] [4] [6] [7] [8] but the ultimate form of the data generated by all modern technologies is either a 2D image or a 2D image time series of the pressures acting under the plantar surface of the foot. From these data other variables may be calculated (see Data Analysis). There are a few differences between the types of information you will received from these two systems, so depending on the application one system might be a better fit. For example, a floor-based system will provide spatial temporal information, like stride length that an in-shoe system cannot provide. Platform systems (or floor-based systems) will also allow for testing of patients with walking aids for assistive devices. However, there is some controversy about evaluating natural gait with a platform system due to patients potentially targeting the ...
Citation: N. B. Ilinskii, S. R. Nasyrov, The problem of constructing a spillway contour from the back pressure curve, Izv. Vyssh. Uchebn. Zaved. Mat., 1982, no. 2, 16-23; Soviet Math. (Iz. VUZ), 26:2 (1982), 19-29 ...
Batch processiag of nylon-6 is generally used only for the production of specialty polymers such as very high molecular weight polymer or master batch polymers for special additives. In a typical modem batch process (147-150), the caprolactam is mixed ia a hoi ding tank with the desired additives and then charged to an autoclave with a small amount (2-4%) of water. During the two-stage polymeriza tion cycle, the temperature is raised from 80 to 260°C. In the first stage, water is held ia the reactor, the pressure rises, and the hydrolysis and addition steps occur. After a predetermined time the pressure is releasedand the final condensation reaction step occurs. The molecular weight of the polymer can be iacreased by means of a vacuum finishing step, if desired. The entire process can take three to five hours. The final polymer is then drained, often with a forcing pressure of iaert gas, through a die to form ribbons of polymer, which are then cooled ia water and cut iato pellets. Because ...
The existence of water and osmotic pressure significantly aggravates the rheological behavior of rocks, which greatly affects the long-term stability of rock mass. The triaxial rheological...
The DH Budenberg Model 249T differential pressure deadweight tester is designed for calibrations at elevated static pressures up to 200bar (3,000 psi)
The Gas Pressure Sensor can be used to monitor pressure changes in a gas. The range is wide enough to perform Boyles law yet it is sensitive enough to conduct vapor-pressure or pressure-temperature experiments. Biology teachers can use the Gas Pressure Sensor to monitor transpiration or respiration in an enclosed environment.
The effects of pressure on the structural and elastic properties of orthorhombic TiAl are investigated using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory within the projector augmented wave method. The calculated lattice parameters at 0 GPa are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The pressure dependence of the normalized lattice parameters and the single crystal elastic constants are investigated. By the elastic stability criteria under pressure, it is found that orthorhombic TiAl is mechanically stable under pressure up to 100 GPa. The elastic moduli and Poissons ratio under pressure up to 100 GPa are calculated using the Hill average method. The ductility/brittleness under pressure are evaluated, and a critical pressure for brittle-to-ductile transition is found to be 40 GPa. The elastic anisotropy and Debye temperature under different pressure are estimated from the calculations.
Jarosite, a mineral with a kagomé lattice, displays magnetic frustration yet orders magnetically below 65 K. As magnetic frustration can engender exotic physical properties, understanding the complex magnetism of jarosite comprises a multidecade interdisciplinary challenge. Unraveling the nature of the disparate magnetic coupling interactions that lead to magnetic order in jarosite remains an open question. Specifically, there is no observed trend in the interlayer spacing with magnetic order. Similarly, the relationship between metal-ligand bond distance and magnetic order remains uninvestigated. Here, we use applied pressure to smoothly vary jarosites structure without manipulating the chemical composition, enabling a chemically invariant structure-function study. Using single-crystal and powder X-ray diffraction, we show that high applied pressures alter both the interlayer spacing and the metal-ligand bond distances. By harnessing a suite of magnetic techniques under pressure, including ...
When slurry packing preparative LC columns, care must be taken not to operate at pressures in excess of the bursting strength of the tube used for the column. As the column diameter increases, the maximum permissible pressure rapidly falls unless extremely thick walled tubing is employed. The safe maximum pressure for any tube can usually be obtained from the tube or column supplier. A slurry is made of the packing (110% of that needed to fill the column) and placed in the packing reservoir. The reservoir is rapidly connected to the pump (which must have both an adequate delivery rate and an adequate operating pressure - the delivery rate will depend on the column diameter and the applied pressure on the wall thickness and the column length). The pump is started and the column exit valve opened and the flow continued until it has been reduced to a constant value. The flow is then arrested and some packing will remain in the reservoir which ensures that the top of the column is tightly packed. ...
This paper we intend to test the pressure during the process of grain drying in the rectangular silo and explore the change regularity of dynamic and static pressure. According to the trend of the dynamic and static pressure with height, we analyzed the pressure and the structure stress in the silo that ...
Though evaporative cooling pads can do a great job of keeping our birds cool during hot weather by reducing the temperature of the incoming air 20°F or more, it is important to keep in mind that this cooling comes at a price, namely increased humidity and reduced air speed.. Though there is no practical way of reducing the humidity produced by evaporative cooling pads without reducing the cooling, the reduction in air speed caused by the restrictive nature of pad systems can be somewhat offset by simply increasing the amount of pad installed on a house. As pad area is increased, the velocity through the pad decreases, which in turn lowers the static pressure the tunnel fans are working against. As static pressure decreases, the air moving capacity of the fans increases, which leads to higher air speeds, and therefore increased bird cooling. The question of course is exactly how effective is increasing pad area in increasing air speed/bird cooling?. A study was conducted on a recently ...
The High Pressure Vessel market outlook of the global industry is provided based on the growth drivers, constraints and threats, SWOT analysis, and High Pressure Vessel market share study. The drivers and constraints of High Pressure Vessel industry recognize the rise and fall of the market. The study is served based on the High Pressure Vessel haggling power of buyers, haggling power of suppliers, the risk of new entrants, the risk from replacement, and High Pressure Vessel industrial competition. This report elaborates the High Pressure Vessel market with its key segments such as:. Influence of the High Pressure Vessel market report:. * Comprehensive assessment of all opportunities and risk in the High Pressure Vessel market.. * High Pressure Vessel market recent innovations and major events.. * Detailed study of business strategies for growth of the High Pressure Vessel market-leading players.. * Conclusive study about the growth plot of High Pressure Vessel market for forthcoming ...
A portable wastewater flow meter particularly adapted for temporary use at a single location in measuring the rate of liquid flow in a circular entrance conduit of a sewer manhole both under free flow and submerged, open channel conditions and under full pipe, surcharged conditions, comprising an apparatus having a cylindrical external surface and an inner surface that constricts the flow through the apparatus in such a manner that a relationship exists between (1) the difference between the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the entrance of the apparatus and the static pressure head of liquid flowing through the constriction, and (2) the rate of liquid flow through the apparatus. ...
This external pressure gauge reads external fluid pressures and can be placed at any point in-line between the chiller and the application.

No data available that match "pressure"

  • Skip the local coin car wash, car pressure washers make cleaning your vehicle easy and can keep them in great condition, especially in areas that use salt on the roads. (homedepot.com)
  • The study, which monitored 8801 participants over the age of 65 in the French Three-City study, found that systolic and diastolic blood pressure values differed significantly across the four seasons of the year and according to the distribution of outdoor temperature. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Systolic blood pressure, for example, decreased with increasing temperature, with an 8.0 mmHg decrease between the lowest (High blood pressure, defined as a systolic blood pressure of 160 mmHg or higher, or a diastolic blood pressure of 95 mmHg or higher, was detected in 33.4 per cent of participants during winter and 23.8 percent during summer. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • This is the diastolic pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Whether or not the mothers smoked during pregnancy didn't affect the baby's diastolic blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • The bottom number is called the diastolic pressure which measures the stress when the heart is at rest, between beats. (philly.com)
  • Dozens of studies have reported a link between exercise and lowered blood pressure: Some have found reductions of up to 10 mm Hg (systolic) and 6 to 10 mm Hg (diastolic) blood pressure units in people who already have hypertension. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In general, reductions are not as great for people with blood pressure in the normal range: A Belgian review of scores of studies found that for people with high blood pressure, average reductions from exercise were 6.9 mm Hg systolic and 4.9 mm Hg diastolic, and for participants who did not have high blood pressure, only 1.9 mm Hg and 1.6 mm Hg. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In one study, exercise did not reduce systolic blood pressure in older people -- ages 55 to 75 -- although it did reduce diastolic pressure. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Someone with a systolic pressure of 120 and a diastolic pressure of 80 has a blood pressure of 120/80, or "120 over 80. (webmd.com)
  • The researchers found that those participants who had a median of 368 mg of magnesium daily for an average of 3 months recorded a decrease in systolic blood pressure of 2.00 mm Hg and a decrease in diastolic blood pressure of 1.78 mm Hg. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The second, diastolic pressure, represents the minimum arterial pressure during diastole. (nih.gov)
  • A third value, mean arterial pressure, can be calculated from the systolic and diastolic pressures. (nih.gov)
  • As the cuff continues to deflate to the level of the diastolic pressure, pulsatile blood flow occurs smoothly, and Korotkoff sounds disappear. (nih.gov)
  • Thus, the systolic pressure is indicated by the origination of Korotkoff sounds, and the diastolic pressure is indicated by their disappearance [1] [2] . (nih.gov)
  • Of note, medical professionals should be aware of the auscultatory gap, a phenomenon which can result in the premature recording of the diastolic pressure. (nih.gov)
  • Only the final disappearance of Korotkoff sounds should be used for recording of the diastolic pressure [1] . (nih.gov)
  • E. Ridge - an elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure. (weather.gov)
  • F. Trough - an elongated area of relatively low atmospheric pressure. (weather.gov)
  • Pressure cookers are especially useful at high altitudes, where they alleviate the problem of low temperature boiling caused by reduced atmospheric pressure . (britannica.com)
  • Some meteorologists prefer the hectopascal (hPa) for atmospheric air pressure, which is equivalent to the older unit millibar (mbar). (wikipedia.org)
  • Bourdon tube pressure gauges , vehicle tire gauges and many other types of pressure gauges are zero referenced to atmospheric pressure, which means that they measure the pressure above atmospheric pressure. (tau.ac.il)
  • Thus, the absolute pressure of any system is the gauge pressure of the system plus the local atmospheric or ambient pressure . (tau.ac.il)
  • A tire pressure gauge might read 220 kPa as the gauge pressure, but that means the pressure is 220 kPa above atmospheric pressure. (tau.ac.il)
  • Since atmospheric pressure at sea level is about 101 kPa, the absolute pressure in the tire is therefore about 321 kPa. (tau.ac.il)
  • For instance, if the atmospheric pressure is 101 kPa: a gas at 200 kPa (gauge), which is 301 kPa (absolute), is 50 percent more dense than the same gas at 100 kPa (gauge), which is 201 kPa (absolute). (tau.ac.il)
  • While pressures are generally positive, when describing a system operating under a vacuum , the system pressure may be stated as being an absolute pressure of 80 kPa (for example) or it may be described as a gauge pressure of −21 kPa (i.e., 21 kPa below an atmospheric pressure of 101 kPa). (tau.ac.il)
  • A statement such as the system operates at a vacuum of 100 mmHg will lead to confusion because it might mean an absolute pressure 100 mmHg or a gauge pressure of −100 mmHg (i.e., 100 mm below an atmospheric pressure of 760 mmHg). (tau.ac.il)
  • Everything you need to understand or teach Atmospheric pressure . (bookrags.com)
  • Atmospheric Pressure Aristotle, whose teachings sometimes otherwise inhibited the advancement of science, was right on target in his belief that the atmosphere surrounding the Earth had weight. (bookrags.com)
  • Atmospheric Pressure Atmospheric pressure is the weight that the atmosphere exerts upon us. (bookrags.com)
  • The measured value of the atmospheric pressure fluctuates slightly in response to moving weather systems, an. (bookrags.com)
  • When the glottis is opened and no air is flowing into or out of the lungs, alveolar pressure is equal to the atmospheric pressure, that is, zero cmH2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • During inspiration, the increased volume of alveoli as a result of lung expansion decreases the intra-alveolar pressure to a value below atmospheric pressure about -1 cmH2O. (wikipedia.org)
  • At the end of inspiration, the alveolar pressure returns to atmospheric pressure (zero cmH2O). (wikipedia.org)
  • By the end of expiration, the pressure drops gradually and becomes atmospheric again. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pressure ridge may refer to: Pressure ridge (ice), which results from the interaction between expanses of sea ice Pressure ridge (lava), surfaces pushed up in lava flows Ridge (meteorology), an elongated area of relatively high atmospheric pressure This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Pressure ridge. (wikipedia.org)
  • Atmospheric (air) pressure at sea level will support a column of mercury that is about 76 cm (30 in. (infoplease.com)
  • 5. In addition air pressure changes caused by variations of temperature and water vapor content, air pressure can also be influenced by the circulation pattern of air. (weather.gov)
  • G. These circulation features usually dominate, but don't forget other features that affect pressure (e.g., temperature and water vapor content. (weather.gov)
  • The three remaining measurements can be inferred from pressure-flow (orifice plates, pitot tube, venturi), level (hydrostatic 'Head' pressure), and temperature (pressure thermometer). (slideshare.net)
  • The higher temperature of a pressure cooker penetrates food quickly, reducing cooking time without diminishing vitamin and mineral content. (britannica.com)
  • NIST on a Chip: Photonic and Quantum-Based Sensors for Measurements of Pressure, Vacuum, Temperature and Beyond! (nist.gov)
  • Such devices include devices for direct pressure limitation, such as safety valves and bursting discs etc, and limiting devices which either activate the means for correction or provide for shutdown or shutdown and lock out, such as pressure switches or temperature switches etc. (hse.gov.uk)
  • How temperature effects the height of pressure. (weather.gov)
  • This change in pressure is caused by changes in air density, and air density is related to temperature. (weather.gov)
  • Freescale Semiconductor 's FXTH87 tire-pressure monitoring system family provides low-power consumption, extended battery life, and functional integration in a compact, 0.3-g (0.01-oz), 7 x 7 x 2.2-mm (0.28 x 0.28 x 0.09-in) package with a dual-axis accelerometer architecture, pressure and temperature sensor, integrated multipoint control unit (MCU), radio frequency transmitter, and low-frequency receiver. (sae.org)
  • Similar to food steamers, pressure cooking uses high temperature water vapor and circulates it within the cooker to thoroughly cook the dish quickly and efficiently, drawing the least amount of power amongst all other cooking methods. (jcpenney.com)
  • A French study reported in the 12th January issue of Archives of Internal Medicine has found a strong correlation between blood pressure and outdoor temperature in a large sample of the elderly. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • The higher the temperature, the greater the decrease in blood pressure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although our study does not demonstrate a causal link between blood pressure and external temperature, the observed relationship nevertheless has potentially important consequences for blood pressure management in the elderly," the authors state. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Because the risk of stroke or aneurysmal rupture is highest in the elderly, improved protection against these diseases by close monitoring of blood pressure and antihypertensive medication when outdoor temperature is very low could be considered. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Relationship Between Blood Pressure and Outdoor Temperature in a Large Sample of Elderly Individuals: The Three-City Study. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Although much is known about gas permeation as function of temperature and pressure, only very limited data under supercritical conditions are available, although this determines the ultimate process configuration and associated economics. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Pressure cookers work by pressurizing the steam inside the unit, increasing the boiling temperature of the liquid inside, which lowers cooking time. (ehow.com)
  • A cryogenic pressure sensor calibration facility has been set up at Pressure Systems, Inc. for calibrating cryogenic pressure sensors in the temperature range 1.5 - 400 K. This paper presents a brief review of this calibration facility together with the low temperature characteristics of the cryogenic piezoresistive pressure sensors. (springer.com)
  • F. Breimesser et al, KPY12 - A Pressure Transducer Suitable for Low Temperature Use, in: "8th International Conference on Magnet Technology," Grenoble, (1983). (springer.com)
  • R. M. Igra et al, Simultaneous Pressure and Temperature Measurement on Helium in the High Speed Rotating Frame, in: "Advances in Cryogenic Engineering," Vol. 31, Plenum Press, New York (1986). (springer.com)
  • Manometric units such as the centimetre of water, millimetre of mercury, and inch of mercury are used to express pressures in terms of the height of column of a particular fluid in a manometer. (wikipedia.org)
  • Because pressure is commonly measured by its ability to displace a column of liquid in a manometer, pressures are often expressed as a depth of a particular fluid (e.g., centimetres of water, millimetres of mercury or inches of mercury). (wikipedia.org)
  • About 70% of US adults age 65 or older have high blood pressure and only about half have it under control (less than 140/90 mmHg). (cdc.gov)
  • About 70% of US adults, ages 65 or older, have high blood pressure. (cdc.gov)
  • Nearly 50% of adults ages 65 or older with high blood pressure don't have it under control. (cdc.gov)
  • No symptoms - People with high blood pressure often don't have symptoms so some may not treat a problem they don't notice. (cdc.gov)
  • High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition in which the pressure of the blood pumping through the arteries is abnormally high. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • More than 70 million Americans have high blood pressure, and a third of those with the condition are unaware of it. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Very high blood pressure can be a life-threatening emergency. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • In most cases, the causes of high blood pressure are not known. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • The risk of high blood pressure is greater for those who are smokers, older than 75, overweight, sedentary or under stress. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • High blood pressure is often discovered during a routine visit to the doctor or when another illness strikes. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • After determining that a patient has high blood pressure, the physician will look for possible causes and determine any effects it may have on key organs, such as the heart, kidneys, brain and blood vessels. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • If an underlying disease or condition has been identified as the cause, treatment of high blood pressure will focus on that condition. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Can children have high blood pressure? (heart.org)
  • While a majority of the conversation about high blood pressure (HBP or hypertension) centers on adults, children of all ages, from birth to teens, can have high blood pressure. (heart.org)
  • Just like high blood pressure in adults, there are often no symptoms and early diagnosis and treatment are key. (heart.org)
  • High blood pressure in children can arise from several risk factors or it can be secondary hypertension, resulting from an underlying health condition. (heart.org)
  • Secondary hypertension in children Certain diseases as well as some medications can cause high blood pressure in children. (heart.org)
  • Race - Like African-American adults, African-American children are also at a higher risk for high blood pressure. (heart.org)
  • According to research, teenagers who are obese and have high blood pressure may develop thicker arteries by age 30. (heart.org)
  • 1 ) One of the most common conditions leading to heart disease and stroke (the No. 2 killer) is the all-too familiar issue of high blood pressure. (draxe.com)
  • 2 ) The good news is that high blood pressure can usually be reversed naturally, specifically through lifestyle changes and consuming foods that lower blood pressure. (draxe.com)
  • To me, that sounds pretty undesirable for something you can easily correct with a high blood pressure diet and lifestyle changes. (draxe.com)
  • It's not uncommon to have normal changes in blood pressure during exercise or stressful moments, but when you develop hypertension, it means you have chronically high pressure that increases your risk for heart disease , stroke, diabetes and other conditions. (draxe.com)
  • The causes of high blood pressure can be complex but are generally related to lifestyle and diet. (draxe.com)
  • For example, people who eat high-sodium diets are at a much more elevated risk of high blood pressure. (draxe.com)
  • High blood pressure is often referred to as a "silent killer," due in large part to the absence of high blood pressure symptoms . (draxe.com)
  • Most people don't know they have high blood pressure until they have been diagnosed by a health care practitioner. (draxe.com)
  • Unlike general high blood pressure, hypertensive crises often appear with symptoms, such as severe headache, shortness of breath, nosebleeds, severe anxiety, and even loss of consciousness or heart attack (and several other extremely dangerous conditions) when it isn't treated quickly enough. (draxe.com)
  • If you're at risk for high blood pressure or have already started experiencing high levels, implementing natural ways to lower blood pressure and eating these foods that lower blood pressure is a great place to start. (draxe.com)
  • C. High pressure (anticyclone) - Divergence at surface (with convergence aloft) corresponds with sinking motion. (weather.gov)
  • High blood pressure (hypertension) is a common medical condition where the pressure inside your arteries is higher than it should be. (bupa.co.uk)
  • There's a lot you can do yourself, and there are good treatments available to reduce high blood pressure. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If you have high blood pressure, it's important to get your blood pressure checked regularly. (bupa.co.uk)
  • You need some pressure to keep your blood moving, but if it's consistently too high, it puts extra strain on your heart and blood vessels. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Other parts of your body, such as your brain and your kidneys may also be affected by high blood pressure. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Sometimes high blood pressure is caused by another health problem you already have. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Most people with high blood pressure don't have any symptoms and aren't aware of their condition. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If you have high blood pressure and it causes complications, you may get symptoms linked to those. (bupa.co.uk)
  • The only way to know if you have high blood pressure is to have it measured. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If your blood pressure is high, they may recommend you have more readings over a longer period to make a definite diagnosis. (bupa.co.uk)
  • If you have high blood pressure, your doctor will want to find out if there's a reason for this. (bupa.co.uk)
  • High blood pressure , also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. (medlineplus.gov)
  • If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and reducing sodium in your diet, you may need medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine? (medlineplus.gov)
  • High performance differential pressure transmitters feature a single crystal silicon resonant sensor and are suitable to measure liquid, gas, or steam flow as well as liquid level, density and pressure. (slideshare.net)
  • 2016 The high performance differential pressure transmitter EJX110A features single crystal silicon resonant sensor and is suitable to measure liquid, gas, or steam flow as well as liquid level, density and pressure. (slideshare.net)
  • Other key features include quick response, remote set-up using communications, diagnostics and optional status output for pressure high/low alarm. (slideshare.net)
  • and once a year in patients with: diabetes , cardiovascular disease , renal disease , borderline high blood pressure (hypertension) or on the oral contraceptive pill . (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • The largest national study to date on hypertension rates among young adults has just been published, and the message is clear: You're never too young for high blood pressure. (menshealth.com)
  • Follow these 20 Ways to Beat High Blood Pressure and read The Truth About Salt to find out why sodium isn't the health demon it's been made out to be. (menshealth.com)
  • Fingerprint Blood Pressure provides best and high definition image qualities. (microsoft.com)
  • A report from the Framingham Heart Study published in 2008 found that moderate vitamin D deficiency nearly doubles the risk of myocardial infarction, stroke and heart failure over a mean of 5.4 years in patients with high blood pressure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • You've probably heard that high blood pressure is a problem. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A tiny brown seed could have a major impact on controlling high blood pressure . (aarp.org)
  • In a 2013 study by Canadian and Cuban researchers, patients (age 40-plus) with high blood pressure and peripheral artery disease ate about three heaping tablespoons of ground flaxseeds daily for six months. (aarp.org)
  • In a 2015 study of women ages 45 to 65 with the early stages of high blood pressure, half ate 22 grams of freeze-dried blueberry powder (the equivalent of a cup of fresh berries) daily for eight weeks, while the other half ate an identical-looking powder that didn't contain any blueberries. (aarp.org)
  • Having a bowl of whole-grain and high-fiber breakfast cereal , such as oatmeal, oat squares, bran flakes or shredded wheat, can reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure, Harvard researchers recently found. (aarp.org)
  • In a 2015 British study of 64 patients with high blood pressure, half were taking medication but hadn't met their target BP, while the other half had not started medication. (aarp.org)
  • Caffeine can cause a spike in blood pressure lasting more than three hours if you have hypertension (high BP) and you're not a regular coffee drinker, a 2011 study in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition reported. (aarp.org)
  • The 35 ft. non-marring high pressure hose provides 40% longer reach for access to even the toughest areas. (homedepot.com)
  • The pressure cooker has a locking handle mechanism which prevents the lid from flying off if it reaches a too-high cooking pressure. (ehow.com)
  • However, it is important to keep watch on the unit regardless to ensure that the pressure does not get too high. (ehow.com)
  • The 4 day Mean Sea Level Pressure (MSLP) forecast charts show the pressure patterns, high and low pressure centres, low pressure troughs, cold and warm fronts and forecast rainfall areas. (bom.gov.au)
  • High blood pressure, or hypertension, is one of the most common medical problems-affecting about one quarter of all Americans. (philly.com)
  • So if you have high blood pressure, what can you do to get it down? (philly.com)
  • But some people who have normal or only slightly raised blood pressure can experience abnormal spikes during exercise that may be a sign of high blood pressure to come. (baltimoresun.com)
  • You should consult your doctor before beginning an exercise program, especially if you already have high blood pressure. (baltimoresun.com)
  • It's normal for blood pressure to go up and down throughout the day, but if it stays up, you have high blood pressure . (webmd.com)
  • Another name for high blood pressure is hypertension. (webmd.com)
  • When blood pressure is high, it starts to damage the blood vessels, heart , and kidneys . (webmd.com)
  • High blood pressure is called a "silent killer,'' because it doesn't usually cause symptoms while it is causing this damage. (webmd.com)
  • High blood pressure is 140/90 or higher. (webmd.com)
  • People with prehypertension need to make lifestyle changes to bring the blood pressure down and help prevent or delay high blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • About 1 out of 3 adults in the United States has high blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • What causes high blood pressure? (webmd.com)
  • But several things are known to raise blood pressure, including being very overweight , drinking too much alcohol, having a family history of high blood pressure, eating too much salt, and getting older. (webmd.com)
  • High blood pressure doesn't usually cause symptoms. (webmd.com)
  • Very high blood pressure can cause severe headaches and vision problems. (webmd.com)
  • These symptoms can also be caused by dangerously high blood pressure called malignant high blood pressure . (webmd.com)
  • Malignant high blood pressure is a medical emergency. (webmd.com)
  • How is high blood pressure diagnosed? (webmd.com)
  • Most people find out that they have high blood pressure during a routine doctor visit. (webmd.com)
  • For your doctor to confirm that you have high blood pressure, your blood pressure must be at least 140/90 on two separate occasions. (webmd.com)
  • If you have high blood pressure, your doctor will give you a blood pressure goal. (webmd.com)
  • Either way, you will need to control your high blood pressure throughout your life. (webmd.com)
  • Treatment depends on how high your blood pressure is, whether you have other health problems such as diabetes , and whether any organs have already been damaged. (webmd.com)
  • Most people take more than one pill for high blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • What can you do to prevent high blood pressure? (webmd.com)
  • Making lifestyle changes can help you to prevent high blood pressure. (webmd.com)
  • Around one third of adults in the United States have high blood pressure, only half of whom have their high blood pressure under control. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With high blood pressure affecting around 70 million people in the U.S. and increasing the risk of two of the leading causes of death for Americans - heart disease and stroke - preventing or controlling blood pressure is an essential healthcare objective. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Labeled the "silent killer," due to often having no warning signs or symptoms, high blood pressure is a common and often dangerous condition. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • While there has been ongoing research into whether magnesium has a significant effect on high blood pressure, it has been widely documented to maintain normal nerve and muscle function, maintain a steady heartbeat, support a healthy immune system, and help bones to remain strong. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • With its relative safety and low cost, magnesium supplements could be considered as an option for lowering blood pressure in high-risk persons or hypertension patients. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • High blood pressure is something all consumers need to keep an eye on, but a new study shows that pregnant women can be especially susceptible to the condition. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Researchers from the American Heart Association (AHA) found that cases of high blood pressure among pregnant women have been steadily increasing over the last 40 years. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Those findings are dangerous because high blood pressure can be harmful to both mothers and their newborns. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • High blood pressure was once just a concern for people entering their middle-aged years. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • But the recent study suggests that pressure just below that threshold -- or high normal pressure -- begins to fuel heart damage in people as young as 20 and can lead to changes in heart muscle function in as little as 25 years. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • One risk factor for high blood pressure in teens may be spending hours each day on the Internet. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • Men who took such drugs for most days in a week were about one-third more likely to be diagnosed with high blood pressure than men not taking them, the researchers found. (reuters.com)
  • This is a potentially preventable cause of high blood pressure," Dr. John Forman of Brigham and Women's Hospital in Boston, who led the study, said in a statement. (reuters.com)
  • After they filtered out everyone who already had high blood pressure and other problems, they had 16,000 men whose records they checked for a 4 year period. (reuters.com)
  • Men who took acetaminophen (paracetamol), sold generically and under the Tylenol brand name, six or seven days a week were 34 percent more likely to be diagnosed with high blood pressure than men who did not take analgesics. (reuters.com)
  • Men who took aspirin that regularly were 26 percent more likely to have high blood pressure than non-users. (reuters.com)
  • Men who took 15 or more NSAID pills a week were 48 percent more likely than non-users to have high blood pressure. (reuters.com)
  • These show that pressure has a profound influence on speciation of the water component, which changes from being dominated by hydroxyls and water molecules at low pressure 4 to extended structures at high pressure. (nature.com)
  • We link this change in structure to our finding that the water-silicate system becomes increasingly ideal at high pressure: we find complete miscibility of water and silicate melt throughout almost the entire mantle pressure regime. (nature.com)
  • Panero, W. R. & Stixrude, L. P. Hydrogen incorporation in stishovite at high pressure and symmetric hydrogen bonding in delta-AlOOH. (nature.com)
  • Closmann, C. & Williams, Q. In-situ spectroscopic investigation of high-pressure hydrated (Mg,Fe)SiO3 glasses - OH vibrations as a probe of glass structure. (nature.com)
  • And changing the system, both Giordano and Keirns agree, is the only way to alleviate this high-pressure predicament for women. (yahoo.com)
  • Research presented at the High Blood Pressure Research 2012 Scientific Sessions of the American Heart Association (AHA) found that people who ate more non-fat yogurt were 31 percent less likely to develop high blood pressure than others. (forbes.com)
  • Among the dyslexic children, 49 came from families affected by high blood pressure - but 63 came from families with no such history. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Virtually all the non-dyslexic children had some history of high blood pressure in their families - a much higher proportion than the dyslexic children. (bbc.co.uk)
  • In addition, an examination of the children who came from high blood pressure families found they performed better on number recall, reading and spelling, all tasks which dyslexic children find difficult. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Researchers believe several factors together may create higher pressure in the arteries. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Blood pressure is defined as the pressure at which your blood moves through your arteries, away from the heart. (draxe.com)
  • Every time your heart beats, it pumps blood under pressure to the rest of your body through your arteries. (bupa.co.uk)
  • Blood pressure is the force of your blood pushing against the walls of your arteries. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A possible reason: Systolic blood pressure increases as arteries grow stiffer, which happens as people age, and exercise did not reduce artery stiffness in the study participants. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Blood pressure is a measure of how hard the blood pushes against the walls of your arteries as it moves through your body. (webmd.com)
  • Gauge pressure (also spelled gage pressure) is the pressure relative to the ambient pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • An example of the difference is between gauge and absolute pressure is the air pressure in a vehicle tire. (tau.ac.il)
  • In technical writing, this would be written as a gauge pressure of 220 kPa or as an absolute pressure of 321 kPa . (tau.ac.il)
  • Where space is limited, such as on pressure gauge dials, table headings or graph labels, the use of a modifier in parentheses, such as kPa (gauge) or kPa (absolute) , is strongly encouraged. (tau.ac.il)
  • Gauge pressure is also sometimes spelled gage pressure . (tau.ac.il)
  • Gauge pressure is the relevant measure of pressure wherever one is interested in the stress on storage vessels and the piping components of fluid flow systems. (tau.ac.il)
  • Wait for the pressure gauge to fall back to '0. (ehow.com)
  • Wait until the pressure gauge reaches '0' before taking off the lid. (ehow.com)
  • Cold silicon piezoresistive strain gauge pressure sensors have several advantages over the conventional pressure measuring devices/systems used in cryogenics. (springer.com)
  • This method utilizes a sphygmomanometer, a device comprised of an inflatable cuff that is connected to a pressure gauge (generally a column of mercury). (nih.gov)
  • 3. Meteorology has used the millibar for air pressure since 1929. (weather.gov)
  • The result: Their systolic blood pressure (the top number) dropped by 15 millimeters of mercury (mmHg) - a finding researchers called "one of the most potent blood anti-hypertensive effects ever achieved by a dietary intervention. (aarp.org)
  • After eight weeks, the blueberry group's systolic blood pressure (the top number) had dropped 5 mmHg,while the readings for the placebo group remained the same. (aarp.org)
  • Eating it for less than eight weeks didn't lower BP, but longer than that saw systolic pressure (the top number) drop by an average of 3.6 mmHg. (aarp.org)
  • V. There is pressure variations at all time scales. (weather.gov)
  • [ 1 ] Changes in venous CBV due to variations in intrathoracic pressures are responsible for the respiratory component of ICP. (medscape.com)
  • The variations in pressure of a gas are more complicated. (infoplease.com)
  • Thus changes in air pressure depend upon both the variations in the density of air and changes in the altitude at which it is measured. (infoplease.com)
  • An advantage of invasive monitoring is the ability to display blood pressure variations with each heartbeat. (nih.gov)
  • 06 Pressure Sensors. (slideshare.net)
  • For forklift trucks, telehandlers, and other logistical vehicles, the trend is moving toward more power in a smaller installation space and Rexroth supports this development with its PR4 series 10 pressure sensors. (sae.org)
  • The new generation of robust and precise pressure sensors can be used universally in open and closed hydraulic circuits and deliver decisive information for energy-efficient power control. (sae.org)
  • Gems Sensors & Controls introduces new series of pressure transmitters, CSA certified intrinsically safe for use in hazardous areas within Canada and the USA. (prweb.com)
  • February 2013: Gems Sensors & Controls announces the introduction of the 31CS and 32CS Series intrinsically safe pressure transmitters. (prweb.com)
  • The pressure sensors calibrated so far include 202 k Pa absolute (30 psia), 202 k Pa differential (30 psid) and 1013 k Pa absolute (150 psia) range devices. (springer.com)
  • These calibrations are linear and are repeatable to within +/− 0.1% and +/− 0.5% full scale outputs for 202 k Pa and 1013 k Pa range pressure sensors respectively. (springer.com)
  • P. L. Walstrom et al, "Use of Siemens Pressure Sensors at Liquid Helium Temperatures. (springer.com)
  • Encourage the use of home blood pressure monitors and easy-to-use tools (e.g. blood pressure logs and mobile apps) to track and share blood pressure readings. (cdc.gov)
  • Since blood pressure readings can vary widely, it may take several readings or several days' readings to confirm the diagnosis. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • If these approaches are not effective, the patient may need to take daily medications to keep blood pressure readings in the normal range and prevent damage to the body's organs. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Patients who sat for less than that before having their blood pressure checked received less accurate readings, reports the American Journal of Hypertension . (menshealth.com)
  • You may have to check your blood pressure at home if there is reason to think the readings in the doctor's office aren't accurate. (webmd.com)
  • The most insignificant activities can result in substantial changes in blood pressure readings. (nih.gov)
  • When they try to influence how you act, to get you to do something, it's called peer pressure . (kidshealth.org)
  • Why Do People Give in to Peer Pressure? (kidshealth.org)
  • Some kids give in to peer pressure because they want to be liked, to fit in, or because they worry that other kids might make fun of them if they don't go along with the group. (kidshealth.org)
  • It is tough to be the only one who says "no" to peer pressure, but you can do it. (kidshealth.org)
  • This takes a lot of the power out of peer pressure and makes it much easier to resist. (kidshealth.org)
  • Peer pressure is a big reason why they say this. (kidshealth.org)
  • Try to help a friend who's having trouble resisting peer pressure. (kidshealth.org)
  • Even if you're faced with peer pressure while you're alone, there are still things you can do. (kidshealth.org)
  • If you continue to face peer pressure and you're finding it difficult to handle, talk to someone you trust. (kidshealth.org)
  • Talking to a parent, teacher, or school counselor can help you feel much better and prepare you for the next time you face peer pressure. (kidshealth.org)
  • Peer pressure is not always a bad thing. (kidshealth.org)
  • For example, positive peer pressure can be used to pressure bullies into acting better toward other kids. (kidshealth.org)
  • For other uses, see Peer pressure (disambiguation) . (wikipedia.org)
  • Peer pressure (or social pressure ) is the direct influence on people by peers , or the effect on an individual who gets encouraged to follow their peers by changing their attitudes , values or behaviors to conform to those of the influencing group or individual. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, a person does not need to be a member or be seeking membership of a group to be affected by peer pressure.peer pressure can decrease one's confidence .It can affect the lives of the students drastically. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peer pressure can affect individuals of all ethnicities, genders and ages, however. (wikipedia.org)
  • Peer pressure has moved from strictly face-to-face interaction to digital interaction as well. (wikipedia.org)
  • [1] Research suggests that not just individuals but also organizations, such as large corporations, are susceptible to peer pressures, such as pressures from other firms in their industry or headquarters city. (wikipedia.org)
  • She'd just had a big dose of peer pressure. (kidshealth.org)
  • But you probably hear adults - parents, teachers, guidance counselors, etc. - talk about peer pressure more than the benefits of belonging to a peer group. (kidshealth.org)
  • It's not just humans who succumb to peer pressure - rats do too. (newscientist.com)
  • Apart from its mean value, the pulse waveform of intracranial pressure (ICP) is an essential element of pressure recording. (medscape.com)
  • Intracranial pressure is more than a number. (medscape.com)
  • What Determines Outcome in Patients That Suffer Raised Intracranial Pressure After Traumatic Brain Injury? (springer.com)
  • 4. Sinking air increases pressure at surface, and ascent decreases pressure at surface. (weather.gov)
  • If more air converges at the surface than ascends, then the air density and air pressure increases. (weather.gov)
  • Oceanographers usually measure underwater pressure in decibars (dbar) because pressure in the ocean increases by approximately one decibar per metre depth. (wikipedia.org)
  • Back on Earth, as elevation increases, the number of molecules decreases and the density of air therefore is less, meaning a decrease in air pressure. (weather.gov)
  • The valve described herein accurately regulates oil pressure at low levels and progressively increases pressure, with respect to time, by means of an electronically programmable pressure vs time control to any level up to supply pressure. (sae.org)
  • Some people may have symptoms of low blood pressure when standing up too quickly. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Kenneth Lee Hamlett Product Manager Pressure Products Yokogawa Corporation of America, Field Instruments "If you can measure that of which you speak and can express it by a number, you must know something of the subject. (slideshare.net)
  • If more air diverges at the surface than descends from aloft, then the air density and air pressure decrease. (weather.gov)
  • Because of this decrease in pressure with height, it makes it very hard to compare the air pressure at ground level from one location to another, especially when the elevations of each site differ. (weather.gov)
  • Medications like Beta blockers and Calcium Channel blockers, while excellent medications to help control blood pressure, can decrease the heart rate and also possibly affect exercise tolerance and are typically not used as first line agents for treatment of blood pressure in athletes. (philly.com)
  • Warm air is thus lighter (less dense) than cold air and consequently exerts less pressure. (weather.gov)
  • A fluid exerts a pressure on all bodies immersed in it. (infoplease.com)
  • A man from Illinois just won a $1,000 reward for his Pressure Washers Direct video review of a Campbell Hausfeld professional 2900 PSI pressure washer. (prweb.com)
  • Pressure washers make deep cleaning jobs easy. (homedepot.com)
  • Power washers use a pump to push the water out at variable pressure. (homedepot.com)
  • For small jobs consider electric pressure washers , there's no upkeep, no fumes, and most can fit into a closet. (homedepot.com)
  • Gas-powered pressure washers typically put out more PSI pressure compared with electric models. (homedepot.com)
  • Commercial pressure washers are great for the toughest of stains and paint prep. (homedepot.com)
  • For the toughest deep-cleaning jobs consider 3100 PSI pressure washers . (homedepot.com)
  • Be careful when using the more powerful pressure washers, they can spray water concentrated enough to cause injuries. (homedepot.com)
  • Its highly accurate and stable sensor can also measure the static pressure which can be shown on the integral indicator or remotely monitored via BRAIN or HART communications. (slideshare.net)
  • Boyd C., Juanarena D., Rao M.G. (1990) Cryogenic Pressure Sensor Calibration Facility. (springer.com)
  • Pressure decreases with height. (weather.gov)
  • Thus, net result is that pressure actually decreases when heated. (weather.gov)
  • Conversely, If less air converges at the surface than ascends, then the air density and air pressure decreases. (weather.gov)
  • The decreasing air density then lowers the pressure exerted by the air. (weather.gov)
  • It can even be used to infer density (pressure for a given volume) and weight (load cells). (slideshare.net)
  • pressure-depth profile In the Earth , the relationship between pressure and depth is controlled by the density of the rocks and the gravitational acceleration at each point along the profile. (encyclopedia.com)
  • For a fluid at rest the difference in pressure between two points in it depends only upon the density of the fluid and the difference in depth between the two points. (infoplease.com)
  • For example, since air has such a low density compared to a liquid, a change in its pressure is only measurable between points that have a great height difference. (infoplease.com)
  • This slight negative pressure is enough to move 500 ml of air into the lungs in the 2 seconds required for inspiration. (wikipedia.org)
  • Design Under Pressure was created in 2018 in Patras and is active in the field of graphic design and visual communication. (behance.net)
  • If one is at the bottom of a deep pool of water, the water pressure will cause pain in one's ears. (tau.ac.il)
  • 32CS Series transmitters feature a thicker diaphragm and a pressure restrictor to withstand the rigors of cavitation or extreme pressure spikes, improving stability and reliability in pulsating applications. (prweb.com)
  • However, at least 25% of adults, ages 65 or older, with Medicare Part D prescription drug insurance are not taking their blood pressure medicine as directed. (cdc.gov)
  • About 5 million adults, ages 65 or older, with Medicare Part D aren't taking their blood pressure medicine as directed. (cdc.gov)
  • Social media offers opportunities for adolescents and adults alike to instill and/or experience pressure everyday. (wikipedia.org)
  • In adults, normal blood pressure is less than 120/80. (philly.com)
  • Although 82 percent of the magnesium supplement dosages in the study were equal to or greater than the U.S. Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) for adults, the American Heart Association (AHA) say that magnesium, as a supplement, may not be necessary for the desired effect of maintaining blood pressure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Pressure (symbol: p or P) is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. (wikipedia.org)
  • The American Heart Association recommends that all children have yearly blood pressure measurements in order to allow for early detection and intervention. (heart.org)
  • The most accurate method of obtaining blood pressure measurements is with the use of an invasive probe that is inserted directly into the lumen of an artery. (nih.gov)
  • After a month, the beet juice drinkers dropped their systolic blood pressure (the top number) by eight points - an improvement similar to taking medication, researchers noted - while there was no change in BP among the placebo group. (aarp.org)
  • The probiotics in yogurt and other fermented foods (including some cheeses) can help lower your blood pressure, Australian researchers recently reported. (aarp.org)
  • Researchers at Henry Ford Hospital in Detroit discovered teens who spend at least 14 hours a week on the Internet had an increased risk of elevated blood pressure. (consumeraffairs.com)
  • In two recent studies, aspirin did not appear to cause hypertension and, in fact, some researchers believe that timed administration of low-dose (aspirin) could provide an additional approach for blood pressure control of certain patients with mild essential hypertension," Bayer Consumer Care said in a statement. (reuters.com)
  • Experts don't know exactly how sunflower seeds lower blood pressure, but Spanish researchers conducted an experiment in which they discovered that during digestion, sunflower seeds release a peptide that inhibits the body's production of an enzyme that's known to raise blood pressure. (forbes.com)
  • Modern innovations in pressure cooker design include safety locks, pressure regulators, portable cookers, and low-pressure fryers. (britannica.com)
  • A Tower pressure cooker is a steam-operated pressure cooker design for use on standard cook tops. (ehow.com)
  • How can I measure my blood pressure outside the doctor's office? (cdc.gov)
  • You may have what is called white-coat hypertension, which is blood pressure that goes up just because you're at the doctor's office. (webmd.com)
  • An insight is that children can monitor and intervene in their peers' behavior through pressure. (wikipedia.org)
  • At lower pressures, permeation follows the behavior described in literature. (bath.ac.uk)
  • You can simply stay away from peers who pressure you to do stuff you know is wrong. (kidshealth.org)
  • If enough kids get together, peers can pressure each other into doing what's right! (kidshealth.org)
  • However, when allowed to privately share their responses with a researcher the children proved much more resistant to their peers' pressure, illustrating the importance of the physical presence of their peers in shaping their opinions. (wikipedia.org)
  • Even small children, then, are susceptible to pressure from their peers, and that pressure can be used to effect positive change in academic and social environments. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pulsatile changes in arterial CBV evoke the pulse pressure waveform of ICP. (medscape.com)
  • When the pressure in the cuff falls to the level of the systolic pressure, pulsatile blood flow begins to re-establish. (nih.gov)
  • Ultimately, the drive of any good pressure transmitter is to get an accurate, reliable pressure measurement to the data user quickly, which is what this eBook will discuss. (slideshare.net)
  • Typical results from a flow field measurement by a multi-hole probe are shown in images below where the total pressure coefficient, swirl angle and streamwise vorticity are shown. (chalmers.se)
  • In general, two values are recorded during the measurement of blood pressure. (nih.gov)
  • The original method of determining blood pressure via the auscultation of Korotkoff sounds continues to be a mainstay in blood pressure measurement. (nih.gov)
  • As such, the remainder of this review will focus on the previously mentioned methods of blood pressure measurement. (nih.gov)
  • If any of these activities have occurred within the last 30 minutes, blood pressure measurement should be postponed until this period has passed. (nih.gov)
  • Even though it's closely related to dietary and lifestyle habits, many people try to rely on medication alone to solve their blood pressure problems. (draxe.com)
  • Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Often time medication is needed to fully control the blood pressure. (philly.com)
  • Other units of pressure, such as pounds per square inch (Ibf/in2) and bar, are also in common use. (wikipedia.org)
  • Therefore, the air pressure is the same in the space station as the earth's surface (14.7 pounds per square inch). (weather.gov)
  • The pressure put out by a power washer is measured in PSIs, pounds per square inch. (homedepot.com)
  • Accurately measuring pressure is a powerful piece of process data. (slideshare.net)
  • The ability to quickly, accurately, and reliably measure pressure is invaluable when trying to control a process. (slideshare.net)
  • During the investigation of an electronic transmission control system for agricultural, off highway and, heavy duty on highway vehicles, it became apparent that a key element in the hydraulic system was the need to accurately regulate oil pressure to the various clutches in the gear train. (sae.org)
  • Given its importance in directing care, it is essential to measure blood pressure accurately and consistently. (nih.gov)
  • Depending on the level of blood pressure elevation, a combination of blood pressure medications often is needed to control hypertension. (cedars-sinai.edu)
  • Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides? (medlineplus.gov)
  • Caffeine, alcohol, and tobacco are common agents that elevate the blood pressure, as are certain over-the-counter medications like decongestants and appetite suppressants. (philly.com)
  • This page provides information, tools, and resources about preventing and treating pressure ulcers (commonly referred to as bed sores). (in.gov)
  • In fact, I'm going to tell you about 13 foods, including everything from snacks to juice to herbs, that have been scientifically proven to lower blood pressure. (draxe.com)
  • Instead of rushing toward conventional medicine, give these foods that lower blood pressure a try. (draxe.com)
  • One of the most desirable benefits of pomegranate juice includes the ability it has to lower blood pressure naturally. (draxe.com)
  • Blood pressure medicines work in different ways to lower blood pressure. (medlineplus.gov)
  • A healthy diet rich in green leafy vegetables, legumes, nuts, seeds, and whole grains could lower blood pressure. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Here are specific foods that research recommends to lower blood pressure. (forbes.com)
  • Many dyslexic children come from families with a history of lower blood pressure - adding weight to theories of a common cause of the disorder. (bbc.co.uk)
  • Scientists at Oxford University's Laboratory of Physiology decided to test the theory by seeing whether there was a correlation between dyslexic children and lower blood pressure in their families. (bbc.co.uk)
  • However, they say that it adds further weight to the theory that PAF is somehow involved in both dyslexia and lower blood pressure. (bbc.co.uk)
  • However, when we sum the total forces from the large number of molecules that strike a surface each moment, then the total observed pressure can be considerable. (weather.gov)
  • First, simply adding molecules to any particular container will increase the pressure. (weather.gov)
  • A larger number of molecules in any particular container will increase the number of collisions with the container's boundary which is observed as an increase in pressure. (weather.gov)
  • The molecules therefore move with increased velocity striking the container's boundary with greater force and is observed as an increase in pressure. (weather.gov)
  • Since molecules move in all directions, they can even exert air pressure upwards as they smash into object from underneath. (weather.gov)
  • The structure and physical properties of hydrous silicate melts and the solubility of water in melts over most of the pressure regime of Earth's mantle (up to 136 GPa) remain unknown. (nature.com)
  • Providing resources to states and territories to prevent chronic diseases, including resources to track how well people are taking their blood pressure medicine at the state and county level. (cdc.gov)
  • At sea level, standard air pressure in inches of mercury is 29.92. (weather.gov)
  • At sea level, standard air pressure in millibars is 1013.2. (weather.gov)
  • The flow transmitter, liquid level transmitter, and pressure thermometer use the measured pressure to infer another process parameter. (slideshare.net)
  • Pressure Transmitter Pressure Thermometer Flow Transmitter Liquid Level Transmitter What is Pressure? (slideshare.net)
  • It is approximately equal to typical air pressure at Earth mean sea level and is defined as 101325 Pa. (wikipedia.org)
  • At observation stations around the world the air pressure reading, regardless of the observation station elevation, is converted to a value that would be observed if that instrument were located at sea level. (weather.gov)
  • The air pressure in a typical room is the same everywhere, but it is noticeably lower at the top of a mountain than at sea level. (infoplease.com)
  • These two factors combine to reduce the air pressure at an altitude of 5,500 m (18,000 ft) to one half its value at sea level. (infoplease.com)
  • The intracranial pulse pressure waveform attracted the attention of many scientists approximately three decades ago and has maintained their interest until the present. (medscape.com)
  • There are some foods, however, that scientists say contribute to low blood pressure. (forbes.com)
  • Simplify blood pressure treatment (e.g. prescribe 90-day refills and combination medicines and coordinate pill refills for the same date) and prescribe generic medicines. (cdc.gov)
  • In other people, blood pressure drops below normal because of a medical condition or certain medicines. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Just why exercise lowers blood pressure isn't clear, but there are several possibilities. (baltimoresun.com)
  • That, in turn, lowers blood pressure and heart rate. (baltimoresun.com)
  • While it is undisputed that there are sensitive points on the human body where even comparatively weak pressure may induce significant pain or serious injury, the association of kyūsho with notions of Death have been disproven. (wikipedia.org)
  • If your blood pressure is borderline unhealthy, eating a cup of blueberries a day could help lower it. (aarp.org)

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