Receptors in the vascular system, particularly the aorta and carotid sinus, which are sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls.
A developmental anomaly in which the lower sternum is posteriorly dislocated and concavely deformed, resulting in a funnel-shaped thorax.
Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.
An illusion of vision usually affecting spatial relations.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.
Increased VASCULAR RESISTANCE in the PULMONARY CIRCULATION, usually secondary to HEART DISEASES or LUNG DISEASES.
Lists of words, usually in alphabetical order, giving information about form, pronunciation, etymology, grammar, and meaning.
The terms, expressions, designations, or symbols used in a particular science, discipline, or specialized subject area.
The thoracolumbar division of the autonomic nervous system. Sympathetic preganglionic fibers originate in neurons of the intermediolateral column of the spinal cord and project to the paravertebral and prevertebral ganglia, which in turn project to target organs. The sympathetic nervous system mediates the body's response to stressful situations, i.e., the fight or flight reactions. It often acts reciprocally to the parasympathetic system.
A response by the BARORECEPTORS to increased BLOOD PRESSURE. Increased pressure stretches BLOOD VESSELS which activates the baroreceptors in the vessel walls. The net response of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM is a reduction of central sympathetic outflow. This reduces blood pressure both by decreasing peripheral VASCULAR RESISTANCE and by lowering CARDIAC OUTPUT. Because the baroreceptors are tonically active, the baroreflex can compensate rapidly for both increases and decreases in blood pressure.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)
The number of times the HEART VENTRICLES contract per unit of time, usually per minute.
The dilated portion of the common carotid artery at its bifurcation into external and internal carotids. It contains baroreceptors which, when stimulated, cause slowing of the heart, vasodilatation, and a fall in blood pressure.
GRAY MATTER located in the dorsomedial part of the MEDULLA OBLONGATA associated with the solitary tract. The solitary nucleus receives inputs from most organ systems including the terminations of the facial, glossopharyngeal, and vagus nerves. It is a major coordinator of AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM regulation of cardiovascular, respiratory, gustatory, gastrointestinal, and chemoreceptive aspects of HOMEOSTASIS. The solitary nucleus is also notable for the large number of NEUROTRANSMITTERS which are found therein.
Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
The lower portion of the BRAIN STEM. It is inferior to the PONS and anterior to the CEREBELLUM. Medulla oblongata serves as a relay station between the brain and the spinal cord, and contains centers for regulating respiratory, vasomotor, cardiac, and reflex activities.
A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.
An involuntary movement or exercise of function in a part, excited in response to a stimulus applied to the periphery and transmitted to the brain or spinal cord.
An angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor that is used to treat HYPERTENSION and HEART FAILURE.
Anastomosis of splenic vein to renal vein to relieve portal hypertension.
An octapeptide that is a potent but labile vasoconstrictor. It is produced from angiotensin I after the removal of two amino acids at the C-terminal by ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME. The amino acid in position 5 varies in different species. To block VASOCONSTRICTION and HYPERTENSION effect of angiotensin II, patients are often treated with ACE INHIBITORS or with ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR BLOCKERS.
A structure, situated close to the intraventricular foramen, which induces DRINKING BEHAVIOR after stimulation with ANGIOTENSIN II.
Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.
A plant genus of the APOCYNACEAE or dogbane family. Alkaloids from plants in this genus have been used as tranquilizers and antihypertensive agents. RESERPINE is derived from R. serpentina.
The systematic identification and quantitation of all the metabolic products of a cell, tissue, organ, or organism under varying conditions. The METABOLOME of a cell or organism is a dynamic collection of metabolites which represent its net response to current conditions.
The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.
A province of western Canada, lying between the provinces of British Columbia and Saskatchewan. Its capital is Edmonton. It was named in honor of Princess Louise Caroline Alberta, the fourth daughter of Queen Victoria. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p26 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p12)
A province of Canada on the Pacific coast. Its capital is Victoria. The name given in 1858 derives from the Columbia River which was named by the American captain Robert Gray for his ship Columbia which in turn was named for Columbus. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p178 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p81-2)
Enzymes that catalyze the cleavage of a carbon-nitrogen bond by means other than hydrolysis or oxidation. Subclasses are the AMMONIA-LYASES, the AMIDINE-LYASES, the amine-lyases, and other carbon-nitrogen lyases. EC 4.3.
The biological science concerned with the life-supporting properties, functions, and processes of living organisms or their parts.
Persons including soldiers involved with the armed forces.
Global conflict primarily fought on European continent, that occurred between 1914 and 1918.
A written account of a person's life and the branch of literature concerned with the lives of people. (Harrod's Librarians' Glossary, 7th ed)
Global conflict involving countries of Europe, Africa, Asia, and North America that occurred between 1939 and 1945.
The study of systems, particularly electronic systems, which function after the manner of, in a manner characteristic of, or resembling living systems. Also, the science of applying biological techniques and principles to the design of electronic systems.
Exclusive legal rights or privileges applied to inventions, plants, etc.
Application of electric current in treatment without the generation of perceptible heat. It includes electric stimulation of nerves or muscles, passage of current into the body, or use of interrupted current of low intensity to raise the threshold of the skin to pain.

Reduction in baroreflex cardiovascular responses due to venous infusion in the rabbit. (1/1182)

We studied reflex bradycardia and depression of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during left aortic nerve (LAN) stimulation before and after volume infusion in the anesthetized rabbit. Step increases in mean right atrial pressure (MRAP) to 10 mm Hg did not result in a significant change in heart rate or MAP. After volume loading, responses to LAN stimulation were not as great and the degree of attenuation was propoetional to the level of increased MRAP. A change in responsiveness was observed after elevation of MRAP by only 1 mm Hg, corresponding to less than a 10% increase in average calculated blood volume. after an increase in MRAP of 10 mm Hg, peak responses were attenuated by 44% (heart rate) and 52% (MAP), and the initial slopes (rate of change) were reduced by 46% (heart rate) and 66% (MAP). Comparison of the responses after infusion with blood and dextran solutions indicated that hemodilution was an unlikely explanation for the attenuation of the reflex responses. Total arterial baroreceptor denervation (ABD) abolished the volume-related attenuation was still present following bilateral aortic nerve section or vagotomy. It thus appears that the carotid sinus responds to changes inblood volume and influences the reflex cardiovascular responses to afferent stimulation of the LAN. On the other hand, cardiopulmonary receptors subserved by vagal afferents do not appear to be involved.  (+info)

Quantification of baroreceptor influence on arterial pressure changes seen in primary angiotension-induced hypertension in dogs. (2/1182)

We studied the role of the sino-aortic baroreceptors in the gradual development of hypertension induced by prolonged administration of small amounts of angiotensin II (A II) in intact dogs and dogs with denervated sino-aortic baroreceptors. Short-term 1-hour infusions of A II(1.0-100 ng/kg per min) showed that conscious denervated dogs had twice the pressor sensitivity of intact dogs. Long-term infusions of A II at 5.0 ng/kg per min (2-3 weeks) with continuous 24-hour recordings of arterial pressure showed that intact dogs required 28 hours to reach the same level of pressure attained by denervated dogs during the 1st hour of infusion. At the 28th hour the pressure in both groups was 70% of the maximum value attained by the 7th day of infusion. Both intact and denervated dogs reached nearly the same plateau level of pressure, the magnitude being directly related both the the A II infusion rate and the daily sodium intake. Cardiac output in intact dogs initially decreased after the onset of A II infusion, but by the 5th day of infusion it was 38% above control, whereas blood volume was unchanged. Heart rate returned to normal after a reduction during the 1st day of infusion in intact dogs. Plasma renin activity could not be detected after 24 hours of A II infusion in either intact or denervated dogs. The data indicate that about 35% of the hypertensive effect of A II results from its acute pressor action, and an additional 35% of the gradual increase in arterial pressure is in large measure a result of baroreceptor resetting. We conclude that the final 30% increase in pressure seems to result from increased cardiac output, the cause of which may be decreased vascular compliance. since the blood volume remains unaltered.  (+info)

BDNF is a target-derived survival factor for arterial baroreceptor and chemoafferent primary sensory neurons. (3/1182)

Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) supports survival of 50% of visceral afferent neurons in the nodose/petrosal sensory ganglion complex (NPG; Ernfors et al., 1994a; Jones et al., 1994; Conover et al., 1995; Liu et al., 1995; Erickson et al., 1996), including arterial chemoafferents that innervate the carotid body and are required for development of normal breathing (Erickson et al., 1996). However, the relationship between BDNF dependence of visceral afferents and the location and timing of BDNF expression in visceral tissues is unknown. The present study demonstrates that BDNF mRNA and protein are transiently expressed in NPG targets in the fetal cardiac outflow tract, including baroreceptor regions in the aortic arch, carotid sinus, and right subclavian artery, as well as in the carotid body. The period of BDNF expression corresponds to the onset of sensory innervation and to the time at which fetal NPG neurons are BDNF-dependent in vitro. Moreover, baroreceptor innervation is absent in newborn mice lacking BDNF. In addition to vascular targets, vascular afferents themselves express high levels of BDNF, both during and after the time they are BDNF-dependent. However, endogenous BDNF supports survival of fetal NPG neurons in vitro only under depolarizing conditions. Together, these data indicate two roles for BDNF during vascular afferent pathway development; initially, as a target-derived survival factor, and subsequently, as a signaling molecule produced by the afferents themselves. Furthermore, the fact that BDNF is required for survival of functionally distinct populations of vascular afferents demonstrates that trophic requirements of NPG neurons are not modality-specific but may instead be associated with innervation of particular organ systems.  (+info)

Effects of moderate exercise training on plasma volume, baroreceptor sensitivity and orthostatic tolerance in healthy subjects. (4/1182)

The effect of physical training on an individual's ability to withstand an orthostatic stress is unclear. This study was undertaken to determine the effects on orthostatic tolerance in healthy volunteers of training at a level appropriate for unfit subjects and cardiorespiratory patients. In 11 asymptomatic, untrained subjects the following assessments were made: plasma volume by Evans Blue dye dilution and blood volume derived from haematocrit; carotid baroreceptor sensitivity from the slope of the regression of change in cardiac interval against pressure applied to a neck chamber; orthostatic tolerance as time to presyncope in a test of head-up tilting combined with lower body suction; exercise test relating heart rate to oxygen consumption. Subjects were then given a training schedule (5BX/XBX, Royal Canadian Air Force) involving 11-12 min of mixed exercises per day until an age/sex related 'target' was reached. Following training all subjects showed evidence of improved fitness, seen as decreases in heart rate at an oxygen uptake (Vo2) of 1.5 1 min-1 and in the elevation of the regression line between heart rate and Vo2. All also had increases in plasma and blood volumes and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. Seven of the subjects showed increases in orthostatic tolerance. Improvement in orthostatic tolerance was related to a low initial tolerance, and was associated with increases in plasma volume and decreases in baroreceptor sensitivity. These results show that moderate exercise training increases orthostatic tolerance in subjects who do not already have a high initial tolerance and suggest that training may be of value in the management of untrained patients with attacks of syncope due to orthostatic intolerance.  (+info)

Responses of abdominal vascular capacitance in the anaesthetized dog to changes in carotid sinus pressure. (5/1182)

1. The abdominal circulation of anaesthetized dogs was vascularly isolated without opening the abdomen, by cutting or tying all structures immediately above the diaphragm and tying the proximal ends of the hind limbs. The region was perfused at constant flow through the aorta and drained at constant pressure from the inferior vena cava. 2. Vascular resistance responses were expressed as the changes in perfusion pressure and capacitance responses were determined by integrating changes in vena caval outflow. 3. Decreasing the pressure in the isolated carotid sinuses over the whole baroreceptor sensitivity range increased mean perfusion pressure from 91 to 149 mmHg (a 67% increase in resistance) and decreased mean capacitance by 111 ml. (5 ml. kg-1). 4. The range of carotid sinus pressures over which capacitance responses occurred was at a significantly higher level than the corresponding range for resistance responses. 5. Comparison of the reflex responses with the responses to direct stimulation of efferent sympathetic nerves shows that quantitatively similar responses of resistance and capacitance to those induced by a large step decrease in carotid pressure could be produced by stimulating maximally the efferent sympathetic nerves at 5 Hz. These results also suggest that at all levels of carotid sinus pressure there is no difference in the impulse traffic to resistance and capacitance vessels.  (+info)

Contribution of baroreceptors and chemoreceptors to ventricular hypertrophy produced by sino-aortic denervation in rats. (6/1182)

1. To test whether sino-aortic denervation (SAD)-induced right ventricular hypertrophy (RVH) is a consequence of baroreceptor or chemoreceptor denervation, we compared the effects of aortic denervation (AD), carotid denervation (CD), SAD and a SAD procedure modified to spare the carotid chemoreceptors (mSAD), 6 weeks after denervation surgery in rats. A sham surgery group served as the control. 2. The blood pressure (BP) level was unaffected by AD, CD or SAD, but increased (9 %) following mSAD. The mean heart rate level was not affected. Short-term BP variability was elevated following AD (81 %), SAD (144 %) and mSAD (146 %), but not after CD. Baroreflex heart rate responses to phenylephrine were attenuated in all denervation groups. 3. Significant RVH occurred only following CD and SAD. These procedures also produced high mortality (CD and SAD) and significant increases in right ventricular pressures and haematocrit (CD). 4. Significant left ventricular hypertrophy occurred following CD, SAD and mSAD. Normalized left ventricular weight was significantly correlated with indices of BP variability. 5. These results suggest that SAD-induced RVH is a consequence of chemoreceptor, not baroreceptor, denervation. Our results also demonstrate that a mSAD procedure designed to spare the carotid chemoreceptors produced profound baroreflex dysfunction and significant left, but not right, ventricular hypertrophy.  (+info)

Arterial baroreflex control of the sinus node during dobutamine exercise stress testing. (7/1182)

The contributions of increases in circulating catecholamines, changes in central command, and muscle afferents on baroreflex control of the sinus node during exercise are unclear. We used a dobutamine infusion to induce hemodynamic changes comparable to those of moderate physical exercise in the absence of changes in central command and muscle afferents in 13 healthy subjects. Dobutamine (up to 9 microg/kg body weight per minute) increased systolic blood pressure, shortened the RR interval, increased systolic blood pressure variability, but blunted RR interval variability (P<0.05 versus placebo). Consequently, dobutamine decreased the coherence between variations in systolic blood pressure and RR interval and decreased arterial baroreflex sensitivity from 12+/-2 to 3+/-1 ms/mm Hg (P<0.01). The largest increases in systolic blood pressure with dobutamine were paralleled by the greatest impairments in arterial baroreflex sensitivity (0. 50+info)

Central adrenomedullin augments the baroreceptor reflex in conscious rabbits. (8/1182)

We examined the roles of central adrenomedullin, proadrenomedullin N-terminal 20 peptide (PAMP), and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) on the baroreceptor reflex in conscious rabbits. Intracerebroventricular injection of adrenomedullin (0.2 and 1 nmol/80 microL) elicited dose-related increases in arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity. On the other hand, a subpressor dose of intracerebroventricular infusion of adrenomedullin (1 nmol/300 microL per hour) caused significant increases in baroreflex sensitivities assessed by renal sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate compared with vehicle infusion (Gmax; -14.9+/-1.7 versus -8.0+/-0.7%/mm Hg, P<0.01, and -8.1+/-0.8 versus -5.1+/-0.5 bpm/mm Hg, P<0.01, respectively). Intracerebroventricular infusion of CGRP (1 nmol/300 microL per hour), which is structurally homologous to adrenomedullin, also enhanced the baroreflex controls of renal sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate. However, the intracerebroventricular infusion of PAMP (30 nmol/300 microL per hour) failed to alter the baseline levels of arterial pressure and baroreflex sensitivities. These results suggest that central adrenomedullin and CGRP, but not PAMP, participate in cardiovascular regulation to augment the baroreflex controls of renal sympathetic nerve activity and heart rate in conscious rabbits.  (+info)

1. Animal studies have shown that arterial baroreflexes are modulated by reflexes originating from the cardiopulmonary volume receptors, and that this modulation consists of a reduction of the inhibitory influence exerted by arterial baroreceptors on the heart and peripheral circulation. This has not been confirmed in man, however, in whom no reduction in the bradycardic response to carotid baroreceptor stimulation has been observed after the mild increase in central venous pressure (right atrial catheter) and cardiopulmonary receptor activity provided by passive leg raising.. 2. In seven normotensive subjects carotid baroreceptors were gradedly stimulated by progressively increasing carotid transmural pressure through a neck chamber device, the resulting reflex lengthening in R-R interval being measured in the two-three cardiac cycles immediately after the baroreceptor stimulus. This manoeuvre was performed in control conditions and repeated during a head-out water immersion which increased ...
Arterial baroreceptors are mechanical sensors that detect blood pressure changes. It has long been suggested that the two arterial baroreceptors, aortic and carotid baroreceptors, have different pressure sensitivities. However, there is no consensus as to which of the arterial baroreceptors are more sensitive to changes in blood pressure. In the present study, we employed independent methods to compare the pressure sensitivity of the two arterial baroreceptors. Firstly, pressure-activated action potential firing was measured by whole-cell current clamp with a high-speed pressure clamp system in primary cultured baroreceptor neurons. The results show that aortic depressor neurons possessed a higher percentage of mechano-sensitive neurons. Furthermore, aortic baroreceptor neurons show a lower pressure threshold than that of carotid baroreceptor neurons. Secondly, uniaxial stretching of baroreceptor neurons, that mimics the forces exerted on blood vessels, elicited a larger increase in intracellular Ca2+
TY - JOUR. T1 - Carotid baroreceptor function in dogs with chronic norepinephrine infusion. AU - Wang, Jie. AU - Ochoa, Manuel. AU - Patel, Mrugesh B.. AU - Zucker, Irving H.. AU - Loud, Alden V.. AU - Zeballos, Guillermo A.. AU - Hintze, Thomas H.. PY - 1991/6. Y1 - 1991/6. N2 - Carotid baroreceptor function, the compliance of the carotid sinus wall, and the structure of the carotid artery were examined in dogs with elevated plasma norepinephrine (2, 000-4, 000 pg/ml) for 28 days. The dogs with high nonepinephrine were normotensive (100±4.0 versus 98±4.0 mm Hg; p,0.05) with bradycardia (65 ±4.0 versus 87 ±16 beats/m in; p,0.05) compared with normal dogs in the conscious state. However, after pentobarbital anesthesia blood pressure was significantly higher in dogs with chronic norepinephrine infusion (165±6 mm Hg) compared with normal dogs (132±6 mm Hg). To assess baroreceptor sensitivity, multiunit carotid baroreceptor activity was recorded from the right carotid sinus nerve, and the ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Baroreceptor function is preserved following field stimulation of carotid baroreceptors in normotensive and hypertensive rats. AU - Kouchaki, Z.. AU - Butlin, M.. AU - Georgakopoulos, D.. AU - Avolio, A. P.. PY - 2015/5. Y1 - 2015/5. N2 - Background: Field stimulation of the carotid baroreceptors has been used successfully to induce long-term reduction in blood pressure. However, whether baroreceptor stimulation may affect the short-term blood pressure regulation function of the baroreceptors in normotensive and hypertensive conditions is not well established. Aim: To determine the effect of field stimulation of carotid baroreceptors on blood pressure in normotensive and hypertensive rats. Methods: Male Wistar Kyoto (WKY, n=7) and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=7), each 15-19 weeks old, were anesthetized (urethane, 1.3 g/kg) and unilaterally vagotomized. Thoracic and aortic pressure was measured by an intravascular dual catheter tip pressure sensor (Science, 1.6F). ...
Clinical trials on carotid receptor stimulation by an implantable device showed a significant reduction in both office systolic (22 or 34 mmHg) and diastolic (18 or 20 mmHg) blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (14/9 mmHg), and heart rate (12 bpm), which was evident from study onset and was maintained at follow-up. Available data suggest a beneficial effect of carotid baroreceptor stimulation on the reversal of left ventricular hypertrophy and cardiac structure and function, with attenuated mitral A-valve velocity and reduced left atrial dimensions; also carotid baropacing does not impair the renal function of patients with resistant hypertension, even during prolonged follow-up periods (13-18).. ...
In this study, the vagal efferent arc was demonstrated to be unaffected by hypertension, with no difference in RR interval variation with respiration between the three groups. Furthermore, the Valsalva ratio was also similar between the three groups. Study of the baroreceptor-cardiac reflex, however, identified a consistent reduction in BRS with hypertension, irrespective of the method used for study (phase 4 of the Valsalva maneuver, phenylephrine pressor or SNP depressor method; Tables 2 and 3⇑⇑). BRS in the CH and ISH groups was significantly lower than in the NT group, but there were no differences between the two hypertensive groups. This observation is also borne out by the multiple regression analysis, which identified SBP as the single predictor of BRS, independent of age and DBP.. The present study is in agreement with that of Sumimoto et al,18 who found reduced BRS in elderly subjects (assessed only by the pressor method) categorized as having either diastolic hypertension ...
We examined the role of central mu- and delta-opioids on both neurohormonal responses and baroreceptor reflex in conscious rabbits. Both intracerebroventricular [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin, a mu-selective agonist, and [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin, a delta-selective agonist, caused dose-related increases in arterial pressure and renal sympathetic nerve activity, whereas intravenous injection of the same maximum dose of these peptides as that used in the intracerebroventricular experiment did not cause any cardiovascular and neuronal responses. On the other hand, increases in plasma epinephrine, norepinephrine, and glucose levels induced by intracerebroventricular [D-Ala2,N-Me-Phe4,Gly5-ol]-enkephalin were significantly greater than those by [D-Ala2,D-Leu5]-enkephalin. Both enkephalins did not cause any responses in plasma renin activity, plasma vasopressin, and serum sodium and potassium concentrations. The sensitivity of the baroreceptor reflex control of renal sympathetic nerve activity ...
1. The carotid baroreceptors were stimulated for 2 min by neck suction at −30 and −60 mmHg in 19 normotensive subjects and 12 patients with moderate essential hypertension.. 2. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer and heart rate was derived from beat-to-beat analysis of the electrocardiogram. Blood flow was measured simultaneously at calf and finger with venous occlusion plethysmography and the vascular resistance was calculated.. 3. During neck suction at − 30 and − 60 mmHg there was a significant decrease in arterial blood pressure and heart rate. There was a transient vasodilatation of the calf blood vessels, while there was a sustained vasoconstriction of the finger blood vessels. These results were qualitatively similar in both groups; however, there were quantitative differences.. 4. These experiments show that there is a selective autonomic control of the different peripheral vascular beds by the carotid baroreceptors in both normotension and mild essential ...
baroreceptor reflex pathway. this image shows the pathway of the baroreceptor reflex the reflex that shares in the control of normal blood pressure showing: 1. aortic baroreceptor 2. aortic body 3. carotid sinus 4. carotid baroreceptor 5. inferior ganglion of vagus nerve for th
Recognition of drug-resistant hypertension has renewed enthusiasm for approaches based on devices and procedures. One promising therapy in-volves implanting a pulse generator (carotid baroreceptor activation), and another relies on applying radiofrequen-cy energy (renal sympathetic denervation). Reduction in blood pressure from carotid baroreceptor activation is a fundamental physiological response that was used to reset baroreflexes and control hypertension mainly in the late 1950s and 1960s. The introduction of antihypertensive drugs stopped further development of this approach until recently. A new device uses an implantable pulse generator, carotid sinus leads, and a programmer system that communicates with the implan-table pulse generator and allows for noninvasive programming and adjustments in the stimulation parameters.[17] Recent clinical trial results are encouraging. Patients with resistant hypertension on a median of five antihypertensive drugs experienced a 21/12 mm Hg reduction in ...
Participation of the beta-receptor system in the genesis of the carotid aortic baroreceptor reflex in the dog (authors transl)]. Academic Article ...
Sensory receptors, called arterial barorecetpros, are found in abundance in the walls of the aorta and carotid arteries. Major concentrations of these receptors are found near the arch of the aorta and at the bifurcation of the common carotid artery into the internal and external carotid arteries on either side of the neck. The receptors themselves are mechanoreceptors that sense arterial pressure indirectly from the degree of stretch of the elastic arterial walls. In general, increased stretch causes an increased action potential generation rate by the arterial baroreceptors. Baroreceptors actually sense not only absolute stretch but also the rate of change of stretch. For this reason, both the mean arterial pressure and the arterial pulse pressure affect baroreceptor firing rate. If arterial pressure remains elevated over a period of several days for some reason, the arterial baroreceptor firing rate will gradually return toward normal. Thus, arterial baroreceptors are said to adapt to ...
The complete arterial baroreceptor reflex pathway is a control system made up of two distinct portions as shown in Figure E-1: (1) an effector portion, including the heart and peripheral blood vessels, and (2) a neural portion, including the arterial baroreceptors, their afferent nerve fibers, the medullary cardiovascular centers, and the efferent sympathetic and parasympathetic fibers. Mean arterial pressure is the output of the effector portion and simultaneously the input to the neural portion. Similarly, the activity of the sympathetic (and parasympathetic) cardiovascular nerves is the output of the neural portion of the arterial baroreceptor control system and, at the same time, the input to the effector portion. For convenience, we omit continual reference to parasympathetic nerve activity in the following discussion. Throughout, however, an indicated change in sympathetic nerve activity should usually be taken to imply a reciprocal change in the activity of the cardiac parasympathetic ...
Afferent fibres from CNIX and CNX travel to the NTS in the medulla. Effector neurons from the RVLM are GABAergic and therefore inhibitory, i.e. increased baroreceptor discharge reduces tonic sympathetic tone and increases vagal tone.. Increased baroreceptor activity therefore results in:. ...
Looking for Baroreceptors? Find out information about Baroreceptors. sensory nerve terminals in blood vessels that perceive changes in blood pressure and reflexly regulate its level. Baroreceptors become stimulated when the... Explanation of Baroreceptors
TY - JOUR. T1 - Ketamine-mediated afferent-specific presynaptic transmission blocks in low-threshold and sex-specific subpopulation of myelinated ah-type baroreceptor neurons of rats. AU - Wang, Lu Qi. AU - Liu, Sheng Zhi. AU - Wen, Xin. AU - Wu, Di. AU - Yin, Lei. AU - Fan, Yao. AU - Wang, Ye. AU - Chen, Wei Ran. AU - Chen, Pei. AU - Liu, Yang. AU - Lu, Xiao Long. AU - Sun, Hong Li. AU - Shou, Weinian. AU - Qiao, Guo Fen. AU - Li, Bai Yan. PY - 2015/1/1. Y1 - 2015/1/1. N2 - Background: Ketamine enhances autonomic activity, and unmyelinated C-type baroreceptor afferents are more susceptible to be blocked by ketamine than myelinated A-types. However, the presynaptic transmission block in low-threshold and sex-specific myelinated Ah-type baroreceptor neurons (BRNs) is not elucidated. Methods: Action potentials (APs) and excitatory post-synaptic currents (EPSCs) were investigated in BRNs/barosensitive neurons identified by conduction velocity (CV), capsaicin-conjugated with Iberiotoxin-sensitivity ...
An increase in the internal diameter of an artery, triggered by vasomotor suppression, during the chemoreceptor response to decreased blood pressure.
In vagotomized and anesthetized rabbits, aortic pressure (AP), aortic depressor nerve activity (ANA), and renal sympathetic nerve activity (RNA) were simultaneously measured while perturbing AP randomly. To quantitatively characterize the role of the
Baroreceptors are sensory nerve endings in human blood vessels that detect blood pressure. There are two types of barorecptors...
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The carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex was studied in 11 normotensive subjects, using a variable pressure neck chamber and correcting for imperfect pressure transmission to the carotid sinus. Decreased carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused a sustaineded rise in arterial pressure, and increased carotid baroreceptor stimulation caused a sustain fall. The responses were in linear relation to the stimulus, and, after reaching the steady state, greater for the reduced than for the increased baroreceptor stimulation. Thus the carotid sinus baroreceptor reflex of the normotensive man is an effective antihypotensive and antihypertensive feedback system, though the former function may have more sensitivity. The increased and decreased baroreceptor stimulation by the neck chamber also caused bradycardia and tachycardia which were modest in magnitude and often transient. In eight subjects the reflex changes in heart rate induced by the neck chamber were compared with those induced by altering transmural ...
The goal of this study was to determine whether nitric oxide (NO) and the NO donor, S-nitrosocysteine (cysNO), modulate the activity of carotid sinus baroreceptors. Baroreceptor activity was recorded from the vascularly isolated carotid sinus in anesthetized rabbits. Baroreceptor activity decreased in a dose-dependent manner after injection of either NO or cysNO as constant pressure was maintained, and activity recovered spontaneously over time, within seconds to minutes. The baroreceptor pressure-activity relation was shifted significantly to the right by cysNO, with a profound suppression of activity at high pressure. Baroreceptor activity at 160 mm Hg averaged 76 +/- 8%, 60 +/- 6%, and 36 +/- 5% of the control maximum during exposure to 10(-4), 2 to 3 x 10(-4), and 10(-3) mol/L cysNO, respectively. The inhibition of activity by the L and D isomers of cysNO was equivalent and was blocked by reduced hemoglobin, suggesting that the effect was mediated by NO. The suppression of baroreceptor activity by
Baroreceptor activity and postural blood volume changes were evaluated in four normotensive and nine hypertensive uremic patients before and after bilateral nephrectomy. Baroreceptor activity, reflected by the slope of linear regression of R-R interval with drug-induced systolic blood pressure elevation, was significantly lower in hypertensive than in normotensive patients. Six of nine patients had normal blood pressure following bilateral nephrectomy; however, the mean slopes of all nine patients, irrespective of postnephrectomy blood pressure, approached that of normotensive uremic patients. The slopes of both normotensive and hypertensive patients, before and after bilateral nephrectomy, were significantly less than normal controls. Similar results were found in lowering blood pressure with amyl nitrite.. Depressed baroreceptor activity is suggested to be secondary to neuropathy of the autonomic nervous system, chronic hypertension, heart disease, and anemia. It is speculated that this ...
In hypertension baroreceptor-mediated modulation of heart rate is impaired, resulting in a decreased vagal control. Reactive oxygen species produced locally in the vasculature decrease baroreceptor sensitivity. Folic acid has antioxidant properties. Therefore, the aim of this study was to test whether folic acid improves baroreceptor function in hypertension. Twenty-one male patients with hypertension not taking any drugs for 2 weeks participated in the study and were randomized to folic acid 5 mg or matching placebo. Cardiac and vascular sympathetic baroreceptor functions were tested before and after a single dose of folic acid or placebo with two different methods: the alpha-coefficient method and the phenylephrine (PE) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) bolus method. In the folic acid group both methods showed significantly improved cardiac and vascular sympathetic baroreceptor sensitivity compared with placebo. This study provides evidence that folic acid improves cardiac and vascular ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms Underlying Arterial Baroreceptor Remodeling in Cardiovascular Diseases and Diabetes. AU - Tu, Huiyin. AU - Zhang, Dongze. AU - Li, Yu Long. PY - 2019/2/1. Y1 - 2019/2/1. N2 - Clinical trials and animal experimental studies have demonstrated an association of arterial baroreflex impairment with the prognosis and mortality of cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. As a primary part of the arterial baroreflex arc, the pressure sensitivity of arterial baroreceptors is blunted and involved in arterial baroreflex dysfunction in cardiovascular diseases and diabetes. Changes in the arterial vascular walls, mechanosensitive ion channels, and voltage-gated ion channels contribute to the attenuation of arterial baroreceptor sensitivity. Some endogenous substances (such as angiotensin II and superoxide anion) can modulate these morphological and functional alterations through intracellular signaling pathways in impaired arterial baroreceptors. Arterial ...
Carotid sinus reflex interactions were studied in 10 dogs anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. The right and left carotid sinus regions were isolated and perfused at controlled pressures. Pressure in the right and left carotid sinuses were independently varied, and the resulting steady-state reflex changes in arterial pressure, heart rate, respiratory frequency, tidal volume, and total ventilation were measured. Reflex changes when carotid sinus pressure was changed on one side were strongly influenced by pressure in the contralateral carotid sinus (P less than 0.05). Right carotid sinus gain was found to be 0.628 +/- 0.058 at a left carotid sinus pressure of 50 mmHg and 0.148 +/- 0.027 when left carotid sinus pressure was 200 mmHg. Similar results were found for left carotid sinus gain. Suppression was also found for heart rate, respiratory rate, tidal volume, and total ventilation. The hypothesis that rapid resetting of one carotid sinus baroreflex might influence responses from the other ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Excitatory inputs to the RVLM in the context of the baroreceptor reflex. AU - Sved, Alan F.. AU - Ito, Satoru. AU - Madden, Christopher (Chris). AU - Stocker, Sean D.. AU - Yajima, Yoshiharu. PY - 2001. Y1 - 2001. N2 - The central neural circuit mediating baroreceptor control of sympathetic vasomotor outflow involves an excitatory projection from arterial baroreceptors to nucleus tractus solitarius, an excitatory projection from nucleus tractus solitarius to the caudal ventrolateral medulla, an inhibitory projection from the caudal ventrolateral medulla to the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), and an excitatory projection from the RVLM to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord. For this circuit to be operational, the relevant neurons in the RVLM must be tonically active. Indeed, numerous studies have demonstrated that RVLM vasomotor neurons are tonically active; however, little is known regarding the nature of the tonic excitatory drive to these neurons. We ...
Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a disease of increasing incidence and prevalence. Arterial baroreceptors are stretch-sensitive receptors, which in a reflex manner are involved in the homeostatic control of arterial blood pressure. Diabetic subjects have depressed baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), although the exact pathomechanisms are unclear. In this review, we discuss the features, clinicaland prognostic implications of reduced BRS for diabetic patients and the potential involvement of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy and atherosclerosis. Finally, we demonstrate evidence on interventions (e.g. pioglitazone, alpha-lipoic acid, leptin, fluvastatin, physicaltraining etc.) which could improve BRS and ameliorate cardiovascular autonomic dysfunction in diabetic patients ...
PJ Counihan, GA Haywood, AC ODonoghue, WJ McKenna; Abnormal Baroreceptor Sensitivity in Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy. Clin Sci (Lond) 1 October 1990; 79 (s23): 13P. doi: https://doi.org/10.1042/cs079013Pb. Download citation file:. ...
Disappearance rates of intracisternally administered 3H-norepinephrine and activities of tyrosine hydroxylase were examined in the rabbit in five brain regions (telencephalon, hypothalamus, midbrain, medulla-pons, and cerebellum) and in three cord regions (cervical, thoracolumbar, and lumbosacral) 2 weeks after section of the carotid sinus and aortic nerves. Mean blood pressure rose by 29% and heart rate by 17% in the animals with neurogenic hypertension. Endogenous catecholamine concentrations in the eight regions examined were not altered by denervation. In the thoracolumbar region of the spinal cord, 3H-norepinephrine turnover and tyrosine hydroxylase activity were increased approximately twofold in hypertensive rabbits. We suggest that these changes reflect increased physiological activity of bulbospinal noradrenergic neurons and that this increase may mediate the rise in arterial pressure or heart rate that follows sinoaortic denervation. The turnover of 3H-norepinephrine increased in the ...
Looking for online definition of Pressoreceptors in the Medical Dictionary? Pressoreceptors explanation free. What is Pressoreceptors? Meaning of Pressoreceptors medical term. What does Pressoreceptors mean?
The major new finding of this study is the evidence that systemic BP changes are important determinants of peripheral sympathetic nerve control and HR response during dobutamine infusion. In young controls, dobutamine infusion markedly increased BP, which activated the arterial baroreceptors leading to subsequent inhibition of MSNA, as well as to limitation in the increase in HR. In contrast, the BP response to dobutamine was much less marked in the matched controls and, in the absence of arterial baroreceptor activation, dobutamine infusion did not change MSNA and did not limit the increase in HR. These findings are important as they may account for variations in the HR responses among subjects during dobutamine stress testing.. The response in the patients with severe CHF was similar to that observed in the matched controls, with no elevation in MBP and no changes in MSNA. The lack of increase in HR could be explained by the marked beta-adrenergic downregulation in end-stage HF (14). Resting ...
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He obtained his Ph.D. degree in 2004 on baroreceptor reflex function in neonates from the University of Maastricht. His major research interests are patient monitoring, integrative physiology and long-term follow-up of extremely preterm infants.. From 2002 onwards he co-supervises master and PhD students of the Eindhoven University of Technology, who carry out research projects in the neonatal intensive care unit of Máxima MC in close collaboration with the Department of Clinical Physics. Between 2014-2019 he was involved as co-supervisor in several of the IMPULS II PhD projects on neonatal monitoring. From 2018 he is involved as co-supervisor in ALARM (project leader dr. ir. Carola van Pul), the project on Alarm Limiting and Algorithm-based Monitoring. Since 2018 he is project leader of the EPIDAF (Extremely Preterm Infants - Dutch Analysis on Follow-up) study, a national study on outcome in extremely preterm infants. ...
PubMed journal article: Angiotensin II acts at AT1 receptors in the nucleus of the solitary tract to attenuate the baroreceptor reflex. Download Prime PubMed App to iPhone, iPad, or Android
Recent technologic advances rekindled interventional management of resistant hypertension, either by carotid. baroreceptor activation or renal sympathetic denervation. Interventional techniques result in impressive falls in office blood pressure (BP); however, ambulatory BP reductions are rather modest. This disparity between office and ambulatory BP reductions is observed with antihypertensive drugs, but at a much lower degree. Available explanations are not convincing, therefore, we propose that sympathetic overactivity may partially explain this divergence. Further studies are needed to prove or disprove our hypothesis.. ...
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For the past week I have been fighting off what I thought was a sinus infection (sinus pressure, drainage, plugged up ears, headache, and an off/on fever). Starting about two or three days ago the fev...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Aortic depressor nerve stimulation does not impede the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in normotensive or spontaneously hypertensive rats. AU - Kawada, Toru. AU - Turner, Michael J.. AU - Shimizu, Shuji. AU - Fukumitsu, Masafumi. AU - Kamiya, Atsunori. AU - Sugimachi, Masaru. PY - 2017/5/30. Y1 - 2017/5/30. N2 - Recent clinical trials in patients with drug-resistant hypertension indicate that electrical activation of the carotid sinus baroreflex (baroreflex activation therapy) can reduce arterial pressure (AP) for more than a year. To examine whether the electrical stimulation from one baroreflex system impedes normal short-term AP regulation via another unstimulated baroreflex system, we electrically stimulated the left aortic depressor nerve (ADN) while estimating the dynamic characteristics of the carotid sinus baroreflex in anesthetized normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY, n=8) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR, n=7). Isolated carotid sinus ...
In human anatomy, the carotid sinus is a dilated area at the base of the internal carotid artery just superior to the bifurcation of the internal carotid and external carotid at the level of the superior border of thyroid cartilage. The carotid sinus extends from the bifurcation to the true internal carotid artery. The carotid sinus is sensitive to pressure changes in the arterial blood at this level. It is the major baroreception site in humans and most mammals. The carotid sinus is the reflex area of the carotid artery, consisting of various nerve receptors for baroregulation (pressure regulation of the body in sync to external conditions). The carotid sinus contains numerous baroreceptors which function as a sampling area for many homeostatic mechanisms for maintaining blood pressure. The carotid sinus baroreceptors are innervated by the sinus nerve of Hering, which is a branch of cranial nerve IX (glossopharyngeal nerve). The glossopharyngeal nerve synapses in the nucleus tractus ...
1. Carotid baroreceptor manipulation (neckchamber technique) and passive head-up tilting were used in ten patients with renovascular hypertension and in five subjects with essential hypertension under diuretic treatment to study reflex control of renin secretion at high basal-renin production rates.. 2. Reflex effects of carotid baroreceptor manipulation on renin secretion were only minor. During baroreceptor deactivation there was a moderate increase in mean arterial pressure, but an inconsistent change in the renal venous-arterial difference in plasma renin activity (PRA).. 3. During baroreceptor stimulation there was a modest fall in mean arterial pressure and a marked rise in the renal venous-arterial difference in PRA. This was opposite to the fall which might have been predicted as a result of the sympathetic depressor influence of the baroreceptor stimulus. Conversely, tilting increased the venous-arterial PRA difference by about 200%.. 4. It is concluded that when renin production rate ...
The goal of the present study was to determine whether oxygen-derived free radicals contribute to baroreceptor dysfunction in atherosclerosis. Baroreceptor activity was measured from the carotid sinus nerve during pressure ramps in isolated carotid sinuses of anesthetized rabbits. Rabbits fed a 0.5% to 1.0% cholesterol diet for 7.9 +/- 0.4 months (mean +/- SE; range, 5.5 to 10) developed atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid sinuses. Maximum baroreceptor activity measured at 140 mm Hg and the slope of the pressure-activity curve were reduced in atherosclerotic (n = 15) compared with normal (n = 13) rabbits (425 +/- 34 versus 721 +/- 30 spikes per second and 6.2 +/- 0.6 versus 10.8 +/- 0.8 spikes per second per mm Hg, respectively, P | .05). The level of activity was inversely related to plasma cholesterol concentration (r = .86, P | .001) and total cholesterol load (plasma concentration x duration of diet, r = .92). Mean arterial pressure was normal in both groups. Exposure of the carotid sinus to the
TY - JOUR. T1 - Treating resistant hypertension now and in the future. AU - Sata, Yusuke. AU - Xu, Jianzhong. AU - Hering, Dagmara. AU - Schlaich, Markus. PY - 2013. Y1 - 2013. N2 - Treatment of resistant hypertension is a priority because patients with nonoptimal blood pressure are at high risk for major cardiovascular events. Pharmacological advances include the use of aldosterone antagonists and the development of several new strategies. Device-based therapies such as catheter-based renal denervation and electrical stimulation of baroreceptors are showing promising results.. AB - Treatment of resistant hypertension is a priority because patients with nonoptimal blood pressure are at high risk for major cardiovascular events. Pharmacological advances include the use of aldosterone antagonists and the development of several new strategies. Device-based therapies such as catheter-based renal denervation and electrical stimulation of baroreceptors are showing promising results.. UR - ...
An implantable device (20) uses the carotid baroreflex in order to control systemic blood pressure. The implant includes sampling and pulse stimulation electrodes (44) preferably located on the carotid sinus nerve branch of the glossopharyngeal nerve, adjacent and distal to the carotid sinus baroreceptors. The stimulators have an external control unit, which communicates with the implant for determining appropriate operational parameters, and for retrieving telemetry information from the devices data bank. Typically two internal devices are implanted, one at each side of the patients neck.
The results from these studies demonstrate that afferent input from peripheral chemoreceptors and mechanoreceptors contributes little to the systemic hemodynamic and sympathetic responses after term delivery by cesarean section. Furthermore, birth-related increases in circulating norepinephrine but not epinephrine appear dependent on afferent input from the carotid sinus or aortic depressor nerves, which carry both chemo- and baroreceptor afferents from the carotid sinus and aortic arch, respectively. Finally, we observed that vagal afferent activity regulates basal fetal plasma ANG II levels and exerts a tonic inhibitory effect on AVP release after birth.. Both peripheral chemoreceptors and baroreceptors have been shown to be functional during fetal life. The fetal cardiovascular response to acute hypoxemia is well described, consisting of a decrease in heart rate and increase in peripheral vascular resistance (7). Carotid denervation abolishes these responses to hypoxemia and NaCN, a chemical ...
It is well known that the sensitivity of the reflex control of HR in response to vasoactive agents is altered independently by hypertension and by aging in both animal models (27), and in human subjects (22, 26, 49). A consequence of both hypertension and aging is a reduction in vascular distensibility, although the mechanisms are not identical. The demonstration that reduced baroreceptor sensitivity could be accounted for by reduced aortic compliance observed in both aged normotensive rats (5) and hypertensive rats (51), as discussed in the previous section, may provide an explanation for the decreased baroreflex control of HR in hypertensive subjects and aged normotensive humans.. For example, Monahan et al. (43) measured baroreflex control of HR and carotid compliance in 47 healthy sedentary men ranging from 19 to 76 years of age. Monahan and colleagues reported a progressive decline in baroreflex sensitivity with increasing age. The decline in baroreflex sensitivity correlated significantly ...
Adaptive servoventiation therapy (ASV) is designed to treat hypocapnic central sleep apnoea (Cheyne-Stokes respiration) in heart failure (HF) . It remains unclear whether this therapy increases stroke volume (SV) and if, this is mediated by a decrease in cardiac afterload due to increased parasympathetic nervous activity (PNA) or by a change in baroreceptor reflex sensitivity.. 12 patients with HF (12 male; 70 ± 9 years; NYHA ≥ II; EF ≤ 45% and Cheyne- Stokes respiration) and 14 healthy volunteers (13 male, 24 ± 4 years, EF ≥ 60%, AHI , 5/h) were ventilated non-invasively for 1 h with ASV (PaceWave™). Hemodynamic effects were analyzed non-invasively and compared to findings 30 min before and after ASV.. Changes in SV on ASV were significantly different between both groups (+5 ± 8% in HF patients vs. -4 ± 9% in volunteers, p=0.01). HF demonstrated a significant increase in markers of PNA (HFnuRRI) during ASV (56 ± 21 % vs. 68 ± 20 % on ASV; p=0.02), whereas volunteers showed a shift ...
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People 60 and older dont need to be treated as aggressively for high blood pressure, according to new physician guidelines that may help lower the number of medicines taken by baby boomers.
Guideliner should be advanced all the way into the coronary artery over the Rota sheath/burr, then forcefully pull the burr. Other approach could be tried is to advance the another guide Cather by additional access and try to advance a guidewire and a small balloon alongside the burr; If successful then gradually dilate with PTCA balloon at the level of stuck burr which will then allow burr to become free and to be pulled out safely. We have tried this approach 3 times in the past and always failed to advance the guidewire alongside the burr as burr is deeply entrapped in the artery. If all these maneuvers still fails, then last option will be to send pt for CT surgery to remove the burr openly.. ...
A stent is a small, expandable tube that can be inserted into a blood vessel and expanded using a small balloon during a procedure called angioplasty. A stent is used to open a narrowed or blocked blood vessel. When the balloon inside the stent is inflated, the stent expands and presses against the walls of the artery...
... s (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals. They sense ...
... pressoreceptors MeSH A08.800.350.340 - ganglia, spinal MeSH A08.800.350.380 - geniculate ganglion MeSH A08.800.350.550 - nodose ... pressoreceptors MeSH A08.800.550.700.500.780 - pulmonary stretch receptors MeSH A08.800.550.700.650 - nociceptors MeSH A08.800. ...
Peter W. de Leeuw, John D. Bisognano, George L. Bakris, Mitra K. Nadim, Hermann Haller and Abraham A. Kroon on behalf of the DEBuT-HT and Rheos Trial Investigators ...
Pressoreceptors explanation free. What is Pressoreceptors? Meaning of Pressoreceptors medical term. What does Pressoreceptors ... Looking for online definition of Pressoreceptors in the Medical Dictionary? ... redirected from Pressoreceptors). Also found in: Dictionary, Thesaurus, Encyclopedia. baroreceptor. [bar″o-re-sep´ter] a ... Pressoreceptors , definition of Pressoreceptors by Medical dictionary https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.com/ ...
We evaluated the effect of exercise-induced hyperthermia (EIH) on autonomic nervous system (ANS) function in the early (|80 min) and late (24 and 48 h) stages of recovery. Eight males underwent three repeated 6 min 70° head-up tilts (HUT1, HUT2 and HUT3), each separated by 10-min supine rest in a …
Pressoreceptors. The division of the autonomic nervous system that regulates the diameter of arteries and veins is the ______ ...
Pressoreceptors / physiology*. Rabbits. From MEDLINE®/PubMed®, a database of the U.S. National Library of Medicine ...
Francis A. Bainbridge demonstrated in 1915 that an infusion of saline or blood into the jugular vein of the anesthetized dog produced tachycardia. His findings after transection of the cardiac autonomic nerve supply and injection of the cholinergic blocking drug atropine demonstrated that the tachyc …
Pressoreceptors / physiology*. Renin / secretion*. Grant Support. ID/Acronym/Agency: HL 41156/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS; HL 41313/HL/ ...
AVIADO, D.M., CERLETTI, A., LI, T.H. and SCHMIDT, O.P. (1955). The activation of carotid sinus pressoreceptors and intracranial ...
Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals. They sense ...
Niijima A. Afferent discharges from venous pressoreceptors in liver. Am J Physiol. . 1977; 232: C76-C81. ...
Dive into the research topics where Cardiovascular Biomechanics is active. These topic labels come from the works of this organisations members. Together they form a unique fingerprint ...
Action of the alseroxylon alkaloids and epinephrine on the carotid pressoreceptors. J Am Pharm Assoc Am Pharm Assoc. 1957 Feb; ...
These nerves arise from pressoreceptors or chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus, respectively. ...
An early transient depression of pressoreceptors was shown to be due to the vehicle employed. Hypotensive doses of reserpine ...
In 1950 he proved that specialized nerve endings called pressoreceptors, sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls, regulate ...
Evidence that periodontal pressoreceptors provide positive feedback to jaw closing muscles during mastication. Lavigne, G., Kim ...
They discovered that the reflex in the carotid artery contains pressure-sensitive areas, or presso-receptors, that can detect ...
... pressoreceptors, which respond to pressure (receptors in the aortic and carotid sinuses); photoreceptors, which respond to ...
pressoreceptors. receptors. rheoreceptors. thermoreceptors. Word Growth involving receptors. Shorter. Words. or ors. or ...
Moreover, the present invention may activate baroreceptors, mechanoreceptors, pressoreceptors, or any other venous heart, or ... pressoreceptors, stretch receptors, and the like. For cardiovascular and renal therapies, the present invention is intended to ... baroreceptor-like mechanoreceptors or pressoreceptors, or the like. By selectively and controllably activating baroreceptors, ...
... pressoreceptors, or any other venous heart, or cardiopulmonary receptors which affect the blood pressure, nervous system ...
Stimulation of these pressoreceptors occasions an autonomically mediated baroreceptor reflex, which leads to compensatory ... in peripheral vasomotor tone lead to fluctuations in central blood pressures which are in turn sensed by pressoreceptors. ...
baroceptors, mechanoreceptors, and pressoreceptors), sensory nerve terminals in blood vessels that perceive changes in blood ...
Jorde, U. P., Shah, A. M., Sims, D. B., Madan, S., Siddiqi, N., Luke, A., Saeed, O., Patel, S. R., Murthy, S., Shin, J., Oviedo, J., Watts, S., Jakobleff, W., Forest, S., Vukelic, S., Belov, D., Puius, Y., Minamoto, G., Muggia, V., Carlese, A. & 4 others, Leung, S., Rahmanian, M., Leff, J. & Goldstein, D., Aug 2019, In : Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 108, 2, p. 508-516 9 p.. Research output: Contribution to journal › Article ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma norepinephrine in the evaluation of baroreceptor function in humans. AU - Grossman, Steven H.. AU - Davis, Dwight. AU - Caulie Gunnells, J.. AU - Shand, David G.. PY - 1982/4. Y1 - 1982/4. N2 - The value of plasma norepinephrine measurement in assessing baroreceptor-mediated changes in sympathetic vasomotor activity was studied in seven healthy normotensive volunteers. Blood pressure was decreased by graded steady-state infusions of sodium nitroprusside (25-100 μg/min) and increased by infusions of phenylephrine (25-100 μ/min) at rates producing a 10% to 20% change in diastolic blood pressure. Sodium nitroprusside produced significant decreases in diastolic blood pressure (p , 0.01) and calculated mean arterial blood pressure (p , 0.005), and increases in heart rate (p , 0.001) and plasma norepinephrine (p , 0.001). Phenylephrine administration produced increases in systolic (p , 0.005), diastolic (p , 0.005), and mean blood pressure (p , 0.001). Heart rate (p , 0.001) ...
... pressoreceptors MeSH A08.800.350.340 - ganglia, spinal MeSH A08.800.350.380 - geniculate ganglion MeSH A08.800.350.550 - nodose ... pressoreceptors MeSH A08.800.550.700.500.780 - pulmonary stretch receptors MeSH A08.800.550.700.650 - nociceptors MeSH A08.800. ...
When blood flow decreases, pressoreceptors decrease blood flow to noncardiac organs and shunt blood to the heart to maintain ... Accordingly, the human body operates in part with pressoreceptors that protect and maintain heart blood supply. ...
Aortic&Carotid pressoreceptors stimulated-,afferent impulse across Glossopharyngeal/Vagus nerve to Medulla-,Cardiacinhibotory ...
22 are assigned to a complex of equivalent cushion pressoreceptors, a region wherein a group of pressoreceptors are activated ... The resolution of pressure or fine point discrimination, is contingent on the number of pressoreceptors per a given surface ... area; or in other words the greater number of pressoreceptors and the more closely they are packed or spaced to one another, ... by pressure and a array of fiber optics leading away from the pressoreceptors to a series of microprocessors or their ...
  • The state of contraction and resistance to stretch of the arterial wall of the carotid sinus modulates sensitivity of pressoreceptors to intra-arterial pressure. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The chemo- and pressoreceptors are important in reflex control of cardiac output. (dentisty.org)
  • The activation of carotid sinus pressoreceptors and intracranial receptors by veratidine and potassium. (springer.com)
  • Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the blood vessels of all vertebrate animals. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baroreceptors (or archaically, pressoreceptors) are sensors located in the carotid sinus (at the bifurcation of external and internal carotids) and in the aortic arch. (wikipedia.org)
  • Baroreceptors, also called pressoreceptors, are sensory nerve endings in human blood vessels that detect blood pressure levels and report abnormal blood pressure to the central nervous system, which responds by regulating the resistance of the blood vessels and the rate and strength of the heart's contractions. (wisegeek.org)
  • These nerves arise from pressoreceptors or chemoreceptors in the aortic arch and carotid sinus, respectively. (unboundmedicine.com)
  • baroceptors, mechanoreceptors, and pressoreceptors), sensory nerve terminals in blood vessels that perceive changes in blood pressure and reflexly regulate its level. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • In 1950 he proved that specialized nerve endings called pressoreceptors, sensitive to stretch of the vessel walls, regulate blood pressure. (nndb.com)
  • Over the surface of the feet, there are millions of pressoreceptors (receptors that sense pressure). (blogspot.com)
  • They will overcome effects, streptococci, and pressoreceptors for any varying info. (ssla-pau-bearn.fr)