Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
The period before a surgical operation.
Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The period following a surgical operation.
Tumors or cancer of the RECTUM.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.
The period of care beginning when the patient is removed from surgery and aimed at meeting the patient's psychological and physical needs directly after surgery. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)
In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.
Preliminary cancer therapy (chemotherapy, radiation therapy, hormone/endocrine therapy, immunotherapy, hyperthermia, etc.) that precedes a necessary second modality of treatment.
Patient care procedures performed during the operation that are ancillary to the actual surgery. It includes monitoring, fluid therapy, medication, transfusion, anesthesia, radiography, and laboratory tests.
Surgery which could be postponed or not done at all without danger to the patient. Elective surgery includes procedures to correct non-life-threatening medical problems as well as to alleviate conditions causing psychological stress or other potential risk to patients, e.g., cosmetic or contraceptive surgery.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.
A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.
The period during a surgical operation.
The treatment of a disease or condition by several different means simultaneously or sequentially. Chemoimmunotherapy, RADIOIMMUNOTHERAPY, chemoradiotherapy, cryochemotherapy, and SALVAGE THERAPY are seen most frequently, but their combinations with each other and surgery are also used.
Surgery performed on the heart.
Operations carried out for the correction of deformities and defects, repair of injuries, and diagnosis and cure of certain diseases. (Taber, 18th ed.)
Complications that affect patients during surgery. They may or may not be associated with the disease for which the surgery is done, or within the same surgical procedure.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.
Preliminary administration of a drug preceding a diagnostic, therapeutic, or surgical procedure. The commonest types of premedication are antibiotics (ANTIBIOTIC PROPHYLAXIS) and anti-anxiety agents. It does not include PREANESTHETIC MEDICATION.
A repeat operation for the same condition in the same patient due to disease progression or recurrence, or as followup to failed previous surgery.
Interventions to provide care prior to, during, and immediately after surgery.
A malignant epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
Surgical therapy of ischemic coronary artery disease achieved by grafting a section of saphenous vein, internal mammary artery, or other substitute between the aorta and the obstructed coronary artery distal to the obstructive lesion.
The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)
Surgery performed on the nervous system or its parts.
Surgical procedures conducted with the aid of computers. This is most frequently used in orthopedic and laparoscopic surgery for implant placement and instrument guidance. Image-guided surgery interactively combines prior CT scans or MRI images with real-time video.
Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)
Loss of blood during a surgical procedure.
The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.
Pain during the period after surgery.
Excision of all or part of the liver. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Complete or partial surgical removal of the prostate. Three primary approaches are commonly employed: suprapubic - removal through an incision above the pubis and through the urinary bladder; retropubic - as for suprapubic but without entering the urinary bladder; and transurethral (TRANSURETHRAL RESECTION OF PROSTATE).
Surgery performed on the digestive system or its parts.
Operative procedures for the treatment of vascular disorders.
The period of confinement of a patient to a hospital or other health facility.
The excision of the head of the pancreas and the encircling loop of the duodenum to which it is connected.
The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.
Replacement of the knee joint.
A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.
Radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery or chemotherapy. Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
Diversion of the flow of blood from the entrance of the right atrium directly to the aorta (or femoral artery) via an oxygenator thus bypassing both the heart and lungs.
The surgical cutting of a bone. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Excision of part (partial) or all (total) of the esophagus. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.
A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.
Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.
Infection occurring at the site of a surgical incision.
Operative immobilization or ankylosis of two or more vertebrae by fusion of the vertebral bodies with a short bone graft or often with diskectomy or laminectomy. (From Blauvelt & Nelson, A Manual of Orthopaedic Terminology, 5th ed, p236; Dorland, 28th ed)
The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).
Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.
A surgical operation for the relief of pressure in a body compartment or on a body part. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Tumors or cancer of the ESOPHAGUS.
The distance and direction to which a bone joint can be extended. Range of motion is a function of the condition of the joints, muscles, and connective tissues involved. Joint flexibility can be improved through appropriate MUSCLE STRETCHING EXERCISES.
A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
An appreciable lateral deviation in the normally straight vertical line of the spine. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Replacement of the hip joint.
Drug therapy given to augment or stimulate some other form of treatment such as surgery or radiation therapy. Adjuvant chemotherapy is commonly used in the therapy of cancer and can be administered before or after the primary treatment.
A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)
Clarity or sharpness of OCULAR VISION or the ability of the eye to see fine details. Visual acuity depends on the functions of RETINA, neuronal transmission, and the interpretative ability of the brain. Normal visual acuity is expressed as 20/20 indicating that one can see at 20 feet what should normally be seen at that distance. Visual acuity can also be influenced by brightness, color, and contrast.
Procedures used to treat and correct deformities, diseases, and injuries to the MUSCULOSKELETAL SYSTEM, its articulations, and associated structures.
The excision of lung tissue including partial or total lung lobectomy.
A surgical procedure to correct MYOPIA by CORNEAL STROMA subtraction. It involves the use of a microkeratome to make a lamellar dissection of the CORNEA creating a flap with intact CORNEAL EPITHELIUM. After the flap is lifted, the underlying midstroma is reshaped with an EXCIMER LASER and the flap is returned to its original position.
The time periods immediately before, during and following a surgical operation.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of the ABDOMINAL AORTA which gives rise to the visceral, the parietal, and the terminal (iliac) branches below the aortic hiatus at the diaphragm.
Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.
Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.
A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.
A glycoprotein that is secreted into the luminal surface of the epithelia in the gastrointestinal tract. It is found in the feces and pancreaticobiliary secretions and is used to monitor the response to colon cancer treatment.
Surgery performed on the eye or any of its parts.
Tumors or cancer of the LIVER.
Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.
Surgery performed on an outpatient basis. It may be hospital-based or performed in an office or surgicenter.
Procedures that avoid use of open, invasive surgery in favor of closed or local surgery. These generally involve use of laparoscopic devices and remote-control manipulation of instruments with indirect observation of the surgical field through an endoscope or similar device.
A pyrimidine analog that is an antineoplastic antimetabolite. It interferes with DNA synthesis by blocking the THYMIDYLATE SYNTHETASE conversion of deoxyuridylic acid to thymidylic acid.
Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.
A group of twelve VERTEBRAE connected to the ribs that support the upper trunk region.
Reinfusion of blood or blood products derived from the patient's own circulation. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.
The removal of fluids or discharges from the body, such as from a wound, sore, or cavity.
The removal of a cataractous CRYSTALLINE LENS from the eye.
Excision of the gallbladder through an abdominal incision using a laparoscope.
Surgical insertion of BLOOD VESSEL PROSTHESES to repair injured or diseased blood vessels.
The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.
A procedure for removal of the crystalline lens in cataract surgery in which an anterior capsulectomy is performed by means of a needle inserted through a small incision at the temporal limbus, allowing the lens contents to fall through the dilated pupil into the anterior chamber where they are broken up by the use of ultrasound and aspirated out of the eye through the incision. (Cline, et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed & In Focus 1993;1(1):1)
VERTEBRAE in the region of the lower BACK below the THORACIC VERTEBRAE and above the SACRAL VERTEBRAE.
Intraoperative computer-assisted 3D navigation and guidance system generally used in neurosurgery for tracking surgical tools and localize them with respect to the patient's 3D anatomy. The pre-operative diagnostic scan is used as a reference and is transferred onto the operative field during surgery.
Drugs administered before an anesthetic to decrease a patient's anxiety and control the effects of that anesthetic.
Excision of a portion of the colon or of the whole colon. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Procedures of applying ENDOSCOPES for disease diagnosis and treatment. Endoscopy involves passing an optical instrument through a small incision in the skin i.e., percutaneous; or through a natural orifice and along natural body pathways such as the digestive tract; and/or through an incision in the wall of a tubular structure or organ, i.e. transluminal, to examine or perform surgery on the interior parts of the body.
Hemorrhage following any surgical procedure. It may be immediate or delayed and is not restricted to the surgical wound.
Gas lasers with excited dimers (i.e., excimers) as the active medium. The most commonly used are rare gas monohalides (e.g., argon fluoride, xenon chloride). Their principal emission wavelengths are in the ultraviolet range and depend on the monohalide used (e.g., 193 nm for ArF, 308 nm for Xe Cl). These lasers are operated in pulsed and Q-switched modes and used in photoablative decomposition involving actual removal of tissue. (UMDNS, 2005)
The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.
Procedure in which patients are induced into an unconscious state through use of various medications so that they do not feel pain during surgery.
Tumors or cancer of the PANCREAS. Depending on the types of ISLET CELLS present in the tumors, various hormones can be secreted: GLUCAGON from PANCREATIC ALPHA CELLS; INSULIN from PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and SOMATOSTATIN from the SOMATOSTATIN-SECRETING CELLS. Most are malignant except the insulin-producing tumors (INSULINOMA).
The process of generating three-dimensional images by electronic, photographic, or other methods. For example, three-dimensional images can be generated by assembling multiple tomographic images with the aid of a computer, while photographic 3-D images (HOLOGRAPHY) can be made by exposing film to the interference pattern created when two laser light sources shine on an object.
Surgery performed on the thoracic organs, most commonly the lungs and the heart.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
A method of hemostasis utilizing various agents such as Gelfoam, silastic, metal, glass, or plastic pellets, autologous clot, fat, and muscle as emboli. It has been used in the treatment of spinal cord and INTRACRANIAL ARTERIOVENOUS MALFORMATIONS, renal arteriovenous fistulas, gastrointestinal bleeding, epistaxis, hypersplenism, certain highly vascular tumors, traumatic rupture of blood vessels, and control of operative hemorrhage.
A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.
The excision of the thickened, atheromatous tunica intima of a carotid artery.
Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.
Excision of one or more of the parathyroid glands.
Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)
Surgical union or shunt between ducts, tubes or vessels. It may be end-to-end, end-to-side, side-to-end, or side-to-side.
The use of two or more chemicals simultaneously or sequentially in the drug therapy of neoplasms. The drugs need not be in the same dosage form.
Excision of the whole (total gastrectomy) or part (subtotal gastrectomy, partial gastrectomy, gastric resection) of the stomach. (Dorland, 28th ed)
A surgical procedure that entails removing all (laminectomy) or part (laminotomy) of selected vertebral lamina to relieve pressure on the SPINAL CORD and/or SPINAL NERVE ROOTS. Vertebral lamina is the thin flattened posterior wall of vertebral arch that forms the vertebral foramen through which pass the spinal cord and nerve roots.
The plan and delineation of prostheses in general or a specific prosthesis.
Surgical incision into the chest wall.
Procedures used to reconstruct, restore, or improve defective, damaged, or missing structures.
A vital statistic measuring or recording the rate of death from any cause in hospitalized populations.
Surgical insertion of synthetic material to repair injured or diseased heart valves.
A relatively common neoplasm of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that arises from arachnoidal cells. The majority are well differentiated vascular tumors which grow slowly and have a low potential to be invasive, although malignant subtypes occur. Meningiomas have a predilection to arise from the parasagittal region, cerebral convexity, sphenoidal ridge, olfactory groove, and SPINAL CANAL. (From DeVita et al., Cancer: Principles and Practice of Oncology, 5th ed, pp2056-7)
The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.
Surgery performed on the urinary tract or its organs and on the male or female genitalia.
Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.
Any operation on the cranium or incision into the cranium. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.
The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.
The joint that is formed by the articulation of the head of FEMUR and the ACETABULUM of the PELVIS.
The first seven VERTEBRAE of the SPINAL COLUMN, which correspond to the VERTEBRAE of the NECK.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Deformities of the SPINE characterized by an exaggerated convexity of the vertebral column. The forward bending of the thoracic region usually is more than 40 degrees. This deformity sometimes is called round back or hunchback.
Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.
A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)
The transference of a part of or an entire liver from one human or animal to another.
Endoscopic examination, therapy and surgery of the joint.
Graphical representation of a statistical model containing scales for calculating the prognostic weight of a value for each individual variable. Nomograms are instruments that can be used to predict outcomes using specific clinical parameters. They use ALGORITHMS that incorporate several variables to calculate the predicted probability that a patient will achieve a particular clinical endpoint.
Tumors or cancer of the STOMACH.
Surgical excision of one or more lymph nodes. Its most common use is in cancer surgery. (From Dorland, 28th ed, p966)
Surgical removal of the GALLBLADDER.
The introduction of whole blood or blood component directly into the blood stream. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A condition of abnormally elevated output of PARATHYROID HORMONE (or PTH) triggering responses that increase blood CALCIUM. It is characterized by HYPERCALCEMIA and BONE RESORPTION, eventually leading to bone diseases. PRIMARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is caused by parathyroid HYPERPLASIA or PARATHYROID NEOPLASMS. SECONDARY HYPERPARATHYROIDISM is increased PTH secretion in response to HYPOCALCEMIA, usually caused by chronic KIDNEY DISEASES.
Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.
Surgical removal of the thyroid gland. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Surgical removal of the pancreas. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.
Tumors or cancer of the PARATHYROID GLANDS.
Removal of the whole or part of the vitreous body in treating endophthalmitis, diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, intraocular foreign bodies, and some types of glaucoma.
Tumor or cancer of the COMMON BILE DUCT including the AMPULLA OF VATER and the SPHINCTER OF ODDI.
The condition of weighing two, three, or more times the ideal weight, so called because it is associated with many serious and life-threatening disorders. In the BODY MASS INDEX, morbid obesity is defined as having a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2.
Spinal neoplasms are abnormal growths or tumors that develop within the spinal column, which can be benign or malignant, and originate from cells within the spinal structure or spread to the spine from other parts of the body (metastatic).
Internal devices used in osteosynthesis to hold the position of the fracture in proper alignment. By applying the principles of biomedical engineering, the surgeon uses metal plates, nails, rods, etc., for the correction of skeletal defects.
Hospital department responsible for the administration of functions and activities pertaining to the delivery of anesthetics.
The degree to which BLOOD VESSELS are not blocked or obstructed.
Ability of neoplasms to infiltrate and actively destroy surrounding tissue.
Incision into the side of the abdomen between the ribs and pelvis.
Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.
Tumors or cancer of the PROSTATE.
Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.
Radiographic visualization of the aorta and its branches by injection of contrast media, using percutaneous puncture or catheterization procedures.
A neurosurgical procedure that removes the anterior TEMPORAL LOBE including the medial temporal structures of CEREBRAL CORTEX; AMYGDALA; HIPPOCAMPUS; and the adjacent PARAHIPPOCAMPAL GYRUS. This procedure is generally used for the treatment of intractable temporal epilepsy (EPILEPSY, TEMPORAL LOBE).
Deformities acquired after birth as the result of injury or disease. The joint deformity is often associated with rheumatoid arthritis and leprosy.
Techniques for securing together the edges of a wound, with loops of thread or similar materials (SUTURES).
A benign epithelial tumor with a glandular organization.
An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.
A glycoprotein that is a kallikrein-like serine proteinase and an esterase, produced by epithelial cells of both normal and malignant prostate tissue. It is an important marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer.
An abnormal balloon- or sac-like dilatation in the wall of AORTA.
Benign and malignant neoplastic processes that arise from or secondarily involve the meningeal coverings of the brain and spinal cord.
Pathological conditions involving any of the various HEART VALVES and the associated structures (PAPILLARY MUSCLES and CHORDAE TENDINEAE).
The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.
A type of refractive surgery of the CORNEA to correct MYOPIA and ASTIGMATISM. An EXCIMER LASER is used directly on the surface of the EYE to remove some of the CORNEAL EPITHELIUM thus reshaping the anterior curvature of the cornea.
Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.
The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)
Tumors or cancer of the BILE DUCTS.
Tumors or cancers of the KIDNEY.
The paired bands of yellow elastic tissue that connect adjoining laminae of the vertebrae. With the laminae, it forms the posterior wall of the spinal canal and helps hold the body erect.
The total amount of radiation absorbed by tissues as a result of radiotherapy.
A synovial hinge connection formed between the bones of the FEMUR; TIBIA; and PATELLA.
Excision of the uterus.
A malignant neoplasm made up of epithelial cells tending to infiltrate the surrounding tissues and give rise to metastases. It is a histological type of neoplasm but is often wrongly used as a synonym for "cancer." (From Dorland, 27th ed)
The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.
Specialized devices used in ORTHOPEDIC SURGERY to repair bone fractures.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
A true cyst of the PANCREAS, distinguished from the much more common PANCREATIC PSEUDOCYST by possessing a lining of mucous EPITHELIUM. Pancreatic cysts are categorized as congenital, retention, neoplastic, parasitic, enterogenous, or dermoid. Congenital cysts occur more frequently as solitary cysts but may be multiple. Retention cysts are gross enlargements of PANCREATIC DUCTS secondary to ductal obstruction. (From Bockus Gastroenterology, 4th ed, p4145)
The valve between the left ventricle and the ascending aorta which prevents backflow into the left ventricle.
Usually a written medical and nursing care program designed for a particular patient.
An imaging test of the BILIARY TRACT in which a contrast dye (RADIOPAQUE MEDIA) is injected into the BILE DUCT and x-ray pictures are taken.
A specialty concerned with the study of anesthetics and anesthesia.
Pathological conditions involving the HEART including its structural and functional abnormalities.
Jaundice, the condition with yellowish staining of the skin and mucous membranes, that is due to impaired BILE flow in the BILIARY TRACT, such as INTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS, or EXTRAHEPATIC CHOLESTASIS.
Neoplasms of the intracranial components of the central nervous system, including the cerebral hemispheres, basal ganglia, hypothalamus, thalamus, brain stem, and cerebellum. Brain neoplasms are subdivided into primary (originating from brain tissue) and secondary (i.e., metastatic) forms. Primary neoplasms are subdivided into benign and malignant forms. In general, brain tumors may also be classified by age of onset, histologic type, or presenting location in the brain.
Excision of kidney.
They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.
An abnormal twisting or rotation of a bodily part or member on its axis.
Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the level of CELL DIFFERENTIATION in neoplasms as increasing ANAPLASIA correlates with the aggressiveness of the neoplasm.
Combined chemotherapy and radiotherapy given to augment some other form of treatment such as surgery. It is commonly used in the therapy of cancer.
The space or compartment surrounded by the pelvic girdle (bony pelvis). It is subdivided into the greater pelvis and LESSER PELVIS. The pelvic girdle is formed by the PELVIC BONES and SACRUM.
Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A dilation of the duodenal papilla that is the opening of the juncture of the COMMON BILE DUCT and the MAIN PANCREATIC DUCT, also known as the hepatopancreatic ampulla.
That portion of the body that lies between the THORAX and the PELVIS.

Peripheral hepatojejunostomy as palliative treatment for irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. (1/3544)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the concept of surgical decompression of the biliary tree by peripheral hepatojejunostomy for palliative treatment of jaundice in patients with irresectable malignant tumors of the liver hilum. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Jaundice, pruritus, and recurrent cholangitis are major clinical complications in patients with obstructive cholestasis resulting from malignant tumors of the liver hilum. Methods for palliative treatment include endoscopic stenting, percutaneous transhepatic drainage, and surgical decompression. The palliative treatment of choice should be safe, effective, and comfortable for the patient. METHODS: In a retrospective study, surgical technique, perioperative complications, and efficacy of treatment were analyzed for 56 patients who had received a peripheral hepatojejunostomy between 1982 and 1997. Laparotomy in all of these patients had been performed as an attempt for curative resection. RESULTS: Hepatojejunostomy was exclusively palliative in 50 patients and was used for bridging to resection or transplantation in 7. Anastomosis was bilateral in 36 patients and unilateral in 20. The 1-month mortality in the study group was 9%; median survival was 6 months. In patients surviving >1 month, a marked and persistent decrease in cholestasis was achieved in 87%, although complete return to normal was rare. Among the patients with a marked decrease in cholestasis, 72% had no or only mild clinical symptoms such as fever or jaundice. CONCLUSIONS: Peripheral hepatojejunostomy is a feasible and reasonably effective palliative treatment for patients with irresectable tumors of the liver hilum. In patients undergoing exploratory laparotomy for attempted curative resection, this procedure frequently leads to persistent-although rarely complete-decompression of the biliary tree. In a few cases it may also be used for bridging to transplantation or liver resection after relief of cholestasis.  (+info)

Comparative efficacy of positron emission tomography with FDG and computed tomographic scanning in preoperative staging of non-small cell lung cancer. (2/3544)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of positron emission tomography with 2-fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (PET-FDG) in the preoperative staging (N and M staging) of patients with lung cancer. The authors wanted to compare the efficacy of PET scanning with currently used computed tomography (CT) scanning. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Results of whole-body PET-FDG imaging and CT scans were compared with histologic findings for the presence or absence of lymph node disease or metastatic sites. Sampling of mediastinal lymph nodes was performed using mediastinoscopy or thoracotomy. RESULTS: PET-FDG imaging was significantly more sensitive, specific, and accurate for detecting N disease than CT. PET changed N staging in 35% and M staging in 11% of patients. CT scans helped in accurate anatomic localization of 6/57 PET lymph node abnormalities. CONCLUSION: PET-FDG is a reliable method for preoperative staging of patients with lung cancer and would help to optimize management of these patients. Accurate lymph node staging of lung cancer may be ideally performed by simultaneous review of PET and CT scans.  (+info)

Reduction of laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, postoperative pain and recovery room length of stay by pre-conditioning gas with the Insuflow device: a prospective randomized controlled multi-center study. (3/3544)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the efficacy and safety of Insuflow (Georgia BioMedical, Inc.) filter heater hydrator device in reducing the incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, length of recovery room stay and postoperative pain at the time of laparoscopy. DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled multi-center study. Patients underwent gynecologic procedures via laparoscopy; surgeons, anesthesiologists and recovery room personnel assessed the results. SETTING: Seven North American institutions. PATIENTS: Seventy-two women for safety evaluation and efficacy studies. INTERVENTIONS: Intraoperative pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas with the Insuflow device (treatment) or standard raw gas (control) during laparoscopic surgery and postoperatively. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Incidence, severity and extent of hypothermia, postoperative pain perception and length of recovery room stay. RESULTS: The Insuflow group had significantly less intraoperative hypothermia, reduced length of recovery room stay and reduced postoperative pain. Pre-conditioning of laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating was well tolerated with no adverse effects. The safety profile of the Insuflow pre-conditioned gas showed significant benefits compared to currently used raw gas. CONCLUSIONS: Pre-conditioning laparoscopic gas by filtering heating and hydrating with the Insuflow device was significantly more effective than the currently used standard raw gas and was safe in reducing or eliminating laparoscopic-induced hypothermia, shortening recovery room length of stay and reducing postoperative pain.  (+info)

Measured versus predicted oxygen consumption in children with congenital heart disease. (4/3544)

OBJECTIVE: To compare measured and predicted oxygen consumption (VO2) in children with congenital heart disease. DESIGN: Retrospective study. SETTING: The cardiac catheterisation laboratory in a university hospital. PATIENTS: 125 children undergoing preoperative cardiac catheterisation. INTERVENTIONS: VO2 was measured using indirect calorimetry; the predicted values were calculated from regression equations published by Lindahl, Wessel et al, and Lundell et al. Stepwise linear regression and analysis of variance were used to evaluate the influence of age, sex, weight, height, cardiac malformation, and heart failure on the bias and precision of predicted VO2. An artificial neural network was trained and used to produce an estimate of VO2 employing the same variables. The various estimates for VO2 were evaluated by calculating their bias and precision values. RESULTS: Lindahl's equation produced the highest precision (+/- 42%) of the regression based estimates. The corresponding average bias of the predicted VO2 was 3% (range -66% to 43%). When VO2 was predicted according to regression equations by Wessel and Lundell, the bias and precision were 0% and +/- 44%, and -16% and +/- 51%, respectively. The neural network predicted VO2 from variables included in the regression equations with a bias of 6% and precision +/- 29%; addition of further variables failed to improve this estimate. CONCLUSIONS: Both regression based and artificial intelligence based techniques were inaccurate for predicting preoperative VO2 in patients with congenital heart disease. Measurement of VO2 is necessary in the preoperative evaluation of these patients.  (+info)

How can videolaparoscopy be used in a peritoneal dialysis programme? (5/3544)

BACKGROUND: Recently videolaparoscopy is considered to have a vaster use in surgery due to the undeniable benefits such as low operatory traumatism, quick recovery of canalization, a short stay in the hospital and minor scarring. METHODS: Forty patients were treated with peritoneal dialysis (PD); 15 videolaparoscopic procedures were performed on 13 patients before starting PD and two during the course of PD. The videolaparoscopy procedure was started by inducing pneumoperitoneum after initiation of general anaesthesia through endotracheal intubation. RESULTS: Peritoneal catheter placement was carried out in 11 ESRD patients showing abdominal scars due to previous laparotomies; their abdominal condition precluded safe PC placement using conventional non-laparoscopic procedures with local anaesthesia. Release of adhesions was performed only in two patients. Videolaparoscopy was also used in three patients for elective cholecystectomy; 2/3 underwent concomitant PC insertion. One patient was submitted to cholecystectomy during the course of CAPD; following the procedure we left the peritoneum dry overnight and then we started temporary IPD, using small volumes, avoiding haemodialysis (HD). Regular CAPD was resumed 6 days later. Finally, videolaparoscopy was also used for diagnostic purpose i.e. in one 59-year-old man patient who had a peritoneal catheter obstruction. Repeated rescue attempts using urokinase solution to irrigate the peritoneal catheter had been used in vain attempts prior to the procedure. CONCLUSIONS: Videolaparoscopy proves to be a useful tool in a PD programme. Firstly, it may be used as a technique for catheter implantation, not as a routine procedure but in patients with extensive abdominal scars due to previous laparotomy, i.e. at risk for accidental viscera perforation due to the possibility of adhesions between intestinal loops and parietal peritoneum. Secondly, videolaparoscopy used for abdominal surgery allows the resumption of PD immediately after surgical procedure and thus avoiding HD. Videolaparoscopy is fundamental for diagnosis and rescue of catheter dysfunction and has an integral role in the successful management of these patients in extending catheter function and permitting safe replacement of peritoneal catheter if it becomes necessary. Along with the undeniable advantages, remains the disadvantages that it must be carried out by an expert surgeon in an operating theatre while the patient is under general anaesthesia.  (+info)

Hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma: toward zero hospital deaths. (6/3544)

OBJECTIVE: The authors report on the surgical techniques and protocol for perioperative care that have yielded a zero hospital mortality rate in 110 consecutive patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The hepatectomy results are analyzed with the aim of further reducing the postoperative morbidity rate. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: In recent years, hepatectomy has been performed with a mortality rate of <10% in patients with HCC, but a zero hospital mortality rate in a large patient series has never been reported. At Queen Mary Hospital, Hong Kong, the surgical techniques and perioperative management in hepatectomy for HCC have evolved yearly into a final standardized protocol that reduced the hospital mortality rate from 28% in 1989 to 0% in 1996 and 1997. METHODS: Surgical techniques were designed to reduce intraoperative blood loss, blood transfusion, and ischemic injury to the liver remnant in hepatectomy. Postoperative care was focused on preservation and promotion of liver function by providing adequate tissue oxygenation and immediate postoperative nutritional support that consisted of branched-chain amino acid-enriched solution, low-dose dextrose, medium-chain triglycerides, and phosphate. The pre-, intra-, and postoperative data were collected prospectively and analyzed each year to assess the influence of the evolving surgical techniques and perioperative care on outcome. RESULTS: Of 330 patients undergoing hepatectomy for HCC, underlying cirrhosis and chronic hepatitis were present in 161 (49%) and 108 (33%) patients, respectively. There were no significant changes in the patient characteristics throughout the 9-year period, but there were significant reductions in intraoperative blood loss and blood transfusion requirements. From 1994 to 1997, the median blood transfusion requirement was 0 ml, and 64% of the patients did not require a blood transfusion. The postoperative morbidity rate remained the same throughout the study period. Complications in the patients operated on during 1996 and 1997 were primarily wound infections; the potentially fatal complications seen in the early years, such as subphrenic sepsis, biliary leakage, and hepatic coma, were absent. By univariate analysis, the volume of blood loss, volume of blood transfusions, and operation time were correlated positively with postoperative morbidity rates in 1996 and 1997. Stepwise logistic regression analysis revealed that the operation time was the only parameter that correlated significantly with the postoperative morbidity rate. CONCLUSION: With appropriate surgical techniques and perioperative management to preserve function of the liver remnant, hepatectomy for HCC can be performed without hospital deaths. To improve surgical outcome further, strategies to reduce the operation time are being investigated.  (+info)

Hemangioblastoma mimicking tentorial meningioma: preoperative embolization of the meningeal arterial blood supply--case report. (7/3544)

A 72-year-old male presented with a primary hemangioblastoma of the posterior fossa with unusual dural attachment and meningeal arterial blood supply from the external carotid artery and marginal tentorial artery. Preoperative embolization facilitated complete resection of the tumor with no resultant neurological deficit. Hemangioblastoma must be included in the differential diagnosis of tumors with dural involvement. Preoperative embolization is very useful in such tumors.  (+info)

Predictive value of perioperative gastric acid tests. (8/3544)

Preoperative acid studies and early postoperative insulin tests in 275 patients undergoing various forms of vagotomy have been related to recurrent ulceration. Follow-up time has been from two to nine years, mean 4-3 years. Recurrence is directly related to basal acidity in both tests but is not related to stimulated acid levels preoperatively. In the insulin tests higher levels of acidity after insulin are associated with a higher incidence of recurrence. When positive, Hollander's and multiple criteria are both associated with a higher recurrence rate.  (+info)

Preoperative care refers to the series of procedures, interventions, and preparations that are conducted before a surgical operation. The primary goal of preoperative care is to ensure the patient's well-being, optimize their physical condition, reduce potential risks, and prepare them mentally and emotionally for the upcoming surgery.

Preoperative care typically includes:

1. Preoperative assessment: A thorough evaluation of the patient's overall health status, including medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and diagnostic imaging, to identify any potential risk factors or comorbidities that may impact the surgical procedure and postoperative recovery.
2. Informed consent: The process of ensuring the patient understands the nature of the surgery, its purpose, associated risks, benefits, and alternative treatment options. The patient signs a consent form indicating they have been informed and voluntarily agree to undergo the surgery.
3. Preoperative instructions: Guidelines provided to the patient regarding their diet, medication use, and other activities in the days leading up to the surgery. These instructions may include fasting guidelines, discontinuing certain medications, or arranging for transportation after the procedure.
4. Anesthesia consultation: A meeting with the anesthesiologist to discuss the type of anesthesia that will be used during the surgery and address any concerns related to anesthesia risks, side effects, or postoperative pain management.
5. Preparation of the surgical site: Cleaning and shaving the area where the incision will be made, as well as administering appropriate antimicrobial agents to minimize the risk of infection.
6. Medical optimization: Addressing any underlying medical conditions or correcting abnormalities that may negatively impact the surgical outcome. This may involve adjusting medications, treating infections, or managing chronic diseases such as diabetes.
7. Emotional and psychological support: Providing counseling, reassurance, and education to help alleviate anxiety, fear, or emotional distress related to the surgery.
8. Preoperative holding area: The patient is transferred to a designated area near the operating room where they are prepared for surgery by changing into a gown, having intravenous (IV) lines inserted, and receiving monitoring equipment.

By following these preoperative care guidelines, healthcare professionals aim to ensure that patients undergo safe and successful surgical procedures with optimal outcomes.

The preoperative period is the time period before a surgical procedure during which various preparations are made to ensure the best possible outcome for the surgery. This includes evaluating the patient's overall health status, identifying and managing any underlying medical conditions that could increase the risk of complications, obtaining informed consent from the patient, and providing preoperative instructions regarding medications, food and drink intake, and other aspects of preparation for the surgery.

The specific activities that occur during the preoperative period may vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual needs and medical history of the patient. However, some common elements of the preoperative period include:

* A thorough medical history and physical examination to assess the patient's overall health status and identify any potential risk factors for complications
* Diagnostic tests such as blood tests, imaging studies, or electrocardiograms (ECGs) to provide additional information about the patient's health status
* Consultation with anesthesia providers to determine the appropriate type and dosage of anesthesia for the procedure
* Preoperative teaching to help the patient understand what to expect before, during, and after the surgery
* Management of any underlying medical conditions such as diabetes, heart disease, or lung disease to reduce the risk of complications
* Administration of medications such as antibiotics or anti-coagulants to prevent infection or bleeding
* Fasting instructions to ensure that the stomach is empty during the surgery and reduce the risk of aspiration (inhalation of stomach contents into the lungs)

Overall, the preoperative period is a critical time for ensuring the safety and success of surgical procedures. By taking a thorough and systematic approach to preparing patients for surgery, healthcare providers can help to minimize the risks of complications and ensure the best possible outcomes for their patients.

Postoperative complications refer to any unfavorable condition or event that occurs during the recovery period after a surgical procedure. These complications can vary in severity and may include, but are not limited to:

1. Infection: This can occur at the site of the incision or inside the body, such as pneumonia or urinary tract infection.
2. Bleeding: Excessive bleeding (hemorrhage) can lead to a drop in blood pressure and may require further surgical intervention.
3. Blood clots: These can form in the deep veins of the legs (deep vein thrombosis) and can potentially travel to the lungs (pulmonary embolism).
4. Wound dehiscence: This is when the surgical wound opens up, which can lead to infection and further complications.
5. Pulmonary issues: These include atelectasis (collapsed lung), pneumonia, or respiratory failure.
6. Cardiovascular problems: These include abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias), heart attack, or stroke.
7. Renal failure: This can occur due to various reasons such as dehydration, blood loss, or the use of certain medications.
8. Pain management issues: Inadequate pain control can lead to increased stress, anxiety, and decreased mobility.
9. Nausea and vomiting: These can be caused by anesthesia, opioid pain medication, or other factors.
10. Delirium: This is a state of confusion and disorientation that can occur in the elderly or those with certain medical conditions.

Prompt identification and management of these complications are crucial to ensure the best possible outcome for the patient.

Treatment outcome is a term used to describe the result or effect of medical treatment on a patient's health status. It can be measured in various ways, such as through symptoms improvement, disease remission, reduced disability, improved quality of life, or survival rates. The treatment outcome helps healthcare providers evaluate the effectiveness of a particular treatment plan and make informed decisions about future care. It is also used in clinical research to compare the efficacy of different treatments and improve patient care.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

The postoperative period is the time following a surgical procedure during which the patient's response to the surgery and anesthesia is monitored, and any complications or adverse effects are managed. This period can vary in length depending on the type of surgery and the individual patient's needs, but it typically includes the immediate recovery phase in the post-anesthesia care unit (PACU) or recovery room, as well as any additional time spent in the hospital for monitoring and management of pain, wound healing, and other aspects of postoperative care.

The goals of postoperative care are to ensure the patient's safety and comfort, promote optimal healing and rehabilitation, and minimize the risk of complications such as infection, bleeding, or other postoperative issues. The specific interventions and treatments provided during this period will depend on a variety of factors, including the type and extent of surgery performed, the patient's overall health and medical history, and any individualized care plans developed in consultation with the patient and their healthcare team.

Rectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissues of the rectum, which can be benign or malignant. They are characterized by uncontrolled cell division and can invade nearby tissues or spread to other parts of the body (metastasis). The most common type of rectal neoplasm is rectal cancer, which often begins as a small polyp or growth in the lining of the rectum. Other types of rectal neoplasms include adenomas, carcinoids, and gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs). Regular screenings are recommended for early detection and treatment of rectal neoplasms.

Prospective studies, also known as longitudinal studies, are a type of cohort study in which data is collected forward in time, following a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure over a period of time. The researchers clearly define the study population and exposure of interest at the beginning of the study and follow up with the participants to determine the outcomes that develop over time. This type of study design allows for the investigation of causal relationships between exposures and outcomes, as well as the identification of risk factors and the estimation of disease incidence rates. Prospective studies are particularly useful in epidemiology and medical research when studying diseases with long latency periods or rare outcomes.

Follow-up studies are a type of longitudinal research that involve repeated observations or measurements of the same variables over a period of time, in order to understand their long-term effects or outcomes. In medical context, follow-up studies are often used to evaluate the safety and efficacy of medical treatments, interventions, or procedures.

In a typical follow-up study, a group of individuals (called a cohort) who have received a particular treatment or intervention are identified and then followed over time through periodic assessments or data collection. The data collected may include information on clinical outcomes, adverse events, changes in symptoms or functional status, and other relevant measures.

The results of follow-up studies can provide important insights into the long-term benefits and risks of medical interventions, as well as help to identify factors that may influence treatment effectiveness or patient outcomes. However, it is important to note that follow-up studies can be subject to various biases and limitations, such as loss to follow-up, recall bias, and changes in clinical practice over time, which must be carefully considered when interpreting the results.

X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging method that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional (tomographic) images (virtual "slices") of the body. These cross-sectional images can then be used to display detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body.

The term "computed tomography" is used instead of "CT scan" or "CAT scan" because the machines take a series of X-ray measurements from different angles around the body and then use a computer to process these data to create detailed images of internal structures within the body.

CT scanning is a noninvasive, painless medical test that helps physicians diagnose and treat medical conditions. CT imaging provides detailed information about many types of tissue including lung, bone, soft tissue and blood vessels. CT examinations can be performed on every part of the body for a variety of reasons including diagnosis, surgical planning, and monitoring of therapeutic responses.

In computed tomography (CT), an X-ray source and detector rotate around the patient, measuring the X-ray attenuation at many different angles. A computer uses this data to construct a cross-sectional image by the process of reconstruction. This technique is called "tomography". The term "computed" refers to the use of a computer to reconstruct the images.

CT has become an important tool in medical imaging and diagnosis, allowing radiologists and other physicians to view detailed internal images of the body. It can help identify many different medical conditions including cancer, heart disease, lung nodules, liver tumors, and internal injuries from trauma. CT is also commonly used for guiding biopsies and other minimally invasive procedures.

In summary, X-ray computed tomography (CT or CAT scan) is a medical imaging technique that uses computer-processed combinations of many X-ray images taken from different angles to produce cross-sectional images of the body. It provides detailed internal views of organs, bones, and soft tissues in the body, allowing physicians to diagnose and treat medical conditions.

Postoperative care refers to the comprehensive medical treatment and nursing attention provided to a patient following a surgical procedure. The goal of postoperative care is to facilitate the patient's recovery, prevent complications, manage pain, ensure proper healing of the incision site, and maintain overall health and well-being until the patient can resume their normal activities.

This type of care includes monitoring vital signs, managing pain through medication or other techniques, ensuring adequate hydration and nutrition, helping the patient with breathing exercises to prevent lung complications, encouraging mobility to prevent blood clots, monitoring for signs of infection or other complications, administering prescribed medications, providing wound care, and educating the patient about postoperative care instructions.

The duration of postoperative care can vary depending on the type and complexity of the surgical procedure, as well as the individual patient's needs and overall health status. It may be provided in a hospital setting, an outpatient surgery center, or in the patient's home, depending on the level of care required.

The Predictive Value of Tests, specifically the Positive Predictive Value (PPV) and Negative Predictive Value (NPV), are measures used in diagnostic tests to determine the probability that a positive or negative test result is correct.

Positive Predictive Value (PPV) is the proportion of patients with a positive test result who actually have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true positives divided by the total number of positive results (true positives + false positives). A higher PPV indicates that a positive test result is more likely to be a true positive, and therefore the disease is more likely to be present.

Negative Predictive Value (NPV) is the proportion of patients with a negative test result who do not have the disease. It is calculated as the number of true negatives divided by the total number of negative results (true negatives + false negatives). A higher NPV indicates that a negative test result is more likely to be a true negative, and therefore the disease is less likely to be present.

The predictive value of tests depends on the prevalence of the disease in the population being tested, as well as the sensitivity and specificity of the test. A test with high sensitivity and specificity will generally have higher predictive values than a test with low sensitivity and specificity. However, even a highly sensitive and specific test can have low predictive values if the prevalence of the disease is low in the population being tested.

Neoadjuvant therapy is a treatment regimen that is administered to patients before they undergo definitive or curative surgery for their cancer. The main goal of neoadjuvant therapy is to reduce the size and extent of the tumor, making it easier to remove surgically and increasing the likelihood of complete resection. This type of therapy often involves the use of chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy, and it can help improve treatment outcomes by reducing the risk of recurrence and improving overall survival rates. Neoadjuvant therapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, lung, esophageal, rectal, and bladder cancer.

Intraoperative care refers to the medical care and interventions provided to a patient during a surgical procedure. This care is typically administered by a team of healthcare professionals, including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, and other specialists as needed. The goal of intraoperative care is to maintain the patient's physiological stability throughout the surgery, minimize complications, and ensure the best possible outcome.

Intraoperative care may include:

1. Anesthesia management: Administering and monitoring anesthetic drugs to keep the patient unconscious and free from pain during the surgery.
2. Monitoring vital signs: Continuously tracking the patient's heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, body temperature, and other key physiological parameters to ensure they remain within normal ranges.
3. Fluid and blood product administration: Maintaining adequate intravascular volume and oxygen-carrying capacity through the infusion of fluids and blood products as needed.
4. Intraoperative imaging: Utilizing real-time imaging techniques, such as X-ray, ultrasound, or CT scans, to guide the surgical procedure and ensure accurate placement of implants or other devices.
5. Neuromonitoring: Using electrophysiological methods to monitor the functional integrity of nerves and neural structures during surgery, particularly in procedures involving the brain, spine, or peripheral nerves.
6. Intraoperative medication management: Administering various medications as needed for pain control, infection prophylaxis, or the treatment of medical conditions that may arise during the surgery.
7. Temperature management: Regulating the patient's body temperature to prevent hypothermia or hyperthermia, which can have adverse effects on surgical outcomes and overall patient health.
8. Communication and coordination: Ensuring effective communication among the members of the surgical team to optimize patient care and safety.

Elective surgical procedures are operations that are scheduled in advance because they do not involve a medical emergency. These surgeries are chosen or "elective" based on the patient's and doctor's decision to improve the patient's quality of life or to treat a non-life-threatening condition. Examples include but are not limited to:

1. Aesthetic or cosmetic surgery such as breast augmentation, rhinoplasty, etc.
2. Orthopedic surgeries like knee or hip replacements
3. Cataract surgery
4. Some types of cancer surgeries where the tumor is not spreading or causing severe symptoms
5. Gastric bypass for weight loss

It's important to note that while these procedures are planned, they still require thorough preoperative evaluation and preparation, and carry risks and benefits that need to be carefully considered by both the patient and the healthcare provider.

In the field of medicine, "time factors" refer to the duration of symptoms or time elapsed since the onset of a medical condition, which can have significant implications for diagnosis and treatment. Understanding time factors is crucial in determining the progression of a disease, evaluating the effectiveness of treatments, and making critical decisions regarding patient care.

For example, in stroke management, "time is brain," meaning that rapid intervention within a specific time frame (usually within 4.5 hours) is essential to administering tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a clot-busting drug that can minimize brain damage and improve patient outcomes. Similarly, in trauma care, the "golden hour" concept emphasizes the importance of providing definitive care within the first 60 minutes after injury to increase survival rates and reduce morbidity.

Time factors also play a role in monitoring the progression of chronic conditions like diabetes or heart disease, where regular follow-ups and assessments help determine appropriate treatment adjustments and prevent complications. In infectious diseases, time factors are crucial for initiating antibiotic therapy and identifying potential outbreaks to control their spread.

Overall, "time factors" encompass the significance of recognizing and acting promptly in various medical scenarios to optimize patient outcomes and provide effective care.

Neoplasm staging is a systematic process used in medicine to describe the extent of spread of a cancer, including the size and location of the original (primary) tumor and whether it has metastasized (spread) to other parts of the body. The most widely accepted system for this purpose is the TNM classification system developed by the American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) and the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC).

In this system, T stands for tumor, and it describes the size and extent of the primary tumor. N stands for nodes, and it indicates whether the cancer has spread to nearby lymph nodes. M stands for metastasis, and it shows whether the cancer has spread to distant parts of the body.

Each letter is followed by a number that provides more details about the extent of the disease. For example, a T1N0M0 cancer means that the primary tumor is small and has not spread to nearby lymph nodes or distant sites. The higher the numbers, the more advanced the cancer.

Staging helps doctors determine the most appropriate treatment for each patient and estimate the patient's prognosis. It is an essential tool for communication among members of the healthcare team and for comparing outcomes of treatments in clinical trials.

Prognosis is a medical term that refers to the prediction of the likely outcome or course of a disease, including the chances of recovery or recurrence, based on the patient's symptoms, medical history, physical examination, and diagnostic tests. It is an important aspect of clinical decision-making and patient communication, as it helps doctors and patients make informed decisions about treatment options, set realistic expectations, and plan for future care.

Prognosis can be expressed in various ways, such as percentages, categories (e.g., good, fair, poor), or survival rates, depending on the nature of the disease and the available evidence. However, it is important to note that prognosis is not an exact science and may vary depending on individual factors, such as age, overall health status, and response to treatment. Therefore, it should be used as a guide rather than a definitive forecast.

The intraoperative period is the phase of surgical treatment that refers to the time during which the surgery is being performed. It begins when the anesthesia is administered and the patient is prepared for the operation, and it ends when the surgery is completed, the anesthesia is discontinued, and the patient is transferred to the recovery room or intensive care unit (ICU).

During the intraoperative period, the surgical team, including surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals, work together to carry out the surgical procedure safely and effectively. The anesthesiologist monitors the patient's vital signs, such as heart rate, blood pressure, oxygen saturation, and body temperature, throughout the surgery to ensure that the patient remains stable and does not experience any complications.

The surgeon performs the operation, using various surgical techniques and instruments to achieve the desired outcome. The surgical team also takes measures to prevent infection, control bleeding, and manage pain during and after the surgery.

Overall, the intraoperative period is a critical phase of surgical treatment that requires close collaboration and communication among members of the healthcare team to ensure the best possible outcomes for the patient.

Combined modality therapy (CMT) is a medical treatment approach that utilizes more than one method or type of therapy simultaneously or in close succession, with the goal of enhancing the overall effectiveness of the treatment. In the context of cancer care, CMT often refers to the combination of two or more primary treatment modalities, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and systemic therapies (chemotherapy, immunotherapy, targeted therapy, etc.).

The rationale behind using combined modality therapy is that each treatment method can target cancer cells in different ways, potentially increasing the likelihood of eliminating all cancer cells and reducing the risk of recurrence. The specific combination and sequence of treatments will depend on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and individual preferences.

For example, a common CMT approach for locally advanced rectal cancer may involve preoperative (neoadjuvant) chemoradiation therapy, followed by surgery to remove the tumor, and then postoperative (adjuvant) chemotherapy. This combined approach allows for the reduction of the tumor size before surgery, increases the likelihood of complete tumor removal, and targets any remaining microscopic cancer cells with systemic chemotherapy.

It is essential to consult with a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals to determine the most appropriate CMT plan for each individual patient, considering both the potential benefits and risks associated with each treatment method.

Cardiac surgical procedures are operations that are performed on the heart or great vessels (the aorta and vena cava) by cardiothoracic surgeons. These surgeries are often complex and require a high level of skill and expertise. Some common reasons for cardiac surgical procedures include:

1. Coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG): This is a surgery to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with coronary artery disease. During the procedure, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is used to create a detour around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery.
2. Valve repair or replacement: The heart has four valves that control blood flow through and out of the heart. If one or more of these valves become damaged or diseased, they may need to be repaired or replaced. This can be done using artificial valves or valves from animal or human donors.
3. Aneurysm repair: An aneurysm is a weakened area in the wall of an artery that can bulge out and potentially rupture. If an aneurysm occurs in the aorta, it may require surgical repair to prevent rupture.
4. Heart transplantation: In some cases, heart failure may be so severe that a heart transplant is necessary. This involves removing the diseased heart and replacing it with a healthy donor heart.
5. Arrhythmia surgery: Certain types of abnormal heart rhythms (arrhythmias) may require surgical treatment. One such procedure is called the Maze procedure, which involves creating a pattern of scar tissue in the heart to disrupt the abnormal electrical signals that cause the arrhythmia.
6. Congenital heart defect repair: Some people are born with structural problems in their hearts that require surgical correction. These may include holes between the chambers of the heart or abnormal blood vessels.

Cardiac surgical procedures carry risks, including bleeding, infection, stroke, and death. However, for many patients, these surgeries can significantly improve their quality of life and longevity.

Operative surgical procedures refer to medical interventions that involve manual manipulation of tissues, structures, or organs in the body, typically performed in an operating room setting under sterile conditions. These procedures are carried out with the use of specialized instruments, such as scalpels, forceps, and scissors, and may require regional or general anesthesia to ensure patient comfort and safety.

Operative surgical procedures can range from relatively minor interventions, such as a biopsy or the removal of a small lesion, to more complex and extensive surgeries, such as open heart surgery or total joint replacement. The specific goals of operative surgical procedures may include the diagnosis and treatment of medical conditions, the repair or reconstruction of damaged tissues or organs, or the prevention of further disease progression.

Regardless of the type or complexity of the procedure, all operative surgical procedures require careful planning, execution, and postoperative management to ensure the best possible outcomes for patients.

Intraoperative complications refer to any unforeseen problems or events that occur during the course of a surgical procedure, once it has begun and before it is completed. These complications can range from minor issues, such as bleeding or an adverse reaction to anesthesia, to major complications that can significantly impact the patient's health and prognosis.

Examples of intraoperative complications include:

1. Bleeding (hemorrhage) - This can occur due to various reasons such as injury to blood vessels or organs during surgery.
2. Infection - Surgical site infections can develop if the surgical area becomes contaminated during the procedure.
3. Anesthesia-related complications - These include adverse reactions to anesthesia, difficulty maintaining the patient's airway, or cardiovascular instability.
4. Organ injury - Accidental damage to surrounding organs can occur during surgery, leading to potential long-term consequences.
5. Equipment failure - Malfunctioning surgical equipment can lead to complications and compromise the safety of the procedure.
6. Allergic reactions - Patients may have allergies to certain medications or materials used during surgery, causing an adverse reaction.
7. Prolonged operative time - Complications may arise if a surgical procedure takes longer than expected, leading to increased risk of infection and other issues.

Intraoperative complications require prompt identification and management by the surgical team to minimize their impact on the patient's health and recovery.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Medical Definition:

Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a non-invasive diagnostic imaging technique that uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to create detailed cross-sectional or three-dimensional images of the internal structures of the body. The patient lies within a large, cylindrical magnet, and the scanner detects changes in the direction of the magnetic field caused by protons in the body. These changes are then converted into detailed images that help medical professionals to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as tumors, injuries, or diseases affecting the brain, spinal cord, heart, blood vessels, joints, and other internal organs. MRI does not use radiation like computed tomography (CT) scans.

Premedication is the administration of medication before a medical procedure or surgery to prevent or manage pain, reduce anxiety, minimize side effects of anesthesia, or treat existing medical conditions. The goal of premedication is to improve the safety and outcomes of the medical procedure by preparing the patient's body in advance. Common examples of premedication include administering antibiotics before surgery to prevent infection, giving sedatives to help patients relax before a procedure, or providing medication to control acid reflux during surgery.

A reoperation is a surgical procedure that is performed again on a patient who has already undergone a previous operation for the same or related condition. Reoperations may be required due to various reasons, such as inadequate initial treatment, disease recurrence, infection, or complications from the first surgery. The nature and complexity of a reoperation can vary widely depending on the specific circumstances, but it often carries higher risks and potential complications compared to the original operation.

Perioperative care is a multidisciplinary approach to the management of patients before, during, and after surgery with the goal of optimizing outcomes and minimizing complications. It encompasses various aspects such as preoperative evaluation and preparation, intraoperative monitoring and management, and postoperative recovery and rehabilitation. The perioperative period begins when a decision is made to pursue surgical intervention and ends when the patient has fully recovered from the procedure. This care is typically provided by a team of healthcare professionals including anesthesiologists, surgeons, nurses, physical therapists, and other specialists as needed.

Adenocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from glandular epithelial cells. These cells line the inside of many internal organs, including the breasts, prostate, colon, and lungs. Adenocarcinomas can occur in any of these organs, as well as in other locations where glands are present.

The term "adenocarcinoma" is used to describe a cancer that has features of glandular tissue, such as mucus-secreting cells or cells that produce hormones. These cancers often form glandular structures within the tumor mass and may produce mucus or other substances.

Adenocarcinomas are typically slow-growing and tend to spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or bloodstream. They can be treated with surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these treatments. The prognosis for adenocarcinoma depends on several factors, including the location and stage of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and age.

Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), is a surgical procedure used to improve blood flow to the heart in patients with severe coronary artery disease. This condition occurs when the coronary arteries, which supply oxygen-rich blood to the heart muscle, become narrowed or blocked due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques.

During CABG surgery, a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body is grafted, or attached, to the coronary artery, creating a new pathway for oxygen-rich blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the artery and reach the heart muscle. This bypass helps to restore normal blood flow and reduce the risk of angina (chest pain), shortness of breath, and other symptoms associated with coronary artery disease.

There are different types of CABG surgery, including traditional on-pump CABG, off-pump CABG, and minimally invasive CABG. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's overall health, the number and location of blocked arteries, and the presence of other medical conditions.

It is important to note that while CABG surgery can significantly improve symptoms and quality of life in patients with severe coronary artery disease, it does not cure the underlying condition. Lifestyle modifications, such as regular exercise, a healthy diet, smoking cessation, and medication therapy, are essential for long-term management and prevention of further progression of the disease.

Risk assessment in the medical context refers to the process of identifying, evaluating, and prioritizing risks to patients, healthcare workers, or the community related to healthcare delivery. It involves determining the likelihood and potential impact of adverse events or hazards, such as infectious diseases, medication errors, or medical devices failures, and implementing measures to mitigate or manage those risks. The goal of risk assessment is to promote safe and high-quality care by identifying areas for improvement and taking action to minimize harm.

Neurosurgical procedures are operations that are performed on the brain, spinal cord, and peripheral nerves. These procedures are typically carried out by neurosurgeons, who are medical doctors with specialized training in the diagnosis and treatment of disorders of the nervous system. Neurosurgical procedures can be used to treat a wide range of conditions, including traumatic injuries, tumors, aneurysms, vascular malformations, infections, degenerative diseases, and congenital abnormalities.

Some common types of neurosurgical procedures include:

* Craniotomy: A procedure in which a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to gain access to the brain. This type of procedure may be performed to remove a tumor, repair a blood vessel, or relieve pressure on the brain.
* Spinal fusion: A procedure in which two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together using bone grafts and metal hardware. This is often done to stabilize the spine and alleviate pain caused by degenerative conditions or spinal deformities.
* Microvascular decompression: A procedure in which a blood vessel that is causing pressure on a nerve is repositioned or removed. This type of procedure is often used to treat trigeminal neuralgia, a condition that causes severe facial pain.
* Deep brain stimulation: A procedure in which electrodes are implanted in specific areas of the brain and connected to a battery-operated device called a neurostimulator. The neurostimulator sends electrical impulses to the brain to help alleviate symptoms of movement disorders such as Parkinson's disease or dystonia.
* Stereotactic radiosurgery: A non-invasive procedure that uses focused beams of radiation to treat tumors, vascular malformations, and other abnormalities in the brain or spine. This type of procedure is often used for patients who are not good candidates for traditional surgery due to age, health status, or location of the lesion.

Neurosurgical procedures can be complex and require a high degree of skill and expertise. Patients considering neurosurgical treatment should consult with a qualified neurosurgeon to discuss their options and determine the best course of action for their individual situation.

Computer-assisted surgery (CAS) refers to the use of computer systems and technologies to assist and enhance surgical procedures. These systems can include a variety of tools such as imaging software, robotic systems, and navigation devices that help surgeons plan, guide, and perform surgeries with greater precision and accuracy.

In CAS, preoperative images such as CT scans or MRI images are used to create a three-dimensional model of the surgical site. This model can be used to plan the surgery, identify potential challenges, and determine the optimal approach. During the surgery, the surgeon can use the computer system to navigate and guide instruments with real-time feedback, allowing for more precise movements and reduced risk of complications.

Robotic systems can also be used in CAS to perform minimally invasive procedures with smaller incisions and faster recovery times. The surgeon controls the robotic arms from a console, allowing for greater range of motion and accuracy than traditional hand-held instruments.

Overall, computer-assisted surgery provides a number of benefits over traditional surgical techniques, including improved precision, reduced risk of complications, and faster recovery times for patients.

Sensitivity and specificity are statistical measures used to describe the performance of a diagnostic test or screening tool in identifying true positive and true negative results.

* Sensitivity refers to the proportion of people who have a particular condition (true positives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true positive rate" or "recall." A highly sensitive test will identify most or all of the people with the condition, but may also produce more false positives.
* Specificity refers to the proportion of people who do not have a particular condition (true negatives) who are correctly identified by the test. It is also known as the "true negative rate." A highly specific test will identify most or all of the people without the condition, but may also produce more false negatives.

In medical testing, both sensitivity and specificity are important considerations when evaluating a diagnostic test. High sensitivity is desirable for screening tests that aim to identify as many cases of a condition as possible, while high specificity is desirable for confirmatory tests that aim to rule out the condition in people who do not have it.

It's worth noting that sensitivity and specificity are often influenced by factors such as the prevalence of the condition in the population being tested, the threshold used to define a positive result, and the reliability and validity of the test itself. Therefore, it's important to consider these factors when interpreting the results of a diagnostic test.

Surgical blood loss is the amount of blood that is lost during a surgical procedure. It can occur through various routes such as incisions, punctures or during the removal of organs or tissues. The amount of blood loss can vary widely depending on the type and complexity of the surgery being performed.

Surgical blood loss can be classified into three categories:

1. Insensible losses: These are small amounts of blood that are lost through the skin, respiratory tract, or gastrointestinal tract during surgery. They are not usually significant enough to cause any clinical effects.
2. Visible losses: These are larger amounts of blood that can be seen and measured directly during surgery. They may require transfusion or other interventions to prevent hypovolemia (low blood volume) and its complications.
3. Hidden losses: These are internal bleeding that cannot be easily seen or measured during surgery. They can occur in the abdominal cavity, retroperitoneal space, or other areas of the body. They may require further exploration or imaging studies to diagnose and manage.

Surgical blood loss can lead to several complications such as hypovolemia, anemia, coagulopathy (disorders of blood clotting), and organ dysfunction. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and manage surgical blood loss effectively to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Medical survival rate is a statistical measure used to determine the percentage of patients who are still alive for a specific period of time after their diagnosis or treatment for a certain condition or disease. It is often expressed as a five-year survival rate, which refers to the proportion of people who are alive five years after their diagnosis. Survival rates can be affected by many factors, including the stage of the disease at diagnosis, the patient's age and overall health, the effectiveness of treatment, and other health conditions that the patient may have. It is important to note that survival rates are statistical estimates and do not necessarily predict an individual patient's prognosis.

Postoperative pain is defined as the pain or discomfort experienced by patients following a surgical procedure. It can vary in intensity and duration depending on the type of surgery performed, individual pain tolerance, and other factors. The pain may be caused by tissue trauma, inflammation, or nerve damage resulting from the surgical intervention. Proper assessment and management of postoperative pain is essential to promote recovery, prevent complications, and improve patient satisfaction.

Hepatectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of part or all of the liver. This procedure can be performed for various reasons, such as removing cancerous or non-cancerous tumors, treating liver trauma, or donating a portion of the liver to another person in need of a transplant (live donor hepatectomy). The extent of the hepatectomy depends on the medical condition and overall health of the patient. It is a complex procedure that requires significant expertise and experience from the surgical team due to the liver's unique anatomy, blood supply, and regenerative capabilities.

A prostatectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the prostate gland is removed. This surgery can be performed through various approaches such as open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, or robotic-assisted surgery. The type of prostatectomy performed depends on the reason for the surgery and the patient's individual circumstances.

There are two main types of prostatectomies: radical and simple. A radical prostatectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the entire prostate gland, seminal vesicles, and surrounding lymph nodes. This type of prostatectomy is typically performed as a treatment for prostate cancer.

A simple prostatectomy, on the other hand, involves removing only the inner part of the prostate gland that is causing symptoms such as difficulty urinating or bladder obstruction. Simple prostatectomies are usually performed to alleviate benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), which is a non-cancerous enlargement of the prostate gland.

Regardless of the type of prostatectomy, potential risks and complications include bleeding, infection, urinary incontinence, erectile dysfunction, and changes in sexual function. It is important for patients to discuss these risks with their healthcare provider before undergoing surgery.

The digestive system is a series of organs that work together to convert food into nutrients and energy. Digestive system surgical procedures involve operations on any part of the digestive system, including the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, pancreas, and gallbladder. These procedures can be performed for a variety of reasons, such as to treat diseases, repair damage, or remove cancerous growths.

Some common digestive system surgical procedures include:

1. Gastric bypass surgery: A procedure in which the stomach is divided into two parts and the smaller part is connected directly to the small intestine, bypassing a portion of the stomach and upper small intestine. This procedure is used to treat severe obesity.
2. Colonoscopy: A procedure in which a flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and colon to examine the lining for polyps, cancer, or other abnormalities.
3. Colectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the colon is removed, often due to cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, or diverticulitis.
4. Gastrostomy: A procedure in which a hole is made through the abdominal wall and into the stomach to create an opening for feeding. This is often done for patients who have difficulty swallowing.
5. Esophagectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the esophagus is removed, often due to cancer. The remaining esophagus is then reconnected to the stomach or small intestine.
6. Liver resection: A procedure in which a portion of the liver is removed, often due to cancer or other diseases.
7. Pancreatectomy: A procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed, often due to cancer or chronic pancreatitis.
8. Cholecystectomy: A procedure in which the gallbladder is removed, often due to gallstones or inflammation.

These are just a few examples of digestive system surgical procedures. There are many other types of operations that can be performed on the digestive system depending on the specific needs and condition of each patient.

Vascular surgical procedures are operations that are performed to treat conditions and diseases related to the vascular system, which includes the arteries, veins, and capillaries. These procedures can be invasive or minimally invasive and are often used to treat conditions such as peripheral artery disease, carotid artery stenosis, aortic aneurysms, and venous insufficiency.

Some examples of vascular surgical procedures include:

* Endarterectomy: a procedure to remove plaque buildup from the inside of an artery
* Bypass surgery: creating a new path for blood to flow around a blocked or narrowed artery
* Angioplasty and stenting: using a balloon to open a narrowed artery and placing a stent to keep it open
* Aneurysm repair: surgically repairing an aneurysm, a weakened area in the wall of an artery that has bulged out and filled with blood
* Embolectomy: removing a blood clot from a blood vessel
* Thrombectomy: removing a blood clot from a vein

These procedures are typically performed by vascular surgeons, who are trained in the diagnosis and treatment of vascular diseases.

"Length of Stay" (LOS) is a term commonly used in healthcare to refer to the amount of time a patient spends receiving care in a hospital, clinic, or other healthcare facility. It is typically measured in hours, days, or weeks and can be used as a metric for various purposes such as resource planning, quality assessment, and reimbursement. The length of stay can vary depending on the type of illness or injury, the severity of the condition, the patient's response to treatment, and other factors. It is an important consideration in healthcare management and can have significant implications for both patients and providers.

Pancreaticoduodenectomy, also known as the Whipple procedure, is a complex surgical operation that involves the removal of the head of the pancreas, the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine), the gallbladder, and the distal common bile duct. In some cases, a portion of the stomach may also be removed. The remaining parts of the pancreas, bile duct, and intestines are then reconnected to allow for the digestion of food and drainage of bile.

This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for various conditions affecting the pancreas, such as tumors (including pancreatic cancer), chronic pancreatitis, or traumatic injuries. It is a major surgical operation that requires significant expertise and experience to perform safely and effectively.

Local neoplasm recurrence is the return or regrowth of a tumor in the same location where it was originally removed or treated. This means that cancer cells have survived the initial treatment and started to grow again in the same area. It's essential to monitor and detect any local recurrence as early as possible, as it can affect the prognosis and may require additional treatment.

Laparoscopy is a surgical procedure that involves the insertion of a laparoscope, which is a thin tube with a light and camera attached to it, through small incisions in the abdomen. This allows the surgeon to view the internal organs without making large incisions. It's commonly used to diagnose and treat various conditions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, infertility, and appendicitis. The advantages of laparoscopy over traditional open surgery include smaller incisions, less pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recovery times.

The Chi-square distribution is a continuous probability distribution that is often used in statistical hypothesis testing. It is the distribution of a sum of squares of k independent standard normal random variables. The resulting quantity follows a chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom, denoted as χ²(k).

The probability density function (pdf) of the Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom is given by:

f(x; k) = (1/ (2^(k/2) * Γ(k/2))) \* x^((k/2)-1) \* e^(-x/2), for x > 0 and 0, otherwise.

Where Γ(k/2) is the gamma function evaluated at k/2. The mean and variance of a Chi-square distribution with k degrees of freedom are k and 2k, respectively.

The Chi-square distribution has various applications in statistical inference, including testing goodness-of-fit, homogeneity of variances, and independence in contingency tables.

Arthroplasty, replacement, knee is a surgical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surface of the knee is removed and replaced with an artificial joint or prosthesis. The procedure involves resurfacing the worn-out ends of the femur (thigh bone) and tibia (shin bone) with metal components, and the back of the kneecap with a plastic button. This surgery is usually performed to relieve pain and restore function in patients with severe knee osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries that have damaged the joint beyond repair. The goal of knee replacement surgery is to improve mobility, reduce pain, and enhance the quality of life for the patient.

"Recovery of function" is a term used in medical rehabilitation to describe the process in which an individual regains the ability to perform activities or tasks that were previously difficult or impossible due to injury, illness, or disability. This can involve both physical and cognitive functions. The goal of recovery of function is to help the person return to their prior level of independence and participation in daily activities, work, and social roles as much as possible.

Recovery of function may be achieved through various interventions such as physical therapy, occupational therapy, speech-language therapy, and other rehabilitation strategies. The specific approach used will depend on the individual's needs and the nature of their impairment. Recovery of function can occur spontaneously as the body heals, or it may require targeted interventions to help facilitate the process.

It is important to note that recovery of function does not always mean a full return to pre-injury or pre-illness levels of ability. Instead, it often refers to the person's ability to adapt and compensate for any remaining impairments, allowing them to achieve their maximum level of functional independence and quality of life.

Adjuvant radiotherapy is a type of cancer treatment that uses radiation therapy as an adjunct to a primary surgical procedure. The goal of adjuvant radiotherapy is to eliminate any remaining microscopic cancer cells that may be present in the surrounding tissues after surgery, thereby reducing the risk of local recurrence and improving the chances of cure.

Radiotherapy involves the use of high-energy radiation to destroy cancer cells and shrink tumors. In adjuvant radiotherapy, the radiation is usually delivered to the tumor bed and regional lymph nodes in order to target any potential sites of residual disease. The timing and dosing of adjuvant radiotherapy may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as other factors such as patient age and overall health status.

Adjuvant radiotherapy is commonly used in the treatment of various types of cancer, including breast, colorectal, lung, head and neck, and gynecologic cancers. Its use has been shown to improve survival rates and reduce the risk of recurrence in many cases, making it an important component of comprehensive cancer care.

Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a medical procedure that temporarily takes over the functions of the heart and lungs during major heart surgery. It allows the surgeon to operate on a still, bloodless heart.

During CPB, the patient's blood is circulated outside the body with the help of a heart-lung machine. The machine pumps the blood through a oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and then returned to the body. This bypasses the heart and lungs, hence the name "cardiopulmonary bypass."

CPB involves several components, including a pump, oxygenator, heat exchanger, and tubing. The patient's blood is drained from the heart through cannulas (tubes) and passed through the oxygenator, where it is oxygenated and carbon dioxide is removed. The oxygenated blood is then warmed to body temperature in a heat exchanger before being pumped back into the body.

While on CPB, the patient's heart is stopped with the help of cardioplegia solution, which is infused directly into the coronary arteries. This helps to protect the heart muscle during surgery. The surgeon can then operate on a still and bloodless heart, allowing for more precise surgical repair.

After the surgery is complete, the patient is gradually weaned off CPB, and the heart is restarted with the help of electrical stimulation or medication. The patient's condition is closely monitored during this time to ensure that their heart and lungs are functioning properly.

While CPB has revolutionized heart surgery and allowed for more complex procedures to be performed, it is not without risks. These include bleeding, infection, stroke, kidney damage, and inflammation. However, with advances in technology and technique, the risks associated with CPB have been significantly reduced over time.

Osteotomy is a surgical procedure in which a bone is cut to shorten, lengthen, or change its alignment. It is often performed to correct deformities or to realign bones that have been damaged by trauma or disease. The bone may be cut straight across (transverse osteotomy) or at an angle (oblique osteotomy). After the bone is cut, it can be realigned and held in place with pins, plates, or screws until it heals. This procedure is commonly performed on bones in the leg, such as the femur or tibia, but can also be done on other bones in the body.

Esophagectomy is a surgical procedure in which part or all of the esophagus (the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach) is removed. This surgery is typically performed as a treatment for esophageal cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage to the esophagus from acid reflux or benign tumors.

During an esophagectomy, the surgeon will make incisions in the neck, chest, and/or abdomen to access the esophagus. The affected portion of the esophagus is then removed, and the remaining ends are reconnected, often using a section of the stomach or colon to create a new conduit for food to pass from the throat to the stomach.

Esophagectomy is a complex surgical procedure that requires significant expertise and experience on the part of the surgeon. It carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and complications related to anesthesia. Additionally, patients who undergo esophagectomy may experience difficulty swallowing, chronic pain, and other long-term complications. However, for some patients with esophageal cancer or other serious conditions affecting the esophagus, esophagectomy may be the best available treatment option.

Lymphatic metastasis is the spread of cancer cells from a primary tumor to distant lymph nodes through the lymphatic system. It occurs when malignant cells break away from the original tumor, enter the lymphatic vessels, and travel to nearby or remote lymph nodes. Once there, these cancer cells can multiply and form new tumors, leading to further progression of the disease. Lymphatic metastasis is a common way for many types of cancer to spread and can have significant implications for prognosis and treatment strategies.

Survival analysis is a branch of statistics that deals with the analysis of time to event data. It is used to estimate the time it takes for a certain event of interest to occur, such as death, disease recurrence, or treatment failure. The event of interest is called the "failure" event, and survival analysis estimates the probability of not experiencing the failure event until a certain point in time, also known as the "survival" probability.

Survival analysis can provide important information about the effectiveness of treatments, the prognosis of patients, and the identification of risk factors associated with the event of interest. It can handle censored data, which is common in medical research where some participants may drop out or be lost to follow-up before the event of interest occurs.

Survival analysis typically involves estimating the survival function, which describes the probability of surviving beyond a certain time point, as well as hazard functions, which describe the instantaneous rate of failure at a given time point. Other important concepts in survival analysis include median survival times, restricted mean survival times, and various statistical tests to compare survival curves between groups.

Patient selection, in the context of medical treatment or clinical research, refers to the process of identifying and choosing appropriate individuals who are most likely to benefit from a particular medical intervention or who meet specific criteria to participate in a study. This decision is based on various factors such as the patient's diagnosis, stage of disease, overall health status, potential risks, and expected benefits. The goal of patient selection is to ensure that the selected individuals will receive the most effective and safe care possible while also contributing to meaningful research outcomes.

A surgical wound infection, also known as a surgical site infection (SSI), is defined by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) as an infection that occurs within 30 days after surgery (or within one year if an implant is left in place) and involves either:

1. Purulent drainage from the incision;
2. Organisms isolated from an aseptically obtained culture of fluid or tissue from the incision;
3. At least one of the following signs or symptoms of infection: pain or tenderness, localized swelling, redness, or heat; and
4. Diagnosis of surgical site infection by the surgeon or attending physician.

SSIs can be classified as superficial incisional, deep incisional, or organ/space infections, depending on the depth and extent of tissue involvement. They are a common healthcare-associated infection and can lead to increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs.

Spinal fusion is a surgical procedure where two or more vertebrae in the spine are fused together to create a solid bone. The purpose of this procedure is to restrict movement between the fused vertebrae, which can help reduce pain and stabilize the spine. This is typically done using bone grafts or bone graft substitutes, along with hardware such as rods, screws, or cages to hold the vertebrae in place while they heal together. The procedure may be recommended for various spinal conditions, including degenerative disc disease, spinal stenosis, spondylolisthesis, scoliosis, or fractures.

Intraoperative monitoring (IOM) is the practice of using specialized techniques to monitor physiological functions or neural structures in real-time during surgical procedures. The primary goal of IOM is to provide continuous information about the patient's status and the effects of surgery on neurological function, allowing surgeons to make informed decisions and minimize potential risks.

IOM can involve various methods such as:

1. Electrophysiological monitoring: This includes techniques like somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEP), motor evoked potentials (MEP), and electroencephalography (EEG) to assess the integrity of neural pathways and brain function during surgery.
2. Neuromonitoring: Direct electrical stimulation of nerves or spinal cord structures can help identify critical neuroanatomical structures, evaluate their functional status, and guide surgical interventions.
3. Hemodynamic monitoring: Measuring blood pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, and oxygen saturation helps assess the patient's overall physiological status during surgery.
4. Imaging modalities: Intraoperative imaging techniques like ultrasound, computed tomography (CT), or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can provide real-time visualization of anatomical structures and surgical progress.

The specific IOM methods employed depend on the type of surgery, patient characteristics, and potential risks involved. Intraoperative monitoring is particularly crucial in procedures where there is a risk of neurological injury, such as spinal cord or brain surgeries, vascular interventions, or tumor resections near critical neural structures.

Endosonography, also known as endoscopic ultrasound (EUS), is a medical procedure that combines endoscopy and ultrasound to obtain detailed images and information about the digestive tract and surrounding organs. An endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at its tip, is inserted through the mouth or rectum to reach the area of interest. A high-frequency ultrasound transducer at the tip of the endoscope generates sound waves that bounce off body tissues and create echoes, which are then translated into detailed images by a computer.

Endosonography allows doctors to visualize structures such as the esophageal, stomach, and intestinal walls, lymph nodes, blood vessels, and organs like the pancreas, liver, and gallbladder. It can help diagnose conditions such as tumors, inflammation, and infections, and it can also be used to guide biopsies or fine-needle aspirations of suspicious lesions.

Overall, endosonography is a valuable tool for the diagnosis and management of various gastrointestinal and related disorders.

Surgical decompression is a medical procedure that involves relieving pressure on a nerve or tissue by creating additional space. This is typically accomplished through the removal of a portion of bone or other tissue that is causing the compression. The goal of surgical decompression is to alleviate symptoms such as pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness caused by the compression.

In the context of spinal disorders, surgical decompression is often used to treat conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or bone spurs that are compressing nerves in the spine. The specific procedure used may vary depending on the location and severity of the compression, but common techniques include laminectomy, discectomy, and foraminotomy.

It's important to note that surgical decompression is a significant medical intervention that carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and injury to surrounding tissues. As with any surgery, it should be considered as a last resort after other conservative treatments have been tried and found to be ineffective. A thorough evaluation by a qualified medical professional is necessary to determine whether surgical decompression is appropriate in a given case.

Esophageal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the tissue of the esophagus, which is the muscular tube that connects the throat to the stomach. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant esophageal neoplasms are typically classified as either squamous cell carcinomas or adenocarcinomas, depending on the type of cell from which they originate.

Esophageal cancer is a serious and often life-threatening condition that can cause symptoms such as difficulty swallowing, chest pain, weight loss, and coughing. Risk factors for esophageal neoplasms include smoking, heavy alcohol consumption, gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and Barrett's esophagus. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Articular Range of Motion (AROM) is a term used in physiotherapy and orthopedics to describe the amount of movement available in a joint, measured in degrees of a circle. It refers to the range through which synovial joints can actively move without causing pain or injury. AROM is assessed by measuring the degree of motion achieved by active muscle contraction, as opposed to passive range of motion (PROM), where the movement is generated by an external force.

Assessment of AROM is important in evaluating a patient's functional ability and progress, planning treatment interventions, and determining return to normal activities or sports participation. It is also used to identify any restrictions in joint mobility that may be due to injury, disease, or surgery, and to monitor the effectiveness of rehabilitation programs.

Multivariate analysis is a statistical method used to examine the relationship between multiple independent variables and a dependent variable. It allows for the simultaneous examination of the effects of two or more independent variables on an outcome, while controlling for the effects of other variables in the model. This technique can be used to identify patterns, associations, and interactions among multiple variables, and is commonly used in medical research to understand complex health outcomes and disease processes. Examples of multivariate analysis methods include multiple regression, factor analysis, cluster analysis, and discriminant analysis.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

Scoliosis is a medical condition characterized by an abnormal lateral curvature of the spine, which most often occurs in the thoracic or lumbar regions. The curvature can be "C" or "S" shaped and may also include rotation of the vertebrae. Mild scoliosis doesn't typically cause problems, but severe cases can interfere with breathing and other bodily functions.

The exact cause of most scoliosis is unknown, but it may be related to genetic factors. It often develops in the pre-teen or teenage years, particularly in girls, and is more commonly found in individuals with certain neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy and muscular dystrophy.

Treatment for scoliosis depends on the severity of the curve, its location, and the age and expected growth of the individual. Mild cases may only require regular monitoring to ensure the curve doesn't worsen. More severe cases may require bracing or surgery to correct the curvature and prevent it from getting worse.

Hip arthroplasty, also known as hip replacement surgery, is a medical procedure where the damaged or diseased joint surfaces of the hip are removed and replaced with artificial components. These components typically include a metal or ceramic ball that replaces the head of the femur (thigh bone), and a polyethylene or ceramic socket that replaces the acetabulum (hip socket) in the pelvis.

The goal of hip arthroplasty is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function to the hip joint. This procedure is commonly performed in patients with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, hip fractures, or other conditions that cause significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several types of hip replacement surgeries, including traditional total hip arthroplasty, partial (hemi) hip arthroplasty, and resurfacing hip arthroplasty. The choice of procedure depends on various factors, such as the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and the extent of joint damage.

After surgery, patients typically require rehabilitation to regain strength, mobility, and function in the affected hip. With proper care and follow-up, most patients can expect significant pain relief and improved quality of life following hip arthroplasty.

Adjuvant chemotherapy is a medical treatment that is given in addition to the primary therapy, such as surgery or radiation, to increase the chances of a cure or to reduce the risk of recurrence in patients with cancer. It involves the use of chemicals (chemotherapeutic agents) to destroy any remaining cancer cells that may not have been removed by the primary treatment. This type of chemotherapy is typically given after the main treatment has been completed, and its goal is to kill any residual cancer cells that may be present in the body and reduce the risk of the cancer coming back. The specific drugs used and the duration of treatment will depend on the type and stage of cancer being treated.

The Kaplan-Meier estimate is a statistical method used to calculate the survival probability over time in a population. It is commonly used in medical research to analyze time-to-event data, such as the time until a patient experiences a specific event like disease progression or death. The Kaplan-Meier estimate takes into account censored data, which occurs when some individuals are lost to follow-up before experiencing the event of interest.

The method involves constructing a survival curve that shows the proportion of subjects still surviving at different time points. At each time point, the survival probability is calculated as the product of the conditional probabilities of surviving from one time point to the next. The Kaplan-Meier estimate provides an unbiased and consistent estimator of the survival function, even when censoring is present.

In summary, the Kaplan-Meier estimate is a crucial tool in medical research for analyzing time-to-event data and estimating survival probabilities over time while accounting for censored observations.

Visual acuity is a measure of the sharpness or clarity of vision. It is usually tested by reading an eye chart from a specific distance, such as 20 feet (6 meters). The standard eye chart used for this purpose is called the Snellen chart, which contains rows of letters that decrease in size as you read down the chart.

Visual acuity is typically expressed as a fraction, with the numerator representing the testing distance and the denominator indicating the smallest line of type that can be read clearly. For example, if a person can read the line on the eye chart that corresponds to a visual acuity of 20/20, it means they have normal vision at 20 feet. If their visual acuity is 20/40, it means they must be as close as 20 feet to see what someone with normal vision can see at 40 feet.

It's important to note that visual acuity is just one aspect of overall vision and does not necessarily reflect other important factors such as peripheral vision, depth perception, color vision, or contrast sensitivity.

Orthopedic procedures are surgical or nonsurgical methods used to treat musculoskeletal conditions, including injuries, deformities, or diseases of the bones, joints, muscles, ligaments, and tendons. These procedures can range from simple splinting or casting to complex surgeries such as joint replacements, spinal fusions, or osteotomies (cutting and repositioning bones). The primary goal of orthopedic procedures is to restore function, reduce pain, and improve the quality of life for patients.

A pneumonectomy is a surgical procedure in which an entire lung is removed. This type of surgery is typically performed as a treatment for certain types of lung cancer, although it may also be used to treat other conditions such as severe damage or infection in the lung that does not respond to other treatments. The surgery requires general anesthesia and can be quite complex, with potential risks including bleeding, infection, pneumonia, and air leaks. Recovery from a pneumonectomy can take several weeks, and patients may require ongoing rehabilitation to regain strength and mobility.

Laser In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) is a type of refractive surgery used to correct vision issues such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), and astigmatism. The procedure involves reshaping the cornea, which is the clear, dome-shaped surface at the front of the eye, using an excimer laser.

In LASIK, a thin flap is created on the surface of the cornea using a femtosecond or microkeratome laser. The flap is then lifted, and the excimer laser is used to reshape the underlying tissue. After the reshaping is complete, the flap is replaced, allowing for quicker healing and visual recovery compared to other refractive surgery procedures.

LASIK is an outpatient procedure that typically takes about 30 minutes or less per eye. Most people can expect to see improved vision within a few days of the procedure, although it may take several weeks for vision to fully stabilize. LASIK has a high success rate and is generally considered safe when performed by a qualified surgeon. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including dry eye, infection, and visual complications such as glare or halos around lights.

The perioperative period is a term used to describe the time frame surrounding a surgical procedure, encompassing the preoperative (before surgery), intraoperative (during surgery), and postoperative (after surgery) phases. This period begins with the initial decision for surgery, continues through the surgical intervention itself, and extends until the patient has fully recovered from the effects of the surgery and anesthesia. The perioperative period involves a multidisciplinary approach to patient care, involving surgeons, anesthesiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals working together to optimize patient outcomes, minimize complications, and ensure a smooth transition back to normal daily activities.

An abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a localized dilatation or bulging of the abdominal aorta, which is the largest artery in the body that supplies oxygenated blood to the trunk and lower extremities. Normally, the diameter of the abdominal aorta measures about 2 centimeters (cm) in adults. However, when the diameter of the aorta exceeds 3 cm, it is considered an aneurysm.

AAA can occur anywhere along the length of the abdominal aorta, but it most commonly occurs below the renal arteries and above the iliac bifurcation. The exact cause of AAA remains unclear, but several risk factors have been identified, including smoking, hypertension, advanced age, male gender, family history, and certain genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome and Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.

The main concern with AAA is the risk of rupture, which can lead to life-threatening internal bleeding. The larger the aneurysm, the greater the risk of rupture. Symptoms of AAA may include abdominal or back pain, a pulsating mass in the abdomen, or symptoms related to compression of surrounding structures such as the kidneys, ureters, or nerves. However, many AAAs are asymptomatic and are discovered incidentally during imaging studies performed for other reasons.

Diagnosis of AAA typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) scan, or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health status. Small AAAs that are not causing symptoms may be monitored with regular imaging studies to assess for growth. Larger AAAs or those that are growing rapidly may require surgical repair, either through open surgery or endovascular repair using a stent graft.

A needle biopsy is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to remove a small sample of tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area of the body. The tissue sample is then examined under a microscope to check for cancer cells or other abnormalities. Needle biopsies are often used to diagnose lumps or masses that can be felt through the skin, but they can also be guided by imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI to reach areas that cannot be felt. There are several types of needle biopsy procedures, including fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA uses a thin needle and gentle suction to remove fluid and cells from the area, while core needle biopsy uses a larger needle to remove a small piece of tissue. The type of needle biopsy used depends on the location and size of the abnormal area, as well as the reason for the procedure.

Angiography is a medical procedure in which an x-ray image is taken to visualize the internal structure of blood vessels, arteries, or veins. This is done by injecting a radiopaque contrast agent (dye) into the blood vessel using a thin, flexible catheter. The dye makes the blood vessels visible on an x-ray image, allowing doctors to diagnose and treat various medical conditions such as blockages, narrowing, or malformations of the blood vessels.

There are several types of angiography, including:

* Cardiac angiography (also called coronary angiography) - used to examine the blood vessels of the heart
* Cerebral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels of the brain
* Peripheral angiography - used to examine the blood vessels in the limbs or other parts of the body.

Angiography is typically performed by a radiologist, cardiologist, or vascular surgeon in a hospital setting. It can help diagnose conditions such as coronary artery disease, aneurysms, and peripheral arterial disease, among others.

Anesthesia is a medical term that refers to the loss of sensation or awareness, usually induced by the administration of various drugs. It is commonly used during surgical procedures to prevent pain and discomfort. There are several types of anesthesia, including:

1. General anesthesia: This type of anesthesia causes a complete loss of consciousness and is typically used for major surgeries.
2. Regional anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a specific area of the body, such as an arm or leg, while the patient remains conscious.
3. Local anesthesia: This type of anesthesia numbs a small area of the body, such as a cut or wound, and is typically used for minor procedures.

Anesthesia can be administered through various routes, including injection, inhalation, or topical application. The choice of anesthesia depends on several factors, including the type and duration of the procedure, the patient's medical history, and their overall health. Anesthesiologists are medical professionals who specialize in administering anesthesia and monitoring patients during surgical procedures to ensure their safety and comfort.

Carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) is a protein that is normally produced in small amounts during fetal development. In adults, low levels of CEA can be found in the blood, but elevated levels are typically associated with various types of cancer, particularly colon, rectal, and breast cancer.

Measurement of CEA levels in the blood is sometimes used as a tumor marker to monitor response to treatment, detect recurrence, or screen for secondary cancers in patients with a history of certain types of cancer. However, it's important to note that CEA is not a specific or sensitive indicator of cancer and can be elevated in various benign conditions such as inflammation, smoking, and some gastrointestinal diseases. Therefore, the test should be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

Ophthalmologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries performed on the eye and its surrounding structures by trained medical professionals called ophthalmologists. These procedures aim to correct or improve vision, diagnose and treat eye diseases or injuries, and enhance the overall health and functionality of the eye. Some common examples of ophthalmologic surgical procedures include:

1. Cataract Surgery: This procedure involves removing a cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye and replacing it with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL).
2. LASIK (Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis): A type of refractive surgery that uses a laser to reshape the cornea, correcting nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism.
3. Glaucoma Surgery: Several surgical options are available for treating glaucoma, including laser trabeculoplasty, traditional trabeculectomy, and various drainage device implantations. These procedures aim to reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) and prevent further optic nerve damage.
4. Corneal Transplant: This procedure involves replacing a damaged or diseased cornea with a healthy donor cornea to restore vision and improve the eye's appearance.
5. Vitreoretinal Surgery: These procedures focus on treating issues within the vitreous humor (gel-like substance filling the eye) and the retina, such as retinal detachment, macular holes, or diabetic retinopathy.
6. Strabismus Surgery: This procedure aims to correct misalignment of the eyes (strabismus) by adjusting the muscles responsible for eye movement.
7. Oculoplastic Surgery: These procedures involve reconstructive, cosmetic, and functional surgeries around the eye, such as eyelid repair, removal of tumors, or orbital fracture repairs.
8. Pediatric Ophthalmologic Procedures: Various surgical interventions are performed on children to treat conditions like congenital cataracts, amblyopia (lazy eye), or blocked tear ducts.

These are just a few examples of ophthalmic surgical procedures. The specific treatment plan will depend on the individual's condition and overall health.

Liver neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the liver that can be benign or malignant. Benign liver neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors that do not spread to other parts of the body, while malignant liver neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade and destroy surrounding tissue and spread to other organs.

Liver neoplasms can be primary, meaning they originate in the liver, or secondary, meaning they have metastasized (spread) to the liver from another part of the body. Primary liver neoplasms can be further classified into different types based on their cell of origin and behavior, including hepatocellular carcinoma, cholangiocarcinoma, and hepatic hemangioma.

The diagnosis of liver neoplasms typically involves a combination of imaging studies, such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and biopsy to confirm the type and stage of the tumor. Treatment options depend on the type and extent of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or liver transplantation.

A Severity of Illness Index is a measurement tool used in healthcare to assess the severity of a patient's condition and the risk of mortality or other adverse outcomes. These indices typically take into account various physiological and clinical variables, such as vital signs, laboratory values, and co-morbidities, to generate a score that reflects the patient's overall illness severity.

Examples of Severity of Illness Indices include the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation (APACHE) system, the Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS), and the Mortality Probability Model (MPM). These indices are often used in critical care settings to guide clinical decision-making, inform prognosis, and compare outcomes across different patient populations.

It is important to note that while these indices can provide valuable information about a patient's condition, they should not be used as the sole basis for clinical decision-making. Rather, they should be considered in conjunction with other factors, such as the patient's overall clinical presentation, treatment preferences, and goals of care.

Ambulatory surgical procedures, also known as outpatient or same-day surgery, refer to medical operations that do not require an overnight hospital stay. These procedures are typically performed in a specialized ambulatory surgery center (ASC) or in a hospital-based outpatient department. Patients undergoing ambulatory surgical procedures receive anesthesia, undergo the operation, and recover enough to be discharged home on the same day of the procedure.

Examples of common ambulatory surgical procedures include:

1. Arthroscopy (joint scope examination and repair)
2. Cataract surgery
3. Colonoscopy and upper endoscopy
4. Dental surgery, such as wisdom tooth extraction
5. Gallbladder removal (cholecystectomy)
6. Hernia repair
7. Hysteroscopy (examination of the uterus)
8. Minor skin procedures, like biopsies and lesion removals
9. Orthopedic procedures, such as carpal tunnel release or joint injections
10. Pain management procedures, including epidural steroid injections and nerve blocks
11. Podiatric (foot and ankle) surgery
12. Tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy

Advancements in medical technology, minimally invasive surgical techniques, and improved anesthesia methods have contributed to the growth of ambulatory surgical procedures, offering patients a more convenient and cost-effective alternative to traditional inpatient surgeries.

Minimally invasive surgical procedures are a type of surgery that is performed with the assistance of specialized equipment and techniques to minimize trauma to the patient's body. This approach aims to reduce blood loss, pain, and recovery time as compared to traditional open surgeries. The most common minimally invasive surgical procedure is laparoscopy, which involves making small incisions (usually 0.5-1 cm) in the abdomen or chest and inserting a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) to visualize the internal organs.

The surgeon then uses long, slender instruments inserted through separate incisions to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as cutting, coagulation, or suturing. Other types of minimally invasive surgical procedures include arthroscopy (for joint surgery), thoracoscopy (for chest surgery), and hysteroscopy (for uterine surgery). The benefits of minimally invasive surgical procedures include reduced postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, quicker return to normal activities, and improved cosmetic results. However, not all surgeries can be performed using minimally invasive techniques, and the suitability of a particular procedure depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the nature and extent of the surgical problem, and the surgeon's expertise.

Fluorouracil is a antineoplastic medication, which means it is used to treat cancer. It is a type of chemotherapy drug known as an antimetabolite. Fluorouracil works by interfering with the growth of cancer cells and ultimately killing them. It is often used to treat colon, esophageal, stomach, and breast cancers, as well as skin conditions such as actinic keratosis and superficial basal cell carcinoma. Fluorouracil may be given by injection or applied directly to the skin in the form of a cream.

It is important to note that fluorouracil can have serious side effects, including suppression of bone marrow function, mouth sores, stomach and intestinal ulcers, and nerve damage. It should only be used under the close supervision of a healthcare professional.

Disease-free survival (DFS) is a term used in medical research and clinical practice, particularly in the field of oncology. It refers to the length of time after primary treatment for a cancer during which no evidence of the disease can be found. This means that the patient shows no signs or symptoms of the cancer, and any imaging studies or other tests do not reveal any tumors or other indications of the disease.

DFS is often used as an important endpoint in clinical trials to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments for cancer. By measuring the length of time until the cancer recurs or a new cancer develops, researchers can get a better sense of how well a particular treatment is working and whether it is improving patient outcomes.

It's important to note that DFS is not the same as overall survival (OS), which refers to the length of time from primary treatment until death from any cause. While DFS can provide valuable information about the effectiveness of cancer treatments, it does not necessarily reflect the impact of those treatments on patients' overall survival.

The thoracic vertebrae are the 12 vertebrae in the thoracic region of the spine, which is the portion between the cervical and lumbar regions. These vertebrae are numbered T1 to T12, with T1 being closest to the skull and T12 connecting to the lumbar region.

The main function of the thoracic vertebrae is to provide stability and support for the chest region, including protection for the vital organs within, such as the heart and lungs. Each thoracic vertebra has costal facets on its sides, which articulate with the heads of the ribs, forming the costovertebral joints. This connection between the spine and the ribcage allows for a range of movements while maintaining stability.

The thoracic vertebrae have a unique structure compared to other regions of the spine. They are characterized by having long, narrow bodies, small bony processes, and prominent spinous processes that point downwards. This particular shape and orientation of the thoracic vertebrae contribute to their role in limiting excessive spinal movement and providing overall trunk stability.

Autologous blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which a patient receives their own blood that has been collected and stored prior to surgery or a medical treatment that may cause significant blood loss. The blood is drawn from the patient, typically in the days or weeks leading up to the scheduled procedure, and then stored until it is needed during or after the surgery.

The primary advantage of autologous blood transfusion is that it eliminates the risk of transfusion reactions, infectious disease transmission, and immunomodulation associated with allogeneic (donor) blood transfusions. However, not all patients are candidates for this type of transfusion due to various factors such as medical conditions, low hemoglobin levels, or insufficient time to collect and store the blood before the procedure.

Autologous blood transfusion can be performed using several methods, including preoperative blood donation, acute normovolemic hemodilution, intraoperative cell salvage, and postoperative blood collection. The choice of method depends on various factors, such as the patient's medical condition, the type and extent of surgery, and the availability of resources.

In summary, autologous blood transfusion is a safe and effective way to reduce the need for allogeneic blood transfusions during or after surgical procedures, but it may not be suitable for all patients.

Pain measurement, in a medical context, refers to the quantification or evaluation of the intensity and/or unpleasantness of a patient's subjective pain experience. This is typically accomplished through the use of standardized self-report measures such as numerical rating scales (NRS), visual analog scales (VAS), or categorical scales (mild, moderate, severe). In some cases, physiological measures like heart rate, blood pressure, and facial expressions may also be used to supplement self-reported pain ratings. The goal of pain measurement is to help healthcare providers better understand the nature and severity of a patient's pain in order to develop an effective treatment plan.

Drainage, in medical terms, refers to the removal of excess fluid or accumulated collections of fluids from various body parts or spaces. This is typically accomplished through the use of medical devices such as catheters, tubes, or drains. The purpose of drainage can be to prevent the buildup of fluids that may cause discomfort, infection, or other complications, or to treat existing collections of fluid such as abscesses, hematomas, or pleural effusions. Drainage may also be used as a diagnostic tool to analyze the type and composition of the fluid being removed.

Cataract extraction is a surgical procedure that involves removing the cloudy lens (cataract) from the eye. This procedure is typically performed to restore vision impairment caused by cataracts and improve overall quality of life. There are two primary methods for cataract extraction:

1. Phacoemulsification: This is the most common method used today. It involves making a small incision in the front part of the eye (cornea), inserting an ultrasonic probe to break up the cloudy lens into tiny pieces, and then removing those pieces with suction. After removing the cataract, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is inserted to replace the natural lens and help focus light onto the retina.

2. Extracapsular Cataract Extraction: In this method, a larger incision is made on the side of the cornea, allowing the surgeon to remove the cloudy lens in one piece without breaking it up. The back part of the lens capsule is left intact to support the IOL. This technique is less common and typically reserved for more advanced cataracts or when phacoemulsification cannot be performed.

Recovery from cataract extraction usually involves using eye drops to prevent infection and inflammation, as well as protecting the eye with a shield or glasses during sleep for a few weeks after surgery. Most people experience improved vision within a few days to a week following the procedure.

Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a surgical procedure to remove the gallbladder using a laparoscope, a thin tube with a camera, which allows the surgeon to view the internal structures on a video monitor. The surgery is performed through several small incisions in the abdomen, rather than a single large incision used in open cholecystectomy. This approach results in less postoperative pain, fewer complications, and shorter recovery time compared to open cholecystectomy.

The procedure is typically indicated for symptomatic gallstones or chronic inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), which can cause severe abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and fever. Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has become the standard of care for gallbladder removal due to its minimally invasive nature and excellent outcomes.

Blood vessel prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure in which an artificial blood vessel, also known as a vascular graft or prosthetic graft, is inserted into the body to replace a damaged or diseased native blood vessel. The prosthetic graft can be made from various materials such as Dacron (polyester), PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene), or bovine/human tissue.

The implantation of a blood vessel prosthesis is typically performed to treat conditions that cause narrowing or blockage of the blood vessels, such as atherosclerosis, aneurysms, or traumatic injuries. The procedure may be used to bypass blocked arteries in the legs (peripheral artery disease), heart (coronary artery bypass surgery), or neck (carotid endarterectomy). It can also be used to replace damaged veins for hemodialysis access in patients with kidney failure.

The success of blood vessel prosthesis implantation depends on various factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the vascular disease, and the type of graft material used. Possible complications include infection, bleeding, graft thrombosis (clotting), and graft failure, which may require further surgical intervention or endovascular treatments.

The rectum is the lower end of the digestive tract, located between the sigmoid colon and the anus. It serves as a storage area for feces before they are eliminated from the body. The rectum is about 12 cm long in adults and is surrounded by layers of muscle that help control defecation. The mucous membrane lining the rectum allows for the detection of stool, which triggers the reflex to have a bowel movement.

Phacoemulsification is a surgical procedure used in cataract removal. It involves using an ultrasonic device to emulsify (break up) the cloudy lens (cataract) into small pieces, which are then aspirated or sucked out through a small incision. This procedure allows for smaller incisions and faster recovery times compared to traditional cataract surgery methods. After the cataract is removed, an artificial intraocular lens (IOL) is typically implanted to replace the natural lens and restore vision.

The lumbar vertebrae are the five largest and strongest vertebrae in the human spine, located in the lower back region. They are responsible for bearing most of the body's weight and providing stability during movement. The lumbar vertebrae have a characteristic shape, with a large body in the front, which serves as the main weight-bearing structure, and a bony ring in the back, formed by the pedicles, laminae, and processes. This ring encloses and protects the spinal cord and nerves. The lumbar vertebrae are numbered L1 to L5, starting from the uppermost one. They allow for flexion, extension, lateral bending, and rotation movements of the trunk.

Neuronavigation is a surgical technique that uses imaging technology, such as MRI or CT scans, to create a 3D map of the patient's brain in real-time during surgery. This allows surgeons to accurately locate and navigate to specific areas of the brain with greater precision and less invasiveness, improving surgical outcomes and reducing the risk of complications.

The neuronavigation system typically consists of a computer workstation, tracking systems, and instruments that are equipped with sensors. The system is able to track the position and orientation of these instruments relative to the patient's brain, allowing the surgeon to visualize the location of the instruments on the 3D map in real-time.

Neuronavigation has become an essential tool in many neurosurgical procedures, including tumor resection, functional neurosurgery, and deep brain stimulation. It enables surgeons to perform more complex surgeries with increased safety and efficacy, ultimately improving the quality of care for patients undergoing these procedures.

Preanesthetic medication, also known as premedication, refers to the administration of medications before anesthesia to help prepare the patient for the upcoming procedure. These medications can serve various purposes, such as:

1. Anxiolysis: Reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation in patients before surgery.
2. Amnesia: Causing temporary memory loss to help patients forget the events leading up to the surgery.
3. Analgesia: Providing pain relief to minimize discomfort during and after the procedure.
4. Antisialagogue: Decreasing saliva production to reduce the risk of aspiration during intubation.
5. Bronchodilation: Relaxing bronchial smooth muscles, which can help improve respiratory function in patients with obstructive lung diseases.
6. Antiemetic: Preventing or reducing the likelihood of postoperative nausea and vomiting.
7. Sedation: Inducing a state of calmness and drowsiness to facilitate a smooth induction of anesthesia.

Common preanesthetic medications include benzodiazepines (e.g., midazolam), opioids (e.g., fentanyl), anticholinergics (e.g., glycopyrrolate), and H1-antihistamines (e.g., diphenhydramine). The choice of preanesthetic medication depends on the patient's medical history, comorbidities, and the type of anesthesia to be administered.

A colectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the large intestine (colon) is removed. This surgery may be performed to treat or prevent various medical conditions, including colon cancer, inflammatory bowel disease, diverticulitis, and severe obstructions or injuries of the colon.

There are several types of colectomies, depending on how much of the colon is removed:

* Total colectomy: Removal of the entire colon.
* Partial colectomy: Removal of a portion of the colon.
* Hemicolectomy: Removal of one half of the colon.
* Sigmoidectomy: Removal of the sigmoid colon, which is the part of the colon that is closest to the rectum.

After the affected portion of the colon is removed, the remaining ends of the intestine are reconnected, allowing stool to pass through the digestive system as usual. In some cases, a temporary or permanent colostomy may be necessary, in which a surgical opening (stoma) is created in the abdominal wall and the end of the colon is attached to it, allowing stool to be collected in a pouch outside the body.

Colectomies are major surgeries that require general anesthesia and hospitalization. The recovery time can vary depending on the type of colectomy performed and the individual's overall health, but typically ranges from several weeks to a few months. Complications of colectomy may include bleeding, infection, leakage from the surgical site, bowel obstruction, and changes in bowel habits or function.

Endoscopy is a medical procedure that involves the use of an endoscope, which is a flexible tube with a light and camera at the end, to examine the interior of a body cavity or organ. The endoscope is inserted through a natural opening in the body, such as the mouth or anus, or through a small incision. The images captured by the camera are transmitted to a monitor, allowing the physician to visualize the internal structures and detect any abnormalities, such as inflammation, ulcers, or tumors. Endoscopy can also be used for diagnostic purposes, such as taking tissue samples for biopsy, or for therapeutic purposes, such as removing polyps or performing minimally invasive surgeries.

Postoperative hemorrhage is a medical term that refers to bleeding that occurs after a surgical procedure. This condition can range from minor oozing to severe, life-threatening bleeding. Postoperative hemorrhage can occur soon after surgery or even several days later, as the surgical site begins to heal.

The causes of postoperative hemorrhage can vary, but some common factors include:

1. Inadequate hemostasis during surgery: This means that all bleeding was not properly controlled during the procedure, leading to bleeding after surgery.
2. Blood vessel injury: During surgery, blood vessels may be accidentally cut or damaged, causing bleeding after the procedure.
3. Coagulopathy: This is a condition in which the body has difficulty forming blood clots, increasing the risk of postoperative hemorrhage.
4. Use of anticoagulant medications: Medications that prevent blood clots can increase the risk of bleeding after surgery.
5. Infection: An infection at the surgical site can cause inflammation and bleeding.

Symptoms of postoperative hemorrhage may include swelling, pain, warmth, or discoloration around the surgical site, as well as signs of shock such as rapid heartbeat, low blood pressure, and confusion. Treatment for postoperative hemorrhage depends on the severity of the bleeding and may include medications to control bleeding, transfusions of blood products, or additional surgery to stop the bleeding.

An excimer laser is a type of laser that is used in various medical procedures, particularly in ophthalmology and dermatology. The term "excimer" is derived from "excited dimer," which refers to a short-lived molecule formed when two atoms combine in an excited state.

Excimer lasers emit light at a specific wavelength that is determined by the type of gas used in the laser. In medical applications, excimer lasers typically use noble gases such as argon, krypton, or xenon, combined with halogens such as fluorine or chlorine. The most commonly used excimer laser in medical procedures is the excimer laser that uses a mixture of argon and fluoride gas to produce light at a wavelength of 193 nanometers (nm).

In ophthalmology, excimer lasers are primarily used for refractive surgery, such as LASIK and PRK, to correct vision problems like myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism. The laser works by vaporizing tiny amounts of tissue from the cornea, reshaping its curvature to improve the way light is focused onto the retina.

In dermatology, excimer lasers are used for various skin conditions, including psoriasis, vitiligo, and atopic dermatitis. The laser works by emitting high-energy ultraviolet (UV) light that selectively targets and destroys the abnormal cells responsible for these conditions while leaving surrounding healthy tissue intact.

Excimer lasers are known for their precision, accuracy, and minimal side effects, making them a popular choice in medical procedures where fine detail and tissue preservation are critical.

Reproducibility of results in a medical context refers to the ability to obtain consistent and comparable findings when a particular experiment or study is repeated, either by the same researcher or by different researchers, following the same experimental protocol. It is an essential principle in scientific research that helps to ensure the validity and reliability of research findings.

In medical research, reproducibility of results is crucial for establishing the effectiveness and safety of new treatments, interventions, or diagnostic tools. It involves conducting well-designed studies with adequate sample sizes, appropriate statistical analyses, and transparent reporting of methods and findings to allow other researchers to replicate the study and confirm or refute the results.

The lack of reproducibility in medical research has become a significant concern in recent years, as several high-profile studies have failed to produce consistent findings when replicated by other researchers. This has led to increased scrutiny of research practices and a call for greater transparency, rigor, and standardization in the conduct and reporting of medical research.

General anesthesia is a state of controlled unconsciousness, induced by administering various medications, that eliminates awareness, movement, and pain sensation during medical procedures. It involves the use of a combination of intravenous and inhaled drugs to produce a reversible loss of consciousness, allowing patients to undergo surgical or diagnostic interventions safely and comfortably. The depth and duration of anesthesia are carefully monitored and adjusted throughout the procedure by an anesthesiologist or certified registered nurse anesthetist (CRNA) to ensure patient safety and optimize recovery. General anesthesia is typically used for more extensive surgical procedures, such as open-heart surgery, major orthopedic surgeries, and neurosurgery.

Pancreatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the pancreas that can be benign or malignant. The pancreas is a gland located behind the stomach that produces hormones and digestive enzymes. Pancreatic neoplasms can interfere with the normal functioning of the pancreas, leading to various health complications.

Benign pancreatic neoplasms are non-cancerous growths that do not spread to other parts of the body. They are usually removed through surgery to prevent any potential complications, such as blocking the bile duct or causing pain.

Malignant pancreatic neoplasms, also known as pancreatic cancer, are cancerous growths that can invade and destroy surrounding tissues and organs. They can also spread (metastasize) to other parts of the body, such as the liver, lungs, or bones. Pancreatic cancer is often aggressive and difficult to treat, with a poor prognosis.

There are several types of pancreatic neoplasms, including adenocarcinomas, neuroendocrine tumors, solid pseudopapillary neoplasms, and cystic neoplasms. The specific type of neoplasm is determined through various diagnostic tests, such as imaging studies, biopsies, and blood tests. Treatment options depend on the type, stage, and location of the neoplasm, as well as the patient's overall health and preferences.

Three-dimensional (3D) imaging in medicine refers to the use of technologies and techniques that generate a 3D representation of internal body structures, organs, or tissues. This is achieved by acquiring and processing data from various imaging modalities such as X-ray computed tomography (CT), magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), ultrasound, or confocal microscopy. The resulting 3D images offer a more detailed visualization of the anatomy and pathology compared to traditional 2D imaging techniques, allowing for improved diagnostic accuracy, surgical planning, and minimally invasive interventions.

In 3D imaging, specialized software is used to reconstruct the acquired data into a volumetric model, which can be manipulated and viewed from different angles and perspectives. This enables healthcare professionals to better understand complex anatomical relationships, detect abnormalities, assess disease progression, and monitor treatment response. Common applications of 3D imaging include neuroimaging, orthopedic surgery planning, cancer staging, dental and maxillofacial reconstruction, and interventional radiology procedures.

Thoracic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the thorax, which is the part of the body that lies between the neck and the abdomen and includes the chest cage, lungs, heart, great blood vessels, esophagus, diaphragm, and other organs in the chest cavity. These surgical procedures can be either open or minimally invasive (using small incisions and specialized instruments) and are performed to diagnose, treat, or manage various medical conditions affecting the thoracic organs, such as:

1. Lung cancer: Thoracic surgeons perform lung resections (lobectomy, segmentectomy, wedge resection) to remove cancerous lung tissue. They may also perform mediastinal lymph node dissection to assess the spread of the disease.
2. Esophageal surgery: Surgeries like esophagectomy are performed to treat esophageal cancer or other conditions affecting the esophagus, such as severe GERD (gastroesophageal reflux disease).
3. Chest wall surgery: This includes procedures to repair or replace damaged ribs, sternum, or chest wall muscles and treat conditions like pectus excavatum or tumors in the chest wall.
4. Heart surgery: Thoracic surgeons collaborate with cardiac surgeons to perform surgeries on the heart, such as coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), valve repair/replacement, and procedures for treating aneurysms or dissections of the aorta.
5. Diaphragm surgery: Procedures like diaphragm plication are performed to treat paralysis or weakness of the diaphragm that can lead to respiratory insufficiency.
6. Mediastinal surgery: This involves operating on the mediastinum, the area between the lungs, to remove tumors, cysts, or other abnormal growths.
7. Pleural surgery: Procedures like pleurodesis or decortication are performed to manage conditions affecting the pleura (the membrane surrounding the lungs), such as pleural effusions, pneumothorax, or empyema.
8. Lung surgery: Thoracic surgeons perform procedures on the lungs, including lobectomy, segmentectomy, or pneumonectomy to treat lung cancer, benign tumors, or other lung diseases.
9. Tracheal surgery: This includes procedures to repair or reconstruct damaged trachea or remove tumors and growths in the airway.
10. Esophageal surgery: Collaborating with general surgeons, thoracic surgeons perform esophagectomy and other procedures to treat esophageal cancer, benign tumors, or other conditions affecting the esophagus.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Therapeutic embolization is a medical procedure that involves intentionally blocking or obstructing blood vessels to stop excessive bleeding or block the flow of blood to a tumor or abnormal tissue. This is typically accomplished by injecting small particles, such as microspheres or coils, into the targeted blood vessel through a catheter, which is inserted into a larger blood vessel and guided to the desired location using imaging techniques like X-ray or CT scanning. The goal of therapeutic embolization is to reduce the size of a tumor, control bleeding, or block off abnormal blood vessels that are causing problems.

A Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve is a graphical representation used in medical decision-making and statistical analysis to illustrate the performance of a binary classifier system, such as a diagnostic test or a machine learning algorithm. It's a plot that shows the tradeoff between the true positive rate (sensitivity) and the false positive rate (1 - specificity) for different threshold settings.

The x-axis of an ROC curve represents the false positive rate (the proportion of negative cases incorrectly classified as positive), while the y-axis represents the true positive rate (the proportion of positive cases correctly classified as positive). Each point on the curve corresponds to a specific decision threshold, with higher points indicating better performance.

The area under the ROC curve (AUC) is a commonly used summary measure that reflects the overall performance of the classifier. An AUC value of 1 indicates perfect discrimination between positive and negative cases, while an AUC value of 0.5 suggests that the classifier performs no better than chance.

ROC curves are widely used in healthcare to evaluate diagnostic tests, predictive models, and screening tools for various medical conditions, helping clinicians make informed decisions about patient care based on the balance between sensitivity and specificity.

Carotid endarterectomy is a surgical procedure to remove plaque buildup (atherosclerosis) from the carotid arteries, which are the major blood vessels that supply oxygen-rich blood to the brain. The surgery involves making an incision in the neck, opening the carotid artery, and removing the plaque from the inside of the artery wall. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal blood flow to the brain and reduce the risk of stroke caused by the narrowing or blockage of the carotid arteries.

Tumor markers are substances that can be found in the body and their presence can indicate the presence of certain types of cancer or other conditions. Biological tumor markers refer to those substances that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer or certain benign (non-cancerous) conditions. These markers can be found in various bodily fluids such as blood, urine, or tissue samples.

Examples of biological tumor markers include:

1. Proteins: Some tumor markers are proteins that are produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to the presence of cancer. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a protein produced by normal prostate cells and in higher amounts by prostate cancer cells.
2. Genetic material: Tumor markers can also include genetic material such as DNA, RNA, or microRNA that are shed by cancer cells into bodily fluids. For example, circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is genetic material from cancer cells that can be found in the bloodstream.
3. Metabolites: Tumor markers can also include metabolic products produced by cancer cells or by other cells in response to cancer. For example, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) is an enzyme that is released into the bloodstream when cancer cells break down glucose for energy.

It's important to note that tumor markers are not specific to cancer and can be elevated in non-cancerous conditions as well. Therefore, they should not be used alone to diagnose cancer but rather as a tool in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Parathyroidectomy is a surgical procedure for the removal of one or more of the parathyroid glands. These glands are located in the neck and are responsible for producing parathyroid hormone (PTH), which helps regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

Parathyroidectomy is typically performed to treat conditions such as hyperparathyroidism, where one or more of the parathyroid glands become overactive and produce too much PTH. This can lead to high levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause symptoms such as weakness, fatigue, bone pain, kidney stones, and mental confusion.

There are different types of parathyroidectomy procedures, including:

* Partial parathyroidectomy: removal of one or more, but not all, of the parathyroid glands.
* Total parathyroidectomy: removal of all four parathyroid glands.
* Subtotal parathyroidectomy: removal of three and a half of the four parathyroid glands, leaving a small portion of one gland to prevent hypoparathyroidism (a condition where the body produces too little PTH).

The choice of procedure depends on the underlying condition and its severity. After the surgery, patients may need to have their calcium levels monitored and may require calcium and vitamin D supplements to maintain normal calcium levels in the blood.

Radiopharmaceuticals are defined as pharmaceutical preparations that contain radioactive isotopes and are used for diagnosis or therapy in nuclear medicine. These compounds are designed to interact specifically with certain biological targets, such as cells, tissues, or organs, and emit radiation that can be detected and measured to provide diagnostic information or used to destroy abnormal cells or tissue in therapeutic applications.

The radioactive isotopes used in radiopharmaceuticals have carefully controlled half-lives, which determine how long they remain radioactive and how long the pharmaceutical preparation remains effective. The choice of radioisotope depends on the intended use of the radiopharmaceutical, as well as factors such as its energy, range of emission, and chemical properties.

Radiopharmaceuticals are used in a wide range of medical applications, including imaging, cancer therapy, and treatment of other diseases and conditions. Examples of radiopharmaceuticals include technetium-99m for imaging the heart, lungs, and bones; iodine-131 for treating thyroid cancer; and samarium-153 for palliative treatment of bone metastases.

The use of radiopharmaceuticals requires specialized training and expertise in nuclear medicine, as well as strict adherence to safety protocols to minimize radiation exposure to patients and healthcare workers.

Surgical anastomosis is a medical procedure that involves the connection of two tubular structures, such as blood vessels or intestines, to create a continuous passage. This technique is commonly used in various types of surgeries, including vascular, gastrointestinal, and orthopedic procedures.

During a surgical anastomosis, the ends of the two tubular structures are carefully prepared by removing any damaged or diseased tissue. The ends are then aligned and joined together using sutures, staples, or other devices. The connection must be secure and leak-free to ensure proper function and healing.

The success of a surgical anastomosis depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and condition of the structures being joined, and the skill and experience of the surgeon. Complications such as infection, bleeding, or leakage can occur, which may require additional medical intervention or surgery.

Proper postoperative care is also essential to ensure the success of a surgical anastomosis. This may include monitoring for signs of complications, administering medications to prevent infection and promote healing, and providing adequate nutrition and hydration.

Antineoplastic combined chemotherapy protocols refer to a treatment plan for cancer that involves the use of more than one antineoplastic (chemotherapy) drug given in a specific sequence and schedule. The combination of drugs is used because they may work better together to destroy cancer cells compared to using a single agent alone. This approach can also help to reduce the likelihood of cancer cells becoming resistant to the treatment.

The choice of drugs, dose, duration, and frequency are determined by various factors such as the type and stage of cancer, patient's overall health, and potential side effects. Combination chemotherapy protocols can be used in various settings, including as a primary treatment, adjuvant therapy (given after surgery or radiation to kill any remaining cancer cells), neoadjuvant therapy (given before surgery or radiation to shrink the tumor), or palliative care (to alleviate symptoms and prolong survival).

It is important to note that while combined chemotherapy protocols can be effective in treating certain types of cancer, they can also cause significant side effects, including nausea, vomiting, hair loss, fatigue, and an increased risk of infection. Therefore, patients undergoing such treatment should be closely monitored and managed by a healthcare team experienced in administering chemotherapy.

A Gastrectomy is a surgical procedure involving the removal of all or part of the stomach. This procedure can be total (complete resection of the stomach), partial (removal of a portion of the stomach), or sleeve (removal of a portion of the stomach to create a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch).

Gastrectomies are typically performed to treat conditions such as gastric cancer, benign tumors, severe peptic ulcers, and in some cases, for weight loss in individuals with morbid obesity. The type of gastrectomy performed depends on the patient's medical condition and the extent of the disease.

Following a gastrectomy, patients may require adjustments to their diet and lifestyle, as well as potential supplementation of vitamins and minerals that would normally be absorbed in the stomach. In some cases, further reconstructive surgery might be necessary to reestablish gastrointestinal continuity.

A laminectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the lamina, which is the back part of the vertebra that covers the spinal canal. This procedure is often performed to relieve pressure on the spinal cord or nerves caused by conditions such as herniated discs, spinal stenosis, or tumors. By removing the lamina, the surgeon can access the affected area and alleviate the compression on the spinal cord or nerves, thereby reducing pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Laminectomy may be performed as a standalone procedure or in combination with other surgical techniques such as discectomy, foraminotomy, or spinal fusion. The specific approach and extent of the surgery will depend on the patient's individual condition and symptoms.

Prosthesis design is a specialized field in medical device technology that involves creating and developing artificial substitutes to replace a missing body part, such as a limb, tooth, eye, or internal organ. The design process typically includes several stages: assessment of the patient's needs, selection of appropriate materials, creation of a prototype, testing and refinement, and final fabrication and fitting of the prosthesis.

The goal of prosthesis design is to create a device that functions as closely as possible to the natural body part it replaces, while also being comfortable, durable, and aesthetically pleasing for the patient. The design process may involve collaboration between medical professionals, engineers, and designers, and may take into account factors such as the patient's age, lifestyle, occupation, and overall health.

Prosthesis design can be highly complex, particularly for advanced devices such as robotic limbs or implantable organs. These devices often require sophisticated sensors, actuators, and control systems to mimic the natural functions of the body part they replace. As a result, prosthesis design is an active area of research and development in the medical field, with ongoing efforts to improve the functionality, comfort, and affordability of these devices for patients.

Thoracotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision on the chest wall to gain access to the thoracic cavity, which contains the lungs, heart, esophagus, trachea, and other vital organs. The incision can be made on the side (lateral thoracotomy), back (posterolateral thoracotomy), or front (median sternotomy) of the chest wall, depending on the specific surgical indication.

Thoracotomy is performed for various indications, including lung biopsy, lung resection, esophagectomy, heart surgery, and mediastinal mass removal. The procedure allows the surgeon to directly visualize and access the organs within the thoracic cavity, perform necessary procedures, and control bleeding if needed.

After the procedure, the incision is typically closed with sutures or staples, and a chest tube may be placed to drain any accumulated fluid or air from the pleural space around the lungs. The patient will require postoperative care and monitoring in a hospital setting until their condition stabilizes.

Reconstructive surgical procedures are a type of surgery aimed at restoring the form and function of body parts that are defective or damaged due to various reasons such as congenital abnormalities, trauma, infection, tumors, or disease. These procedures can involve the transfer of tissue from one part of the body to another, manipulation of bones, muscles, and tendons, or use of prosthetic materials to reconstruct the affected area. The goal is to improve both the physical appearance and functionality of the body part, thereby enhancing the patient's quality of life. Examples include breast reconstruction after mastectomy, cleft lip and palate repair, and treatment of severe burns.

Hospital mortality is a term used to describe the number or rate of deaths that occur in a hospital setting during a specific period. It is often used as a measure of the quality of healthcare provided by a hospital, as a higher hospital mortality rate may indicate poorer care or more complex cases being treated. However, it's important to note that hospital mortality rates can be influenced by many factors, including the severity of illness of the patients being treated, patient demographics, and the availability of resources and specialized care. Therefore, hospital mortality rates should be interpreted with caution and in the context of other quality metrics.

Heart valve prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial heart valve is inserted to replace a damaged or malfunctioning native heart valve. This can be necessary for patients with valvular heart disease, including stenosis (narrowing) or regurgitation (leaking), who do not respond to medical management and are at risk of heart failure or other complications.

There are two main types of artificial heart valves used in prosthesis implantation: mechanical valves and biological valves. Mechanical valves are made of synthetic materials, such as carbon and metal, and can last a long time but require lifelong anticoagulation therapy to prevent blood clots from forming. Biological valves, on the other hand, are made from animal or human tissue and typically do not require anticoagulation therapy but may have a limited lifespan and may need to be replaced in the future.

The decision to undergo heart valve prosthesis implantation is based on several factors, including the patient's age, overall health, type and severity of valvular disease, and personal preferences. The procedure can be performed through traditional open-heart surgery or minimally invasive techniques, such as robotic-assisted surgery or transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Recovery time varies depending on the approach used and individual patient factors.

A meningioma is a type of slow-growing tumor that forms on the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord. It's usually benign, meaning it doesn't spread to other parts of the body, but it can still cause serious problems if it grows and presses on nearby tissues.

Meningiomas most commonly occur in adults, and are more common in women than men. They can cause various symptoms depending on their location and size, including headaches, seizures, vision or hearing problems, memory loss, and changes in personality or behavior. In some cases, they may not cause any symptoms at all and are discovered only during imaging tests for other conditions.

Treatment options for meningiomas include monitoring with regular imaging scans, surgery to remove the tumor, and radiation therapy to shrink or kill the tumor cells. The best treatment approach depends on factors such as the size and location of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and their personal preferences.

Ultrasonography, also known as sonography, is a diagnostic medical procedure that uses high-frequency sound waves (ultrasound) to produce dynamic images of organs, tissues, or blood flow inside the body. These images are captured in real-time and can be used to assess the size, shape, and structure of various internal structures, as well as detect any abnormalities such as tumors, cysts, or inflammation.

During an ultrasonography procedure, a small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the patient's skin, which emits and receives sound waves. The transducer sends high-frequency sound waves into the body, and these waves bounce back off internal structures and are recorded by the transducer. The recorded data is then processed and transformed into visual images that can be interpreted by a medical professional.

Ultrasonography is a non-invasive, painless, and safe procedure that does not use radiation like other imaging techniques such as CT scans or X-rays. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor conditions in various parts of the body, including the abdomen, pelvis, heart, blood vessels, and musculoskeletal system.

Urogenital surgical procedures refer to surgeries that are performed on the urinary and genital systems. The urinary system includes the kidneys, ureters, bladder, and urethra, while the genital system includes the reproductive organs such as the ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, vagina, testicles, epididymis, vas deferens, prostate, and penis.

Urogenital surgical procedures can be performed for various reasons, including the treatment of diseases, injuries, or congenital abnormalities. Some examples of urogenital surgical procedures include:

1. Cystectomy: the removal of the bladder.
2. Nephrectomy: the removal of a kidney.
3. Prostatectomy: the removal of all or part of the prostate gland.
4. Hysterectomy: the removal of the uterus and sometimes the ovaries and fallopian tubes.
5. Vasectomy: a surgical procedure for male sterilization, in which the vas deferens is cut and tied.
6. Vaginoplasty: a surgical procedure to construct or repair a vagina.
7. Urethroplasty: a surgical procedure to reconstruct or repair the urethra.
8. Pyeloplasty: a surgical procedure to correct a congenital or acquired narrowing of the renal pelvis, the area where urine collects before flowing into the ureter.

These procedures can be performed using various surgical techniques, including open surgery, laparoscopic surgery, and robotic-assisted surgery. The choice of technique depends on several factors, including the patient's overall health, the location and extent of the disease or injury, and the surgeon's expertise.

A biopsy is a medical procedure in which a small sample of tissue is taken from the body to be examined under a microscope for the presence of disease. This can help doctors diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, such as cancer, infections, or autoimmune disorders. The type of biopsy performed will depend on the location and nature of the suspected condition. Some common types of biopsies include:

1. Incisional biopsy: In this procedure, a surgeon removes a piece of tissue from an abnormal area using a scalpel or other surgical instrument. This type of biopsy is often used when the lesion is too large to be removed entirely during the initial biopsy.

2. Excisional biopsy: An excisional biopsy involves removing the entire abnormal area, along with a margin of healthy tissue surrounding it. This technique is typically employed for smaller lesions or when cancer is suspected.

3. Needle biopsy: A needle biopsy uses a thin, hollow needle to extract cells or fluid from the body. There are two main types of needle biopsies: fine-needle aspiration (FNA) and core needle biopsy. FNA extracts loose cells, while a core needle biopsy removes a small piece of tissue.

4. Punch biopsy: In a punch biopsy, a round, sharp tool is used to remove a small cylindrical sample of skin tissue. This type of biopsy is often used for evaluating rashes or other skin abnormalities.

5. Shave biopsy: During a shave biopsy, a thin slice of tissue is removed from the surface of the skin using a sharp razor-like instrument. This technique is typically used for superficial lesions or growths on the skin.

After the biopsy sample has been collected, it is sent to a laboratory where a pathologist will examine the tissue under a microscope and provide a diagnosis based on their findings. The results of the biopsy can help guide further treatment decisions and determine the best course of action for managing the patient's condition.

A craniotomy is a surgical procedure where a bone flap is temporarily removed from the skull to access the brain. This procedure is typically performed to treat various neurological conditions, such as brain tumors, aneurysms, arteriovenous malformations, or traumatic brain injuries. After the underlying brain condition is addressed, the bone flap is usually replaced and secured back in place with plates and screws. The purpose of a craniotomy is to provide access to the brain for diagnostic or therapeutic interventions while minimizing potential damage to surrounding tissues.

A feasibility study is a preliminary investigation or analysis conducted to determine the viability of a proposed project, program, or product. In the medical field, feasibility studies are often conducted before implementing new treatments, procedures, equipment, or facilities. These studies help to assess the practicality and effectiveness of the proposed intervention, as well as its potential benefits and risks.

Feasibility studies in healthcare typically involve several steps:

1. Problem identification: Clearly define the problem that the proposed project, program, or product aims to address.
2. Objectives setting: Establish specific, measurable, achievable, relevant, and time-bound (SMART) objectives for the study.
3. Literature review: Conduct a thorough review of existing research and best practices related to the proposed intervention.
4. Methodology development: Design a methodology for data collection and analysis that will help answer the research questions and achieve the study's objectives.
5. Resource assessment: Evaluate the availability and adequacy of resources, including personnel, time, and finances, required to carry out the proposed intervention.
6. Risk assessment: Identify potential risks and challenges associated with the implementation of the proposed intervention and develop strategies to mitigate them.
7. Cost-benefit analysis: Estimate the costs and benefits of the proposed intervention, including direct and indirect costs, as well as short-term and long-term benefits.
8. Stakeholder engagement: Engage relevant stakeholders, such as patients, healthcare providers, administrators, and policymakers, to gather their input and support for the proposed intervention.
9. Decision-making: Based on the findings of the feasibility study, make an informed decision about whether or not to proceed with the proposed project, program, or product.

Feasibility studies are essential in healthcare as they help ensure that resources are allocated efficiently and effectively, and that interventions are evidence-based, safe, and beneficial for patients.

Recurrence, in a medical context, refers to the return of symptoms or signs of a disease after a period of improvement or remission. It indicates that the condition has not been fully eradicated and may require further treatment. Recurrence is often used to describe situations where a disease such as cancer comes back after initial treatment, but it can also apply to other medical conditions. The likelihood of recurrence varies depending on the type of disease and individual patient factors.

The hip joint, also known as the coxal joint, is a ball-and-socket type synovial joint that connects the femur (thigh bone) to the pelvis. The "ball" is the head of the femur, while the "socket" is the acetabulum, a concave surface on the pelvic bone.

The hip joint is surrounded by a strong fibrous capsule and is reinforced by several ligaments, including the iliofemoral, ischiofemoral, and pubofemoral ligaments. The joint allows for flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, medial and lateral rotation, and circumduction movements, making it one of the most mobile joints in the body.

The hip joint is also supported by various muscles, including the gluteus maximus, gluteus medius, gluteus minimus, iliopsoas, and other hip flexors and extensors. These muscles provide stability and strength to the joint, allowing for weight-bearing activities such as walking, running, and jumping.

The cervical vertebrae are the seven vertebrae that make up the upper part of the spine, also known as the neck region. They are labeled C1 to C7, with C1 being closest to the skull and C7 connecting to the thoracic vertebrae in the chest region. The cervical vertebrae have unique structures to allow for a wide range of motion in the neck while also protecting the spinal cord and providing attachment points for muscles and ligaments.

"Age factors" refer to the effects, changes, or differences that age can have on various aspects of health, disease, and medical care. These factors can encompass a wide range of issues, including:

1. Physiological changes: As people age, their bodies undergo numerous physical changes that can affect how they respond to medications, illnesses, and medical procedures. For example, older adults may be more sensitive to certain drugs or have weaker immune systems, making them more susceptible to infections.
2. Chronic conditions: Age is a significant risk factor for many chronic diseases, such as heart disease, diabetes, cancer, and arthritis. As a result, age-related medical issues are common and can impact treatment decisions and outcomes.
3. Cognitive decline: Aging can also lead to cognitive changes, including memory loss and decreased decision-making abilities. These changes can affect a person's ability to understand and comply with medical instructions, leading to potential complications in their care.
4. Functional limitations: Older adults may experience physical limitations that impact their mobility, strength, and balance, increasing the risk of falls and other injuries. These limitations can also make it more challenging for them to perform daily activities, such as bathing, dressing, or cooking.
5. Social determinants: Age-related factors, such as social isolation, poverty, and lack of access to transportation, can impact a person's ability to obtain necessary medical care and affect their overall health outcomes.

Understanding age factors is critical for healthcare providers to deliver high-quality, patient-centered care that addresses the unique needs and challenges of older adults. By taking these factors into account, healthcare providers can develop personalized treatment plans that consider a person's age, physical condition, cognitive abilities, and social circumstances.

Kyphosis is a medical term used to describe an excessive curvature of the spine in the sagittal plane, leading to a rounded or humped back appearance. This condition often affects the thoracic region of the spine and can result from various factors such as age-related degenerative changes, congenital disorders, Scheuermann's disease, osteoporosis, or traumatic injuries. Mild kyphosis may not cause any significant symptoms; however, severe cases can lead to pain, respiratory difficulties, and decreased quality of life. Treatment options typically include physical therapy, bracing, and, in some cases, surgical intervention.

Breast neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the breast tissue that can be benign or malignant. Benign breast neoplasms are non-cancerous tumors or growths, while malignant breast neoplasms are cancerous tumors that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body.

Breast neoplasms can arise from different types of cells in the breast, including milk ducts, milk sacs (lobules), or connective tissue. The most common type of breast cancer is ductal carcinoma, which starts in the milk ducts and can spread to other parts of the breast and nearby structures.

Breast neoplasms are usually detected through screening methods such as mammography, ultrasound, or MRI, or through self-examination or clinical examination. Treatment options for breast neoplasms depend on several factors, including the type and stage of the tumor, the patient's age and overall health, and personal preferences. Treatment may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, hormone therapy, or targeted therapy.

Nonparametric statistics is a branch of statistics that does not rely on assumptions about the distribution of variables in the population from which the sample is drawn. In contrast to parametric methods, nonparametric techniques make fewer assumptions about the data and are therefore more flexible in their application. Nonparametric tests are often used when the data do not meet the assumptions required for parametric tests, such as normality or equal variances.

Nonparametric statistical methods include tests such as the Wilcoxon rank-sum test (also known as the Mann-Whitney U test) for comparing two independent groups, the Wilcoxon signed-rank test for comparing two related groups, and the Kruskal-Wallis test for comparing more than two independent groups. These tests use the ranks of the data rather than the actual values to make comparisons, which allows them to be used with ordinal or continuous data that do not meet the assumptions of parametric tests.

Overall, nonparametric statistics provide a useful set of tools for analyzing data in situations where the assumptions of parametric methods are not met, and can help researchers draw valid conclusions from their data even when the data are not normally distributed or have other characteristics that violate the assumptions of parametric tests.

Liver transplantation is a surgical procedure in which a diseased or failing liver is replaced with a healthy one from a deceased donor or, less commonly, a portion of a liver from a living donor. The goal of the procedure is to restore normal liver function and improve the patient's overall health and quality of life.

Liver transplantation may be recommended for individuals with end-stage liver disease, acute liver failure, certain genetic liver disorders, or liver cancers that cannot be treated effectively with other therapies. The procedure involves complex surgery to remove the diseased liver and implant the new one, followed by a period of recovery and close medical monitoring to ensure proper function and minimize the risk of complications.

The success of liver transplantation has improved significantly in recent years due to advances in surgical techniques, immunosuppressive medications, and post-transplant care. However, it remains a major operation with significant risks and challenges, including the need for lifelong immunosuppression to prevent rejection of the new liver, as well as potential complications such as infection, bleeding, and organ failure.

Arthroscopy is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where an orthopedic surgeon uses an arthroscope (a thin tube with a light and camera on the end) to diagnose and treat problems inside a joint. The surgeon makes a small incision, inserts the arthroscope into the joint, and then uses the attached camera to view the inside of the joint on a monitor. They can then insert other small instruments through additional incisions to repair or remove damaged tissue.

Arthroscopy is most commonly used for joints such as the knee, shoulder, hip, ankle, and wrist. It offers several advantages over traditional open surgery, including smaller incisions, less pain and bleeding, faster recovery time, and reduced risk of infection. The procedure can be used to diagnose and treat a wide range of conditions, including torn ligaments or cartilage, inflamed synovial tissue, loose bone or cartilage fragments, and joint damage caused by arthritis.

A nomogram is a graphical representation of a mathematical formula or equation that allows the user to quickly solve a problem by simply drawing a line between different values on the chart. In the field of medicine, nomograms are often used as a tool for predicting patient outcomes, assessing risk, or making diagnostic decisions based on specific clinical data.

For example, a nomogram may be used to estimate the probability of survival in patients with a particular type of cancer, based on factors such as age, tumor size, and stage of disease. The user would locate the appropriate values for each factor on the nomogram, draw a line connecting them, and read off the estimated probability at the intersection point.

Nomograms can be a useful and intuitive way to communicate complex medical information and help clinicians make informed decisions in a timely manner. However, it is important to note that nomograms are only as accurate as the data they are based on, and should always be used in conjunction with clinical judgment and other relevant factors.

Stomach neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the stomach that can be benign or malignant. They include a wide range of conditions such as:

1. Gastric adenomas: These are benign tumors that develop from glandular cells in the stomach lining.
2. Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs): These are rare tumors that can be found in the stomach and other parts of the digestive tract. They originate from the stem cells in the wall of the digestive tract.
3. Leiomyomas: These are benign tumors that develop from smooth muscle cells in the stomach wall.
4. Lipomas: These are benign tumors that develop from fat cells in the stomach wall.
5. Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs): These are tumors that develop from the neuroendocrine cells in the stomach lining. They can be benign or malignant.
6. Gastric carcinomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the glandular cells in the stomach lining. They are the most common type of stomach neoplasm and include adenocarcinomas, signet ring cell carcinomas, and others.
7. Lymphomas: These are malignant tumors that develop from the immune cells in the stomach wall.

Stomach neoplasms can cause various symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and difficulty swallowing. The diagnosis of stomach neoplasms usually involves a combination of imaging tests, endoscopy, and biopsy. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, chemotherapy, radiation therapy, or targeted therapy.

Lymph node excision is a surgical procedure in which one or more lymph nodes are removed from the body for the purpose of examination. This procedure is often conducted to help diagnose or stage various types of cancer, as malignant cells may spread to the lymphatic system and eventually accumulate within nearby lymph nodes.

During a lymph node excision, an incision is made in the skin overlying the affected lymph node(s). The surgeon carefully dissects the tissue surrounding the lymph node(s) to isolate them from adjacent structures before removing them. In some cases, a sentinel lymph node biopsy may be performed instead, where only the sentinel lymph node (the first lymph node to which cancer cells are likely to spread) is removed and examined.

The excised lymph nodes are then sent to a laboratory for histopathological examination, which involves staining and microscopic evaluation of the tissue to determine whether it contains any malignant cells. The results of this examination can help guide further treatment decisions and provide valuable prognostic information.

Cholecystectomy is a medical procedure to remove the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located on the right side of the abdomen, just beneath the liver. The primary function of the gallbladder is to store and concentrate bile, a digestive fluid produced by the liver. During a cholecystectomy, the surgeon removes the gallbladder, usually due to the presence of gallstones or inflammation that can cause pain, infection, or other complications.

There are two primary methods for performing a cholecystectomy:

1. Open Cholecystectomy: In this traditional surgical approach, the surgeon makes an incision in the abdomen to access and remove the gallbladder. This method is typically used when there are complications or unique circumstances that make laparoscopic surgery difficult or risky.
2. Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy: This is a minimally invasive surgical procedure where the surgeon makes several small incisions in the abdomen, through which a thin tube with a camera (laparoscope) and specialized surgical instruments are inserted. The surgeon then guides these tools to remove the gallbladder while viewing the internal structures on a video monitor.

After the gallbladder is removed, bile flows directly from the liver into the small intestine through the common bile duct, and the body continues to function normally without any significant issues.

A blood transfusion is a medical procedure in which blood or its components are transferred from one individual (donor) to another (recipient) through a vein. The donated blood can be fresh whole blood, packed red blood cells, platelets, plasma, or cryoprecipitate, depending on the recipient's needs. Blood transfusions are performed to replace lost blood due to severe bleeding, treat anemia, support patients undergoing major surgeries, or manage various medical conditions such as hemophilia, thalassemia, and leukemia. The donated blood must be carefully cross-matched with the recipient's blood type to minimize the risk of transfusion reactions.

Hyperparathyroidism is a condition in which the parathyroid glands produce excessive amounts of parathyroid hormone (PTH). There are four small parathyroid glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. They release PTH into the bloodstream to help regulate the levels of calcium and phosphorus in the body.

In hyperparathyroidism, overproduction of PTH can lead to an imbalance in these minerals, causing high blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia) and low phosphate levels (hypophosphatemia). This can result in various symptoms such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive issues.

There are two types of hyperparathyroidism: primary and secondary. Primary hyperparathyroidism occurs when there is a problem with one or more of the parathyroid glands, causing them to become overactive and produce too much PTH. Secondary hyperparathyroidism develops as a response to low calcium levels in the body due to conditions like vitamin D deficiency, chronic kidney disease, or malabsorption syndromes.

Treatment for hyperparathyroidism depends on the underlying cause and severity of symptoms. In primary hyperparathyroidism, surgery to remove the overactive parathyroid gland(s) is often recommended. For secondary hyperparathyroidism, treating the underlying condition and managing calcium levels with medications or dietary changes may be sufficient.

A fine-needle biopsy (FNB) is a medical procedure in which a thin, hollow needle is used to obtain a sample of cells or tissue from a suspicious or abnormal area in the body, such as a lump or mass. The needle is typically smaller than that used in a core needle biopsy, and it is guided into place using imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI.

The sample obtained during an FNB can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, including cancer, infection, or inflammation. The procedure is generally considered safe and well-tolerated, with minimal risks of complications such as bleeding, infection, or discomfort. However, the accuracy of the diagnosis depends on the skill and experience of the healthcare provider performing the biopsy, as well as the adequacy of the sample obtained.

Overall, FNB is a valuable diagnostic tool that can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about treatment options and improve patient outcomes.

Thyroidectomy is a surgical procedure where all or part of the thyroid gland is removed. The thyroid gland is a butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the neck, responsible for producing hormones that regulate metabolism, growth, and development.

There are different types of thyroidectomy procedures, including:

1. Total thyroidectomy: Removal of the entire thyroid gland.
2. Partial (or subtotal) thyroidectomy: Removal of a portion of the thyroid gland.
3. Hemithyroidectomy: Removal of one lobe of the thyroid gland, often performed to treat benign solitary nodules or differentiated thyroid cancer.

Thyroidectomy may be recommended for various reasons, such as treating thyroid nodules, goiter, hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid), or thyroid cancer. Potential risks and complications of the procedure include bleeding, infection, damage to nearby structures like the parathyroid glands and recurrent laryngeal nerve, and hypoparathyroidism or hypothyroidism due to removal of or damage to the parathyroid glands or thyroid gland, respectively. Close postoperative monitoring and management are essential to minimize these risks and ensure optimal patient outcomes.

A pancreatectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of the pancreas is removed. There are several types of pancreatectomies, including:

* **Total pancreatectomy:** Removal of the entire pancreas, as well as the spleen and nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is usually done for patients with cancer that has spread throughout the pancreas or for those who have had multiple surgeries to remove pancreatic tumors.
* **Distal pancreatectomy:** Removal of the body and tail of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the body or tail of the pancreas.
* **Partial (or segmental) pancreatectomy:** Removal of a portion of the head or body of the pancreas, as well as nearby lymph nodes. This type of pancreatectomy is often done for patients with tumors in the head or body of the pancreas that can be removed without removing the entire organ.
* **Pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy (PPPD):** A type of surgery used to treat tumors in the head of the pancreas, as well as other conditions such as chronic pancreatitis. In this procedure, the head of the pancreas, duodenum, gallbladder, and bile duct are removed, but the stomach and lower portion of the esophagus (pylorus) are left in place.

After a pancreatectomy, patients may experience problems with digestion and blood sugar regulation, as the pancreas plays an important role in these functions. Patients may need to take enzyme supplements to help with digestion and may require insulin therapy to manage their blood sugar levels.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, and Duplex are diagnostic medical techniques that use sound waves to create images of internal body structures and assess their function. Here are the definitions for each:

1. Ultrasonography: Also known as ultrasound, this is a non-invasive imaging technique that uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal organs and tissues. A small handheld device called a transducer is placed on the skin surface, which emits and receives sound waves. The returning echoes are then processed to create real-time visual images of the internal structures.
2. Doppler: This is a type of ultrasound that measures the velocity and direction of blood flow in the body by analyzing the frequency shift of the reflected sound waves. It can be used to assess blood flow in various parts of the body, such as the heart, arteries, and veins.
3. Duplex: Duplex ultrasonography is a combination of both gray-scale ultrasound and Doppler ultrasound. It provides detailed images of internal structures, as well as information about blood flow velocity and direction. This technique is often used to evaluate conditions such as deep vein thrombosis, carotid artery stenosis, and peripheral arterial disease.

In summary, ultrasonography is a diagnostic imaging technique that uses sound waves to create images of internal structures, Doppler is a type of ultrasound that measures blood flow velocity and direction, and duplex is a combination of both techniques that provides detailed images and information about blood flow.

Parathyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the parathyroid glands, which are small endocrine glands located in the neck, near or within the thyroid gland. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous).

Benign parathyroid neoplasms are typically called parathyroid adenomas and are the most common type of parathyroid disorder. They result in overproduction of parathyroid hormone (PTH), leading to a condition known as primary hyperparathyroidism. Symptoms may include kidney stones, osteoporosis, fatigue, depression, and abdominal pain.

Malignant parathyroid neoplasms are called parathyroid carcinomas. They are rare but more aggressive than adenomas, with a higher risk of recurrence and metastasis. Symptoms are similar to those of benign neoplasms but may also include hoarseness, difficulty swallowing, and enlarged lymph nodes in the neck.

It is important to note that parathyroid neoplasms can only be definitively diagnosed through biopsy or surgical removal and subsequent histopathological examination.

A vitrectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of some or all of the vitreous humor, which is the clear gel-like substance filling the center of the eye. This surgery is often performed to treat various retinal disorders such as diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment, macular hole, and vitreous hemorrhage.

During a vitrectomy, the ophthalmologist makes small incisions in the sclera (the white part of the eye) to access the vitreous cavity. The surgeon then uses specialized instruments to remove the cloudy or damaged vitreous and may also repair any damage to the retina or surrounding tissues. Afterward, a clear saline solution is injected into the eye to maintain its shape and help facilitate healing.

In some cases, a gas bubble or silicone oil may be placed in the eye after the vitrectomy to help hold the retina in place while it heals. These substances will gradually be absorbed or removed during follow-up appointments. The body naturally produces a new, clear vitreous to replace the removed material over time.

Vitrectomy is typically performed under local anesthesia and may require hospitalization or outpatient care depending on the individual case. Potential risks and complications include infection, bleeding, cataract formation, retinal detachment, and increased eye pressure. However, with proper care and follow-up, most patients experience improved vision after a successful vitrectomy procedure.

Common bile duct neoplasms refer to abnormal growths that can occur in the common bile duct, which is a tube that carries bile from the liver and gallbladder into the small intestine. These growths can be benign or malignant (cancerous).

Benign neoplasms of the common bile duct include papillomas, adenomas, and leiomyomas. Malignant neoplasms are typically adenocarcinomas, which arise from the glandular cells lining the duct. Other types of malignancies that can affect the common bile duct include cholangiocarcinoma, gallbladder carcinoma, and metastatic cancer from other sites.

Symptoms of common bile duct neoplasms may include jaundice (yellowing of the skin and eyes), abdominal pain, dark urine, and light-colored stools. Diagnosis may involve imaging tests such as CT scans or MRCP (magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography) and biopsy to confirm the type of neoplasm. Treatment options depend on the type and stage of the neoplasm and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Morbid obesity is a severe form of obesity, defined by a body mass index (BMI) of 40 or higher or a BMI of 35 or higher in the presence of at least one serious obesity-related health condition, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, or sleep apnea. It is called "morbid" because it significantly increases the risk of various life-threatening health problems and reduces life expectancy.

Morbid obesity is typically associated with significant excess body weight, often characterized by a large amount of abdominal fat, that can strain the body's organs and lead to serious medical complications, such as:

* Type 2 diabetes
* High blood pressure (hypertension)
* Heart disease
* Stroke
* Sleep apnea and other respiratory problems
* Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD)
* Osteoarthritis
* Certain types of cancer, such as breast, colon, and endometrial cancer

Morbid obesity can also have significant negative impacts on a person's quality of life, including mobility issues, difficulty with daily activities, and increased risk of mental health problems, such as depression and anxiety. Treatment for morbid obesity typically involves a combination of lifestyle changes, medication, and in some cases, surgery.

Spinal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors found within the spinal column, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These tumors can originate in the spine itself, called primary spinal neoplasms, or they can spread to the spine from other parts of the body, known as secondary or metastatic spinal neoplasms. Spinal neoplasms can cause various symptoms, such as back pain, neurological deficits, and even paralysis, depending on their location and size. Early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent or minimize long-term complications and improve the patient's prognosis.

Internal fixators are medical devices that are implanted into the body through surgery to stabilize and hold broken or fractured bones in the correct position while they heal. These devices can be made from various materials, such as metal (stainless steel or titanium) or bioabsorbable materials. Internal fixators can take many forms, including plates, screws, rods, nails, wires, or cages, depending on the type and location of the fracture.

The main goal of using internal fixators is to promote bone healing by maintaining accurate reduction and alignment of the fractured bones, allowing for early mobilization and rehabilitation. This can help reduce the risk of complications such as malunion, nonunion, or deformity. Internal fixators are typically removed once the bone has healed, although some bioabsorbable devices may not require a second surgery for removal.

It is important to note that while internal fixators provide stability and support for fractured bones, they do not replace the need for proper immobilization, protection, or rehabilitation during the healing process. Close follow-up with an orthopedic surgeon is essential to ensure appropriate healing and address any potential complications.

The Anesthesia Department in a hospital is a specialized medical unit responsible for providing anesthetic care to patients undergoing surgical and diagnostic procedures. The department is typically staffed by trained medical professionals known as anesthesiologists, who are medical doctors specializing in anesthesia, as well as nurse anesthetists and anesthesia assistants.

The primary role of the Anesthesia Department is to ensure the safety and comfort of patients during medical procedures that require anesthesia. This may involve administering general anesthesia, which renders the patient unconscious, or regional anesthesia, which numbs a specific area of the body. The anesthesiologist will monitor the patient's vital signs throughout the procedure and adjust the anesthesia as necessary to ensure the patient's safety and comfort.

The Anesthesia Department is also responsible for preoperative assessment and evaluation of patients, including medical history review, physical examination, and laboratory testing. This helps to identify any potential risks or complications associated with anesthesia and allows the anesthesiologist to develop an appropriate anesthetic plan for each patient.

In addition to providing anesthesia care during surgical procedures, the Anesthesia Department may also be involved in managing pain in other settings, such as critical care units, emergency departments, and pain clinics. They may use a variety of techniques, including medications, nerve blocks, and other interventional procedures, to help relieve pain and improve patients' quality of life.

Vascular patency is a term used in medicine to describe the state of a blood vessel (such as an artery or vein) being open, unobstructed, and allowing for the normal flow of blood. It is an important concept in the treatment and management of various cardiovascular conditions, such as peripheral artery disease, coronary artery disease, and deep vein thrombosis.

Maintaining vascular patency can help prevent serious complications like tissue damage, organ dysfunction, or even death. This may involve medical interventions such as administering blood-thinning medications to prevent clots, performing procedures to remove blockages, or using devices like stents to keep vessels open. Regular monitoring of vascular patency is also crucial for evaluating the effectiveness of treatments and adjusting care plans accordingly.

Neoplasm invasiveness is a term used in pathology and oncology to describe the aggressive behavior of cancer cells as they invade surrounding tissues and organs. This process involves the loss of cell-to-cell adhesion, increased motility and migration, and the ability of cancer cells to degrade the extracellular matrix (ECM) through the production of enzymes such as matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs).

Invasive neoplasms are cancers that have spread beyond the original site where they first developed and have infiltrated adjacent tissues or structures. This is in contrast to non-invasive or in situ neoplasms, which are confined to the epithelial layer where they originated and have not yet invaded the underlying basement membrane.

The invasiveness of a neoplasm is an important prognostic factor in cancer diagnosis and treatment, as it can indicate the likelihood of metastasis and the potential effectiveness of various therapies. In general, more invasive cancers are associated with worse outcomes and require more aggressive treatment approaches.

A laparotomy is a surgical procedure that involves making an incision in the abdominal wall to gain access to the abdominal cavity. This procedure is typically performed to diagnose and treat various conditions such as abdominal trauma, tumors, infections, or inflammatory diseases. The size of the incision can vary depending on the reason for the surgery and the extent of the condition being treated. Once the procedure is complete, the incision is closed with sutures or staples.

The term "laparotomy" comes from the Greek words "lapara," which means "flank" or "side," and "tome," which means "to cut." Together, they describe the surgical procedure that involves cutting into the abdomen to examine its contents.

CA-125 antigen is a type of protein that is found on the surface of many ovarian cancer cells and is often used as a tumor marker to monitor the effectiveness of treatment and to detect recurrence of ovarian cancer. Elevated levels of CA-125 may also be present in other types of cancer, as well as nonmalignant conditions such as endometriosis, pelvic inflammatory disease, and cirrhosis. It is important to note that while CA-125 can be a useful tool in managing ovarian cancer, it is not specific to this type of cancer and should be used in conjunction with other diagnostic tests and clinical evaluations.

Prostatic neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the prostate gland, which can be benign or malignant. The term "neoplasm" simply means new or abnormal tissue growth. When it comes to the prostate, neoplasms are often referred to as tumors.

Benign prostatic neoplasms, such as prostate adenomas, are non-cancerous overgrowths of prostate tissue. They usually grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. While they can cause uncomfortable symptoms like difficulty urinating, they are generally not life-threatening.

Malignant prostatic neoplasms, on the other hand, are cancerous growths. The most common type of prostate cancer is adenocarcinoma, which arises from the glandular cells in the prostate. Prostate cancer often grows slowly and may not cause any symptoms for many years. However, some types of prostate cancer can be aggressive and spread quickly to other parts of the body, such as the bones or lymph nodes.

It's important to note that while prostate neoplasms can be concerning, early detection and treatment can significantly improve outcomes for many men. Regular check-ups with a healthcare provider are key to monitoring prostate health and catching any potential issues early on.

Spiral Computed Tomography (CT), also known as Helical CT, is a type of computed tomography scan in which the X-ray tube and detector rotate around the patient in a spiral path, capturing data as the table moves the patient through the scanner. This continuous spiral motion allows for faster and more detailed volumetric imaging of internal organs and structures, reducing the need for multiple slices and providing improved image reconstruction. It is commonly used to diagnose and monitor various medical conditions, including cancer, heart disease, and trauma injuries.

Aortography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the aorta, which is the largest blood vessel in the body. The procedure is usually performed to diagnose or assess various conditions related to the aorta, such as aneurysms, dissections, or blockages.

To perform an aortography, a contrast dye is injected into the aorta through a catheter that is inserted into an artery, typically in the leg or arm. The contrast dye makes the aorta visible on X-ray images, allowing doctors to see its structure and any abnormalities that may be present.

The procedure is usually performed in a hospital or outpatient setting and may require sedation or anesthesia. While aortography can provide valuable diagnostic information, it also carries some risks, such as allergic reactions to the contrast dye, damage to blood vessels, or infection. Therefore, it is typically reserved for situations where other diagnostic tests have been inconclusive or where more invasive treatment may be required.

Anterior Temporal Lobectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the anterior (front) part of the temporal lobe of the brain. This procedure is often performed to treat certain types of epilepsy that are resistant to medication, as well as other conditions such as tumors or degenerative diseases that affect this area of the brain.

The temporal lobe is located on each side of the brain and is involved in several important functions, including hearing, memory, emotion, and language comprehension. The anterior portion of the temporal lobe contains structures such as the amygdala and hippocampus, which are critical for the formation and retrieval of memories.

During an anterior temporal lobectomy, a neurosurgeon will make an incision in the skull and remove a portion of the brain tissue that is causing seizures or other symptoms. The size and location of the resection will depend on the specific condition being treated and the individual patient's needs. After the surgery, patients may require rehabilitation to help them recover from any cognitive or physical deficits caused by the procedure.

Acquired joint deformities refer to structural changes in the alignment and shape of a joint that develop after birth, due to various causes such as injury, disease, or wear and tear. These deformities can affect the function and mobility of the joint, causing pain, stiffness, and limited range of motion. Examples of conditions that can lead to acquired joint deformities include arthritis, infection, trauma, and nerve damage. Treatment may involve medication, physical therapy, or surgery to correct the deformity and alleviate symptoms.

Suture techniques refer to the various methods used by surgeons to sew or stitch together tissues in the body after an injury, trauma, or surgical incision. The main goal of suturing is to approximate and hold the edges of the wound together, allowing for proper healing and minimizing scar formation.

There are several types of suture techniques, including:

1. Simple Interrupted Suture: This is one of the most basic suture techniques where the needle is passed through the tissue at a right angle, creating a loop that is then tightened to approximate the wound edges. Multiple stitches are placed along the length of the incision or wound.
2. Continuous Locking Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed continuously through the tissue in a zigzag pattern, with each stitch locking into the previous one. This creates a continuous line of sutures that provides strong tension and support to the wound edges.
3. Running Suture: Similar to the continuous locking suture, this technique involves passing the needle continuously through the tissue in a straight line. However, instead of locking each stitch, the needle is simply passed through the previous loop before being tightened. This creates a smooth and uninterrupted line of sutures that can be easily removed after healing.
4. Horizontal Mattress Suture: In this technique, two parallel stitches are placed horizontally across the wound edges, creating a "mattress" effect that provides additional support and tension to the wound. This is particularly useful in deep or irregularly shaped wounds.
5. Vertical Mattress Suture: Similar to the horizontal mattress suture, this technique involves placing two parallel stitches vertically across the wound edges. This creates a more pronounced "mattress" effect that can help reduce tension and minimize scarring.
6. Subcuticular Suture: In this technique, the needle is passed just below the surface of the skin, creating a smooth and barely visible line of sutures. This is particularly useful in cosmetic surgery or areas where minimizing scarring is important.

The choice of suture technique depends on various factors such as the location and size of the wound, the type of tissue involved, and the patient's individual needs and preferences. Proper suture placement and tension are crucial for optimal healing and aesthetic outcomes.

An adenoma is a benign (noncancerous) tumor that develops from glandular epithelial cells. These types of cells are responsible for producing and releasing fluids, such as hormones or digestive enzymes, into the surrounding tissues. Adenomas can occur in various organs and glands throughout the body, including the thyroid, pituitary, adrenal, and digestive systems.

Depending on their location, adenomas may cause different symptoms or remain asymptomatic. Some common examples of adenomas include:

1. Colorectal adenoma (also known as a polyp): These growths occur in the lining of the colon or rectum and can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated. Regular screenings, such as colonoscopies, are essential for early detection and removal of these polyps.
2. Thyroid adenoma: This type of adenoma affects the thyroid gland and may result in an overproduction or underproduction of hormones, leading to conditions like hyperthyroidism (overactive thyroid) or hypothyroidism (underactive thyroid).
3. Pituitary adenoma: These growths occur in the pituitary gland, which is located at the base of the brain and controls various hormonal functions. Depending on their size and location, pituitary adenomas can cause vision problems, headaches, or hormonal imbalances that affect growth, reproduction, and metabolism.
4. Liver adenoma: These rare benign tumors develop in the liver and may not cause any symptoms unless they become large enough to press on surrounding organs or structures. In some cases, liver adenomas can rupture and cause internal bleeding.
5. Adrenal adenoma: These growths occur in the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys and produce hormones that regulate stress responses, metabolism, and blood pressure. Most adrenal adenomas are nonfunctioning, meaning they do not secrete excess hormones. However, functioning adrenal adenomas can lead to conditions like Cushing's syndrome or Conn's syndrome, depending on the type of hormone being overproduced.

It is essential to monitor and manage benign tumors like adenomas to prevent potential complications, such as rupture, bleeding, or hormonal imbalances. Treatment options may include surveillance with imaging studies, medication to manage hormonal issues, or surgical removal of the tumor in certain cases.

Positron-Emission Tomography (PET) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called a radiotracer, to produce detailed, three-dimensional images. This technique measures metabolic activity within the body, such as sugar metabolism, to help distinguish between healthy and diseased tissue, identify cancerous cells, or examine the function of organs.

During a PET scan, the patient is injected with a radiotracer, typically a sugar-based compound labeled with a positron-emitting radioisotope, such as fluorine-18 (^18^F). The radiotracer accumulates in cells that are metabolically active, like cancer cells. As the radiotracer decays, it emits positrons, which then collide with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays. A special camera, called a PET scanner, detects these gamma rays and uses this information to create detailed images of the body's internal structures and processes.

PET is often used in conjunction with computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to provide both functional and anatomical information, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning. Common applications include detecting cancer recurrence, staging and monitoring cancer, evaluating heart function, and assessing brain function in conditions like dementia and epilepsy.

Prostate-Specific Antigen (PSA) is a glycoprotein enzyme produced by the epithelial cells of the prostate gland. It is primarily involved in liquefying semen after ejaculation, allowing sperm mobility.

In clinical medicine, PSA is used as a tumor marker, mainly for monitoring the treatment and recurrence of prostate cancer. Elevated levels of PSA can indicate inflammation, infection, benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), or prostate cancer. However, it's important to note that an elevated PSA level does not necessarily confirm cancer; further diagnostic tests like digital rectal examination, transrectal ultrasound, and prostate biopsy are often required for definitive diagnosis.

Doctors may also use PSA isoforms or derivatives, such as free PSA, total PSA, and PSA density, to help improve the specificity of cancer detection and differentiate between malignant and benign conditions.

An aortic aneurysm is a medical condition characterized by the abnormal widening or bulging of the wall of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. When the aortic wall weakens, it can stretch and balloon out, forming an aneurysm.

Aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the aorta but are most commonly found in the abdominal section (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the chest area (thoracic aortic aneurysm). The size and location of the aneurysm, as well as the patient's overall health, determine the risk of rupture and associated complications.

Aneurysms often do not cause symptoms until they become large or rupture. Symptoms may include:

* Pain in the chest, back, or abdomen
* Pulsating sensation in the abdomen
* Difficulty breathing
* Hoarseness
* Coughing or vomiting

Risk factors for aortic aneurysms include age, smoking, high blood pressure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. Treatment options depend on the size and location of the aneurysm and may include monitoring, medication, or surgical repair.

Meningeal neoplasms, also known as malignant meningitis or leptomeningeal carcinomatosis, refer to cancerous tumors that originate in the meninges, which are the membranes covering the brain and spinal cord. These tumors can arise primarily from the meningeal cells themselves, although they more commonly result from the spread (metastasis) of cancer cells from other parts of the body, such as breast, lung, or melanoma.

Meningeal neoplasms can cause a variety of symptoms, including headaches, nausea and vomiting, mental status changes, seizures, and focal neurological deficits. Diagnosis typically involves imaging studies (such as MRI) and analysis of cerebrospinal fluid obtained through a spinal tap. Treatment options may include radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or surgery, depending on the type and extent of the tumor. The prognosis for patients with meningeal neoplasms is generally poor, with a median survival time of several months to a year.

Heart valve diseases are a group of conditions that affect the function of one or more of the heart's four valves (tricuspid, pulmonic, mitral, and aortic). These valves are responsible for controlling the direction and flow of blood through the heart. Heart valve diseases can cause the valves to become narrowed (stenosis), leaky (regurgitation or insufficiency), or improperly closed (prolapse), leading to disrupted blood flow within the heart and potentially causing symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, and irregular heart rhythms. The causes of heart valve diseases can include congenital defects, age-related degenerative changes, infections, rheumatic heart disease, and high blood pressure. Treatment options may include medications, surgical repair or replacement of the affected valve(s), or transcatheter procedures.

In epidemiology, the incidence of a disease is defined as the number of new cases of that disease within a specific population over a certain period of time. It is typically expressed as a rate, with the number of new cases in the numerator and the size of the population at risk in the denominator. Incidence provides information about the risk of developing a disease during a given time period and can be used to compare disease rates between different populations or to monitor trends in disease occurrence over time.

Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) is a type of refractive surgery used to correct vision issues such as nearsightedness, farsightedness, and astigmatism. It works by reshaping the cornea using a laser, which alters how light enters the eye and focuses on the retina.

In PRK, the surgeon removes the thin outer layer of the cornea (epithelium) with an alcohol solution or a blunt surgical instrument before using the laser to reshape the underlying stromal layer. The epithelium then grows back during the healing process, which can take several days.

Compared to LASIK (another type of refractive surgery), PRK has a longer recovery time and may cause more discomfort in the first few days after surgery. However, it is an option for people who are not good candidates for LASIK due to thin corneas or other eye conditions.

It's important to note that while refractive surgeries like PRK can significantly improve vision and reduce dependence on glasses or contact lenses, they may not completely eliminate the need for corrective eyewear in all cases. Additionally, as with any surgical procedure, there are potential risks and complications associated with PRK, including infection, dry eye, and visual disturbances such as glare or halos around lights.

Proportional hazards models are a type of statistical analysis used in medical research to investigate the relationship between covariates (predictor variables) and survival times. The most common application of proportional hazards models is in the Cox regression model, which is named after its developer, Sir David Cox.

In a proportional hazards model, the hazard rate or risk of an event occurring at a given time is assumed to be proportional to the hazard rate of a reference group, after adjusting for the covariates. This means that the ratio of the hazard rates between any two individuals remains constant over time, regardless of their survival times.

Mathematically, the hazard function h(t) at time t for an individual with a set of covariates X can be expressed as:

h(t|X) = h0(t) \* exp(β1X1 + β2X2 + ... + βpXp)

where h0(t) is the baseline hazard function, X1, X2, ..., Xp are the covariates, and β1, β2, ..., βp are the regression coefficients that represent the effect of each covariate on the hazard rate.

The assumption of proportionality is crucial in the interpretation of the results from a Cox regression model. If the assumption is violated, then the estimated regression coefficients may be biased and misleading. Therefore, it is important to test for the proportional hazards assumption before interpreting the results of a Cox regression analysis.

Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 (FDG-18) is not a medical condition, but a radiopharmaceutical used in medical imaging. It is a type of glucose (a simple sugar) that has been chemically combined with a small amount of a radioactive isotope called fluorine-18.

FDG-18 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help identify areas of the body where cells are using more energy than normal, such as cancerous tumors. The FDG-18 is injected into the patient's vein and travels throughout the body. Because cancer cells often use more glucose than normal cells, they tend to absorb more FDG-18.

Once inside the body, the FDG-18 emits positrons, which interact with electrons in nearby tissue, producing gamma rays that can be detected by a PET scanner. The resulting images can help doctors locate and assess the size and activity of cancerous tumors, as well as monitor the effectiveness of treatment.

Bile duct neoplasms, also known as cholangiocarcinomas, refer to a group of malignancies that arise from the bile ducts. These are the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder and small intestine. Bile duct neoplasms can be further classified based on their location as intrahepatic (within the liver), perihilar (at the junction of the left and right hepatic ducts), or distal (in the common bile duct).

These tumors are relatively rare, but their incidence has been increasing in recent years. They can cause a variety of symptoms, including jaundice, abdominal pain, weight loss, and fever. The diagnosis of bile duct neoplasms typically involves imaging studies such as CT or MRI scans, as well as blood tests to assess liver function. In some cases, a biopsy may be necessary to confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment options for bile duct neoplasms depend on several factors, including the location and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health. Surgical resection is the preferred treatment for early-stage tumors, while chemotherapy and radiation therapy may be used in more advanced cases. For patients who are not candidates for surgery, palliative treatments such as stenting or bypass procedures may be recommended to relieve symptoms and improve quality of life.

Kidney neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the kidney tissues that can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can originate from various types of kidney cells, including the renal tubules, glomeruli, and the renal pelvis.

Malignant kidney neoplasms are also known as kidney cancers, with renal cell carcinoma being the most common type. Benign kidney neoplasms include renal adenomas, oncocytomas, and angiomyolipomas. While benign neoplasms are generally not life-threatening, they can still cause problems if they grow large enough to compromise kidney function or if they undergo malignant transformation.

Early detection and appropriate management of kidney neoplasms are crucial for improving patient outcomes and overall prognosis. Regular medical check-ups, imaging studies, and urinalysis can help in the early identification of these growths, allowing for timely intervention and treatment.

The ligamentum flavum is a pair of elastic bands of tissue located in the spine. They connect the laminae, which are parts of the vertebral arch, from one vertebra to the next in the spine. These ligaments help maintain the stability and alignment of the vertebral column, allowing for a limited range of movement while preventing excessive motion that could cause injury. The elasticity of the ligamentum flavum also facilitates the return of the spinal column to its normal position after flexion.

These ligaments are named "flavum" because they have a yellowish color due to their high elastin content. They play an essential role in protecting the spinal cord and nerve roots from damage during movements of the spine. Any degeneration, thickening, or calcification of the ligamentum flavum may lead to conditions such as spinal stenosis, which can cause pain, numbness, or weakness in the back, legs, or arms.

Radiotherapy dosage refers to the total amount of radiation energy that is absorbed by tissues or organs, typically measured in units of Gray (Gy), during a course of radiotherapy treatment. It is the product of the dose rate (the amount of radiation delivered per unit time) and the duration of treatment. The prescribed dosage for cancer treatments can range from a few Gray to more than 70 Gy, depending on the type and location of the tumor, the patient's overall health, and other factors. The goal of radiotherapy is to deliver a sufficient dosage to destroy the cancer cells while minimizing damage to surrounding healthy tissues.

The knee joint, also known as the tibiofemoral joint, is the largest and one of the most complex joints in the human body. It is a synovial joint that connects the thighbone (femur) to the shinbone (tibia). The patella (kneecap), which is a sesamoid bone, is located in front of the knee joint and helps in the extension of the leg.

The knee joint is made up of three articulations: the femorotibial joint between the femur and tibia, the femoropatellar joint between the femur and patella, and the tibiofibular joint between the tibia and fibula. These articulations are surrounded by a fibrous capsule that encloses the synovial membrane, which secretes synovial fluid to lubricate the joint.

The knee joint is stabilized by several ligaments, including the medial and lateral collateral ligaments, which provide stability to the sides of the joint, and the anterior and posterior cruciate ligaments, which prevent excessive forward and backward movement of the tibia relative to the femur. The menisci, which are C-shaped fibrocartilaginous structures located between the femoral condyles and tibial plateaus, also help to stabilize the joint by absorbing shock and distributing weight evenly across the articular surfaces.

The knee joint allows for flexion, extension, and a small amount of rotation, making it essential for activities such as walking, running, jumping, and sitting.

A hysterectomy is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of the uterus (womb). Depending on the specific medical condition and necessity, a hysterectomy may also include the removal of the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and surrounding tissues. There are different types of hysterectomies, including:

1. Total hysterectomy: The uterus and cervix are removed.
2. Supracervical (or subtotal) hysterectomy: Only the upper part of the uterus is removed, leaving the cervix intact.
3. Radical hysterectomy: This procedure involves removing the uterus, cervix, surrounding tissues, and the upper part of the vagina. It is typically performed in cases of cervical cancer.
4. Oophorectomy: The removal of one or both ovaries can be performed along with a hysterectomy depending on the patient's medical condition and age.
5. Salpingectomy: The removal of one or both fallopian tubes can also be performed along with a hysterectomy if needed.

The reasons for performing a hysterectomy may include but are not limited to: uterine fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding, endometriosis, adenomyosis, pelvic prolapse, cervical or uterine cancer, and chronic pelvic pain. The choice of the type of hysterectomy depends on the patient's medical condition, age, and personal preferences.

Carcinoma is a type of cancer that develops from epithelial cells, which are the cells that line the inner and outer surfaces of the body. These cells cover organs, glands, and other structures within the body. Carcinomas can occur in various parts of the body, including the skin, lungs, breasts, prostate, colon, and pancreas. They are often characterized by the uncontrolled growth and division of abnormal cells that can invade surrounding tissues and spread to other parts of the body through a process called metastasis. Carcinomas can be further classified based on their appearance under a microscope, such as adenocarcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and basal cell carcinoma.

Patient satisfaction is a concept in healthcare quality measurement that reflects the patient's perspective and evaluates their experience with the healthcare services they have received. It is a multidimensional construct that includes various aspects such as interpersonal mannerisms of healthcare providers, technical competence, accessibility, timeliness, comfort, and communication.

Patient satisfaction is typically measured through standardized surveys or questionnaires that ask patients to rate their experiences on various aspects of care. The results are often used to assess the quality of care provided by healthcare organizations, identify areas for improvement, and inform policy decisions. However, it's important to note that patient satisfaction is just one aspect of healthcare quality and should be considered alongside other measures such as clinical outcomes and patient safety.

Bone screws are medical devices used in orthopedic and trauma surgery to affix bone fracture fragments or to attach bones to other bones or to metal implants such as plates, rods, or artificial joints. They are typically made of stainless steel or titanium alloys and have a threaded shaft that allows for purchase in the bone when tightened. The head of the screw may have a hexagonal or star-shaped design to allow for precise tightening with a screwdriver. Bone screws come in various shapes, sizes, and designs, including fully threaded, partially threaded, cannulated (hollow), and headless types, depending on their intended use and location in the body.

Microsurgery is a surgical technique that requires the use of an operating microscope and fine instruments to perform precise surgical manipulations. It is commonly used in various fields such as ophthalmology, neurosurgery, orthopedic surgery, and plastic and reconstructive surgery. The magnification provided by the microscope allows surgeons to work on small structures like nerves, blood vessels, and tiny bones. Some of the most common procedures that fall under microsurgery include nerve repair, replantation of amputated parts, and various types of reconstructions such as free tissue transfer for cancer reconstruction or coverage of large wounds.

A pancreatic cyst is a fluid-filled sac that forms in the pancreas, a gland located behind the stomach that produces enzymes to help with digestion and hormones to regulate blood sugar levels. Pancreatic cysts can be classified into several types, including congenital (present at birth), retention (formed due to blockage of pancreatic ducts), and pseudocysts (formed as a result of injury or inflammation).

While some pancreatic cysts may not cause any symptoms, others can lead to abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, or jaundice. Some cysts may also have the potential to become cancerous over time. Therefore, it is essential to monitor and evaluate pancreatic cysts through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, and in some cases, endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) with fine-needle aspiration (FNA) may be necessary for further evaluation.

Treatment options for pancreatic cysts depend on the type, size, location, and symptoms of the cyst, as well as the patient's overall health condition. Some cysts may require surgical removal, while others can be managed with regular monitoring and follow-up care. It is essential to consult a healthcare provider for proper evaluation and management of pancreatic cysts.

The aortic valve is the valve located between the left ventricle (the lower left chamber of the heart) and the aorta (the largest artery in the body, which carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body). It is made up of three thin flaps or leaflets that open and close to regulate blood flow. During a heartbeat, the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta, and then closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the ventricle when it relaxes. Any abnormality or damage to this valve can lead to various cardiovascular conditions such as aortic stenosis, aortic regurgitation, or infective endocarditis.

Patient care planning is a critical aspect of medical practice that involves the development, implementation, and evaluation of an individualized plan for patients to receive high-quality and coordinated healthcare services. It is a collaborative process between healthcare professionals, patients, and their families that aims to identify the patient's health needs, establish realistic goals, and determine the most effective interventions to achieve those goals.

The care planning process typically includes several key components, such as:

1. Assessment: A comprehensive evaluation of the patient's physical, psychological, social, and environmental status to identify their healthcare needs and strengths.
2. Diagnosis: The identification of the patient's medical condition(s) based on clinical findings and diagnostic tests.
3. Goal-setting: The establishment of realistic and measurable goals that address the patient's healthcare needs and align with their values, preferences, and lifestyle.
4. Intervention: The development and implementation of evidence-based strategies to achieve the identified goals, including medical treatments, therapies, and supportive services.
5. Monitoring and evaluation: The ongoing assessment of the patient's progress towards achieving their goals and adjusting the care plan as needed based on changes in their condition or response to treatment.

Patient care planning is essential for ensuring that patients receive comprehensive, coordinated, and personalized care that promotes their health, well-being, and quality of life. It also helps healthcare professionals to communicate effectively, make informed decisions, and provide safe and effective care that meets the needs and expectations of their patients.

Cholangiography is a medical procedure that involves taking X-ray images of the bile ducts (the tubes that carry bile from the liver to the small intestine). This is typically done by injecting a contrast dye into the bile ducts through an endoscope or a catheter that has been inserted into the body.

There are several types of cholangiography, including:

* Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP): This procedure involves inserting an endoscope through the mouth and down the throat into the small intestine. A dye is then injected into the bile ducts through a small tube that is passed through the endoscope.
* Percutaneous transhepatic cholangiography (PTC): This procedure involves inserting a needle through the skin and into the liver to inject the contrast dye directly into the bile ducts.
* Operative cholangiography: This procedure is performed during surgery to examine the bile ducts for any abnormalities or blockages.

Cholangiography can help diagnose a variety of conditions that affect the bile ducts, such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation. It can also be used to guide treatment decisions, such as whether surgery is necessary to remove a blockage.

Anesthesiology is a medical specialty concerned with providing anesthesia, which is the loss of sensation or awareness, to patients undergoing surgical, diagnostic, or therapeutic procedures. Anesthesiologists are responsible for administering various types of anesthetics, monitoring the patient's vital signs during the procedure, and managing any complications that may arise. They also play a critical role in pain management before, during, and after surgery, as well as in the treatment of chronic pain conditions.

Anesthesiologists work closely with other medical professionals, including surgeons, anesthetists, nurses, and respiratory therapists, to ensure that patients receive the best possible care. They must have a thorough understanding of human physiology, pharmacology, and anatomy, as well as excellent communication skills and the ability to make quick decisions under high pressure.

The primary goal of anesthesiology is to provide safe and effective anesthesia that minimizes pain and discomfort while maximizing patient safety and comfort. This requires a deep understanding of the risks and benefits associated with different types of anesthetics, as well as the ability to tailor the anesthetic plan to each individual patient's needs and medical history.

In summary, anesthesiology is a critical medical specialty focused on providing safe and effective anesthesia and pain management for patients undergoing surgical or other medical procedures.

Heart disease is a broad term for a class of diseases that involve the heart or blood vessels. It's often used to refer to conditions that include:

1. Coronary artery disease (CAD): This is the most common type of heart disease. It occurs when the arteries that supply blood to the heart become hardened and narrowed due to the buildup of cholesterol and other substances, which can lead to chest pain (angina), shortness of breath, or a heart attack.

2. Heart failure: This condition occurs when the heart is unable to pump blood efficiently to meet the body's needs. It can be caused by various conditions, including coronary artery disease, high blood pressure, and cardiomyopathy.

3. Arrhythmias: These are abnormal heart rhythms, which can be too fast, too slow, or irregular. They can lead to symptoms such as palpitations, dizziness, and fainting.

4. Valvular heart disease: This involves damage to one or more of the heart's four valves, which control blood flow through the heart. Damage can be caused by various conditions, including infection, rheumatic fever, and aging.

5. Cardiomyopathy: This is a disease of the heart muscle that makes it harder for the heart to pump blood efficiently. It can be caused by various factors, including genetics, viral infections, and drug abuse.

6. Pericardial disease: This involves inflammation or other problems with the sac surrounding the heart (pericardium). It can cause chest pain and other symptoms.

7. Congenital heart defects: These are heart conditions that are present at birth, such as a hole in the heart or abnormal blood vessels. They can range from mild to severe and may require medical intervention.

8. Heart infections: The heart can become infected by bacteria, viruses, or parasites, leading to various symptoms and complications.

It's important to note that many factors can contribute to the development of heart disease, including genetics, lifestyle choices, and certain medical conditions. Regular check-ups and a healthy lifestyle can help reduce the risk of developing heart disease.

Obstructive Jaundice is a medical condition characterized by the yellowing of the skin, sclera (whites of the eyes), and mucous membranes due to the accumulation of bilirubin in the bloodstream. This occurs when there is an obstruction or blockage in the bile ducts that transport bile from the liver to the small intestine.

Bile, which contains bilirubin, aids in digestion and is usually released from the liver into the small intestine. When the flow of bile is obstructed, bilirubin builds up in the blood, causing jaundice. The obstruction can be caused by various factors, such as gallstones, tumors, or strictures in the bile ducts.

Obstructive jaundice may present with additional symptoms like dark urine, light-colored stools, itching, abdominal pain, and weight loss, depending on the cause and severity of the obstruction. It is essential to seek medical attention if jaundice is observed, as timely diagnosis and management can prevent potential complications, such as liver damage or infection.

Brain neoplasms, also known as brain tumors, are abnormal growths of cells within the brain. These growths can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Benign brain tumors typically grow slowly and do not spread to other parts of the body. However, they can still cause serious problems if they press on sensitive areas of the brain. Malignant brain tumors, on the other hand, are cancerous and can grow quickly, invading surrounding brain tissue and spreading to other parts of the brain or spinal cord.

Brain neoplasms can arise from various types of cells within the brain, including glial cells (which provide support and insulation for nerve cells), neurons (nerve cells that transmit signals in the brain), and meninges (the membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord). They can also result from the spread of cancer cells from other parts of the body, known as metastatic brain tumors.

Symptoms of brain neoplasms may vary depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Common symptoms include headaches, seizures, weakness or paralysis in the limbs, difficulty with balance and coordination, changes in speech or vision, confusion, memory loss, and changes in behavior or personality.

Treatment for brain neoplasms depends on several factors, including the type, size, location, and grade of the tumor, as well as the patient's age and overall health. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or a combination of these approaches. Regular follow-up care is essential to monitor for recurrence and manage any long-term effects of treatment.

Nephrectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of a kidney is removed. It may be performed due to various reasons such as severe kidney damage, kidney cancer, or living donor transplantation. The type of nephrectomy depends on the reason for the surgery - a simple nephrectomy involves removing only the affected portion of the kidney, while a radical nephrectomy includes removal of the whole kidney along with its surrounding tissues like the adrenal gland and lymph nodes.

Lymph nodes are small, bean-shaped organs that are part of the immune system. They are found throughout the body, especially in the neck, armpits, groin, and abdomen. Lymph nodes filter lymph fluid, which carries waste and unwanted substances such as bacteria, viruses, and cancer cells. They contain white blood cells called lymphocytes that help fight infections and diseases by attacking and destroying the harmful substances found in the lymph fluid. When an infection or disease is present, lymph nodes may swell due to the increased number of immune cells and fluid accumulation as they work to fight off the invaders.

A "torsion abnormality" is not a standard medical term, but I believe you are asking about torsional deformities or abnormalities related to torsion. Torsion refers to a twisting force or movement that can cause structures to rotate around their long axis. In the context of medical definitions:

Torsional abnormality could refer to a congenital or acquired condition where anatomical structures, such as blood vessels, muscles, tendons, or bones, are twisted or rotated in an abnormal way. This can lead to various complications depending on the structure involved and the degree of torsion.

For instance, in congenital torsional deformities of long bones (like tibia or femur), the rotation of the bone axis can cause issues with gait, posture, and joint function. In some cases, this may require surgical intervention to correct the abnormality.

In the context of vascular torsion abnormalities, such as mesenteric torsion, it could lead to bowel ischemia due to the twisting of blood vessels that supply the intestines. This can be a surgical emergency and requires immediate intervention to restore blood flow and prevent further damage.

It's essential to consult with a medical professional for a precise diagnosis and treatment options if you or someone else experiences symptoms related to torsional abnormalities.

Neoplasm grading is a system used by pathologists to classify the degree of abnormality in cells that make up a tumor (neoplasm). It provides an assessment of how quickly the tumor is likely to grow and spread. The grade helps doctors predict the prognosis and determine the best treatment options.

Neoplasm grading typically involves evaluating certain cellular features under a microscope, such as:

1. Differentiation or degree of maturity: This refers to how closely the tumor cells resemble their normal counterparts in terms of size, shape, and organization. Well-differentiated tumors have cells that look more like normal cells and are usually slower growing. Poorly differentiated tumors have cells that appear very abnormal and tend to grow and spread more aggressively.

2. Mitotic count: This is the number of times the tumor cells divide (mitosis) within a given area. A higher mitotic count indicates a faster-growing tumor.

3. Necrosis: This refers to areas of dead tissue within the tumor. A significant amount of necrosis may suggest a more aggressive tumor.

Based on these and other factors, pathologists assign a grade to the tumor using a standardized system, such as the Bloom-Richardson or Scarff-Bloom-Richardson grading systems for breast cancer or the Fuhrman grading system for kidney cancer. The grade usually consists of a number or a range (e.g., G1, G2, G3, or G4) or a combination of grades (e.g., low grade, intermediate grade, and high grade).

In general, higher-grade tumors have a worse prognosis than lower-grade tumors because they are more likely to grow quickly, invade surrounding tissues, and metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body. However, neoplasm grading is just one aspect of cancer diagnosis and treatment planning. Other factors, such as the stage of the disease, location of the tumor, patient's overall health, and specific molecular markers, are also considered when making treatment decisions.

Chemoradiotherapy, adjuvant is a medical treatment approach that involves the use of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy in combination to kill any remaining cancer cells after surgery. The goal of this therapy is to reduce the risk of recurrence or spread of the cancer. Adjuvant chemoradiotherapy may be recommended for certain types of cancers, such as colon, rectal, breast, head and neck, and lung cancer, among others.

Adjuvant chemotherapy involves the use of drugs that kill cancer cells throughout the body, while adjuvant radiotherapy uses high-energy radiation to target specific areas where the cancer was removed during surgery. The combination of these two treatments can be more effective than either treatment alone in preventing cancer recurrence and improving survival rates.

The timing and duration of chemoradiotherapy, as well as the specific drugs and doses used, may vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated, as well as the individual patient's overall health and medical history. It is important for patients to discuss their treatment options with their healthcare team to determine the best approach for their particular situation.

The pelvis is the lower part of the trunk, located between the abdomen and the lower limbs. It is formed by the fusion of several bones: the ilium, ischium, and pubis (which together form the hip bone on each side), and the sacrum and coccyx in the back. The pelvis has several functions including supporting the weight of the upper body when sitting, protecting the lower abdominal organs, and providing attachment for muscles that enable movement of the lower limbs. In addition, it serves as a bony canal through which the reproductive and digestive tracts pass. The pelvic cavity contains several vital organs such as the bladder, parts of the large intestine, and in females, the uterus, ovaries, and fallopian tubes.

Colorectal neoplasms refer to abnormal growths in the colon or rectum, which can be benign or malignant. These growths can arise from the inner lining (mucosa) of the colon or rectum and can take various forms such as polyps, adenomas, or carcinomas.

Benign neoplasms, such as hyperplastic polyps and inflammatory polyps, are not cancerous but may need to be removed to prevent the development of malignant tumors. Adenomas, on the other hand, are precancerous lesions that can develop into colorectal cancer if left untreated.

Colorectal cancer is a malignant neoplasm that arises from the uncontrolled growth and division of cells in the colon or rectum. It is one of the most common types of cancer worldwide and can spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or lymphatic system.

Regular screening for colorectal neoplasms is recommended for individuals over the age of 50, as early detection and removal of precancerous lesions can significantly reduce the risk of developing colorectal cancer.

The odds ratio (OR) is a statistical measure used in epidemiology and research to estimate the association between an exposure and an outcome. It represents the odds that an event will occur in one group versus the odds that it will occur in another group, assuming that all other factors are held constant.

In medical research, the odds ratio is often used to quantify the strength of the relationship between a risk factor (exposure) and a disease outcome. An OR of 1 indicates no association between the exposure and the outcome, while an OR greater than 1 suggests that there is a positive association between the two. Conversely, an OR less than 1 implies a negative association.

It's important to note that the odds ratio is not the same as the relative risk (RR), which compares the incidence rates of an outcome in two groups. While the OR can approximate the RR when the outcome is rare, they are not interchangeable and can lead to different conclusions about the association between an exposure and an outcome.

The ampulla of Vater, also known as hepatopancreatic ampulla, is a dilated portion of the common bile duct where it joins the main pancreatic duct and empties into the second part of the duodenum. It serves as a conduit for both bile from the liver and digestive enzymes from the pancreas to reach the small intestine, facilitating the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The ampulla of Vater is surrounded by a muscular sphincter, the sphincter of Oddi, which controls the flow of these secretions into the duodenum.

The abdomen refers to the portion of the body that lies between the thorax (chest) and the pelvis. It is a musculo-fascial cavity containing the digestive, urinary, and reproductive organs. The abdominal cavity is divided into several regions and quadrants for medical description and examination purposes. These include the upper and lower abdomen, as well as nine quadrants formed by the intersection of the midline and a horizontal line drawn at the level of the umbilicus (navel).

The major organs located within the abdominal cavity include:

1. Stomach - muscular organ responsible for initial digestion of food
2. Small intestine - long, coiled tube where most nutrient absorption occurs
3. Large intestine - consists of the colon and rectum; absorbs water and stores waste products
4. Liver - largest internal organ, involved in protein synthesis, detoxification, and metabolism
5. Pancreas - secretes digestive enzymes and hormones such as insulin
6. Spleen - filters blood and removes old red blood cells
7. Kidneys - pair of organs responsible for filtering waste products from the blood and producing urine
8. Adrenal glands - sit atop each kidney, produce hormones that regulate metabolism, immune response, and stress response

The abdomen is an essential part of the human body, playing a crucial role in digestion, absorption, and elimination of food and waste materials, as well as various metabolic processes.

Blood grouping, also known as blood typing, is the process of determining a person's ABO and Rh (Rhesus) blood type. The ABO blood group system includes four main blood types: A, B, AB, and O, based on the presence or absence of antigens A and B on the surface of red blood cells. The Rh blood group system is another important classification system that determines whether the Rh factor (a protein also found on the surface of red blood cells) is present or absent.

Knowing a person's blood type is crucial in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood. If a patient receives an incompatible blood type, it can trigger an immune response leading to serious complications such as hemolysis (destruction of red blood cells), kidney failure, or even death.

Crossmatching is a laboratory test performed before a blood transfusion to determine the compatibility between the donor's and recipient's blood. It involves mixing a small sample of the donor's red blood cells with the recipient's serum (the liquid portion of the blood containing antibodies) and observing for any agglutination (clumping) or hemolysis. If there is no reaction, the blood is considered compatible, and the transfusion can proceed.

In summary, blood grouping and crossmatching are essential tests in transfusion medicine to ensure compatibility between donor and recipient blood and prevent adverse reactions that could harm the patient's health.

Coronary artery bypass, off-pump refers to a surgical procedure used to treat coronary artery disease (CAD), which is the narrowing or blockage of the coronary arteries due to the buildup of fatty deposits called plaques. This procedure is also known as off-pump coronary artery bypass (OPCAB) or beating heart bypass surgery.

In a coronary artery bypass, off-pump procedure, the surgeon creates a new pathway for blood to flow around the blocked or narrowed portion of the coronary artery using a healthy blood vessel from another part of the body, such as the chest wall (internal mammary artery) or the leg (saphenous vein). This allows oxygen-rich blood to bypass the blockage and reach the heart muscle directly.

The key difference between on-pump and off-pump coronary artery bypass surgery is that in an off-pump procedure, the heart continues to beat during the operation, and no heart-lung machine (cardiopulmonary bypass) is used. This approach has several potential advantages over on-pump CABG, including reduced risks of bleeding, stroke, and kidney failure. However, it may not be suitable for all patients, particularly those with complex or extensive coronary artery disease.

Overall, coronary artery bypass, off-pump surgery is a safe and effective treatment option for many patients with CAD, and can help improve symptoms, quality of life, and long-term outcomes.

Intraocular lens (IOL) implantation is a surgical procedure that involves placing a small artificial lens inside the eye to replace the natural lens that has been removed. This procedure is typically performed during cataract surgery, where the cloudy natural lens is removed and replaced with an IOL to restore clear vision.

During the procedure, a small incision is made in the eye, and the cloudy lens is broken up and removed using ultrasound waves or laser energy. Then, the folded IOL is inserted through the same incision and positioned in the correct place inside the eye. Once in place, the IOL unfolds and is secured into position.

There are several types of IOLs available, including monofocal, multifocal, toric, and accommodating lenses. Monofocal lenses provide clear vision at one distance, while multifocal lenses offer clear vision at multiple distances. Toric lenses correct astigmatism, and accommodating lenses can change shape to focus on objects at different distances.

Overall, intraocular lens implantation is a safe and effective procedure that can help restore clear vision in patients with cataracts or other eye conditions that require the removal of the natural lens.

Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid is a radioactive tracer used in medical imaging procedures, specifically in nuclear medicine. It is composed of tiny particles of sulfur colloid that are labeled with the radioisotope Technetium-99m. This compound is typically injected into the patient's body, where it accumulates in certain organs or tissues, depending on the specific medical test being conducted.

The radioactive emissions from Technetium Tc 99m Sulfur Colloid are then detected by a gamma camera, which produces images that can help doctors diagnose various medical conditions, such as liver disease, inflammation, or tumors. The half-life of Technetium-99m is approximately six hours, which means that its radioactivity decreases rapidly and is eliminated from the body within a few days.

CA 19-9 antigen, also known as carbohydrate antigen 19-9, is a tumor marker that is commonly found in the blood. It is a type of sialylated Lewis blood group antigen, which is a complex carbohydrate molecule found on the surface of many cells in the body.

CA 19-9 antigen is often elevated in people with certain types of cancer, particularly pancreatic cancer, bile duct cancer, and colon cancer. However, it can also be elevated in noncancerous conditions such as pancreatitis, liver cirrhosis, and cholestasis. Therefore, CA 19-9 antigen is not a specific or sensitive marker for cancer, and its use as a screening test for cancer is not recommended.

Instead, CA 19-9 antigen is often used as a tumor marker to monitor the response to treatment in people with known cancers, particularly pancreatic cancer. A decrease in CA 19-9 antigen levels may indicate that the cancer is responding to treatment, while an increase may suggest that the cancer is growing or has recurred. However, it is important to note that CA 19-9 antigen levels can also be affected by other factors, such as the size and location of the tumor, the presence of obstructive jaundice, and the patient's overall health status. Therefore, CA 19-9 antigen should always be interpreted in conjunction with other clinical and diagnostic findings.

A blood vessel prosthesis is a medical device that is used as a substitute for a damaged or diseased natural blood vessel. It is typically made of synthetic materials such as polyester, Dacron, or ePTFE (expanded polytetrafluoroethylene) and is designed to mimic the function of a native blood vessel by allowing the flow of blood through it.

Blood vessel prostheses are used in various surgical procedures, including coronary artery bypass grafting, peripheral arterial reconstruction, and the creation of arteriovenous fistulas for dialysis access. The choice of material and size of the prosthesis depends on several factors, such as the location and diameter of the vessel being replaced, the patient's age and overall health status, and the surgeon's preference.

It is important to note that while blood vessel prostheses can be effective in restoring blood flow, they may also carry risks such as infection, thrombosis (blood clot formation), and graft failure over time. Therefore, careful patient selection, surgical technique, and postoperative management are crucial for the success of these procedures.

The spine, also known as the vertebral column, is a complex structure in the human body that is part of the axial skeleton. It is composed of 33 individual vertebrae (except in some people where there are fewer due to fusion of certain vertebrae), intervertebral discs, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, and nerves.

The spine has several important functions:

1. Protection: The spine protects the spinal cord, which is a major component of the nervous system, by enclosing it within a bony canal.
2. Support: The spine supports the head and upper body, allowing us to maintain an upright posture and facilitating movement of the trunk and head.
3. Movement: The spine enables various movements such as flexion (bending forward), extension (bending backward), lateral flexion (bending sideways), and rotation (twisting).
4. Weight-bearing: The spine helps distribute weight and pressure evenly across the body, reducing stress on individual vertebrae and other structures.
5. Blood vessel and nerve protection: The spine protects vital blood vessels and nerves that pass through it, including the aorta, vena cava, and spinal nerves.

The spine is divided into five regions: cervical (7 vertebrae), thoracic (12 vertebrae), lumbar (5 vertebrae), sacrum (5 fused vertebrae), and coccyx (4 fused vertebrae, also known as the tailbone). Each region has unique characteristics that allow for specific functions and adaptations to the body's needs.

Incidental findings are diagnoses or conditions that are discovered unintentionally while evaluating a patient for a different condition or symptom. These findings are not related to the primary reason for the medical examination, investigation, or procedure. They can occur in various contexts such as radiology studies, laboratory tests, or physical examinations.

Incidental findings can sometimes lead to further evaluation and management, depending on their nature and potential clinical significance. However, they also pose challenges related to communication, informed consent, and potential patient anxiety or harm. Therefore, it is essential to have clear guidelines for managing incidental findings in clinical practice.

Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) is a statistical technique used to compare the means of two or more groups and determine whether there are any significant differences between them. It is a way to analyze the variance in a dataset to determine whether the variability between groups is greater than the variability within groups, which can indicate that the groups are significantly different from one another.

ANOVA is based on the concept of partitioning the total variance in a dataset into two components: variance due to differences between group means (also known as "between-group variance") and variance due to differences within each group (also known as "within-group variance"). By comparing these two sources of variance, ANOVA can help researchers determine whether any observed differences between groups are statistically significant, or whether they could have occurred by chance.

ANOVA is a widely used technique in many areas of research, including biology, psychology, engineering, and business. It is often used to compare the means of two or more experimental groups, such as a treatment group and a control group, to determine whether the treatment had a significant effect. ANOVA can also be used to compare the means of different populations or subgroups within a population, to identify any differences that may exist between them.

Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) is a non-invasive medical imaging technique that uses magnetic fields and radio waves to create detailed images of the blood vessels or arteries within the body. It is a type of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) that focuses specifically on the circulatory system.

MRA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various conditions related to the blood vessels, such as aneurysms, stenosis (narrowing of the vessel), or the presence of plaques or tumors. It can also be used to plan for surgeries or other treatments related to the vascular system. The procedure does not use radiation and is generally considered safe, although people with certain implants like pacemakers may not be able to have an MRA due to safety concerns.

In medical terms, the leg refers to the lower portion of the human body that extends from the knee down to the foot. It includes the thigh (femur), lower leg (tibia and fibula), foot, and ankle. The leg is primarily responsible for supporting the body's weight and enabling movements such as standing, walking, running, and jumping.

The leg contains several important structures, including bones, muscles, tendons, ligaments, blood vessels, nerves, and joints. These structures work together to provide stability, support, and mobility to the lower extremity. Common medical conditions that can affect the leg include fractures, sprains, strains, infections, peripheral artery disease, and neurological disorders.

Lung neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the lung tissue. These tumors can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). Malignant lung neoplasms are further classified into two main types: small cell lung carcinoma and non-small cell lung carcinoma. Lung neoplasms can cause symptoms such as cough, chest pain, shortness of breath, and weight loss. They are often caused by smoking or exposure to secondhand smoke, but can also occur due to genetic factors, radiation exposure, and other environmental carcinogens. Early detection and treatment of lung neoplasms is crucial for improving outcomes and survival rates.

Myopia, also known as nearsightedness, is a common refractive error of the eye. It occurs when the eye is either too long or the cornea (the clear front part of the eye) is too curved. As a result, light rays focus in front of the retina instead of directly on it, causing distant objects to appear blurry while close objects remain clear.

Myopia typically develops during childhood and can progress gradually or rapidly until early adulthood. It can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK. Regular eye examinations are essential for people with myopia to monitor any changes in their prescription and ensure proper correction.

While myopia is generally not a serious condition, high levels of nearsightedness can increase the risk of certain eye diseases, including cataracts, glaucoma, retinal detachment, and myopic degeneration. Therefore, it's crucial to manage myopia effectively and maintain regular follow-ups with an eye care professional.

A biological marker, often referred to as a biomarker, is a measurable indicator that reflects the presence or severity of a disease state, or a response to a therapeutic intervention. Biomarkers can be found in various materials such as blood, tissues, or bodily fluids, and they can take many forms, including molecular, histologic, radiographic, or physiological measurements.

In the context of medical research and clinical practice, biomarkers are used for a variety of purposes, such as:

1. Diagnosis: Biomarkers can help diagnose a disease by indicating the presence or absence of a particular condition. For example, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) is a biomarker used to detect prostate cancer.
2. Monitoring: Biomarkers can be used to monitor the progression or regression of a disease over time. For instance, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) levels are monitored in diabetes patients to assess long-term blood glucose control.
3. Predicting: Biomarkers can help predict the likelihood of developing a particular disease or the risk of a negative outcome. For example, the presence of certain genetic mutations can indicate an increased risk for breast cancer.
4. Response to treatment: Biomarkers can be used to evaluate the effectiveness of a specific treatment by measuring changes in the biomarker levels before and after the intervention. This is particularly useful in personalized medicine, where treatments are tailored to individual patients based on their unique biomarker profiles.

It's important to note that for a biomarker to be considered clinically valid and useful, it must undergo rigorous validation through well-designed studies, including demonstrating sensitivity, specificity, reproducibility, and clinical relevance.

Carotid stenosis is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing or constriction of the lumen (inner space) of the carotid artery. The carotid arteries are major blood vessels that supply oxygenated blood to the head and neck. Carotid stenosis usually results from the buildup of plaque, made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances, on the inner walls of the artery. This process is called atherosclerosis.

As the plaque accumulates, it causes the artery to narrow, reducing blood flow to the brain. Severe carotid stenosis can increase the risk of stroke, as a clot or debris from the plaque can break off and travel to the brain, blocking a smaller blood vessel and causing tissue damage or death.

Carotid stenosis is typically diagnosed through imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT angiography, or MRI angiography. Treatment options may include lifestyle modifications (such as quitting smoking, controlling blood pressure, and managing cholesterol levels), medications to reduce the risk of clots, or surgical procedures like endarterectomy or stenting to remove or bypass the blockage.

Endarterectomy is a surgical procedure in which the inner lining of an artery (the endothelium) that has become thickened, damaged, or narrowed due to the buildup of fatty deposits, called plaques, is removed. This process helps restore normal blood flow through the artery and reduces the risk of serious complications such as stroke or limb loss.

The procedure typically involves making an incision in the affected artery, carefully removing the plaque and inner lining, and then closing the artery with sutures or a patch graft. Endarterectomy is most commonly performed on the carotid arteries in the neck, but it can also be done on other arteries throughout the body, including the femoral artery in the leg and the iliac artery in the pelvis.

Endarterectomy is usually recommended for patients with significant narrowing of their arteries who are experiencing symptoms such as pain, numbness, or weakness in their limbs, or who have a high risk of stroke due to carotid artery disease. The procedure is generally safe and effective, but like any surgery, it carries risks such as bleeding, infection, and damage to nearby nerves or tissues.

Urologic surgical procedures refer to various types of surgeries that are performed on the urinary system and male reproductive system. These surgeries can be invasive (requiring an incision) or minimally invasive (using small incisions or scopes). They may be performed to treat a range of conditions, including but not limited to:

1. Kidney stones: Procedures such as shock wave lithotripsy, ureteroscopy, and percutaneous nephrolithotomy are used to remove or break up kidney stones.
2. Urinary tract obstructions: Surgeries like pyeloplasty and urethral dilation can be done to correct blockages in the urinary tract.
3. Prostate gland issues: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP), simple prostatectomy, and robotic-assisted laparoscopic radical prostatectomy are some procedures used for benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) or prostate cancer.
4. Bladder problems: Procedures such as cystectomy (removal of the bladder), bladder augmentation, and implantation of an artificial urinary sphincter can be done for conditions like bladder cancer or incontinence.
5. Kidney diseases: Nephrectomy (removal of a kidney) may be necessary for severe kidney damage or cancer.
6. Testicular issues: Orchiectomy (removal of one or both testicles) can be performed for testicular cancer.
7. Pelvic organ prolapse: Surgeries like sacrocolpopexy and vaginal vault suspension can help correct this condition in women.

These are just a few examples; there are many other urologic surgical procedures available to treat various conditions affecting the urinary and reproductive systems.

Prosthesis failure is a term used to describe a situation where a prosthetic device, such as an artificial joint or limb, has stopped functioning or failed to meet its intended purpose. This can be due to various reasons, including mechanical failure, infection, loosening of the device, or a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis.

Mechanical failure can occur due to wear and tear, manufacturing defects, or improper use of the prosthetic device. Infection can also lead to prosthesis failure, particularly in cases where the prosthesis is implanted inside the body. The immune system may react to the presence of the foreign material, leading to inflammation and infection.

Loosening of the prosthesis can also cause it to fail over time, as the device becomes less stable and eventually stops working properly. Additionally, some people may have a reaction to the materials used in the prosthesis, leading to tissue damage or other complications that can result in prosthesis failure.

In general, prosthesis failure can lead to decreased mobility, pain, and the need for additional surgeries or treatments to correct the problem. It is important for individuals with prosthetic devices to follow their healthcare provider's instructions carefully to minimize the risk of prosthesis failure and ensure that the device continues to function properly over time.

Gastric bypass is a surgical procedure that involves creating a small pouch in the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to connect to this pouch, thereby bypassing the majority of the stomach and the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). This procedure is typically performed as a treatment for morbid obesity and related health conditions such as type 2 diabetes, sleep apnea, and high blood pressure.

The smaller stomach pouch restricts food intake, while the rerouting of the small intestine reduces the amount of calories and nutrients that are absorbed, leading to weight loss. Gastric bypass can also result in hormonal changes that help regulate appetite and metabolism, further contributing to weight loss and improved health outcomes.

There are different types of gastric bypass procedures, including Roux-en-Y gastric bypass and laparoscopic gastric bypass. The choice of procedure depends on various factors such as the patient's overall health, medical history, and personal preferences. Gastric bypass is generally considered a safe and effective treatment for morbid obesity, but like any surgical procedure, it carries risks and requires careful consideration and preparation.

The sphenoid bone is a complex, irregularly shaped bone located in the middle cranial fossa and forms part of the base of the skull. It articulates with several other bones, including the frontal, parietal, temporal, ethmoid, palatine, and zygomatic bones. The sphenoid bone has two main parts: the body and the wings.

The body of the sphenoid bone is roughly cuboid in shape and contains several important structures, such as the sella turcica, which houses the pituitary gland, and the sphenoid sinuses, which are air-filled cavities within the bone. The greater wings of the sphenoid bone extend laterally from the body and form part of the skull's lateral walls. They contain the superior orbital fissure, through which important nerves and blood vessels pass between the cranial cavity and the orbit of the eye.

The lesser wings of the sphenoid bone are thin, blade-like structures that extend anteriorly from the body and form part of the floor of the anterior cranial fossa. They contain the optic canal, which transmits the optic nerve and ophthalmic artery between the brain and the orbit of the eye.

Overall, the sphenoid bone plays a crucial role in protecting several important structures within the skull, including the pituitary gland, optic nerves, and ophthalmic arteries.

A heart valve prosthesis is a medical device that is implanted in the heart to replace a damaged or malfunctioning heart valve. The prosthetic valve can be made of biological tissue (such as from a pig or cow) or artificial materials (such as carbon or polyester). Its function is to allow for the proper directional flow of blood through the heart, opening and closing with each heartbeat to prevent backflow of blood.

There are several types of heart valve prostheses, including:

1. Mechanical valves: These are made entirely of artificial materials and have a longer lifespan than biological valves. However, they require the patient to take blood-thinning medication for the rest of their life to prevent blood clots from forming on the valve.
2. Bioprosthetic valves: These are made of biological tissue and typically last 10-15 years before needing replacement. They do not require the patient to take blood-thinning medication, but there is a higher risk of reoperation due to degeneration of the tissue over time.
3. Homografts or allografts: These are human heart valves that have been donated and preserved for transplantation. They have similar longevity to bioprosthetic valves and do not require blood-thinning medication.
4. Autografts: In this case, the patient's own pulmonary valve is removed and used to replace the damaged aortic valve. This procedure is called the Ross procedure and has excellent long-term results, but it requires advanced surgical skills and is not widely available.

The choice of heart valve prosthesis depends on various factors, including the patient's age, overall health, lifestyle, and personal preferences.

A thyroid nodule is a growth or lump that forms within the thyroid gland, a small butterfly-shaped endocrine gland located in the front of your neck. Thyroid nodules can be solid or fluid-filled (cystic) and vary in size. Most thyroid nodules are benign (noncancerous) and do not cause symptoms. However, some thyroid nodules may be cancerous or overproduce hormones, leading to hyperthyroidism. The exact cause of thyroid nodules is not always known, but factors such as iodine deficiency, Hashimoto's disease, and family history can increase the risk of developing them. A healthcare professional typically diagnoses a thyroid nodule through physical examination, imaging tests like ultrasound, or fine-needle aspiration biopsy to determine if further treatment is necessary.

Sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops from certain types of connective tissue (such as muscle, fat, fibrous tissue, blood vessels, or nerves) found throughout the body. It can occur in any part of the body, but it most commonly occurs in the arms, legs, chest, and abdomen.

Sarcomas are classified into two main groups: bone sarcomas and soft tissue sarcomas. Bone sarcomas develop in the bones, while soft tissue sarcomas develop in the soft tissues of the body, such as muscles, tendons, ligaments, fat, blood vessels, and nerves.

Sarcomas can be further classified into many subtypes based on their specific characteristics, such as the type of tissue they originate from, their genetic makeup, and their appearance under a microscope. The different subtypes of sarcoma have varying symptoms, prognoses, and treatment options.

Overall, sarcomas are relatively rare cancers, accounting for less than 1% of all cancer diagnoses in the United States each year. However, they can be aggressive and may require intensive treatment, such as surgery, radiation therapy, and chemotherapy.

An erythrocyte transfusion, also known as a red blood cell (RBC) transfusion, is the process of transferring compatible red blood cells from a donor to a recipient. This procedure is typically performed to increase the recipient's oxygen-carrying capacity, usually in situations where there is significant blood loss, anemia, or impaired red blood cell production.

During the transfusion, the donor's red blood cells are collected, typed, and tested for compatibility with the recipient's blood to minimize the risk of a transfusion reaction. Once compatible units are identified, they are infused into the recipient's circulation through a sterile intravenous (IV) line. The recipient's body will eventually eliminate the donated red blood cells within 100-120 days as part of its normal turnover process.

Erythrocyte transfusions can be lifesaving in various clinical scenarios, such as trauma, surgery, severe anemia due to chronic diseases, and hematologic disorders. However, they should only be used when necessary, as there are potential risks associated with the procedure, including allergic reactions, transmission of infectious diseases, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), and iron overload in cases of multiple transfusions.

Squamous cell carcinoma is a type of skin cancer that begins in the squamous cells, which are flat, thin cells that form the outer layer of the skin (epidermis). It commonly occurs on sun-exposed areas such as the face, ears, lips, and backs of the hands. Squamous cell carcinoma can also develop in other areas of the body including the mouth, lungs, and cervix.

This type of cancer usually develops slowly and may appear as a rough or scaly patch of skin, a red, firm nodule, or a sore or ulcer that doesn't heal. While squamous cell carcinoma is not as aggressive as some other types of cancer, it can metastasize (spread) to other parts of the body if left untreated, making early detection and treatment important.

Risk factors for developing squamous cell carcinoma include prolonged exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds, fair skin, a history of sunburns, a weakened immune system, and older age. Prevention measures include protecting your skin from the sun by wearing protective clothing, using a broad-spectrum sunscreen with an SPF of at least 30, avoiding tanning beds, and getting regular skin examinations.

A sentinel lymph node biopsy is a surgical procedure used in cancer staging to determine if the cancer has spread beyond the primary tumor to the lymphatic system. This procedure involves identifying and removing the sentinel lymph node(s), which are the first few lymph nodes to which cancer cells are most likely to spread from the primary tumor site.

The sentinel lymph node(s) are identified by injecting a tracer substance (usually a radioactive material and/or a blue dye) near the tumor site. The tracer substance is taken up by the lymphatic vessels and transported to the sentinel lymph node(s), allowing the surgeon to locate and remove them.

The removed sentinel lymph node(s) are then examined under a microscope for the presence of cancer cells. If no cancer cells are found, it is unlikely that the cancer has spread to other lymph nodes or distant sites in the body. However, if cancer cells are present, further lymph node dissection and/or additional treatment may be necessary.

Sentinel lymph node biopsy is commonly used in the staging of melanoma, breast cancer, and some types of head and neck cancer.

Thoracic surgery, video-assisted (VATS) is a minimally invasive surgical technique used to diagnose and treat various conditions related to the chest cavity, including the lungs, pleura, mediastinum, esophagus, and diaphragm. In VATS, a thoracoscope, a type of endoscope with a camera and light source, is inserted through small incisions in the chest wall to provide visualization of the internal structures. The surgeon then uses specialized instruments to perform the necessary surgical procedures, such as biopsies, lung resections, or esophageal repairs. Compared to traditional open thoracic surgery, VATS typically results in less postoperative pain, shorter hospital stays, and quicker recoveries for patients.

A hip prosthesis, also known as a total hip replacement, is a surgical implant designed to replace the damaged or diseased components of the human hip joint. The procedure involves replacing the femoral head (the ball at the top of the thigh bone) and the acetabulum (the socket in the pelvis) with artificial parts, typically made from materials such as metal, ceramic, or plastic.

The goal of a hip prosthesis is to relieve pain, improve joint mobility, and restore function, allowing patients to return to their normal activities and enjoy an improved quality of life. The procedure is most commonly performed in individuals with advanced osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or other degenerative conditions that have caused significant damage to the hip joint.

There are several different types of hip prostheses available, each with its own unique design and set of benefits and risks. The choice of prosthesis will depend on a variety of factors, including the patient's age, activity level, overall health, and specific medical needs. In general, however, all hip prostheses are designed to provide a durable, long-lasting solution for patients suffering from debilitating joint pain and stiffness.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are structural abnormalities in the heart that are present at birth. They can affect any part of the heart's structure, including the walls of the heart, the valves inside the heart, and the major blood vessels that lead to and from the heart.

Congenital heart defects can range from mild to severe and can cause various symptoms depending on the type and severity of the defect. Some common symptoms of CHDs include cyanosis (a bluish tint to the skin, lips, and fingernails), shortness of breath, fatigue, poor feeding, and slow growth in infants and children.

There are many different types of congenital heart defects, including:

1. Septal defects: These are holes in the walls that separate the four chambers of the heart. The two most common septal defects are atrial septal defect (ASD) and ventricular septal defect (VSD).
2. Valve abnormalities: These include narrowed or leaky valves, which can affect blood flow through the heart.
3. Obstruction defects: These occur when blood flow is blocked or restricted due to narrowing or absence of a part of the heart's structure. Examples include pulmonary stenosis and coarctation of the aorta.
4. Cyanotic heart defects: These cause a lack of oxygen in the blood, leading to cyanosis. Examples include tetralogy of Fallot and transposition of the great arteries.

The causes of congenital heart defects are not fully understood, but genetic factors and environmental influences during pregnancy may play a role. Some CHDs can be detected before birth through prenatal testing, while others may not be diagnosed until after birth or later in childhood. Treatment for CHDs may include medication, surgery, or other interventions to improve blood flow and oxygenation of the body's tissues.

A surgical flap is a specialized type of surgical procedure where a section of living tissue (including skin, fat, muscle, and/or blood vessels) is lifted from its original site and moved to another location, while still maintaining a blood supply through its attached pedicle. This technique allows the surgeon to cover and reconstruct defects or wounds that cannot be closed easily with simple suturing or stapling.

Surgical flaps can be classified based on their vascularity, type of tissue involved, or method of transfer. The choice of using a specific type of surgical flap depends on the location and size of the defect, the patient's overall health, and the surgeon's expertise. Some common types of surgical flaps include:

1. Random-pattern flaps: These flaps are based on random blood vessels within the tissue and are typically used for smaller defects in areas with good vascularity, such as the face or scalp.
2. Axial pattern flaps: These flaps are designed based on a known major blood vessel and its branches, allowing them to cover larger defects or reach distant sites. Examples include the radial forearm flap and the anterolateral thigh flap.
3. Local flaps: These flaps involve tissue adjacent to the wound and can be further classified into advancement, rotation, transposition, and interpolation flaps based on their movement and orientation.
4. Distant flaps: These flaps are harvested from a distant site and then transferred to the defect after being tunneled beneath the skin or through a separate incision. Examples include the groin flap and the latissimus dorsi flap.
5. Free flaps: In these flaps, the tissue is completely detached from its original blood supply and then reattached at the new site using microvascular surgical techniques. This allows for greater flexibility in terms of reach and placement but requires specialized expertise and equipment.

Surgical flaps play a crucial role in reconstructive surgery, helping to restore form and function after trauma, tumor removal, or other conditions that result in tissue loss.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone of the hip joint. It is characterized by the progressive loss of cartilage, remodeling of bone, osteophyte formation (bone spurs), cysts, and mild to moderate inflammation. The degenerative process can lead to pain, stiffness, limited range of motion, and crepitus (grating or crackling sound) during movement.

In the hip joint, OA typically affects the femoral head and acetabulum. As the articular cartilage wears away, the underlying bone becomes exposed and can lead to bone-on-bone contact, which is painful. The body responds by attempting to repair the damage through remodeling of the subchondral bone and formation of osteophytes. However, these changes can further limit joint mobility and exacerbate symptoms.

Risk factors for OA of the hip include age, obesity, genetics, previous joint injury or surgery, and repetitive stress on the joint. Treatment options may include pain management (such as NSAIDs, physical therapy, and injections), lifestyle modifications (such as weight loss and exercise), and, in severe cases, surgical intervention (such as hip replacement).

Total disc replacement (TDR), also known as total disc arthroplasty, is a surgical procedure in which the damaged or degenerated intervertebral disc in the spine is removed and replaced with an artificial device. The primary goal of this procedure is to maintain motion within the spinal segment while alleviating pain and other symptoms caused by the damaged disc.

The artificial disc, typically made from materials such as metal or polymer, is designed to replicate the natural movement and function of a healthy intervertebral disc. The surgery can be performed at various levels of the spine, including cervical (neck) and lumbar (lower back), depending on the location of the damaged disc.

TDR is generally considered for patients with degenerative disc disease who have not responded to non-surgical treatments such as physical therapy or pain management. The potential benefits of TDR over traditional spinal fusion surgery include preserving motion, reducing the risk of adjacent segment degeneration, and potentially faster recovery times. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, implant wear, dislocation, or subsidence (sinking of the implant into the bone). It is essential to discuss these potential risks and benefits with a qualified medical professional before making a decision about undergoing TDR surgery.

Ultrasonography, Doppler, color is a type of diagnostic ultrasound technique that uses the Doppler effect to produce visual images of blood flow in vessels and the heart. The Doppler effect is the change in frequency or wavelength of a wave in relation to an observer who is moving relative to the source of the wave. In this context, it refers to the change in frequency of the ultrasound waves as they reflect off moving red blood cells.

In color Doppler ultrasonography, different colors are used to represent the direction and speed of blood flow. Red typically represents blood flowing toward the transducer (the device that sends and receives sound waves), while blue represents blood flowing away from the transducer. The intensity or brightness of the color is proportional to the velocity of blood flow.

Color Doppler ultrasonography is often used in conjunction with grayscale ultrasound imaging, which provides information about the structure and composition of tissues. Together, these techniques can help diagnose a wide range of conditions, including heart disease, blood clots, and abnormalities in blood flow.

Diskectomy is a surgical procedure in which all or part of an intervertebral disc (the cushion between two vertebrae) is removed. This procedure is typically performed to alleviate pressure on nerve roots or the spinal cord caused by a herniated or degenerative disc. In a diskectomy, the surgeon accesses the damaged disc through an incision in the back or neck and removes the portion of the disc that is causing the compression. This can help to relieve pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb. Diskectomy may be performed as an open surgery or using minimally invasive techniques, depending on the individual case.

Diagnostic imaging is a medical specialty that uses various technologies to produce visual representations of the internal structures and functioning of the body. These images are used to diagnose injury, disease, or other abnormalities and to monitor the effectiveness of treatment. Common modalities of diagnostic imaging include:

1. Radiography (X-ray): Uses ionizing radiation to produce detailed images of bones, teeth, and some organs.
2. Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: Combines X-ray technology with computer processing to create cross-sectional images of the body.
3. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): Uses a strong magnetic field and radio waves to generate detailed images of soft tissues, organs, and bones.
4. Ultrasound: Employs high-frequency sound waves to produce real-time images of internal structures, often used for obstetrics and gynecology.
5. Nuclear Medicine: Involves the administration of radioactive tracers to assess organ function or detect abnormalities within the body.
6. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: Uses a small amount of radioactive material to produce detailed images of metabolic activity in the body, often used for cancer detection and monitoring treatment response.
7. Fluoroscopy: Utilizes continuous X-ray imaging to observe moving structures or processes within the body, such as swallowing studies or angiography.

Diagnostic imaging plays a crucial role in modern medicine, allowing healthcare providers to make informed decisions about patient care and treatment plans.

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a medical procedure that combines upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy and fluoroscopy to diagnose and treat certain problems of the bile ducts and pancreas.

During ERCP, a flexible endoscope (a long, thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end) is passed through the patient's mouth and throat, then through the stomach and into the first part of the small intestine (duodenum). A narrow plastic tube (catheter) is then inserted through the endoscope and into the bile ducts and/or pancreatic duct. Contrast dye is injected through the catheter, and X-rays are taken to visualize the ducts.

ERCP can be used to diagnose a variety of conditions affecting the bile ducts and pancreas, including gallstones, tumors, strictures (narrowing of the ducts), and chronic pancreatitis. It can also be used to treat certain conditions, such as removing gallstones from the bile duct or placing stents to keep the ducts open in cases of stricture.

ERCP is an invasive procedure that carries a risk of complications, including pancreatitis, infection, bleeding, and perforation (a tear in the lining of the GI tract). It should only be performed by experienced medical professionals in a hospital setting.

Veins are blood vessels that carry deoxygenated blood from the tissues back to the heart. They have a lower pressure than arteries and contain valves to prevent the backflow of blood. Veins have a thin, flexible wall with a larger lumen compared to arteries, allowing them to accommodate more blood volume. The color of veins is often blue or green due to the absorption characteristics of light and the reduced oxygen content in the blood they carry.

Skull base neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors located in the skull base, which is the region where the skull meets the spine and where the brain connects with the blood vessels and nerves that supply the head and neck. These neoplasms can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous), and they can arise from various types of cells in this area, including bone, nerve, glandular, and vascular tissue.

Skull base neoplasms can cause a range of symptoms depending on their size, location, and growth rate. Some common symptoms include headaches, vision changes, hearing loss, facial numbness or weakness, difficulty swallowing, and balance problems. Treatment options for skull base neoplasms may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches. The specific treatment plan will depend on the type, size, location, and stage of the tumor, as well as the patient's overall health and medical history.

Joint instability is a condition characterized by the loss of normal joint function and increased risk of joint injury due to impaired integrity of the supporting structures, such as ligaments, muscles, or cartilage. This can result in excessive movement or laxity within the joint, leading to decreased stability and increased susceptibility to dislocations or subluxations. Joint instability may cause pain, swelling, and limited range of motion, and it can significantly impact a person's mobility and quality of life. It is often caused by trauma, degenerative conditions, or congenital abnormalities and may require medical intervention, such as physical therapy, bracing, or surgery, to restore joint stability.

Mitral valve insufficiency, also known as mitral regurgitation, is a cardiac condition in which the mitral valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle of the heart does not close properly, causing blood to flow backward into the atrium during contraction of the ventricle. This leads to an increased volume load on the left heart chamber and can result in symptoms such as shortness of breath, fatigue, and fluid retention. The condition can be caused by various factors including valve damage due to degenerative changes, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, or trauma. Treatment options include medication, mitral valve repair, or replacement surgery depending on the severity and underlying cause of the insufficiency.

Spinal cord compression is a medical condition that refers to the narrowing of the spinal canal, which puts pressure on the spinal cord and the nerves that branch out from it. This can occur due to various reasons such as degenerative changes in the spine, herniated discs, bone spurs, tumors, or fractures. The compression can lead to a range of symptoms including pain, numbness, tingling, weakness, or loss of bladder and bowel control. In severe cases, it can cause paralysis. Treatment options depend on the underlying cause and may include physical therapy, medication, surgery, or radiation therapy.

The abdominal aorta is the portion of the aorta, which is the largest artery in the body, that runs through the abdomen. It originates from the thoracic aorta at the level of the diaphragm and descends through the abdomen, where it branches off into several smaller arteries that supply blood to the pelvis, legs, and various abdominal organs. The abdominal aorta is typically divided into four segments: the suprarenal, infrarenal, visceral, and parietal portions. Disorders of the abdominal aorta can include aneurysms, atherosclerosis, and dissections, which can have serious consequences if left untreated.

Cisplatin is a chemotherapeutic agent used to treat various types of cancers, including testicular, ovarian, bladder, head and neck, lung, and cervical cancers. It is an inorganic platinum compound that contains a central platinum atom surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in a cis configuration.

Cisplatin works by forming crosslinks between DNA strands, which disrupts the structure of DNA and prevents cancer cells from replicating. This ultimately leads to cell death and slows down or stops the growth of tumors. However, cisplatin can also cause damage to normal cells, leading to side effects such as nausea, vomiting, hearing loss, and kidney damage. Therefore, it is essential to monitor patients closely during treatment and manage any adverse effects promptly.

Osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee is a degenerative joint disease that affects the articular cartilage and subchondral bone in the knee joint. It is characterized by the breakdown and eventual loss of the smooth, cushioning cartilage that covers the ends of bones and allows for easy movement within joints. As the cartilage wears away, the bones rub against each other, causing pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Osteoarthritis of the knee can also lead to the formation of bone spurs (osteophytes) and cysts in the joint. This condition is most commonly found in older adults, but it can also occur in younger people as a result of injury or overuse. Risk factors include obesity, family history, previous joint injuries, and repetitive stress on the knee joint. Treatment options typically include pain management, physical therapy, and in some cases, surgery.

The mitral valve, also known as the bicuspid valve, is a two-leaflet valve located between the left atrium and left ventricle in the heart. Its function is to ensure unidirectional flow of blood from the left atrium into the left ventricle during the cardiac cycle. The mitral valve consists of two leaflets (anterior and posterior), the chordae tendineae, papillary muscles, and the left atrial and ventricular myocardium. Dysfunction of the mitral valve can lead to various heart conditions such as mitral regurgitation or mitral stenosis.

Renal insufficiency, also known as kidney failure, is a medical condition in which the kidneys are unable to properly filter waste products and excess fluids from the blood. This results in a buildup of these substances in the body, which can cause a variety of symptoms such as weakness, shortness of breath, and fluid retention. Renal insufficiency can be acute, meaning it comes on suddenly, or chronic, meaning it develops over time. It is typically diagnosed through blood tests, urine tests, and imaging studies. Treatment may include medications to control symptoms, dietary changes, and in severe cases, dialysis or a kidney transplant.

Mucinous cystadenoma is a type of benign tumor that arises from the epithelial cells lining the mucous membranes of the body. It is most commonly found in the ovary, but can also occur in other locations such as the pancreas or appendix.

Mucinous cystadenomas are characterized by the production of large amounts of mucin, a slippery, gel-like substance that accumulates inside the tumor and causes it to grow into a cystic mass. These tumors can vary in size, ranging from a few centimeters to over 20 centimeters in diameter.

While mucinous cystadenomas are generally benign, they have the potential to become cancerous (mucinous cystadenocarcinoma) if left untreated. Symptoms of mucinous cystadenoma may include abdominal pain or swelling, bloating, and changes in bowel movements or urinary habits. Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the tumor.

Gynecologic surgical procedures refer to the operations that are performed on the female reproductive system and related organs. These surgeries can be either minimally invasive or open procedures, depending on the condition and the patient's health status.

The indications for gynecologic surgical procedures may include but are not limited to:

1. Diagnosis and treatment of various benign and malignant conditions such as uterine fibroids, ovarian cysts, endometriosis, and cancers of the reproductive organs.
2. Management of abnormal uterine bleeding, pelvic pain, and infertility.
3. Treatment of ectopic pregnancies and miscarriages.
4. Pelvic organ prolapse repair.
5. Sterilization procedures such as tubal ligation.
6. Investigation and treatment of suspicious lesions or abnormal Pap smears.

Some common gynecologic surgical procedures include hysterectomy (removal of the uterus), oophorectomy (removal of the ovary), salpingectomy (removal of the fallopian tube), cystectomy (removal of a cyst), myomectomy (removal of fibroids while preserving the uterus), and endometrial ablation (destruction of the lining of the uterus).

Minimally invasive surgical techniques such as laparoscopy and hysteroscopy have gained popularity in recent years due to their advantages over traditional open surgeries, including smaller incisions, less postoperative pain, quicker recovery times, and reduced risk of complications.

Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a medical imaging technique used to visualize the blood vessels and blood flow within the body. It combines the use of X-ray technology with digital image processing to produce detailed images of the vascular system.

In DSA, a contrast agent is injected into the patient's bloodstream through a catheter, which is typically inserted into an artery in the leg and guided to the area of interest using fluoroscopy. As the contrast agent flows through the blood vessels, X-ray images are taken at multiple time points.

The digital subtraction process involves taking a baseline image without contrast and then subtracting it from subsequent images taken with contrast. This allows for the removal of background structures and noise, resulting in clearer images of the blood vessels. DSA can be used to diagnose and evaluate various vascular conditions, such as aneurysms, stenosis, and tumors, and can also guide interventional procedures such as angioplasty and stenting.

Radiotherapy, also known as radiation therapy, is a medical treatment that uses ionizing radiation to kill cancer cells, shrink tumors, and prevent the growth and spread of cancer. The radiation can be delivered externally using machines or internally via radioactive substances placed in or near the tumor. Radiotherapy works by damaging the DNA of cancer cells, which prevents them from dividing and growing. Normal cells are also affected by radiation, but they have a greater ability to repair themselves compared to cancer cells. The goal of radiotherapy is to destroy as many cancer cells as possible while minimizing damage to healthy tissue.

Ischemia is the medical term used to describe a lack of blood flow to a part of the body, often due to blocked or narrowed blood vessels. This can lead to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients in the tissues, which can cause them to become damaged or die. Ischemia can affect many different parts of the body, including the heart, brain, legs, and intestines. Symptoms of ischemia depend on the location and severity of the blockage, but they may include pain, cramping, numbness, weakness, or coldness in the affected area. In severe cases, ischemia can lead to tissue death (gangrene) or organ failure. Treatment for ischemia typically involves addressing the underlying cause of the blocked blood flow, such as through medication, surgery, or lifestyle changes.

An arteriovenous shunt is a surgically created connection between an artery and a vein. This procedure is typically performed to reroute blood flow or to provide vascular access for various medical treatments. In a surgical setting, the creation of an arteriovenous shunt involves connecting an artery directly to a vein, bypassing the capillary network in between.

There are different types of arteriovenous shunts used for specific medical purposes:

1. Arteriovenous Fistula (AVF): This is a surgical connection created between an artery and a vein, usually in the arm or leg. The procedure involves dissecting both the artery and vein, then suturing them directly together. Over time, the increased blood flow to the vein causes it to dilate and thicken, making it suitable for repeated needle punctures during hemodialysis treatments for patients with kidney failure.
2. Arteriovenous Graft (AVG): An arteriovenous graft is a synthetic tube used to connect an artery and a vein when a direct AVF cannot be created due to insufficient vessel size or poor quality. The graft can be made of various materials, such as polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) or Dacron. Grafts are more prone to infection and clotting compared to native AVFs but remain an essential option for patients requiring hemodialysis access.
3. Central Venous Catheter (CVC): A central venous catheter is a flexible tube inserted into a large vein, often in the neck or groin, and advanced towards the heart. CVCs can be used as temporary arteriovenous shunts for patients who require immediate hemodialysis access but do not have time to wait for an AVF or AVG to mature. However, they are associated with higher risks of infection and thrombosis compared to native AVFs and AVGs.

In summary, a surgical arteriovenous shunt is a connection between an artery and a vein established through a medical procedure. The primary purpose of these shunts is to provide vascular access for hemodialysis in patients with end-stage renal disease or to serve as temporary access when native AVFs or AVGs are not feasible.

Primary hyperparathyroidism is a medical condition characterized by excessive secretion of parathyroid hormone (PTH) from one or more of the parathyroid glands in the neck. These glands are normally responsible for regulating calcium levels in the body by releasing PTH, which helps to maintain an appropriate balance of calcium and phosphate in the bloodstream.

In primary hyperparathyroidism, the parathyroid gland(s) become overactive and produce too much PTH, leading to elevated calcium levels (hypercalcemia) in the blood. This can result in a variety of symptoms, such as fatigue, weakness, bone pain, kidney stones, and cognitive impairment, although some individuals may not experience any symptoms at all.

The most common cause of primary hyperparathyroidism is a benign tumor called an adenoma that develops in one or more of the parathyroid glands. In rare cases, primary hyperparathyroidism can be caused by cancer of the parathyroid gland(s) or by enlargement of all four glands (four-gland hyperplasia). Treatment typically involves surgical removal of the affected parathyroid gland(s), which is usually curative.

A choristoma is a type of growth that occurs when normally functioning tissue is found in an abnormal location within the body. It is not cancerous or harmful, but it can cause problems if it presses on surrounding structures or causes symptoms. Choristomas are typically congenital, meaning they are present at birth, and are thought to occur due to developmental errors during embryonic growth. They can be found in various organs and tissues throughout the body, including the brain, eye, skin, and gastrointestinal tract.

Contrast media are substances that are administered to a patient in order to improve the visibility of internal body structures or processes in medical imaging techniques such as X-rays, CT scans, MRI scans, and ultrasounds. These media can be introduced into the body through various routes, including oral, rectal, or intravenous administration.

Contrast media work by altering the appearance of bodily structures in imaging studies. For example, when a patient undergoes an X-ray examination, contrast media can be used to highlight specific organs, tissues, or blood vessels, making them more visible on the resulting images. In CT and MRI scans, contrast media can help to enhance the differences between normal and abnormal tissues, allowing for more accurate diagnosis and treatment planning.

There are several types of contrast media available, each with its own specific properties and uses. Some common examples include barium sulfate, which is used as a contrast medium in X-ray studies of the gastrointestinal tract, and iodinated contrast media, which are commonly used in CT scans to highlight blood vessels and other structures.

While contrast media are generally considered safe, they can sometimes cause adverse reactions, ranging from mild symptoms such as nausea or hives to more serious complications such as anaphylaxis or kidney damage. As a result, it is important for healthcare providers to carefully evaluate each patient's medical history and individual risk factors before administering contrast media.

Treatment failure is a term used in medicine to describe the situation when a prescribed treatment or intervention is not achieving the desired therapeutic goals or objectives. This may occur due to various reasons, such as:

1. Development of drug resistance by the pathogen or disease being treated.
2. Inadequate dosage or frequency of the medication.
3. Poor adherence or compliance to the treatment regimen by the patient.
4. The presence of underlying conditions or comorbidities that may affect the efficacy of the treatment.
5. The severity or progression of the disease despite appropriate treatment.

When treatment failure occurs, healthcare providers may need to reassess the patient's condition and modify the treatment plan accordingly, which may include adjusting the dosage, changing the medication, adding new medications, or considering alternative treatments.

Chemoradiotherapy is a medical treatment that combines chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Chemotherapy involves the use of drugs to kill or damage cancer cells, while radiotherapy uses ionizing radiation to achieve the same goal. In chemoradiotherapy, these two modalities are used simultaneously or sequentially to treat a malignancy.

The aim of chemoradiotherapy is to increase the effectiveness of treatment by targeting cancer cells with both chemotherapy and radiation therapy. This approach can be particularly effective in treating certain types of cancer, such as head and neck cancer, lung cancer, esophageal cancer, cervical cancer, anal cancer, and rectal cancer.

The specific drugs used in chemoradiotherapy and the doses and schedules of both chemotherapy and radiotherapy vary depending on the type and stage of cancer being treated. The side effects of chemoradiotherapy can be significant and may include fatigue, skin reactions, mucositis, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and myelosuppression. However, these side effects are usually manageable with appropriate supportive care.

Psychosurgery is a surgical intervention aimed at modifying or altering brain functions to treat severe and disabling mental disorders. It involves the deliberate destruction or disconnection of specific areas of the brain, typically through procedures such as lobotomy or stereotactic neurosurgery. These interventions are usually considered a last resort when other treatments have failed, and they are reserved for individuals with extreme cases of mental illness, such as intractable depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, or severe anxiety disorders.

It's important to note that psychosurgery is a highly controversial and stigmatized field, and its use has declined significantly since the mid-20th century due to concerns about its effectiveness, ethics, and potential for harm. Today, psychosurgery is tightly regulated and subject to strict ethical guidelines in most countries.

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common type of primary liver cancer in adults. It originates from the hepatocytes, which are the main functional cells of the liver. This type of cancer is often associated with chronic liver diseases such as cirrhosis caused by hepatitis B or C virus infection, alcohol abuse, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and aflatoxin exposure.

The symptoms of HCC can vary but may include unexplained weight loss, lack of appetite, abdominal pain or swelling, jaundice, and fatigue. The diagnosis of HCC typically involves imaging tests such as ultrasound, CT scan, or MRI, as well as blood tests to measure alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) levels. Treatment options for Hepatocellular carcinoma depend on the stage and extent of the cancer, as well as the patient's overall health and liver function. Treatment options may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, targeted therapy, or liver transplantation.

The sacrum is a triangular-shaped bone in the lower portion of the human vertebral column, located between the lumbar spine and the coccyx (tailbone). It forms through the fusion of several vertebrae during fetal development. The sacrum's base articulates with the fifth lumbar vertebra, while its apex connects with the coccyx.

The sacrum plays an essential role in supporting the spine and transmitting weight from the upper body to the pelvis and lower limbs. It also serves as an attachment site for various muscles and ligaments. The sacral region is often a focus in medical and chiropractic treatments due to its importance in spinal stability, posture, and overall health.

Quality of Life (QOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that usually includes an individual's physical health, psychological state, level of independence, social relationships, personal beliefs, and their relationship to salient features of their environment. It reflects the impact of disease and treatment on a patient's overall well-being and ability to function in daily life.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines QOL as "an individual's perception of their position in life in the context of the culture and value systems in which they live and in relation to their goals, expectations, standards and concerns." It is a subjective concept, meaning it can vary greatly from person to person.

In healthcare, QOL is often used as an outcome measure in clinical trials and other research studies to assess the impact of interventions or treatments on overall patient well-being.

A mastectomy is a surgical procedure where the entire breast tissue along with the nipple and areola is removed. This is usually performed to treat or prevent breast cancer. There are different types of mastectomies, such as simple (total) mastectomy, skin-sparing mastectomy, and nipple-sparing mastectomy. The choice of procedure depends on various factors including the type and stage of cancer, patient's preference, and the recommendation of the surgical team.

Thyroid neoplasms refer to abnormal growths or tumors in the thyroid gland, which can be benign (non-cancerous) or malignant (cancerous). These growths can vary in size and may cause a noticeable lump or nodule in the neck. Thyroid neoplasms can also affect the function of the thyroid gland, leading to hormonal imbalances and related symptoms. The exact causes of thyroid neoplasms are not fully understood, but risk factors include radiation exposure, family history, and certain genetic conditions. It is important to note that most thyroid nodules are benign, but a proper medical evaluation is necessary to determine the nature of the growth and develop an appropriate treatment plan.

Intra-aortic balloon pumping (IABP) is a form of short-term mechanical circulatory support that is used in patients with cardiogenic shock or acute complications of coronary artery disease, such as acute mitral regurgitation or papillary muscle rupture. It involves the insertion of a specialized catheter into the aorta, which contains a sausage-shaped balloon at its tip.

The IABP is synchronized with the patient's ECG and inflates the balloon during diastole (when the heart relaxes) and deflates it during systole (when the heart contracts). By inflating the balloon during diastole, the IABP increases the diastolic pressure in the aorta, which improves coronary perfusion and myocardial oxygen supply. By deflating the balloon during systole, the IABP reduces afterload, which decreases the work of the left ventricle and improves cardiac output.

Overall, IABP can help to stabilize patients with acute heart failure or cardiogenic shock while more definitive treatments are being planned or implemented. However, it is not a long-term solution and carries risks such as infection, bleeding, and limb ischemia.

Emission-Computed Tomography, Single-Photon (SPECT) is a type of nuclear medicine imaging procedure that generates detailed, three-dimensional images of the distribution of radioactive pharmaceuticals within the body. It uses gamma rays emitted by a radiopharmaceutical that is introduced into the patient's body, and a specialized gamma camera to detect these gamma rays and create tomographic images. The data obtained from the SPECT imaging can be used to diagnose various medical conditions, evaluate organ function, and guide treatment decisions. It is commonly used to image the heart, brain, and bones, among other organs and systems.

Gallstones are small, hard deposits that form in the gallbladder, a small organ located under the liver. They can range in size from as small as a grain of sand to as large as a golf ball. Gallstones can be made of cholesterol, bile pigments, or calcium salts, or a combination of these substances.

There are two main types of gallstones: cholesterol stones and pigment stones. Cholesterol stones are the most common type and are usually yellow-green in color. They form when there is too much cholesterol in the bile, which causes it to become saturated and form crystals that eventually grow into stones. Pigment stones are smaller and darker in color, ranging from brown to black. They form when there is an excess of bilirubin, a waste product produced by the breakdown of red blood cells, in the bile.

Gallstones can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and bloating, especially after eating fatty foods. In some cases, gallstones can lead to serious complications, such as inflammation of the gallbladder (cholecystitis), infection, or blockage of the bile ducts, which can cause jaundice, a yellowing of the skin and eyes.

The exact cause of gallstones is not fully understood, but risk factors include being female, older age, obesity, a family history of gallstones, rapid weight loss, diabetes, and certain medical conditions such as cirrhosis or sickle cell anemia. Treatment for gallstones may involve medication to dissolve the stones, shock wave therapy to break them up, or surgery to remove the gallbladder.

A knee prosthesis, also known as a knee replacement or artificial knee joint, is a medical device used to replace the damaged or diseased weight-bearing surfaces of the knee joint. It typically consists of three components: the femoral component (made of metal) that fits over the end of the thighbone (femur), the tibial component (often made of metal and plastic) that fits into the top of the shinbone (tibia), and a patellar component (usually made of plastic) that replaces the damaged surface of the kneecap.

The primary goal of knee prosthesis is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve quality of life for individuals with advanced knee joint damage due to conditions such as osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, or traumatic injuries. The procedure to implant a knee prosthesis is called knee replacement surgery or total knee arthroplasty (TKA).

Heart valves are specialized structures in the heart that ensure unidirectional flow of blood through its chambers during the cardiac cycle. There are four heart valves: the tricuspid valve and the mitral (bicuspid) valve, located between the atria and ventricles, and the pulmonic (pulmonary) valve and aortic valve, located between the ventricles and the major blood vessels leaving the heart.

The heart valves are composed of thin flaps of tissue called leaflets or cusps, which are supported by a fibrous ring. The aortic and pulmonic valves have three cusps each, while the tricuspid and mitral valves have three and two cusps, respectively.

The heart valves open and close in response to pressure differences across them, allowing blood to flow forward into the ventricles during diastole (filling phase) and preventing backflow of blood into the atria during systole (contraction phase). A properly functioning heart valve ensures efficient pumping of blood by the heart and maintains normal blood circulation throughout the body.

Intervertebral disc displacement, also known as a slipped disc or herniated disc, is a medical condition where the inner, softer material (nucleus pulposus) of the intervertebral disc bulges or ruptures through its outer, tougher ring (annulus fibrosus). This can put pressure on nearby nerves and cause pain, numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected area, often in the lower back or neck. The displacement may also lead to inflammation and irritation of the surrounding spinal structures, further exacerbating the symptoms. The condition is typically caused by age-related wear and tear (degenerative disc disease) or sudden trauma.

Thoracic surgery, also known as cardiothoracic surgery, is a branch of medicine that specializes in the surgical treatment of diseases affecting the organs inside the thorax (chest), specifically the heart, lungs, esophagus, and major blood vessels. This can include procedures such as lung biopsies, lobectomies, pneumonectomies, esophagectomies, heart valve repairs or replacements, coronary artery bypass grafting, and treatment of chest injuries. Thoracic surgeons are medical doctors who have completed extensive training in this field, including a general surgery residency followed by a fellowship in thoracic surgery.

'Diagnostic tests, routine' is a medical term that refers to standard or commonly used tests that are performed to help diagnose, monitor, or manage a patient's health condition. These tests are typically simple, non-invasive, and safe, and they may be ordered as part of a regular check-up or when a patient presents with specific symptoms.

Routine diagnostic tests may include:

1. Complete Blood Count (CBC): A test that measures the number of red and white blood cells, platelets, and hemoglobin in the blood. It can help diagnose conditions such as anemia, infection, and inflammation.
2. Urinalysis: A test that examines a urine sample for signs of infection, kidney disease, or other medical conditions.
3. Blood Chemistry Tests: Also known as a chemistry panel or comprehensive metabolic panel, this test measures various chemicals in the blood such as glucose, electrolytes, and enzymes to evaluate organ function and overall health.
4. Electrocardiogram (ECG): A test that records the electrical activity of the heart, which can help diagnose heart conditions such as arrhythmias or heart attacks.
5. Chest X-ray: An imaging test that creates pictures of the structures inside the chest, including the heart, lungs, and bones, to help diagnose conditions such as pneumonia or lung cancer.
6. Fecal Occult Blood Test (FOBT): A test that checks for hidden blood in the stool, which can be a sign of colon cancer or other gastrointestinal conditions.
7. Pap Smear: A test that collects cells from the cervix to check for abnormalities that may indicate cervical cancer or other gynecological conditions.

These are just a few examples of routine diagnostic tests that healthcare providers may order. The specific tests ordered will depend on the patient's age, sex, medical history, and current symptoms.

A "Drug Administration Schedule" refers to the plan for when and how a medication should be given to a patient. It includes details such as the dose, frequency (how often it should be taken), route (how it should be administered, such as orally, intravenously, etc.), and duration (how long it should be taken) of the medication. This schedule is often created and prescribed by healthcare professionals, such as doctors or pharmacists, to ensure that the medication is taken safely and effectively. It may also include instructions for missed doses or changes in the dosage.

The portal vein is the large venous trunk that carries blood from the gastrointestinal tract, spleen, pancreas, and gallbladder to the liver. It is formed by the union of the superior mesenteric vein (draining the small intestine and a portion of the large intestine) and the splenic vein (draining the spleen and pancreas). The portal vein then divides into right and left branches within the liver, where the blood flows through the sinusoids and gets enriched with oxygen and nutrients before being drained by the hepatic veins into the inferior vena cava. This unique arrangement allows the liver to process and detoxify the absorbed nutrients, remove waste products, and regulate metabolic homeostasis.

A "false negative" reaction in medical testing refers to a situation where a diagnostic test incorrectly indicates the absence of a specific condition or disease, when in fact it is present. This can occur due to various reasons such as issues with the sensitivity of the test, improper sample collection, or specimen handling and storage.

False negative results can have serious consequences, as they may lead to delayed treatment, misdiagnosis, or a false sense of security for the patient. Therefore, it is essential to interpret medical test results in conjunction with other clinical findings, patient history, and physical examination. In some cases, repeating the test or using a different diagnostic method may be necessary to confirm the initial result.

'Unnecessary procedures' in a medical context refer to diagnostic or therapeutic interventions that are not indicated based on established guidelines, evidence-based medicine, or the individual patient's needs and preferences. These procedures may not provide any benefit to the patient, or the potential harm may outweigh the expected benefits. They can also include tests, treatments, or surgeries that are performed in excess of what is medically necessary, or when there are less invasive, cheaper, or safer alternatives available.

Unnecessary procedures can result from various factors, including defensive medicine (ordering extra tests or procedures to avoid potential malpractice claims), financial incentives (providers or institutions benefiting financially from performing more procedures), lack of knowledge or awareness of evidence-based guidelines, and patient pressure or anxiety. It is essential to promote evidence-based medicine and shared decision-making between healthcare providers and patients to reduce the frequency of unnecessary procedures.

A segmental mastectomy, also known as a partial mastectomy, is a surgical procedure that involves the removal of a portion of the breast tissue. This type of mastectomy is typically used to treat breast cancer that is limited to a specific area of the breast. During the procedure, the surgeon removes the cancerous tumor along with some surrounding healthy tissue, as well as the lining of the chest wall below the tumor and the lymph nodes in the underarm area.

In a segmental mastectomy, the goal is to remove the cancer while preserving as much of the breast tissue as possible. This approach can help to achieve a more cosmetic outcome compared to a total or simple mastectomy, which involves removing the entire breast. However, the extent of the surgery will depend on the size and location of the tumor, as well as other factors such as the patient's overall health and personal preferences.

It is important to note that while a segmental mastectomy can be an effective treatment option for breast cancer, it may not be appropriate for all patients or tumors. The decision to undergo this procedure should be made in consultation with a healthcare provider, taking into account the individual patient's medical history, diagnosis, and treatment goals.

Cholecystitis is a medical condition characterized by inflammation of the gallbladder, a small pear-shaped organ located under the liver that stores and concentrates bile produced by the liver. Bile is a digestive fluid that helps break down fats in the small intestine during digestion.

Acute cholecystitis is a sudden inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by the presence of gallstones that block the cystic duct, the tube that carries bile from the gallbladder to the common bile duct. This blockage can cause bile to build up in the gallbladder, leading to inflammation, swelling, and pain.

Chronic cholecystitis is a long-term inflammation of the gallbladder, often caused by repeated attacks of acute cholecystitis or the presence of gallstones that cause ongoing irritation and damage to the gallbladder wall. Over time, chronic cholecystitis can lead to thickening and scarring of the gallbladder wall, which can reduce its ability to function properly.

Symptoms of cholecystitis may include sudden and severe abdominal pain, often in the upper right or center of the abdomen, that may worsen after eating fatty foods; fever; nausea and vomiting; bloating and gas; and clay-colored stools. Treatment for cholecystitis typically involves antibiotics to treat any infection present, pain relief, and surgery to remove the gallbladder (cholecystectomy). In some cases, a nonsurgical procedure called endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) may be used to remove gallstones from the bile duct.

Astigmatism is a common eye condition that occurs when the cornea or lens has an irregular shape, causing blurred or distorted vision. The cornea and lens are typically smooth and curved uniformly in all directions, allowing light to focus clearly on the retina. However, if the cornea or lens is not smoothly curved and has a steeper curve in one direction than the other, it causes light to focus unevenly on the retina, leading to astigmatism.

Astigmatism can cause blurred vision at all distances, as well as eye strain, headaches, and fatigue. It is often present from birth and can be hereditary, but it can also develop later in life due to eye injuries or surgery. Astigmatism can be corrected with glasses, contact lenses, or refractive surgery such as LASIK.

Aortic valve insufficiency, also known as aortic regurgitation or aortic incompetence, is a cardiac condition in which the aortic valve does not close properly during the contraction phase of the heart cycle. This allows blood to flow back into the left ventricle from the aorta, instead of being pumped out to the rest of the body. As a result, the left ventricle must work harder to maintain adequate cardiac output, which can lead to left ventricular enlargement and heart failure over time if left untreated.

The aortic valve is a trileaflet valve that lies between the left ventricle and the aorta. During systole (the contraction phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve opens to allow blood to be pumped out of the left ventricle into the aorta and then distributed to the rest of the body. During diastole (the relaxation phase of the heart cycle), the aortic valve closes to prevent blood from flowing back into the left ventricle.

Aortic valve insufficiency can be caused by various conditions, including congenital heart defects, infective endocarditis, rheumatic heart disease, Marfan syndrome, and trauma. Symptoms of aortic valve insufficiency may include shortness of breath, fatigue, chest pain, palpitations, and edema (swelling). Diagnosis is typically made through physical examination, echocardiography, and other imaging studies. Treatment options depend on the severity of the condition and may include medication, surgery to repair or replace the aortic valve, or a combination of both.

Intrahepatic bile ducts are the small tubular structures inside the liver that collect bile from the liver cells (hepatocytes). Bile is a digestive fluid produced by the liver that helps in the absorption of fats and fat-soluble vitamins from food. The intrahepatic bile ducts merge to form larger ducts, which eventually exit the liver and join with the cystic duct from the gallbladder to form the common bile duct. The common bile duct then empties into the duodenum, the first part of the small intestine, where bile aids in digestion. Intrahepatic bile ducts can become obstructed or damaged due to various conditions such as gallstones, tumors, or inflammation, leading to complications like jaundice, liver damage, and infection.

A jejunostomy is a surgical procedure where an opening (stoma) is created in the lower part of the small intestine, called the jejunum. This stoma allows for the passage of nutrients and digestive enzymes from the small intestine into a tube or external pouch, bypassing the mouth, esophagus, stomach, and upper small intestine (duodenum).

Jejunostomy is typically performed to provide enteral nutrition support in patients who are unable to consume food or liquids by mouth due to various medical conditions such as dysphagia, gastroparesis, bowel obstruction, or after certain surgical procedures. The jejunostomy tube can be used for short-term or long-term nutritional support, depending on the patient's needs and underlying medical condition.

Colorectal surgery is a medical specialty that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of disorders affecting the colon, rectum, and anus. This can include conditions such as colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel disease (such as Crohn's disease or ulcerative colitis), diverticulitis, and anal fistulas or fissures.

The surgical procedures performed by colorectal surgeons may involve minimally invasive techniques, such as laparoscopic or robotic-assisted surgery, or more traditional open surgery. These procedures can range from removing polyps during a colonoscopy to complex resections of the colon, rectum, or anus.

Colorectal surgeons also work closely with other medical specialists, such as gastroenterologists, oncologists, and radiologists, to provide comprehensive care for their patients.

Hemodynamics is the study of how blood flows through the cardiovascular system, including the heart and the vascular network. It examines various factors that affect blood flow, such as blood volume, viscosity, vessel length and diameter, and pressure differences between different parts of the circulatory system. Hemodynamics also considers the impact of various physiological and pathological conditions on these variables, and how they in turn influence the function of vital organs and systems in the body. It is a critical area of study in fields such as cardiology, anesthesiology, and critical care medicine.

Aortic diseases refer to conditions that affect the aorta, which is the largest and main artery in the body. The aorta carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body. Aortic diseases can weaken or damage the aorta, leading to various complications. Here are some common aortic diseases with their medical definitions:

1. Aortic aneurysm: A localized dilation or bulging of the aortic wall, which can occur in any part of the aorta but is most commonly found in the abdominal aorta (abdominal aortic aneurysm) or the thoracic aorta (thoracic aortic aneurysm). Aneurysms can increase the risk of rupture, leading to life-threatening bleeding.
2. Aortic dissection: A separation of the layers of the aortic wall due to a tear in the inner lining, allowing blood to flow between the layers and potentially cause the aorta to rupture. This is a medical emergency that requires immediate treatment.
3. Aortic stenosis: A narrowing of the aortic valve opening, which restricts blood flow from the heart to the aorta. This can lead to shortness of breath, chest pain, and other symptoms. Severe aortic stenosis may require surgical or transcatheter intervention to replace or repair the aortic valve.
4. Aortic regurgitation: Also known as aortic insufficiency, this condition occurs when the aortic valve does not close properly, allowing blood to leak back into the heart. This can lead to symptoms such as fatigue, shortness of breath, and palpitations. Treatment may include medication or surgical repair or replacement of the aortic valve.
5. Aortitis: Inflammation of the aorta, which can be caused by various conditions such as infections, autoimmune diseases, or vasculitides. Aortitis can lead to aneurysms, dissections, or stenosis and may require medical treatment with immunosuppressive drugs or surgical intervention.
6. Marfan syndrome: A genetic disorder that affects the connective tissue, including the aorta. People with Marfan syndrome are at risk of developing aortic aneurysms and dissections, and may require close monitoring and prophylactic surgery to prevent complications.

Phlebography is a medical imaging technique used to visualize and assess the veins, particularly in the legs. It involves the injection of a contrast agent into the veins, followed by X-ray imaging to capture the flow of the contrast material through the veins. This allows doctors to identify any abnormalities such as blood clots, blockages, or malformations in the venous system.

There are different types of phlebography, including ascending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a foot vein and travels up the leg) and descending phlebography (where the contrast agent is injected into a vein in the groin or neck and travels down the leg).

Phlebography is an invasive procedure that requires careful preparation and monitoring, and it is typically performed by radiologists or vascular specialists. It has largely been replaced by non-invasive imaging techniques such as ultrasound and CT angiography in many clinical settings.

Antibiotic prophylaxis refers to the use of antibiotics to prevent infection from occurring in the first place, rather than treating an existing infection. This practice is commonly used before certain medical procedures or surgeries that have a high risk of infection, such as joint replacements, heart valve surgery, or organ transplants. The goal of antibiotic prophylaxis is to reduce the risk of infection by introducing antibiotics into the body before bacteria have a chance to multiply and cause an infection.

The choice of antibiotic for prophylaxis depends on several factors, including the type of procedure being performed, the patient's medical history and allergies, and the most common types of bacteria that can cause infection in that particular situation. The antibiotic is typically given within one hour before the start of the procedure, and may be continued for up to 24 hours afterward, depending on the specific guidelines for that procedure.

It's important to note that antibiotic prophylaxis should only be used when it is truly necessary, as overuse of antibiotics can contribute to the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, the decision to use antibiotic prophylaxis should be made carefully and in consultation with a healthcare provider.

Adnexal diseases refer to medical conditions that affect the adnexa of the uterus, which includes the fallopian tubes and ovaries. These diseases can range from benign conditions such as ovarian cysts or ectopic pregnancies, to more serious conditions like ovarian or fallopian tube cancer.

Some common adnexal diseases include:

1. Ovarian cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that develop on the ovary. They are usually benign but can cause symptoms such as pelvic pain, bloating, and irregular menstruation.
2. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube. This condition is a medical emergency and requires prompt treatment.
3. Endometriosis: A condition where tissue similar to the lining of the uterus grows outside of it, often on the ovaries or fallopian tubes. This can cause pain, irregular bleeding, and infertility.
4. Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID): An infection of the reproductive organs, usually caused by sexually transmitted bacteria. PID can affect the ovaries and fallopian tubes and can lead to chronic pain and infertility if left untreated.
5. Ovarian cancer: A malignant tumor that develops in the ovary. This is a serious condition that requires prompt treatment, usually involving surgery and chemotherapy.
6. Fallopian tube cancer: A rare form of cancer that affects the fallopian tubes. Like ovarian cancer, it requires prompt treatment with surgery and chemotherapy.

Retinal detachment is a serious eye condition that occurs when the retina, a thin layer of tissue at the back of the eye responsible for processing light and sending visual signals to the brain, pulls away from its normal position. This can lead to significant vision loss or even blindness if not promptly treated. Retinal detachment can be caused by various factors such as aging, trauma, eye disease, or an inflammatory condition. Symptoms of retinal detachment may include sudden flashes of light, floaters, a shadow in the peripheral vision, or a curtain-like covering over part of the visual field. Immediate medical attention is necessary to prevent further damage and preserve vision.

Prosthesis implantation is a surgical procedure where an artificial device or component, known as a prosthesis, is placed inside the body to replace a missing or damaged body part. The prosthesis can be made from various materials such as metal, plastic, or ceramic and is designed to perform the same function as the original body part.

The implantation procedure involves making an incision in the skin to create a pocket where the prosthesis will be placed. The prosthesis is then carefully positioned and secured in place using screws, cement, or other fixation methods. In some cases, tissue from the patient's own body may be used to help anchor the prosthesis.

Once the prosthesis is in place, the incision is closed with sutures or staples, and the area is bandaged. The patient will typically need to undergo rehabilitation and physical therapy to learn how to use the new prosthesis and regain mobility and strength.

Prosthesis implantation is commonly performed for a variety of reasons, including joint replacement due to arthritis or injury, dental implants to replace missing teeth, and breast reconstruction after mastectomy. The specific procedure and recovery time will depend on the type and location of the prosthesis being implanted.

Bariatric surgery is a branch of medicine that involves the surgical alteration of the stomach, intestines, or both to induce weight loss in individuals with severe obesity. The primary goal of bariatric surgery is to reduce the size of the stomach, leading to decreased food intake and absorption, which ultimately results in significant weight loss.

There are several types of bariatric surgeries, including:

1. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB): This procedure involves creating a small pouch at the top of the stomach and connecting it directly to the middle portion of the small intestine, bypassing the rest of the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine.
2. Sleeve gastrectomy: In this procedure, a large portion of the stomach is removed, leaving behind a narrow sleeve-shaped pouch that restricts food intake.
3. Adjustable gastric banding (AGB): This surgery involves placing an adjustable band around the upper part of the stomach to create a small pouch and limit food intake.
4. Biliopancreatic diversion with duodenal switch (BPD/DS): This is a more complex procedure that involves both restricting the size of the stomach and rerouting the small intestine to reduce nutrient absorption.

Bariatric surgery can lead to significant weight loss, improvement in obesity-related health conditions such as diabetes, high blood pressure, sleep apnea, and reduced risk of mortality. However, it is not without risks and complications, including infection, bleeding, nutrient deficiencies, and dumping syndrome. Therefore, careful consideration and evaluation by a multidisciplinary team are necessary before undergoing bariatric surgery.

A trabeculectomy is a surgical procedure performed on the eye to treat glaucoma, an eye condition characterized by increased pressure within the eye that can lead to optic nerve damage and vision loss. The main goal of this operation is to create a new channel for the aqueous humor (the clear fluid inside the eye) to drain out, thus reducing the intraocular pressure (IOP).

During the trabeculectomy procedure, a small flap is made in the sclera (the white part of the eye), and a piece of the trabecular meshwork (a structure inside the eye that helps regulate the flow of aqueous humor) is removed. This opening allows the aqueous humor to bypass the obstructed drainage system and form a bleb, a small blister-like sac on the surface of the eye, which absorbs the fluid and reduces IOP.

The success of trabeculectomy depends on various factors, including the patient's age, type and severity of glaucoma, previous treatments, and overall health. Potential complications may include infection, bleeding, cataract formation, hypotony (abnormally low IOP), or failure to control IOP. Regular follow-up appointments with an ophthalmologist are necessary to monitor the eye's response to the surgery and manage any potential issues that may arise.

"Adnexa uteri" is a medical term that refers to the structures closely related to or associated with the uterus. These structures include:

1. The fallopian tubes (also known as oviducts or salpinges): paired tubular structures that transport the egg from the ovary to the uterus during ovulation and provide a site for fertilization.
2. The ovaries (also known as gonads): paired reproductive organs that produce eggs (oocytes) and sex hormones, such as estrogen and progesterone.
3. The broad ligaments: large, double-layered folds of peritoneum (the serous membrane lining the abdominal cavity) that extend from the sides of the uterus and enclose and support the fallopian tubes, ovaries, and surrounding blood vessels.
4. The suspensory ligaments of the ovaries: these are extensions of the broad ligament that suspend the ovaries from the pelvic wall.
5. The round ligaments: these are fibromuscular bands that extend from the uterus to the labia majora and help maintain the position of the uterus within the pelvis.

Anomalies, inflammation (e.g., salpingitis, oophoritis), or other pathologies affecting the adnexa uteri may lead to various gynecological conditions and symptoms, such as pain, infertility, or ectopic pregnancy.

A tendon transfer is a surgical procedure where a healthy tendon is moved to rebalance or reinforce a muscle that has become weak or paralyzed due to injury, disease, or nerve damage. The transferred tendon attaches to the bone in a new position, allowing it to power a different movement or stabilize a joint. This procedure helps restore function and improve mobility in the affected area.

The parathyroid glands are four small endocrine glands located in the neck, usually near or behind the thyroid gland. They secrete parathyroid hormone (PTH), which plays a critical role in regulating calcium and phosphate levels in the blood and bones. PTH helps maintain the balance of these minerals by increasing the absorption of calcium from food in the intestines, promoting reabsorption of calcium in the kidneys, and stimulating the release of calcium from bones when needed. Additionally, PTH decreases the excretion of calcium through urine and reduces phosphate reabsorption in the kidneys, leading to increased phosphate excretion. Disorders of the parathyroid glands can result in conditions such as hyperparathyroidism (overactive glands) or hypoparathyroidism (underactive glands), which can have significant impacts on calcium and phosphate homeostasis and overall health.

Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi is a radiopharmaceutical compound used in medical imaging, specifically in myocardial perfusion scintigraphy. It is a technetium-labeled isonitrile chelate that is taken up by mitochondria in cells with high metabolic activity, such as cardiomyocytes (heart muscle cells).

Once injected into the patient's body, Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi emits gamma rays, which can be detected by a gamma camera. This allows for the creation of images that reflect the distribution and function of the radiopharmaceutical within the heart muscle. The images can help identify areas of reduced blood flow or ischemia, which may indicate coronary artery disease.

The uptake of Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi in other organs, such as the breast and thyroid, can also be used for imaging purposes, although its primary use remains in cardiac imaging.

A neurilemmoma, also known as schwannoma or peripheral nerve sheath tumor, is a benign, slow-growing tumor that arises from the Schwann cells, which produce the myelin sheath that surrounds and insulates peripheral nerves. These tumors can occur anywhere along the course of a peripheral nerve, but they most commonly affect the acoustic nerve (vestibulocochlear nerve), leading to a type of tumor called vestibular schwannoma or acoustic neuroma. Neurilemmomas are typically encapsulated and do not invade the surrounding tissue, although larger ones may cause pressure-related symptoms due to compression of nearby structures. Rarely, these tumors can undergo malignant transformation, leading to a condition called malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor or neurofibrosarcoma.

Cholangiocarcinoma is a type of cancer that arises from the cells that line the bile ducts, which are small tubes that carry digestive enzymes from the liver to the small intestine. It can occur in different parts of the bile duct system, including the bile ducts inside the liver (intrahepatic), the bile ducts outside the liver (extrahepatic), and the area where the bile ducts join the pancreas and small intestine (ampulla of Vater).

Cholangiocarcinoma is a relatively rare cancer, but its incidence has been increasing in recent years. It can be difficult to diagnose because its symptoms are often nonspecific and similar to those of other conditions, such as gallstones or pancreatitis. Treatment options depend on the location and stage of the cancer, and may include surgery, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, or a combination of these approaches.

Orthopedic fixation devices are medical implants used in orthopedic surgery to provide stability and promote the healing of fractured or broken bones, as well as joints or spinal segments. These devices can be internal or external and include a variety of products such as:

1. Intramedullary nails: Long rods that are inserted into the center of a bone to stabilize fractures in long bones like the femur or tibia.
2. Plates and screws: Metal plates are attached to the surface of a bone with screws to hold the fragments together while they heal.
3. Screws: Used alone or in combination with other devices, they can be used to stabilize small fractures or to fix implants like total joint replacements.
4. Wires: Used to hold bone fragments together, often in conjunction with other devices.
5. External fixators: A external frame attached to the bones using pins or wires that is placed outside the skin to provide stability and alignment of fractured bones.
6. Spinal fixation devices: These include pedicle screws, rods, hooks, and plates used to stabilize spinal fractures or deformities.
7. Orthopedic staples: Small metal staples used to stabilize small bone fragments or for joint fusion.

The choice of orthopedic fixation device depends on the location and severity of the injury or condition being treated. The primary goal of these devices is to provide stability, promote healing, and restore function.

Arterial occlusive diseases are medical conditions characterized by the blockage or narrowing of the arteries, which can lead to a reduction in blood flow to various parts of the body. This reduction in blood flow can cause tissue damage and may result in serious complications such as tissue death (gangrene), organ dysfunction, or even death.

The most common cause of arterial occlusive diseases is atherosclerosis, which is the buildup of plaque made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances in the inner lining of the artery walls. Over time, this plaque can harden and narrow the arteries, restricting blood flow. Other causes of arterial occlusive diseases include blood clots, emboli (tiny particles that travel through the bloodstream and lodge in smaller vessels), inflammation, trauma, and certain inherited conditions.

Symptoms of arterial occlusive diseases depend on the location and severity of the blockage. Common symptoms include:

* Pain, cramping, or fatigue in the affected limb, often triggered by exercise and relieved by rest (claudication)
* Numbness, tingling, or weakness in the affected limb
* Coldness or discoloration of the skin in the affected area
* Slow-healing sores or wounds on the toes, feet, or legs
* Erectile dysfunction in men

Treatment for arterial occlusive diseases may include lifestyle changes such as quitting smoking, exercising regularly, and eating a healthy diet. Medications to lower cholesterol, control blood pressure, prevent blood clots, or manage pain may also be prescribed. In severe cases, surgical procedures such as angioplasty, stenting, or bypass surgery may be necessary to restore blood flow.

Bone transplantation, also known as bone grafting, is a surgical procedure in which bone or bone-like material is transferred from one part of the body to another or from one person to another. The graft may be composed of cortical (hard outer portion) bone, cancellous (spongy inner portion) bone, or a combination of both. It can be taken from different sites in the same individual (autograft), from another individual of the same species (allograft), or from an animal source (xenograft). The purpose of bone transplantation is to replace missing bone, provide structural support, and stimulate new bone growth. This procedure is commonly used in orthopedic, dental, and maxillofacial surgeries to repair bone defects caused by trauma, tumors, or congenital conditions.

A thoracic aortic aneurysm is a localized dilatation or bulging of the thoracic aorta, which is the part of the aorta that runs through the chest cavity. The aorta is the largest artery in the body, and it carries oxygenated blood from the heart to the rest of the body.

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can occur anywhere along the thoracic aorta, but they are most commonly found in the aortic arch or the descending thoracic aorta. These aneurysms can vary in size, and they are considered significant when they are 50% larger than the expected normal diameter of the aorta.

The exact cause of thoracic aortic aneurysms is not fully understood, but several factors can contribute to their development, including:

* Atherosclerosis (hardening and narrowing of the arteries)
* High blood pressure
* Genetic disorders such as Marfan syndrome or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome
* Infections or inflammation of the aorta
* Trauma to the chest

Thoracic aortic aneurysms can be asymptomatic and found incidentally on imaging studies, or they may present with symptoms such as chest pain, cough, difficulty swallowing, or hoarseness. If left untreated, thoracic aortic aneurysms can lead to serious complications, including aortic dissection (tearing of the inner layer of the aorta) or rupture, which can be life-threatening.

Treatment options for thoracic aortic aneurysms include medical management with blood pressure control and cholesterol-lowering medications, as well as surgical repair or endovascular stenting, depending on the size, location, and growth rate of the aneurysm. Regular follow-up imaging is necessary to monitor the size and progression of the aneurysm over time.

Povidone-Iodine is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent, which is a complex of iodine with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP). This complex allows for sustained release of iodine, providing persistent antimicrobial activity. It has been widely used in various clinical settings, including as a surgical scrub, wound disinfection, and skin preparation before invasive procedures. Povidone-Iodine is effective against bacteria, viruses, fungi, and spores. The mechanism of action involves the release of iodine ions, which oxidize cellular components and disrupt microbial membranes, leading to cell death.

A cataract is a clouding of the natural lens in the eye that affects vision. This clouding can cause vision to become blurry, faded, or dim, making it difficult to see clearly. Cataracts are a common age-related condition, but they can also be caused by injury, disease, or medication use. In most cases, cataracts develop gradually over time and can be treated with surgery to remove the cloudy lens and replace it with an artificial one.

Delirium is a serious disturbance in mental abilities that results in confused thinking and reduced awareness of the environment, which can cause people to be easily distracted and unable to focus on any one topic for very long. It can also lead to rapid changes in emotions, perception, behavior, sleep-wake cycle, and hallucinations. Delirium is caused by various underlying medical conditions, such as infection, illness, or medication side effects, and it can be a symptom of severe illness or brain disorder. It can develop quickly, often over the course of hours or days, and it may come and go.

Delirium is different from dementia, which is a chronic and progressive decline in cognitive abilities, although delirium can occur in people with dementia. Delirium is also different from a mental illness such as schizophrenia, which involves persistent disturbances in thinking and perception that are not caused by a medical condition or medication.

Delirium is a serious medical condition that requires immediate evaluation and treatment. If you suspect someone may have delirium, it's important to seek medical attention right away.

Morbidity, in medical terms, refers to the state or condition of being diseased or unhealthy. It is used to describe the incidence or prevalence of a particular disease or health condition within a population, or the presence of multiple diseases or health conditions in an individual. Morbidity can also refer to the complications or symptoms associated with a disease or injury. In clinical settings, morbidity may be used to assess a patient's overall health status and their response to treatment.

Wilms tumor, also known as nephroblastoma, is a type of kidney cancer that primarily affects children. It occurs in the cells of the developing kidneys and is named after Dr. Max Wilms, who first described this type of tumor in 1899. Wilms tumor typically develops before the age of 5, with most cases occurring in children under the age of 3.

The medical definition of Wilms tumor is:

A malignant, embryonal kidney tumor originating from the metanephric blastema, which is a mass of undifferentiated cells in the developing kidney. Wilms tumor is characterized by its rapid growth and potential for spread (metastasis) to other parts of the body, particularly the lungs and liver. The tumor usually presents as a large, firm, and irregular mass in the abdomen, and it may be associated with various symptoms such as abdominal pain, swelling, or blood in the urine.

Wilms tumor is typically treated with a combination of surgery, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy. The prognosis for children with Wilms tumor has improved significantly over the past few decades due to advances in treatment methods and early detection.

Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) is a type of computed tomography (CT) scan that uses multiple rows of detectors to acquire several slices of images simultaneously, thereby reducing the total time required for the scan and improving the spatial resolution. This technology allows for faster scanning of moving organs, such as the heart, and provides high-resolution images with detailed information about various body structures, including bones, soft tissues, and blood vessels. MDCT has numerous applications in diagnostic imaging, interventional procedures, and cancer staging and treatment follow-up.

A living donor is a person who voluntarily donates an organ or part of an organ to another person while they are still alive. This can include donations such as a kidney, liver lobe, lung, or portion of the pancreas or intestines. The donor and recipient typically undergo medical evaluation and compatibility testing to ensure the best possible outcome for the transplantation procedure. Living donation is regulated by laws and ethical guidelines to ensure that donors are fully informed and making a voluntary decision.

Ocular refraction is a medical term that refers to the bending of light as it passes through the optical media of the eye, including the cornea and lens. This process allows the eye to focus light onto the retina, creating a clear image. The refractive power of the eye is determined by the curvature and transparency of these structures.

In a normal eye, light rays are bent or refracted in such a way that they converge at a single point on the retina, producing a sharp and focused image. However, if the curvature of the cornea or lens is too steep or too flat, the light rays may not converge properly, resulting in a refractive error such as myopia (nearsightedness), hyperopia (farsightedness), or astigmatism.

Ocular refraction can be measured using a variety of techniques, including retinoscopy, automated refraction, and subjective refraction. These measurements are used to determine the appropriate prescription for corrective lenses such as eyeglasses or contact lenses. In some cases, ocular refractive errors may be corrected surgically through procedures such as LASIK or PRK.

Arthroplasty, replacement, is a surgical procedure where a damaged or diseased joint surface is removed and replaced with an artificial implant or device. The goal of this surgery is to relieve pain, restore function, and improve the quality of life for patients who have severe joint damage due to arthritis or other conditions.

During the procedure, the surgeon removes the damaged cartilage and bone from the joint and replaces them with a metal, plastic, or ceramic component that replicates the shape and function of the natural joint surface. The most common types of joint replacement surgery are hip replacement, knee replacement, and shoulder replacement.

The success rate of joint replacement surgery is generally high, with many patients experiencing significant pain relief and improved mobility. However, as with any surgical procedure, there are risks involved, including infection, blood clots, implant loosening or failure, and nerve damage. Therefore, it's essential to discuss the potential benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery with a healthcare provider before making a decision.

Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) is a type of focal (localized) epilepsy that originates from the temporal lobes of the brain. The temporal lobes are located on each side of the brain and are involved in processing sensory information, memory, and emotion. TLE is characterized by recurrent seizures that originate from one or both temporal lobes.

The symptoms of TLE can vary depending on the specific area of the temporal lobe that is affected. However, common symptoms include auras (sensory or emotional experiences that occur before a seizure), strange smells or tastes, lip-smacking or chewing movements, and memory problems. Some people with TLE may also experience automatisms (involuntary movements such as picking at clothes or fumbling with objects) during their seizures.

Treatment for TLE typically involves medication to control seizures, although surgery may be recommended in some cases. The goal of treatment is to reduce the frequency and severity of seizures and improve quality of life.

The term "axilla" is used in anatomical context to refer to the armpit region, specifically the space located lateral to the upper part of the chest wall and medial to the upper arm. This area contains a number of important structures such as blood vessels, nerves, and lymph nodes, which play a critical role in the health and functioning of the upper limb. Understanding the anatomy of the axilla is essential for medical professionals performing various procedures, including surgeries and injections, in this region.

The esophagogastric junction (EGJ) is the region of the gastrointestinal tract where the esophagus (the tube that carries food from the mouth to the stomach) meets the stomach. It serves as a physiological sphincter, which helps control the direction of flow and prevent reflux of gastric contents back into the esophagus. The EGJ is also known as the gastroesophageal junction or cardia.

A suburethral sling is a type of surgical mesh used in the treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI) in women. It is a narrow strip of synthetic material or tissue that is placed under the urethra, the tube that carries urine from the bladder out of the body, to provide support and restore normal function.

The sling helps to keep the urethra in its proper position during physical activities, such as coughing, sneezing, or exercising, which can put pressure on the bladder and cause urine leakage in women with SUI. Suburethral slings are typically made of non-absorbable synthetic materials, such as polypropylene or polyester, and can be attached to surrounding tissue or bone for added support.

The procedure to implant a suburethral sling is usually performed on an outpatient basis, and most women are able to return to their normal activities within a few weeks. While suburethral slings have been shown to be effective in treating SUI, they are not without risks, including infection, bleeding, pain during sexual intercourse, and in rare cases, erosion of the mesh into surrounding tissues.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "pilot projects" is not a medical term per se. Instead, it is a general term used in various fields, including healthcare and medicine, to describe a small-scale initiative that is implemented on a temporary basis to evaluate its feasibility, effectiveness, or impact before deciding whether to expand or continue it.

In the context of healthcare, pilot projects might involve testing new treatment protocols, implementing innovative care models, or introducing technology solutions in a limited setting to assess their potential benefits and drawbacks. The results of these projects can help inform decisions about broader implementation and provide valuable insights for improving the quality and efficiency of healthcare services.

... refers to health care provided before a surgical operation. The aim of preoperative care is to do whatever is ... At some point before surgery a health care provider conducts a preoperative assessment to verify that a person is fit and ready ... Preoperative care in the Surgery Encyclopedia (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... At some point before the operation the health care provider will assess the fitness of the person to have surgery. This ...
"Guidelines for Perioperative Care in Bariatric Surgery: Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS) Society Recommendations". World ... Preoperative fasting is the practice of a surgical patient abstaining from eating or drinking ("nothing by mouth") for some ... The latest guidelines do not support preoperative fasting, as there is no difference in residual gastric fluid volume, pH or ... The latest guidelines do not support preoperative fasting, as there is no difference in residual gastric fluid volume, pH or ...
Agnew, Neil (2010-04-01). "Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing". Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care ... He was chief of the division of "Respiratory and Critical Care Physiology and Medicine" at the UCLA Harbor Hospital Medical ... "Karlman Wasserman - Chief, Professor of Critical Care Medicine, Respiratory Therapy in Torrance, California, United States of ... he accepted the position of Professor at the UCLA School of Medicine and Chief of the Division or Respiratory and Critical Care ...
"Preoperative cardiopulmonary exercise testing". Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain. 10 (2): 33-37. doi: ...
"Routine Preoperative Tests for Elective Surgery (NG45)". National Institute for Health and Care Excellence. 5 April 2016. ... Sireci, AN (2015). "Hematology testing in urgent care and resource-poor settings: an overview of point of care and satellite ... ISBN 978-0-8261-7148-1. Dooley, EK; Ringler, RL (2012). "Prenatal care: touching the future". Primary Care: Clinics in Office ... Powell, DJ; Achebe, MO (2016). "Anemia for the primary care physician". Primary Care: Clinics in Office Practice. 43 (4): 527- ...
All surgical procedures are considered invasive and often require a period of postoperative care (sometimes intensive care) for ... The pre-operative holding area is so important in the surgical phase since here is where most of the family members can see who ... open fracture care - which are considered a minimum level of care that first-level hospitals should be able to provide in order ... Intensive Care and Neurorehabilitation Italian Study Group (2017). Mobilization in early rehabilitation in intensive care unit ...
Preoperative education is currently an important part of patient care. There is some evidence that it may slightly reduce ... TKA surgery has shown to decrease fall risk and fear of falling in pre-operative fallers with OA versus non-operative fallers ... In most medical-surgical hospital units that perform knee replacements, ambulation is a key aspect of nursing care that is ... Foreword". Critical Care Nursing Quarterly. 36 (1): 1-2. doi:10.1097/cnq.0b013e3182750631. PMID 23221435. Teodoro, 2016[full ...
Pre-operative fasting - 60 years on from Mendelson. Contin Educ Anaesth Crit Care Pain (2006) 6 (6): 215-218 McCracken, Graham ... List of abbreviations used in medical prescriptions List of Latin phrases Per os Preoperative fasting Hanauer, [edited by] ... "Practice Guidelines for Preoperative Fasting and the Use of Pharmacologic Agents to Reduce the Risk of Pulmonary Aspiration: ...
Royster, R. L., King, E. R., Ebersole, J., DeGiorgi, L. S., & Levitt, S. H. (1972). High dose, preoperative supervoltage ... Bottomley, William K., & Ebersole, J. H. (1966). Guidelines for dental care when patients receive radiation therapy to the head ...
Levy, D M (2006). "Pre-operative fasting-60 years on from Mendelson". Continuing Education in Anaesthesia, Critical Care & Pain ... In intensive care, sitting patients up reduces the risk of pulmonary aspiration and ventilator-associated pneumonia. Measures ... Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. 6 (3): 327-33. doi:10.1097/01.mco.0000068970.34812.8b. PMID 12690267 ...
Incision care is needed to avoid infection and minimize scarring. Swelling and loss of appetite are common. Recovery from open- ... Preoperative physical therapy may reduce postoperative pulmonary complications, such as pneumonia and atelectasis, in patients ... "Heart Surgery , Incision Care". my.clevelandclinic.org. Retrieved 8 July 2016. "What to Expect After Heart Surgery" (PDF). sts. ... The results are available on the Care Quality Commission website. Another important source of complications are the ...
Critical Care & Pain. 6 (6): 215-218. doi:10.1093/bjaceaccp/mkl048. Enersen, OD. "Whonamedit - Mendelson's syndrome". ... Аспирационный пневмонит (синдром Мендельсона), http://surgerycom.net/critical/4/4_3.html Levy, DM (2006). "Pre-operative ...
Preoperative teaching if delivered competently is an important aspect of patient care. Positive effects of preoperative ... "Preoperative Care - procedure, recovery, blood, removal, pain, complications, time, infection". www.surgeryencyclopedia.com. ... A surgical nurse, also referred to as a theatre nurse or scrub nurse, specializes in perioperative care, providing care to ... Pre-operative, the nurse must help to prepare the patient and operating room for the surgery. During the surgery, they assist ...
Perioperative and Supportive Care in Gynecologic Oncology:Evidence-Based Management (9780471247883): Scott E. Lentz, Allison E ... "Serum CA 125 levels in preoperative evaluation of pelvic masses". Obstet Gynecol. 71 (5): 751-6. PMID 3162763. Retrieved ... ISBN 978-1-94-206513-5. Gynecologic Oncology: Evidence-Based Perioperative and Supportive Care. Wiley Publishers. 2011. ISBN ... "ResearchGate:"Gynecologic Oncology: Evidence-Based Perioperative and Supportive Care, Second Edition" "Frontmatter", ...
AMDA - The Society for Post-Acute and Long-Term Care Medicine (February 2014), "Ten Things Physicians and Patients Should ... Gutierrez-Aceves J (2011). "Preoperative Antibiotics and Prevention of Sepsis in Genitourinary Surgery". In Smith AD, Badlani ... Nicolle LE (May 2001). "The chronic indwelling catheter and urinary infection in long-term-care facility residents". Infection ... Bryan, Charles S. (2002). Infectious diseases in primary care. Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders. p. 319. ISBN 978-0-7216-9056-8. ...
Other trends include displaying a calm and relaxed attitude during preoperative care. They don't usually experience any ... Treatment of preoperative anxiety may include: Preoperative patient teaching or tours Accurate and thorough information about ... Preoperational anxiety, or preoperative anxiety, is a common reaction experienced by patients who are admitted to a hospital ... "Pre-operative Anxiety" Anaethesia. 51 (1996):344-346. EBSCO. Web. September 2009. Carr Eloise; et al. (2006). "Patterns and ...
... monitored anesthesia care, general anesthesia). This includes preoperative assessment and intraoperative and postoperative ... "EKG Risks". Stanford Health Care. Retrieved 1 April 2019. Schläpfer, J; Wellens, HJ (29 August 2017). "Computer-Interpreted ...
... is a type of unnecessary health care, so the causes of unnecessary health care are also causes of overscreening. ... Brown, SR; Brown, J (May 2011). "Why do physicians order unnecessary preoperative tests? A qualitative study". Family Medicine ... The sources seem to presume that all health care providers know the concept of a "false positive" and that it is not a ... Physicians sometimes use screening as a placebo for patients who wish to have some kind of care. The physician may recommend ...
They perform preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care primarily in the operating theatre. Also known as operating ... critical care or emergency room care to show you know what it takes to work in a fast-paced, high-stakes care environment. Many ... The role also includes preoperative, intraoperative, and postoperative care of the patient. The perianaesthesia nurse (recovery ... and other health care professionals. To work in the OR in a preoperative, intraoperative or postoperative nursing role in the ...
Peitzman, Andrew B.; Rhodes, Michael; Schwab, C. William (2008). The Trauma Manual: Trauma and Acute Care Surgery. Lippincott ... Hancharenka, V.; Tuzikov, A.; Arkhipau, V.; Kryvanos, A. (March 2009). "Preoperative planning of pelvic and lower limbs surgery ... Vincent, Jean-Louis (2011). Textbook of Critical Care (6th ed.). Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier/Saunders. p. 1523. ISBN ...
Preoperative anemia can increase the risk of needing a blood transfusion following surgery. Anemia can be temporary or long ... Smith RE (March 2010). "The clinical and economic burden of anemia". The American Journal of Managed Care. 16 Suppl Issues: S59 ... In order to determine an appropriate preoperative treatment, it is suggested that the cause of anemia be first determined. ... Critical Care. 23 (1): 278. doi:10.1186/s13054-019-2511-9. PMC 6688222. PMID 31399052. Martin, Niels D.; Scantling, Dane ( ...
"A Brief History of BSA Dosing". My Care Diagnostics. Asher V, Lee J, Bali A (September 2012). "Preoperative serum albumin is an ... "Customizing Chemotherapy for Better Cancer Care". My Care Diagnostics. Archived from the original on 28 April 2014. Retrieved ... Health care workers are also required to wash their hands with water and soap before and after working with antineoplastic ... The health care worker should also wipe all waste containers inside the ventilated cabinet before removing them from the ...
Preoperative anemia has been documented to range from 5% in female geriatric hip fracture patients to over 75% in colon cancer ... Patient Blood Management (PBM) is a set of medical practices designed to optimise the care of patients who might need a blood ... Patient Blood Management is an approach that can be implemented in hospital settings for taking care of people who require ... Patient blood management represents an international initiative in best practice for patient centered care that is supported by ...
Risk Factors are factored into account to assess for complications during the preoperative assessment. Some factors include ... A post-anesthesia care unit, often abbreviated PACU and sometimes referred to as post-anesthesia recovery or PAR, or simply ... More intensive care monitoring may include: Preparation and education for the use of patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) units ... Preoperative medications received Access for medications (IV lines, Gauges used, Locations) Anesthetics Type Airway, Relaxant, ...
Pre-operative surgical planning is handicapped by the need to conserve X-ray film. In April 2009 there was an epidemic of ... SIGN Fracture Care International. Archived from the original on 2012-03-03. Retrieved 2012-02-23. Mi Mi Cho; Nyan Tun (2007). " ... The hospital staff understand the latest orthopedic care technologies, but lack the funds to buy instruments such as curved ... Department Ophthalmology Department Orthopaedics Department Dermatology Department Radiology Department Special Care Baby Unit ...
Surgical Care Improvement Project (SCIP) SCIP is a national partnership of organizations [www.medqic.org/scip] that are ... Hence, "preoperative wait time" will increase as demand for surgery increases and/or surgical supply (operating room ... Part of a manager's job is to clearly communicate these factors to all parties involved in care delivery. There are times when ... In order of priority, governing principles of OR managers are to: (1) ensure patient safety and the highest quality of care; (2 ...
Preoperative embolization can improve the likelihood of a full tumor resection and reduce this risk. Radiosurgery could be a ... The prognosis of patients has been significantly enhanced by advances in surgical and critical care treatments. Maximum tumor ... Aljared T, Farmer JP, Tampieri D. Feasibility and value of preoperative embolization of a congenital choroid plexus tumour in ... and intensive care quality. Significant (12 percent) perioperative mortality occurs in the juvenile population, with ...
Information obtained during preoperative assessment is used to create a care plan for the patient. Findings from a systematic ... Perioperative care is the care that is given before and after surgery. It takes place in hospitals, in surgical centers ... The preoperative phase is used to perform tests, attempt to limit preoperational anxiety and may include the preoperative ... "Promoting perioperative advance care planning: a systematic review of advance care planning decision aids". Journal of ...
Golan G, Tighe P, Dobija N, Perel N, Keidan I (2009). "Clowns for the Prevention of Preoperative Anxiety in Children: A ... Clown Care, also known as hospital clowning, is a program in health care facilities involving visits from specially trained ... Professional Clown Doctors began working in hospitals in 1986 under a program called the Big Apple Circus Clown Care Unit, ... "Medical Clowning: Even Adults Deserve a Dream." Social Work in Health Care 49: 581-598. Tener Dafna; Lev-Wiesel Rachel; Lang- ...
"About AfPP". Association for Preoperative Practice. Retrieved 18 November 2015. About AfPP Association for Preoperative ... Its stated aims include "the promotion of high standards of perioperative care, the exchange of professional information ...
Preoperative care refers to health care provided before a surgical operation. The aim of preoperative care is to do whatever is ... At some point before surgery a health care provider conducts a preoperative assessment to verify that a person is fit and ready ... Preoperative care in the Surgery Encyclopedia (Articles with short description, Short description is different from Wikidata, ... At some point before the operation the health care provider will assess the fitness of the person to have surgery. This ...
... preoperative management, and postoperative management. Peer reviewed and up-to-date recommendations written by leading experts. ... Perioperative Care articles covering primary concerns, evaluation, ...
Preoperative nursing, when performed effectively, can result in satisfaction, patient safety, quality healthcare and cost- ... Day surgery nurses play an important role in preparing patients for surgery and coordinating the care required for their ... Nurse managers and educators may need to increase guidance for preoperative nurses involved in direct care, for example, by ... Turunen, E, Miettinen, M, Setälä, L and Vehviläinen-Julkunen, K 2017, An Integrative Review of a Preoperative Nursing Care ...
Preoperative Treatment. Several protocols have been developed to care for patients taking oral anticoagulants. Regardless of ... Kearon formulated a preoperative and postoperative strategy divided into sites of embolic disease. [14] His recommendations are ... Society of Critical Care Medicine, Southeastern Surgical Congress, Tennessee Medical Association. Disclosure: Nothing to ... Division of Trauma and Critical Care, University of Tennessee Health Science Center College of Medicine. Brian J Daley, MD, MBA ...
To examine the effect of preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on patients with Crohns disease undergoing bowel ... Preoperative total parenteral nutrition for bowel resection in Crohns disease Dig Dis Sci. 1989 May;34(5):741-6. doi: 10.1007/ ... Preoperative, perioperative, and postoperative variables were compared between patients receiving TPN and patients not ... To examine the effect of preoperative total parenteral nutrition (TPN) on patients with Crohns disease undergoing bowel ...
Discover the Surprising Differences in Anesthesia Care Roles Before and After Surgery - Learn More Now! ... Preoperative care is not as important as intraoperative care.. Preoperative care is crucial to ensure that patients are in ... In anesthesia, preoperative and postoperative care roles are crucial for ensuring patient safety and optimal surgical outcomes ... What are the considerations for anesthetic drug selection in preoperative and postoperative care?. Step. Action. Novel Insight ...
It has been well documented that providing comprehensive and effective preoperative education to patients and families has ...
Preoperative disinfection of surgeons hands: use of alcoholic solutions and effects of gloves on skin flora. Br Med J 1974;4: ... The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding ... Remove gloves after caring for a patient. Do not wear the same pair of gloves for the care of more than one patient, and do not ... hands during activities that involved direct patient-contact wound care, intravascular catheter care, respiratory-tract care, ...
The goal of care is to provide adequate ventilation and oxygenation during general anesthesia. Patients are evaluated in the ... Preoperative Period. A general anesthetic can be broken down into three distinct phases, the pre-, intra-, and post-operative ... The pre-operative phase involves patient preparation from the time surgery is scheduled until the patient enters the operating ... A thorough preoperative plan should ensue prior to induction of general anesthesia and, ideally, in advance of the operative ...
Same-day surgery - adult; Ambulatory surgery - adult; Surgical procedure - adult; Preoperative care - day of surgery ... Principles of preoperative and operative surgery. In: Townsend CM Jr, Beauchamp RD, Evers BM, Mattox KL, eds. Sabiston Textbook ... Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, Aebersold M, Gonzalez L. Perioperative care. In: Smith SF, Duell DJ, Martin BC, Gonzalez L, ... On the day of surgery, you will meet with the anesthesia providers who will take care of you during surgery. ...
Efficacy of an expanded preoperative survey during perioperative care to identify illicit substance use in teenagers and ... Efficacy of an expanded preoperative survey during perioperative care to identify illicit ... The results were compared to the answers obtained from the parents during a preoperative phone call. RESULTS:. The study cohort ... higher reporting of substance use or abuse from the patient study survey in comparison to the routine parental preoperative ...
Patient Preoperative Prep & Skin Antiseptics As pioneers in skin antiseptics, weve gone beyond what is required to do what is ... BD products for IV care and maintenance help prevent catheter dislodgement and site contamination. ... BD ChloraPrep™ patient preoperative skin preparation helps reduce bacteria on the skin that can cause infection. ... BD is proud to offer the first and only portfolio of fully sterile preoperative skin prep applicator products. ...
High End Heel Pad Anti-Pressure Sore Blue Ankle Foot Cusion Anti-Decubitus For Elderly Heath Care. wangjun2020 ... 2 Pieces Cotton Triangle Underwear For Detachable Fracture Preoperative And Postoperative Patient. wangjun2020 ... Mesh Torso Restraint Vest Clothing /Waist Fixed Clothes Nursing Care To Elderly Paralyzed Patients. wangjun2020 ...
Getting preoperative testing as directed. Testing will vary depending on your age, health, and specific procedure. Preoperative ... Find Care All Specialties Cardiologists Chiropractors Clinical Psychologists Counselors Dentists Dermatologist Ear, Nose & ... Your doctor and care team will treat your pain so you are comfortable and can get the rest you need. Contact your doctor if ... Talk with a preoperative nurse. The nurse will perform an exam and ensure that all needed tests are in order. The nurse can ...
6. Postoperative care. The patient is given a clear liquid diet 6 hours after the procedure and a regular diet the following ... 3. Preoperative preparation. The transvaginal access requires no special prior preparation. The only important step is the ... The most important point of evaluation and preoperative preparation is the careful selection of patients for transvaginal ...
Optimizing Surgical Care for Patients with Cerebral Palsy and Neuromuscular Conditions: Preoperative Strategies Webinar. Date. ... June 10 - June 10, 2024 Optimizing Surgical Care for Patients with Cerebral Palsy and Neuromuscular Conditions: Preoperative ... Attendees will receive an example of a pre-operative chart/checklist as well as post-webinar resources to apply to their ... The webinar will focus on pre-operative optimization and include concrete tools for attendees and an opportunity for case ...
... our physicians provide personalized service and comprehensive care. ... At Mount Sinai Health Systems Primary Care Associates, located in NYC, ... Preoperative consultation. Should you need to see one of our excellent specialists here at Mount Sinai, your doctor will ... At Mount Sinai Health Systems Primary Care Associates, we provide personalized service and comprehensive care. Our primary ...
Preoperative/Postoperative Care............. 4200-4299 Specific Types of Therapy................... 4400-4499 Specific ... 6. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: MEDICATION CODE LIST, NAMCS 1981. 7. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1977 ... PREOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE CARE Includes: (4200-4299) Prescription renewal ___________________________________ Broken or ... Critical Care Medicine * CCS Surgery, Critical Care CDS Cardiovascular Surgery CRS Colon and Rectal Surgery * DDL ...
When Should Neuroendovascular Care for Patients With Acute Stroke Be Palliative? ... Author Interview: Wheres the Value in Preoperative Covenants Between Surgeons and Patients? ... Author Interview: When Should Neuroendovascular Care for Patients With Acute Stroke Be Palliative? .st0{fill:#FFFFFF;} * .st0{ ... His research interests include adaptation and development of novel, meaning-centered models of palliative care for patients ...
This case shows that cardiac CT can be used as an alternative or complimentary imaging modality to echocardiography for pre-operative ... Other advanced techniques, such as CARE Dose4D™ (real-time anatomic exposure control) and ADMIRE (advanced modeled iterative ... Utility of Cardiac CT for Preoperative Evaluation of Mitral Regurgitation: Morphological Evaluation of Mitral Valve and ...
PREOPERATIVE AND POSTOPERATIVE CARE (4200-4299) 4200.0 Preoperative visit for specified and unspecified types of surgery ... 6. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: MEDICATION CODE LIST, NAMCS 1981. 7. National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey: 1977 ... Preoperative and Postoperative Care.............4200-4299 Specific Types of Therapy.......................4400-4499 Specific ... interested persons should contact the Ambulatory Care Statistics Branch, Division of Health Care Statistics, Room 9-52, 6525 ...
... preoperative team briefing prior to cardiac surgery -- where each person on the team speaks -- improves communication and ... that everyone has a unique contribution to the outcome and care of the patient," says Dr. Wiegmann, who has since moved to the ... Preoperative Briefing Improves Communication, Reduces Errors. Date:. May 27, 2009. Source:. Mayo Clinic. Summary:. A short, ... A short, preoperative team briefing prior to cardiac surgery - where each person on the team speaks - improves communication ...
Pre-Operative Instructions. * Preparation for colon surgery. *Preparation for upper GI endoscopy. *Preparation for Bravo ... Maine Medical Partners - Surgical Care Casco Bay Maine Medical Partners - Surgical Care Casco Bay is a group of board-certified ... Sahagian and Cobean have been offering to do the operations for qualified patients at Southern Maine Health Care (SMHC) in ... Our highly-trained specialists are experts in the care and treatment of diseases and disorders of the colon, rectum, anus and ...
Our guidebooks cover general information, preoperative guidelines, your surgical experience, recovery and home care. We offer ... Get virtual care. Message your care team. Schedule and manage appointments. And much more. ... Your Nurse Care Coordinator. As a UPMC spine surgery patient you will be guided through your surgical preparation, procedure ... When it comes to health care for you and your family, UPMC is here. Its easy to find the right doctor, health screenings, ...
Minit Medical Urgent Care will administer diagnostic PCR testing and will call individuals with all results, which are expected ... Pre-operative, pre-procedure testing. *Required for travel (costs might be incurred). For more information on the drive-through ... Drive Through COVID-19 testing by Minit Medical Urgent Care at the Lahaina Aquatic Center. PC: file 6.24.20 County of Maui. ... testing event, call Minit Medical Urgent Care at (808) 667-6161. ...
... and continuity of care in the medical tourism sector. telemedicine bariatric surgery, medical tourism bariatric care, pre- ... and post-bariatric surgery care, highlighting its benefits for patient outcomes, accessibility, ... Enhancing Pre-operative Care through Telemedicine. ‍. Pre-operative care is a critical phase in the bariatric surgery process, ... Individualized Care Planning: Leveraging telehealth technologies, healthcare providers can develop individualized care plans ...
It includes a 20-page booklet on preoperative prep, procedure overview, home care, and more. Exercise and rehab activity guides ... The American College of Surgeons is dedicated to improving the care of surgical patients and safeguarding standards of care in ... Wound Management: Essential Care at Home. Knowing how to manage wounds is critical to your ultimate health. This program ... You dont have to be a licensed medical professional to provide care at home but you do need proper training. ACS educational ...
Two sites had low, 5 had moderate, and 2 had high preoperative CMI; 5 sites had low and 4 had high postoperative CMI. In ... Evaluation of care management intensity and bariatric surgical weight loss Journal Article Overview abstract * OBJECTIVES: To ... Results were limited by heterogeneity of care management across sites and an inability to assess adherence to care management ... METHODS: Based on the intensity of patient contact, care management intensity (CMI) was defined as high, moderate, or low for ...
  • The preoperative and postoperative care for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG) is crucial for the overall success of the procedure and the patient's recovery. (drramjimehrotra.com)
  • Patients receive information about the surgery, potential risks, and postoperative care. (drramjimehrotra.com)
  • Both preoperative and postoperative care are collaborative efforts involving the surgical team, nurses, rehabilitation specialists, and the patient. (drramjimehrotra.com)
  • In anesthesia, preoperative and postoperative care roles are crucial for ensuring patient safety and optimal surgical outcomes . (stomach.tv)
  • What are the considerations for anesthetic drug selection in preoperative and postoperative care? (stomach.tv)
  • Addition to plasma CRP level, patient's demographic information, type of surgery, preoperative significant tests, delay time in surgery start time after anesthesiology visit, cause of requested specialty consultation and treatment recommendation, postoperative complications and mortality rate were recorded and analyzed. (scirp.org)
  • CARE: Protocol of a randomised trial evaluating the feasibility of preoperative intentional weight loss to support postoperative recovery in patients with excess weight and colorectal cancer. (ox.ac.uk)
  • The goal of a thorough preoperative evaluation should be to provide patients with a personalized surgical plan to minimize operative risk and postoperative complications. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Preoperative nursing care rendered during this period greatly influence patient's care perception, a concept underpinned in this study. (researchbib.com)
  • The commentators note that preoperative planning should be undertaken with a focus "on the patient's individual goals of care, which may not always include surgery. (medscape.com)
  • Efficacy of an expanded preoperative survey during perioperative care to identify illicit substance use in teenagers and adolescents. (bvsalud.org)
  • Our objective was to measure the association between sex and receipt of evidence-based perioperative care for hip fracture in Ontario. (cmaj.ca)
  • Given the effectiveness of these interventions for improving outcomes, population-level hip fracture outcomes may be improved by decreasing sex-based disparities in application of evidence-based recommended perioperative care. (cmaj.ca)
  • After implementation of the frailty screening, changes to surgical planning and perioperative care were instituted as needed after review by clinicians from surgery, anesthesia , critical care, and palliative care. (medscape.com)
  • Day surgery nurses play an important role in preparing patients for surgery and coordinating the care required for their individual needs. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Preoperative education can decrease the pre-surgery anxiety of patients (Alanazi 2014). (ausmed.com.au)
  • 2016) note that operating room nurses can reduce the preoperative stress of patients by visiting them prior to surgery . (ausmed.com.au)
  • 2015) also note that the preoperative nurse's role is focused on advocating for and detecting patients' individual needs and potential risks in relation to surgery and the perioperative journey. (ausmed.com.au)
  • It's important that preoperative nurses have an understanding of and are competent in delivering evidence-based health education and other anxiety-relieving interventions relevant to their patients' specific needs. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Patients are closely monitored in the intensive care unit (ICU) initially. (drramjimehrotra.com)
  • Individual care plans may vary, and patients should follow the specific recommendations provided by their healthcare team. (drramjimehrotra.com)
  • Patients were classified according to preoperative plasma CRP level to five groups as negative, +1, +2, +3 and not measured (i.e. they considered as normal (0 - 5 mg/l), mildly (5 - 40 mg/l), moderately (40 - 200 mg/L) or severely increased (>200 mg/l) groups). (scirp.org)
  • Prevalence of preoperative acute myocardium infarction was higher in patients with high CRP level. (scirp.org)
  • In addition, it provides specific recommendations to promote improved hand-hygiene practices and reduce transmission of pathogenic microorganisms to patients and personnel in health-care settings. (cdc.gov)
  • Patients and their family members or friends are important members of the care team. (ahrq.gov)
  • Author Interview: When Should Neuroendovascular Care for Patients With Acute Stroke Be Palliative? (ama-assn.org)
  • Drs Michael Young, Robert Regenhardt, and Leonard Sokol join Ethics Talk to discuss their article, coauthored with Dr Thabele Leslie-Mazwi: "When Should Neuroendovascular Care for Patients With Acute Stroke Be Palliative? (ama-assn.org)
  • His research examines frameworks underlying standards of care in clinical neuroscience and improving novel neurotechnology applications for care of patients with neurological disorders. (ama-assn.org)
  • His research interests include adaptation and development of novel, meaning-centered models of palliative care for patients with neurodegenerative diseases. (ama-assn.org)
  • Author Interview: Where's the Value in Preoperative Covenants Between Surgeons and Patients? (ama-assn.org)
  • We studied whether poor survivors could be identified on preoperative computed tomography (CT), in order to avoid unnecessary surgery.PATIENTS AND METHODS: Films of abdominopelvic CT scans from 25 such patients treated by cytoreductive surgery and HIPEC were retrospectively analysed by two radiologists separately. (lu.se)
  • Additionally, the presence of ileocaecal region involvement and, depending on the radiologist, the occurrence of tumour deposits in the left subdiaphragmatic area on CT appeared to be unfavourable prognostic signs.CONCLUSIONS: The prognostic value of preoperative conventional CT appeared to be radiologist dependent and may, therefore, be of limited value in selecting colorectal cancer patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis who will not benefit from extensive cytoreductive surgery followed by HIPEC. (lu.se)
  • We focus exclusively on certain types of operations, offer the latest procedures and bring patients the most advanced care. (mainehealth.org)
  • We partner and collaborate with recognized regional leaders in many areas within medicine, surgery and research, ensuring the highest quality care and treatment for our patients. (mainehealth.org)
  • An indispensable member of any surgical team, patients rely on their expertise and care every day all around the world. (airforce.com)
  • La présente étude prospective, fondée sur des dossiers de patients, visait à déterminer le taux d'annulation des interventions chirurgicales programmées dans un grand centre hospitalier universitaire de recours en Jordanie, et les motifs de ces annulations. (who.int)
  • And final y, it allows patients to The publication sought to transparently examine variations in care make informed decisions about possible treatment options. (who.int)
  • Soixante-douze virgule deux pour cent des patients déclaraient satisfaits de leur prise en charge. (bvsalud.org)
  • Conclusion: Le développement extensif de la chirurgie ambulatoire est basé sur la sélection des patients à qui l'on propose ce type de prise en charge. (bvsalud.org)
  • Elle a concerné les patients àgés de plus de 15 ans pris en charge dans le service et décédés en hospitalisation, en réanimation ou au bloc opératoire. (bvsalud.org)
  • Il s'agissait d'une étude descriptive de 74 patients hospitalisés dans le Service en 2017. (bvsalud.org)
  • In an invited commentary , Anne M. Suskind, MD, and Emily Finlayson, MD, both from the University of California, San Francisco, acknowledge the increasing importance of frailty assessment in the preoperative setting, but caution that "[e]xcluding patients with limited life expectancy from surgical interventions that may improve symptom management out of fear of poor mortality statistics is a real concern. (medscape.com)
  • Follow established protocols for post- anesthesia care , including monitoring vital signs , assessing pain levels, and providing appropriate pain management interventions . (stomach.tv)
  • For example, delayed access to surgery increases mortality, 17 , 18 and certain anesthetic interventions 19 , 20 and application of orthogeriatric care 21 , 22 improve survival. (cmaj.ca)
  • The Guideline for Hand Hygiene in Health-Care Settings provides health-care workers (HCWs) with a review of data regarding handwashing and hand antisepsis in health-care settings. (cdc.gov)
  • APIC guideline for handwashing and hand antisepsis in health care settings. (cdc.gov)
  • As pioneers in skin antiseptics, we've gone beyond what is required to do what is right by elevating the standard in preoperative skin antisepsis. (bd.com)
  • DSN: CC37.NAMCS91.DRUG ABSTRACT This report provides documentation for users of the 1991 National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) Micro-Data Tapes for Drug Mentions. (cdc.gov)
  • Introduction I. DESCRIPTION OF THE NATIONAL AMBULATORY MEDICAL CARE SURVEY The (NAMCS) is a national survey of patient visits to physicians' offices. (cdc.gov)
  • SEE NAMCS PATIENT DATASET NAMES FOR DSN ABSTRACT General Information This material provides documentation for users of the Micro-Data tapes of the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics. (cdc.gov)
  • 2Introduction This Micro-Data Tape comprises the data collected by the National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey (NAMCS) in 1989, conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS). (cdc.gov)
  • The National Ambulatory Medical Care Survey provides data from samples of patient records selected from a national sample of office-based physicians. (cdc.gov)
  • At some point before surgery a health care provider conducts a preoperative assessment to verify that a person is fit and ready for the surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2005) Guidelines for Preoperative Assessment Impact on Clinical Practice and Costs. (scirp.org)
  • Falls risk assessment is one area of need for the preoperative patient. (protimellc.com)
  • At the very least, preoperative frailty assessment serves as a portal into the overall surgical fitness of an individual and leads the surgeon to consider the whole person in addition to the surgical problem at hand," conclude Dr. Suskind and Dr. Finlayson. (medscape.com)
  • Preoperative nursing, when performed effectively, can result in satisfaction, patient safety, quality healthcare and cost-effectiveness (Turunen et al. (ausmed.com.au)
  • It's apparent that preoperative nursing is a speciality that can promote clinical safety, patient satisfaction and cost-efficiency for health organisations. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Whether it's cosmetic or general surgery, pre-operative care is the preparation and management of the patient prior to the procedure. (okanaganhealthsurgical.ca)
  • Good communication between all members of the health care team, including the patient and surgeon, is key to ensuring that you are well prepared and ready to undergo a surgical treatment. (okanaganhealthsurgical.ca)
  • The current study compares answers regarding use of illicit substances between a survey completed by the patient and the preoperative survey completed by parents or guardians. (bvsalud.org)
  • Survey data showed a statistically higher reporting of substance use or abuse from the patient study survey in comparison to the routine parental preoperative survey . (bvsalud.org)
  • BD ChloraPrep™ patient preoperative skin preparation helps reduce bacteria on the skin that can cause infection. (bd.com)
  • Only visits in the offices of nonfederally employed physicians classified by the American Medical Association (AMA) or the American Osteopathic Association (AOA) as 'office-based, patient care' were included in the 1991 NAMCS. (cdc.gov)
  • ABSTRACT: Introduction: Careful history and physical examinations are the best ways for preoperative evaluation. (scirp.org)
  • METHODS: CARE is a prospectively registered, multicentre, feasibility, parallel, randomised controlled trial with embedded evaluation and optimisation of the recruitment process. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Before elective surgical procedures, whether done in an outpatient or inpatient setting, the surgical team may consult an internist for a formal preoperative evaluation to minimize risk by identifying correctable abnormalities and by determining whether additional perioperative monitoring and treatment are needed. (msdmanuals.com)
  • A thorough preoperative medical evaluation may require input from nonsurgical consultants (eg, internists, cardiologists, pulmonologists) to help assess surgical risk. (msdmanuals.com)
  • For example, if an emergency procedure is required (eg, for intra-abdominal hemorrhage, perforated viscus, necrotizing fasciitis), there is usually no time for a full preoperative evaluation. (msdmanuals.com)
  • Studies indicate that 'play, learning and entertainment' during preparation for surgery can prevent preoperative anxiety in paediatrics (Messina et al. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Preoperative nurses also need to be aware of anxiety causes and triggers . (ausmed.com.au)
  • Being a woman predicts receiving lower quality primary, 2 cardiac, 3 - 5 critical 6 and chronic disease care. (cmaj.ca)
  • His research interests include translation, white matter infarction, and improving stroke care. (ama-assn.org)
  • Discover the Surprising Differences in Anesthesia Care Roles Before and After Surgery - Learn More Now! (stomach.tv)
  • Document all aspects of anesthesia care, including drug selection, monitoring methods, and adverse reactions , to ensure accurate and complete medical records . (stomach.tv)
  • Accurate and complete documentation of all aspects of anesthesia care is necessary to ensure accurate medical records . (stomach.tv)
  • On the day of surgery, you will meet with the anesthesia providers who will take care of you during surgery. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The anesthesia provider, your doctor, and other members of your care team may talk with you during this time. (ahrq.gov)
  • After protocol registration, we measured the adjusted association between female sex and perioperative geriatric care (primary outcome), anesthesia consultations, regional analgesia and neuraxial anesthesia (secondary outcomes) using multilevel multivariable adjusted logistic regression. (cmaj.ca)
  • however, women were less likely to receive perioperative geriatric care and anesthesia consultations. (cmaj.ca)
  • Specifically, we sought to identify whether sex was associated with receipt of perioperative geriatric medicine care (primary outcome), surgical delay of 48 hours or less, preoperative anesthesiology consult, receipt of regional anesthesia and receipt of neuraxial anesthesia. (cmaj.ca)
  • Sex and gender inequality is prevalent in health care, and affects receipt of health care services and outcomes. (cmaj.ca)
  • Sex and gender inequality is prevalent in health care, differentially affecting men and women's access to health services and outcomes. (cmaj.ca)
  • 13 - 15 Most hip fractures are treated surgically, 16 and outcomes are sensitive to processes of care. (cmaj.ca)
  • As most people who experience a hip fracture are women, identifying inequalities in care pertaining to hip fracture surgery could highlight areas to improve population-level outcomes. (cmaj.ca)
  • The aim of preoperative care is to do whatever is right to increase the success of the surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • At some point before the operation the health care provider will assess the fitness of the person to have surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • Sometimes before a surgery a health care provider will recommend some health intervention to modify some risky behavior which is associated with complications from surgery. (wikipedia.org)
  • A different issue that preoperative nurses may face is day-of-surgery cancellation (Ming Teh et al. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Whether you're undergoing a foot procedure or a cosmetic surgery treatment, pre-operative care is a very important aspect of your treatment. (okanaganhealthsurgical.ca)
  • Recovery is an important part of any surgery so schedule some time off and plan for any support you may require at home for housework, child care, and/or grocery shopping. (okanaganhealthsurgical.ca)
  • CONCLUSION: CARE will evaluate the feasibility of intensive intentional weight loss as prehabilitation before colorectal cancer surgery. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Your role in the care team is to take the time to learn about your surgery-how to prepare, what's going to happen, and what to expect afterward. (ahrq.gov)
  • If hair needs to be removed from the operating site, your care team will do this on the day of the surgery. (ahrq.gov)
  • You may want to complete and sign an advance directive and health care proxy before surgery. (ahrq.gov)
  • Your care team will take steps to make sure your surgery is as safe as possible. (ahrq.gov)
  • Maine Medical Partners - Surgical Care Casco Bay is part of the Maine Medical Center Department of Surgery . (mainehealth.org)
  • This highlights the need for nurse managers and educators to support direct-care nurses' continuous professional development, performance evaluations and competency assessments. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Nurse managers and educators may need to increase guidance for preoperative nurses involved in direct care, for example, by implementing a formal plan for preoperative education requirements. (ausmed.com.au)
  • Maine Medical Partners - Surgical Care Casco Bay is a group of board-certified surgeons with expertise and experience using advanced techniques in very specific areas of surgical treatment and care. (mainehealth.org)
  • Our practice benefits from the clinical resources, comprehensive care and multi-disciplinary team approach at Maine Medical Center, the state's largest hospital. (mainehealth.org)
  • If you would like more information, do not hesitate to consult the staff of the Ambulatory Care Statistics Branch. (cdc.gov)
  • Participants with excess weight awaiting curative colorectal resection for cancer are randomised 1:1 to care as usual or a low-energy nutritionally-replete total diet replacement programme with weekly remote behavioural support by a dietitian. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Preoperative bathing or showering with skin antiseptics to prevent surgical site infection" (PDF). (wikipedia.org)
  • Following your plastic surgeon's pre-operative care instructions is crucial if you want to achieve the safest and best results possible. (okanaganhealthsurgical.ca)
  • Screenings which are done without indication carry the risks of having unnecessary health care. (wikipedia.org)
  • The integrated delivery of surgical care is an important and growing need for the treatment of various health conditions across the life-course. (who.int)
  • Our primary care doctors routinely treat adults with all sorts of medical needs. (mountsinai.org)
  • These national estimates describe the utilization of ambulatory medical care services in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • For technical staff of the Regional Office, health care staff and medical professionals they are able now to access heath literature published in the Region as soon as it is published. (who.int)
  • That's why we call it primary care - because you are our primary concern. (mountsinai.org)
  • Preoperative care refers to health care provided before a surgical operation. (wikipedia.org)
  • International Journal for Quality in Health Care, 17, 323-329. (scirp.org)
  • The care team also includes the doctors, nurses, and other health care professionals who help take care of you. (ahrq.gov)
  • At Mount Sinai Health System's Primary Care Associates, we provide personalized service and comprehensive care. (mountsinai.org)
  • 1 Inequalities can arise from unequal accommodation of specific biological health needs or access to health care owing to sociocultural biases. (cmaj.ca)
  • 7 , 8 The World Health Organization recommends monitoring health systems from a sex and gender perspective to create knowledge and policy relevant to improving equal access to care. (cmaj.ca)
  • Thus surgical care and anaesthesia should be considered as a core aspect of universal health coverage. (who.int)
  • Risk of miscommunication or errors in surgical care . (stomach.tv)
  • He was intubated, a lumbar puncture was performed, and cerebrospinal fluid, or CSF, was collected before his transfer to the intensive care unit. (cdc.gov)
  • To examine the value of surgical resection combined with preoperative external beam radiation therapy and intraoperative radiation therapy (Surg-RT) for retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS). (nih.gov)
  • The results were compared to the answers obtained from the parents during a preoperative phone call. (bvsalud.org)
  • BD products for IV care and maintenance help prevent catheter dislodgement and site contamination. (bd.com)
  • Correlation between the on preoperative CT based SPCI-scores as well as number of involved abdominopelvic areas (N) and survival was examined with the log-rank test. (lu.se)
  • Here are 6 pre-operative care tips you must follow to ensure the safest and most satisfactory results. (okanaganhealthsurgical.ca)