The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Female parents, human or animal.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
Male parents, human or animal.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.

The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children. (1/4202)

The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors.  (+info)

Metabolites of a tobacco-specific carcinogen in urine from newborns. (2/4202)

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy can result in fetal exposure to carcinogens that are transferred from the mother via the placenta, but little information is available on fetal uptake of such compounds. We analyzed samples of the first urine from newborns whose mothers did or did not smoke cigarettes for the presence of metabolites of the potent tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). METHODS: The urine was collected and analyzed for two metabolites of NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronide (NNAL-Gluc). Gas chromatography and nitrosamine-selective detection, with confirmation by mass spectrometry, were used in the analyses, which were performed without knowledge of the origin of the urine samples. RESULTS: NNAL-Gluc was detected in 22 (71%) of 31 urine samples from newborns of mothers who smoked; NNAL was detected in four of these 31 urine samples. Neither compound was detected in the 17 urine samples from newborns of mothers who did not smoke. The arithmetic mean level of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the 27 newborns of smokers for which both analytes were quantified was 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.083-0.200) pmol/mL. The levels of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the urine from these babies were statistically significantly higher than those in the urine from newborns of nonsmoking mothers (geometric means = 0.062 [95% CI = 0.035-0.110] and 0.010 [considered as not detected; no confidence interval], respectively; two-sided P<.001). NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc levels in the 18 positive urine samples in which both analytes were quantified ranged from 0.045 to 0.400 pmol/mL, with an arithmetic mean level of 0.20 (95% CI = 0.14-0.26) pmol/mL, about 5%-10% of the levels of these compounds detected in the urine from adult smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Two metabolites of the tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen NNK can be detected in the urine from newborns of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy.  (+info)

Effects of maternal acetazolamide treatment on body weights and incisor development of the fetal rat. (3/4202)

The incisor development of fetal rats on gestation day 19 was well correlated with their fetal weights. The number of odontoblasts in the mandibular incisors, an index of incisor development, increased more than that of the maxillary incisors with increase in fetal body weights. Maternal acetazolamide treatments were observed to suppress the mean fetal weight and to retard incisor development. A smaller incisor size, a thinner predentin layer, and fewer odontoblasts were characteristic of the acetazolamide group. There was also a good correlation between the fetal weights and the number of odontoblasts in the acetazolamide group. From these results, we postulated that the retarded incisor development of the fetal rats caused by the maternal acetazolamide treatment was related to their suppressed fetal weights. However, the regression coefficient of the fetal weights and the number of odontoblasts in the acetazolamide group was smaller than that of the vehicle control group. It may indicate that retarded incisor development in response to maternal acetazolamide treatment is to some extent independent of suppressed fetal weight.  (+info)

Mediators of ethnic-associated differences in infant birth weight. (4/4202)

PURPOSE: To examine whether ethnic differences in low birth weight babies of low-income women may be explained in part by group differences in prenatal health behaviors and psychosocial factors. METHODS: A prospective, survey of 1,071 low-income, primiparous African-American and Mexican-origin women was conducted in Los Angeles County, California. In face-to-face interviews, data were obtained on substance use, prenatal stress, social support, attitudes toward pregnancy, initiation of prenatal care, and medical risk. Medical chart data were abstracted regarding medical risk factors and labor, delivery, and neonatal data. Interview data were linked with birth outcome data retrieved from maternal medical records. Structural equation modeling was used to test a hypothesized model in which differences in birth weight were expected to be mediated by ethnic differences in substance use, psychosocial factors, and medical risk. RESULTS: As expected, African-American women delivered babies of earlier gestational age and lower birth weight than did women of Mexican origin. Direct predictors of low birth weight were use of drugs and cigarettes, prenatal stress, and positive attitudes toward pregnancy; together, these factors accounted for the observed ethnic differences in birth weight. CONCLUSION: These data contribute to our understanding of the factors that may account for ethnic-associated differences in low birth weight.  (+info)

Atypical handedness in schizophrenia: some methodological and theoretical issues. (5/4202)

An updated review of the literature strongly supports the view that in schizophrenia there is an atypical leftward shift in the handedness distribution that, while comprising different subtypes, is characterized by a more variable and less completely lateralized pattern of manual preference, referred to as mixed handedness (MH) or ambiguous handedness (AH). Only two studies revealed an increased prevalence of left-handedness suggestive of pathological left-handedness (PLH). This article also examines the current status of neurodevelopmental factors and mechanisms in schizophrenia that purport to explain these pathological shifts in handedness (PLH, MH, AH). Different theoretical positions were evaluated, each involving some aspect of left hemisphere insult (unilateral or bilateral). Finally, it was shown that these shifts predict certain key symptoms and neural substrates in schizophrenia including thought disorder, negative symptoms, neuropsychological impairment, family history, and brain anatomy. These subtypes may represent neurodevelopmental markers of insult during intrauterine life that are nongenetic in origin.  (+info)

Twins and maternal smoking: ordeals for the fetal origins hypothesis? A cohort study. (6/4202)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the direct and indirect effects of being a twin, maternal smoking, birth weight, and mother's height on blood pressure at ages 9 and 18 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Cohort born in 1972-3. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Blood pressure at ages 9 and 18 years. RESULTS: Compared with singletons, twins had a systolic blood pressure 4.55 (95% confidence interval 1.57 to 7.52) mm Hg lower at age 9 after adjustment for direct and indirect effects of sex, maternal smoking, mother's height, socioeconomic status, and birth weight, as well as concurrent height and body mass index. Blood pressure in children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy was 1.54 (0.46 to 2.62) mm Hg higher than in those whose mothers did not. The total effect of birth weight on systolic blood pressure at age 9 was -0.78 (-1.76 to 0.20) mm Hg and that for mother's height was 0.10 (0.06 to 0.14) mm Hg. Similar results were obtained for systolic blood pressure at age 18. The total effect of twins, maternal smoking, and birth weight on diastolic blood pressure was not significant at either age. CONCLUSIONS: Twins had lower birth weight and lower systolic blood pressure at ages 9 and 18 than singletons. This finding challenges the fetal origins hypothesis. The effect of maternal smoking was consistent with the fetal origin hypothesis in that the infants of smokers were smaller and had higher blood pressure at both ages. This may be explained by pharmacological rather than nutritional effects. The total effect of birth weight on systolic blood pressure, after its indirect effect working through concurrent measures of height and body mass index was taken into account, was small.  (+info)

Tobacco smoke exposure at one month of age and subsequent risk of SIDS--a prospective study. (7/4202)

The aim of this investigation was to identify the sources of postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke at 1 month of age and to examine their relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The Tasmanian Infant Health Survey was a prospective cohort study undertaken from 1988 to 1995. It involved 9,826 infants (89% of eligible infants) at higher risk of SIDS. Subsequently 53 eligible infants died of SIDS. Hospital interviews were available on 51 and home interviews on 35 SIDS infants. Urinary cotinine assays were conducted using gas-liquid chromatography (n = 100). Within a predictive model that explained 63% of urinary cotinine variance, the strongest predictor of cotinine and also of SIDS was maternal smoking, though the effects of prenatal and postnatal smoking could not be separated. However, for particular smoking-related behaviors, there was a discordance between prediction of cotinine concentration and prediction of risk of SIDS. If smoking mothers did not smoke in the room with the baby, the cotinine level in the infant's urine was reduced by a little more than a half (p = 0.009), but this was not associated with a reduction in SIDS risk (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.47-2.55). Similarly, the presence of other adult resident smokers was associated with a 63% increase in urinary cotinine (p = 0.047) but not with increased SIDS risk (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.40). However, the study lacked the power to detect modest effects, that is, those altering risk less than twofold.  (+info)

Health effects of passive smoking. 9. Parental smoking and spirometric indices in children. (8/4202)

BACKGROUND: A systematic quantitative review was conducted of the evidence relating parental smoking to spirometric indices in children. METHODS: An electronic search of the Embase and Medline databases was completed in April 1997 and identified 692 articles from which we included four studies in neonates, 42 cross-sectional studies in school aged children (22 were included in a meta-analysis), and six longitudinal studies of lung function development. RESULTS: In a pooled analyses of 21 surveys of school aged children the percentage reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in children exposed to parental smoking compared with those not exposed was 1.4% (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9). Effects were greater on mid expiratory flow rates (5.0% reduction, 95% CI 3.3 to 6.6) and end expiratory flow rates (4.3% reduction, 95% CI 3.1 to 5.5). Adjustment for potential confounding variables had little effect on the estimates. A number of studies reported clear evidence of exposure response. Where exposure was explicitly identified it was usually maternal smoking. Two studies in neonates have reported effects of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Of five cross sectional studies that compared effects of perinatal exposure (retrospectively assessed) with current exposure to maternal smoking in later childhood, the three largest concluded that the major effect was in utero or neonatal exposure. Longitudinal studies suggest a small effect of current exposure on growth in lung function, but with some heterogeneity between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking is associated with small but statistically significant deficits in FEV1 and other spirometric indices in school aged children. This is almost certainly a causal relationship. Much of the effect may be due to maternal smoking during pregnancy.  (+info)

A high rate of co-occurring mental health disorders have been documented in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Investigators have demonstrated that alcohols impact on the developing fetal brain, combined with environmental factors, is the source of this problem. However, more recent research has begun to focus on factors embedded in the child welfare system, preventable factors that can be an important determinant for risk of mental health problems in children. State Child Protective Services departments can develop policies that reduce mental health morbidity for children in the systems care who have been prenatally exposed to alcohol or illicit drugs.
Obesity is an escalating health problem worldwide, and hence the causes underlying its development are of primary importance to public health. There is growing evidence that suboptimal intrauterine environment can perturb the metabolic programing of the growing fetus, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity in later life. However, the link between early exposures in the womb, genetic susceptibility, and perturbed epigenome on metabolic health is not well understood. In this study, we shed more light on this aspect by performing a comprehensive analysis on the effects of variation in prenatal environment, neonatal methylome, and genotype on birth weight and adiposity in early childhood. In a prospective mother-offspring cohort (N = 987), we interrogated the effects of 30 variables that influence the prenatal environment, umbilical cord DNA methylation, and genotype on offspring weight and adiposity, over the period from birth to 48 months. This is an interim analysis on an ongoing cohort study.
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
Background: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the peripartum period is common despite the absence of clear evidence-based guidelines to direct clinical use of these compounds. Method: We compared obstetrical and neonatal outcomes as recorded in medical records among 84 pregnant women with major depressive or anxiety disorders (DSM-IV criteria) who took antidepressants during pregnancy (cases) versus a 2:1 age- and parity-matched control group of 168 unexposed women. Women in the case group had sought psychiatric consultation regarding the use of medication from the Perinatal and Reproductive Psychiatry Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2000. Results: There were no significant differences among cases versus controls and their offspring, with respect to various neonatal and obstetrical outcomes, including gestational age and weight, although 1-minute Apgar scores were slightly lower in exposed infants. Admissions to the special care nursery were more frequent, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A review of maternal prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors-implications for research on perinatal outcomes in the ECHO program. AU - on behalf of program collaborators for Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes. AU - Padula, Amy M.. AU - Monk, Catherine. AU - Brennan, Patricia A.. AU - Borders, Ann. AU - Barrett, Emily S.. AU - McEvoy, Cindy T.. AU - Foss, Sophie. AU - Desai, Preeya. AU - Alshawabkeh, Akram. AU - Wurth, Renee. AU - Salafia, Carolyn. AU - Fichorova, Raina. AU - Varshavsky, Julia. AU - Kress, Amii. AU - Woodruff, Tracey J.. AU - Morello-Frosch, Rachel. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors during pregnancy have been individually associated with adverse perinatal outcomes related to birthweight and gestational age, but are not often considered in combination. We review types of psychosocial stressors and instruments used to assess them and classes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of gestational age at exposure on the prenatal effects of γ-radiation. AU - Uma Devi, P.. AU - Baskar, R.. PY - 1996/8/16. Y1 - 1996/8/16. N2 - The abdominal region of pregnant Swiss albino mice was exposed to single dose of 0.5 Gy γ-radiation at gestation days from 1.5 to 17.5 days post-coitus (p.c.). The animals were sacrificed on day 18 p.c. and foetuses were examined for resorption and embryonic death, foetal death, growth retardation, small head, low brain weight, microphthalmia and any other gross morphological abnormalities. The period of maximum sensitivity for each effect varied. The only demonstrable effect of irradiation during the preimplantation period was an increase in prenatal mortality. Resorptions were maximal after exposure between days 2 and 4 p.c. The pre-implantation irradiated embryos which survived did not show any major foetal abnormalities. These results confirm earlier mouse studies using higher doses of X-rays. Small head, low brain weight ...
AMHERST, Mass. - Some studies indicate that early life exposure to pollutants such as PCBs and phthalates can predispose people to disease. Now environmental scientist Alicia Timme-Laragy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst has received a five-year, $1.7 million grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for a multi-level study of early life exposure to environmental contaminants and aberrant pancreas development, which may predispose one to diabetes.. Disease may result from environmental contaminant exposure in early life via oxidative stress, disrupted signaling pathways controlling embryo growth, or via subtle structural or functional changes to insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, she notes. Results of this work will be relevant to public health officials concerned about such exposures as well as molecular biologists studying signaling pathways to gain a mechanistic understanding of disease processes very early in life.. The researchers will study toxic ...
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Previous research has provided inconclusive evidence regarding the neuropsychological difficulties of children born to mothers partaking in opioid or poly-drug use during pregnancy. Little is known about how these children fare as they get older. The present longitudinal study includes follow-up data on 45 children born to mothers who used heroin and poly-drugs and a group of 48 children without prenatal drug exposure. Most of the drug-exposed youths were placed in permanent foster or adoptive homes before one year of age. The youths (ages 17 to 21) were administered 10 neuropsychological tests. The drug-exposed youths had cognitive and fine motor functions within the normal range compared to population norms but performed significantly worse than the non-exposed group. There were indications of generally lower cognitive functions rather than specific problems with executive functioning. Lower mean birthweight in the risk group (619 grams mean difference, p < .001) only partially mediated the ...
Review a bibliography of major literature in the field of perinatal and family services on issues related to prenatal exposure and the effects on children.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA, protein, and nucleic acid levels. by Fouad Kasim Mohammad et al.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
RISK AND REALITY: THE IMPLICATIONS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS By Joanne P. Brady, Marc Posner, Cynthia Lang and Michael J. Rosati The Education Development Center, Inc. 1994.
Risk of childhood asthma following prenatal exposure to negative life events and job stressors: A nationwide register-based study in Denmark ...
Bioethicists question medical practices surrounding a widely prescribed prenatal drug treatment to fix sex-organ deformities in babies with a congenital disorder
This is the first follow up study carried out in a developing country to assess the interactions between infections, predisposing factors, and environmental variables in the onset of wheezing. We have found that children were more likely to experience wheezing at the age of 4 if they had a prenatal exposure to malaria, low levels of total IgE at birth, and maternal asthma, and also clinical episodes of LRTI during infancy. However, a diagnostic bias may explain the association between LRTI and wheezing. Neither a history of clinical malaria nor the incidence of malaria was associated with wheezing. Among the environmental factors, only the number of people in the home was moderately associated with wheezing. Finally, indoor allergens were not associated with wheezing, although measurement error in dust collection could explain the lack of association.. Bacterial and possible viral infection during early life has been considered as a promoter or suppressor of asthma onset via the immune ...
Amaç: Prenatal ultrasonografi izlemlerinin yaygınlaşması ile intrauterin dönemde saptanan over kisti sayısı giderek artmaktadır. Prenatal saptanan over kistlerinin prenatal ve postnatal tedavisi ile ilgili deneyimlerimizi sunmak istiyoruz. Gereç ve Yöntem: 2002-2009 yılları arasında prenatal USde over kisti saptanan 12 hastanın kayıtları geriye dönük olarak incelendi. Kistlerin komplike olup olmadığı, prenatal ve postnatal boyutları, postnatal semptomları ve US izlemleri değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Serimizde 2 hastada basit over kisti, 9 hastada komplike over kisti ve 1 hastada bir tarafta basit over kisti, kontralateral tarafta komplike over kisti saptandı. Basit over kistlerin ortalama boyutu 3,3 ± 2,5 cm (1,0 - 6,0 cm) ve komplike over kistlerinin ortalama boyutu 4,5 ± 0,8 cm (3,2 - 5,5 cm) olarak ölçüldü. Basit over kistlerinden prenatal dönemde çapı 1 ve 3 cm ölçülen iki hastanın kisti doğum sonrası sırası ile 4 ve 6 hafta takip sonrası regrese ...
An epidemic in our country has spiraled out of control. According to the Arizona Task Force on Preventing Prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs, each year, an estimated 400,000 -440,000 infants (10-11% of all births) are affected by prenatal alcohol or illicit drug exposure ( Prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs has the potential to cause a full spectrum of physical, emotional, and developmental problems for these infants. The harm caused to the child can be significant and long-lasting, especially if the exposure is not detected and the effects are not treated as soon as possible. ...
It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the p
What do you do if you find out youre pregnant and could have a girl born with what looks like a small penis? For two decades, expectant mothers in thi ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huai-Cai Zeng, Qing-Zhi He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Cheng-Qiu Wu, Yi-Mou Wu, Shun-Qing Xu].
The history of advances in the understanding of the toxic effects of lead over the past 20 years is an outstanding example of how knowledge learned from research can impact public health. Measures that have had the greatest impact on reducing exposur
These studies explore how genetics, prenatal environments, delivery modes and early postnatal environments including feeding method affect the infant microbiome and lifelong health.
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Ageing arises with the exhaustion of SC pools, with respect to both the amount of SCs and, importantly, SC functionality (Rossi et al, 2008). Hence, one explanation for the prenatal effect on ageing could be that the stress to which the embryos are exposed limits SC function, thereby also limiting the regenerative capacity of the tissues of the offspring. In this manner, the path to ageing would be shortened ab initio. The stress could directly affect the SCs, SC niches or both. In the particular case of replicative damage, it is probable that the niches would be the affected target, rather than the SCs, owing to the low cycling activity of SCs-a feature which is frequently used as a characteristic to identify them in vivo (Fuchs, 2009). Accordingly, the bone marrow of Seckel animals can reconstitute the haematopoietic pool of irradiated wild‐type animals to a large extent, whereas the opposite is not true. This means that there is an inherent dysfunction of the Seckel haematopoietic SC niche, ...
Brain-age: Impact of Prenatal Stress on brain ageing. Fetal programming, undernutrition and stress. Our project will determine structural and functional indicators of brain age.
Brain-age: Impact of Prenatal Stress on brain ageing. Fetal programming, undernutrition and stress. Our project will determine structural and functional indicators of brain age.
Prenatal development of mammals can be divided into ovum, embryonic, and fetal phases. The fetal phase represents over 80% of the prenatal period, and extends from the embryonic phase until birth. The fetal period begins when the specific species becomes identifiable. At the onset of the fetal phase, organs and systems are identifiable, but varying extents of tissue differentiation and development occur during the fetal period. The majority of the prenatal increase in body size and maturation of tissues and organs characterizes the fetal phase.. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...
In the modern womens changing world, often an association is made between alcohol and fetus - to be exact, the use of alcohol during pregnancy and prenatal
Your baby experiences a lot of prenatal changes as he/she prepares to meet you for the first time. Read this article to know what those changes are.
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Prenatal ages and stages-measures and errors.: The continuing confusion concerning prenatal age is shown to be unnecessary once the ambiguous and superfluous te
If youre pregnant or considering getting pregnant, prenatal care should be at the top of your to do list. Learn more about prenatal testing.
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Prenatal development is both complicated and fast paced. In only 40 weeks, a single fertilized egg matures into a baby. We explore: when does life begin?
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People differ in the size and composition of their chromosomes, which can affect the test results Prenatal blood screening for extra or missing chromosomes in
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TY - CHAP. T1 - Influence of prenatal nicotine exposure on development of neurotransmission in central respiratory neurons. AU - Fregosi, Ralph F.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - This chapter considers the influence of prenatal nicotine exposure on the development of neurotransmission in central respiratory neurons. Neonatal mammals that are nicotine exposed in utero show abnormalities in central ventilatory control, such as reduced ventilatory output (1,2), altered breathing pattern (2-4), increased apnea frequency (2,4) and duration (5), delayed arousal in response to hypoxia (6,7), decreased sensitivity to hypoxia (1,4,5,8-11), and diminished capacity for autoresuscitation following severe hypoxic exposure (12,13). Although these findings provide substantial evidence that development of central ventilatory control is altered by prenatal nicotine exposure, the mechanism of nicotines action on respiratory-related neurons has not been identified. Identifying these mechanisms is important ...
Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Central Nervous System DevelopmentPrenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a continuum of physical, neurological, behavioral, and learning defects collectively grouped under the heading Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).
Choline is a crucial nutrient that contributes to several biological functions and serves as a precursor molecule to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline is integral to the development and function of the central nervous system, and its availability during the prenatal period has lasting and protective effects on neural function. Researchers have found that prenatal choline supplementation in the rat enhances learning and memory processes later in life, especially those involving spatial memory. Researchers have also demonstrated that choline protects against a number of physical stressors to the neural environment, such as prenatal alcohol exposure, induced seizures, and chronic stress-induced exposure to corticosteroids. Compared to the study of these types of physical stressors, relatively little research has examined the influence of prenatal choline exposure on psychological stress later in life. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study examined the effects of prenatal
Maternal Immune Activation Leads to Activated Inflammatory Macrophages in Offspring. Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation…
The foregoing section provides a foundation from which to speculate on the possible role of estrogen and testosterone in both schizophrenia and autism. The authors current paper describes the increased susceptibility to acute infection by T. gondii caused by estrogen. Some human studies suggest that latent toxoplasmosis results from high prenatal testosterone rather than estrogen due to finding low second to fourth finger digit ratios in T. gondii infected subjects . Second to fourth finger digit ratios, or so-called 2D:4D ratios, are proposed markers of prenatal androgen exposure.. Low 2D:4D ratios reflect higher prenatal testosterone exposure and high ratios indicate low testosterone compared to estrogen exposure. Low ratios or high prenatal testosterone are often associated with autism and high ratios or relatively higher prenatal estrogen with schizophrenia. Recent research has cast doubt on the reliability of digit ratio to predict individual prenatal androgen exposure although a modest ...
Schizophrenia patients typically exhibit cognitive impairments that directly affect their daily functioning, but are not effectively treated by current antipsychotics. Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy, which can be triggered by a variety of infectious agents, has been associated with the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Epidemiological evidence indicates that elevated maternal levels of the chemokine interleukin- 8 (IL-8) during MIA contribute to the neurodevelopmental alterations underlying the disorder. The present experiments used an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders to study the effects of MIA and chemokine receptor antagonism on the behavior of rat offspring, with behavioral tests chosen to examine cognitive functions that are typically impaired in human schizophrenia patients. The viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) (4.0 mg/kg, i.v.) was injected into pregnant Long-Evans (LE) dams on gestational day (GD) 15. Dams were also ...
University of North Carolina researchers studied the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on newborn brains. See what they found.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal exposure to fever is associated with autism spectrum disorder in the boston birth cohort. AU - Brucato, Martha. AU - Ladd-Acosta, Christine Marie. AU - Li, Mengying. AU - Caruso, Deanna. AU - Hong, Xiumei. AU - Kaczaniuk, Jamie. AU - Stuart, Elizabeth. AU - Fallin, Daniele Daniele. AU - Wang, Xiaobin. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior ...
Water maze experience and prenatal choline supplementation differentially promote long-term hippocampal recovery from seizures in adulthood.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of Sudden Infant Death. A defect in cardiorespiratory control has been suggested. Chronic exposure to nicotine during fetal development of rat induced postnatal developmental disorders on central neural pathways [1], autonomic function [2], carotid body chemorecep-tors [3], ventilatory response to hyperoxia [4]. The interrelation between all these sparse data has to be investigated. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine might impair or delay the development of respiratory control pathways, ie, of the carotid body chemoafferent pathway, causing an abnormal response to ventila-tory challenges. On the 5th day of gestation, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a transdermal patch delivering, either 50 mg of nicotine free base over 21 days, or excipient. At birth, male pups were selected and analysed at postnatal day 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 68. The in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity was determined in offspring carotid bodies and brainstem ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Abstract. Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication ...
Objective: Determine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure in the Congo. Methods: We utilized a screening tool validated in the Congo to identify women who were drinking during pregnancy. The intervention was implemented by prenatal care providers comparing 162 women receiving the intervention with 58 (controls) who did not. The study endpoints were proportion of women who quit drinking, drinking days per week, drinks per drinking day, most drinks on any day, and number of binge episodes per week. Results: In the control group 36% of the women quit drinking compared to 54% in the intervention group (Chi-square 5.61; p = 0.02). The number of drinking days per week for the controls decreased by 50.1% compared to 68% for the intervention group (p = 0.008); drinks per drinking day for the controls decreased by 37% compared to 60.1% for the intervention group (p = 0.001); and most drinks on any occasion in the controls decreased by 38% compared to 61% for the ...
Background Prenatal substance use screening is recommended. The 4 Ps Plus screener includes questions on perceived problematic substance use in parents and partner that are not considered in risk stratification. Objectives This research examined the: (1) prevalence of self-reported problematic parental and partner substance use and associations with biochemically-verified prenatal substance use; (2) utility of self-reported perceptions of parent/partner substance use as proxies for prenatal substance use; and (3) degree to which the sensitivity of the 4Ps Plus can be augmented with consideration of parent/partner questions in risk stratification. Methods A convenience sample of 500 pregnant women was recruited between January 2017 and January 2018. Participants completed the 4Ps Plus and provided urine for drug testing. Diagnostic utility of problematic parent/partner substance use questions was assessed, then compared to the 4Ps Plus used as designed, and to the 4Ps Plus used with these 2 ...
A social- skills intervention called Childrens Friendship Training can lead to a decrease in hostile attributions or perceptions of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)
Canadian researchers have identified several specific white matter regions and deep grey matter regions in the brain that seem to be sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure.
The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viability of offspring. Investigations of learning and memory abilities were performed using a Morris water maze. This task requires rats to spatially navigate, using distal extramaze cues to locate a small platform under the surface of the water in a large pool. At the age of 16 weeks, the exposed offspring showed impairments when the platform was relocated in the pool. Impaired performances after platform relocation were also observed in exposed offspring at 28 and 55 weeks of age, although the difference was not statistically significant at 55 weeks. These data could indicate that the effect was partly reversible, although over a long time period. However, another explanation could be that the animals became ...
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Here, we show that male, but not female, offspring that were exposed to prenatal hypoxia develop altered circulatory and vascular function that implicates the ET-1 system. To summarize, we found the following: (1) IUGR males had increased conversion of bET-1 to active ET-1 compared with controls, and this effect was partially normalized with L-NAME treatment; (2) no differences in bET-1 conversion to active ET-1 were observed between aged control and IUGR female offspring; (3) no differences in ET-1 interaction with its receptors were observed between control and IUGR offspring in either male or female offspring; (4) male IUGR offspring were hypertensive, and this increase in BP was partially mitigated by treatment with the dual ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan; (5) female IUGR offspring were not hypertensive compared with control offspring, and tezosentan treatment had little effect in either female treatment group. These results suggest that the ET-1 system, and possibly the conversion of ...
Ahmed S, Atlas E. 2016. Bisphenol S- and bisphenol A-induced adipogenesis of murine preadipocytes occurs through direct peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma activation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 40(10):1566-1573, PMID: 27273607, 10.1038/ijo.2016.95. Alonso-Magdalena P, Quesada I, Nadal Á. 2015. Prenatal exposure to BPA and offspring outcomes. Dose Response 13(2):1559325815590395, PMID: 26676280, 10.1177/1559325815590395. Alonso-Magdalena P, Vieira E, Soriano S, Menes L, Burks D, Quesada I, et al. 2010. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring. Environ Health Perspect 118(9):1243-1250, PMID: 20488778, 10.1289/ehp.1001993. Anderson OS, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Zhang Z, Mancuso P, Dolinoy DC. 2013. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course. FASEB J 27(4):1784-1792, PMID: 23345456, 10.1096/fj.12-223545. Angle BM, Do RP, Ponzi D, ...
Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between maternal iron status with offspring adiposity and BP in adulthood. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using maternal C282Y as a genetic instrument for mothers ferritin, was performed. IV analysis uses the proportion of the variation in maternal ferritin that is explained by C282Y to provide an unconfounded estimate of the relationship with offspring outcomes. The results were compared to the results of multivariable ordinary least squares (OLS) regression examining the same relationship. Male and female offspring of mothers from the UK Women Cohort Study (UKWCS) were approached, of whom 348 with mean age of 41 years completed the study. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Offsprings BP, height and weight were measured at their local medical practice. Participants were also asked to self-measure their WC at home.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prenatal nicotine exposure alters medullary nicotinic and AMPA-mediated control of respiratory frequency in vitro. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Prenatal exposure to androgens as a factor of fetal programming. Sergio E. Both epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest a relationship between the prenatal environment and the risk of developing diseases during adulthood. The first observations about this relationship showed that prenatal growth retardation or stress conditions during fetal life were associated to cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases in later life. However, not only those conditions may have lasting effects after birth.. Growing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to steroids either of fetal or maternal origin could be another source of prenatal programming with detrimental consequences during adulthood. We have recently demonstrated that pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibit elevated androgen levels compared to normal pregnant women, which could provide an androgen excess for both female or male fetuses.. We have further tested this hypothesis in an animal model of prenatal androgenization, ...
Whether intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school age children, even after controlling
Since the opioid epidemic was officially declared a federal public health emergency in October 2017, states have undertaken a wide range of activities to address opioid-related harms. In February 2019, ASTHO surveyed its members to understand how data is being utilized to address these harms in their jurisdictions. This brief summarizes the results of this survey and highlights data-based approaches used to address four types of opioid-related harms: prenatal substance exposure, neonatal abstinence syndrome, adverse childhood experiences, and injection drug use-associated infections.Read More ». ...
More than 17 percent of pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 44 smoke, according to the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
(Medical Xpress)-Prenatal exposure to alcohol severely disrupts major features of brain development that potentially lead to increased anxiety and poor motor function, conditions typical in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress. AU - Laloux, Charlotte. AU - Mairesse, Jérôme. AU - Van Camp, Gilles. AU - Giovine, Angela. AU - Branchi, Igor. AU - Bouret, Sebastien. AU - Morley-Fletcher, Sara. AU - Bergonzelli, Gabriela. AU - Malagodi, Marithé. AU - Gradini, Roberto. AU - Nicoletti, Ferdinando. AU - Darnaudéry, Muriel. AU - Maccari, Stefania. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ( PRS rats ) represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic ...
In a prospective study (Morrow, Bandstra, Anthony, Ofir et al., 2001), a range of subtle deficits across the spectrum of neurobehavioural functioning were observed within the first postnatal week in infants with cocaine exposure. These deficits were partly correlated with reduced foetal growth. The deficits in functioning were larger as the number of trimesters of exposure increased. The authors suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure may produce more problematic effects in infants born prematurely and that cocaine exposed full-term infants may be more resilient. Other authors also suggest that any effect of cocaine on longer-term development is an indirect association, mediated by reduced birth weight, head circumference, other drug use or other prenatal issues (Behnke, Eyler, Garvan, Wobie & Hou, 2002; Bendersky & Lewis, 1999). In addition, one controlled study reports that mothers in a cocaine-exposed group had less frequent emotional contact with their infant and tended to have maladaptive ...
Researchers have known for years: what happens to mom in pregnancy affects the baby. That holds true with prenatal exposure to air pollution, which has lingering cardiovascular effects, such as birth defects and a higher risk of obesity, explained Jeanette Stingone, PhD, of Mount Sinai Health System.
The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon. Restraint stress was applied to pregnant Slc6a4 +/+ and Slc6a4 +/− mice and post-stress embryonic brains were assessed for whole genome level profiling of methylome, transcriptome and miRNA using Next Generation Sequencing. Embryos of stressed Slc6a4 +/+ dams exhibited significantly altered methylation profiles and differential expression of 157 miRNAs and 1009 genes affecting neuron development and cellular
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Prenatal alcohol exposure affects up to 2 to 5 percent of the US population. Children and adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) struggle with life-long learning and behavioral problems. Without appropriate supports, individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, trouble with the law, school disruption, and substance abuse. An early diagnosis and appropriate services can help prevent these secondary problems.. The FASD Diagnostic and Evaluation Clinic is a multidisciplinary clinic created in partnership through Mt. Hope Family Center and Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at Golisano Childrens Hospital within the University of Rochester Medical Center. The Clinic currently serves children and adolescents from infancy through age 16 years old. Services available include FASD diagnostic evaluations and neuropsychological assessments to identify the child or adolescents strengths and weaknesses to aid in treatment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Approaches for strengthening causal inference regarding prenatal risk factors for childhood behavioural and psychiatric disorders. AU - Lewis, Sarah J.. AU - Relton, Caroline. AU - Zammit, Stanley. AU - Smith, George Davey. PY - 2013/10. Y1 - 2013/10. N2 - BackgroundThe risk of childhood behavioural and psychiatric diseases could be substantially reduced if modifiable risk factors for these disorders were identified. The critical period for many of these exposures is likely to be in utero as this is the time when brain development is most rapid. However, due to confounding and other limitations of traditional epidemiological studies, identification of causal risk factors has proved challenging and on the whole research in this area has not been fruitful.ScopeIn this review, we highlight several alternative approaches including; comparisons across settings, the use of negative controls and natural experiments, which includes migration studies, studies of individuals conceived ...
This investigation was undertaken in order to know whether the postnatal tactile/kinesthetic stimulation is effective in reversing the Prenatal Stress, in the cytoarchitecture of the CA3 region of the hippocampus, in female pups. 12 pups of female rats from the Sprague-Dawley strain were distributed to Control Group (GC), the Prenatal Maternal Stress by restriction group (EP) and Prenatal Maternal Stress with postnatal tactile/ kinesthetic stimulation Group (EP-ETK). The Prenatal Maternal Stress in female pups increased neuronal density in CA3b and CA3c areas (p,0.001). When compared to Prenatal Maternal Stress, pups prenatal stress who received early tactile/kinesthetic stimulation showed a decrease in neuronal density in CA3b and CA3c areas (p , 0,001). Postnatal tactile/kinesthetic stimulation was shown to successfully reverse the Prenatal Maternal Stress effects by decreasing neuronal density in CA3b and CA3c hippocampal areas. ...
The details of bibliography - Exploring the potential to use data linkage for investigating the relationship between birth defects and prenatal alcohol exposure
Teens whose mothers drank alcohol regularly throughout the first trimester of pregnancy have a threefold increased risk of developing severe behavior problems,
Background: New measures of exposure prevention activity were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a 16 month management focused intervention addressing hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing work settings. Methods: Exposure prevention efforts were assessed using a previously published rating scheme developed for this study.1 The rating scheme yields a set of measures of exposure potentia
Results for hazardous substances exposure equipment from BreathSpec, Depth-Clear, Honeywell NORTH and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Acute in utero exposure to lipopolysaccharide induces inflammation in the pre- and postnatal brain and alters the glial cytoarchitecture in the developing amygdala. AU - OLoughlin, Elaine. AU - Pakan, Janelle M.P.. AU - Yilmazer-Hanke, Deniz. AU - McDermott, Kieran W.. N1 - Funding Information: This project was funded by the Health Research Board (HRB), Ireland (Project HRA_POR/2010/159). Publisher Copyright: © 2017 The Author(s).. PY - 2017/11/2. Y1 - 2017/11/2. N2 - Background: Maternal immune activation (MIA) is a risk factor for neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia, as well as seizure development. The amygdala is a brain region involved in the regulation of emotions, and amygdalar maldevelopment due to infection-induced MIA may lead to amygdala-related disorders. MIA priming of glial cells during development has been linked to abnormalities seen in later life; however, little is known about its effects on amygdalar biochemical and cytoarchitecture ...
In 2001, researchers Leonie Welberg and Jonathan Seckl published the literature review Prenatal Stress, Glucocorticoids, and the Programming of the Brain, in which they report on the effects of prenatal stress on the development of the fetal brain. The fetus experiences prenatal stress while in the womb, or in utero. In discussing the effects of prenatal stress, the authors describe prenatal programming, which is when early environmental experiences permanently alter biological structure and function throughout life.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications, Theories ...
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Two experiments examined the psychological and biological antecedents of hierarchical differentiation and the resulting consequences for productivity and conflict within small groups. In Experiment 1, which used a priming manipulation, hierarchically differentiated groups (i.e., groups comprising 1 high-power-primed, 1 low-power-primed, and 1 baseline individual) performed better on a procedurally interdependent task than did groups comprising exclusively either all high-power-primed or all low-power-primed individuals. There were no effects of hierarchical differentiation on performance on a procedurally independent task. Experiment 2 used a biological marker of dominance motivation (prenatal testosterone exposure as measured by a digit-length ratio) to manipulate hierarchical differentiation. The pattern of results from Experiment 1 was replicated; mixed-testosterone groups achieved greater productivity than did groups comprising all high-testosterone or all low-testosterone individuals. ...
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... Washington DC Sons of male mice exposed to prenatal stress ar...Tracy Bale PhD of the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues pre... This study shows that the effects of maternal stress in mice are pass...In general female mice tend to respond more to stress than do males. ...,Effects,of,prenatal,stress,passed,across,generations,in,mice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
For my course project, I have chosen the challenge area of prenatal risk factors with the subtopic of health. Prenatal health is a factor in a childs development and affects their school readiness and their learning. American babies, compared with those from other developed nations, are receiving inadequate prenatal care and less time at home with their parents during the first year of life (Lally, 2010). I am interested in assisting the women in my community receive quality prenatal care so that they have a safe pregnancy and so that their child has the best opportunity to be healthy, happy, and successful. In addition, I believe early childhood education is the foundation to a childs overall education and a mom who has quality prenatal care and has assistance for their childs development and learning from age birth to three, their child will be successful and ready to enter Pre-K or K. It is during the first few years of life that early experience starts shaping the foundational learning ...
한국 최고의 가격 Protocol for Life Balance Pre-Natal Multi비타민 With DHA - 90 Softgels 부터 알다 Pre-Natal Multivitamin With DHA 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. Pre-Natal Multivitamin With DHA 다른 제품으로 Protocol for Life Balance 당신의 건강 요구에.
Researchers looked at internalizing and externalizing behaviors in children at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years of age, comparing children exposed to benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotics during pregnancy to unexposed children.
Prenatal and early childhood exposure to the chemical solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) found in drinking water may be associated with long-term visual impairments, particularly in the area of colour discrimination, according to a new study.
Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure has immediate and substantial effects on blood and blood vessels in a way that increases the ... Prenatal and childhood passive smoke exposure does not appear to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Learning ... Delaying and discrediting legitimate research (see for an example of how the industry attempted to discredit Takeshi Hirayama's ... "Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke". U.S. National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on 2007- ...
Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. The effects of OP exposure on infants and children ... Some of these effects include delayed mental development, Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), morphological abnormalities ... Evidence of OP exposure in pregnant mothers are linked to several health effects in the fetus. ... A number of measurements exist to assess exposure and early biological effects for organophosphate poisoning. Measurements of ...
... prenatal exposure delayed effects MeSH C13.703.844.253 - depression, postpartum MeSH C13.703.844.506 - lactation disorders MeSH ...
One particular study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, among other factors, on cognitive ability in children. ... and delayed verbal memory (memory of words read or heard). The conclusion from this study is that prenatal methamphetamine ... One study attempted to determine the neurotoxic effects (harm to nerve cells) of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on brain ... Patterns show that longitudinal memory effects of prenatal alcohol exposure manifest themselves both directly and also ...
In this role, she studied the effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure on IQ, taking into account ... study which found that exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos could be associated with early childhood developmental delays. In ... The hypothesis was that the trees might have a beneficial effect on air quality. She later received the Bates award for ... At the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health, she led the "Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential ...
The effect of the developmental toxicants depends on the type of substance, dose and duration and time of exposure. Certain ... Prenatal BPA exposure is associated with aggression and neurobehaviour changes. Most toxicants are known to affect only a ... FAS disrupts normal development of the fetus, which may cause certain developmental stages to be delayed, skipped, or ... Other effects also seen with thalidomide exposure included deformed eyes and hearts, deformed alimentary and urinary tracts, ...
Further research is needed to establish the effect of prenatal exposure on fetal development. Only a few studies have been done ... increase in the risk of bronchial obstruction in the first two years of life and in the development of language delay in pre- ... The precise teratogenic effects observed in rat fetuses seem to be related to the period of exposure in development. Exposure ... Numerous studies have been carried out in animals to elucidate the adverse effects of BBP exposure. Long-term BBP exposure in ...
Richardson GA, Conroy ML, Day NL (1996). "Prenatal cocaine exposure: Effects on the development of school-age children". ... Some short-term effects include executive function impairment, reading difficulty, and delayed state regulation. An opiate drug ... Prenatal exposure to various pesticides including organophosphates, and chlorpyrifos has also been linked to reduced IQ score. ... Kilbride H, Castor C, Hoffman E, Fuger KL (2000). "Thirty-six-month outcome of prenatal cocaine exposure for term or near-term ...
Prenatal diagnosis of fetal varicella infection can be performed using ultrasound, though a delay of 5 weeks following primary ... The side effects are usually mild, such as some pain or swelling at the injection site. A live attenuated varicella vaccine, ... Exposure to VZV in a healthy child initiates the production of host immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and ... Contagion is by exposure to respiratory droplets, or direct contact with lesions, within a period lasting from three days ...
... and that the developmental delays were significantly associated with methyl mercury exposures, even in lower exposure ranges. ... and raised the alarm over the possible effects of the level of exposure on young children. In August 2008, a WHO report ... noted that a 10-year study by Philippe Grandjean with a sample of about 900 Faroese children had shown that prenatal exposure ... Moore 2003, p. 58 "Guidance for identifying populations at risk from mercury exposure" (PDF). World Health Organization. 2008. ...
Larkby, C.; Day, N. (1997). "The effects of prenatal alcohol exposure". Alcohol Health and Research World. 21 (3): 192-198. ... Learning disabilities Speech and language delays Intellectual disability or low IQ Poor reasoning and judgment skills Sleep and ... Thus, demonstrating the magnitude of potential damage caused by a single prenatal alcohol exposure. The developing fetus is ... "Prevention of Harm caused by Alcohol Exposure during Pregnancy" (PDF). "What are the Effects & Dangers of Alcohol During ...
Unintended pregnancies are associated with increased risk of delayed entry into prenatal care, decreased rates of breastfeeding ... "Effects of transplacental exposure to environmental pollutants on birth outcomes in a multiethnic population". Environmental ... Mayer, Jeffrey P. (1997). "Unintended Childbearing, Maternal Beliefs, and Delay of Prenatal Care". Birth. 24 (4): 247-252. doi: ... Choi Hyunok; Rauh Virginia; Garfinkel Robin; Tu Yihsuan; Perera Frederica P. (2008-05-01). "Prenatal Exposure to Airborne ...
Detection and diagnosis of perinatal stroke are often delayed due to prenatal onset or inadequacy of neonatal signs and ... "Phenytoin (Dilantin) Uses, Dosage, Side Effects". Retrieved 2020-04-21. "Benzodiazepines: Uses, types, side effects ... and prenatal cocaine exposure. Blood clotting disorders such as Hemophilia A and B result from low clotting factor quantities ... "Association of prenatal phenobarbital and phenytoin exposure with small head size at birth and with learning problems". Acta ...
"Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction". Human Reproduction (Oxford, ... Delayed onset of menarche is associated with lower bone mineral density and may have psychosocial impacts. Other impacts on ... Based on a cohort study conducted in the Mid-Ohio Valley, no clear association was found between prenatal exposure to PFOA and ... Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Olsen J (November 2010). "Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for ...
... specifically prenatal exposure to anti-Müllerian hormone. For the study, the researchers injected pregnant mice with AMH so ... These included problems with fertility, delayed puberty, and erratic ovulation. To reverse it, the researchers dosed the ... but agonist have to be started earlier to overcome the agonistic effect. Cetrorelix can be mixed with follitropin alpha without ... June 2018). "Elevated prenatal anti-Müllerian hormone reprograms the fetus and induces polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood ...
The effect of chronic exposure to carbon monoxide can depend on the stage of pregnancy in which the mother is exposed. Exposure ... An estimated 10% of all birth defects are caused by prenatal exposure to a teratogenic agent. These exposures include ... along with a delay in mental and physical development. Valproate has antifolate effects, leading to neural tube closure-related ... The effects of carbon monoxide exposure are decreased later in fetal development during the fetal stage, but they may still ...
Exposure to any of the temporary factors can cause up to a three-month delay before sperm quality returns to normal, due to ... maternal smoking during prenatal development, pesticide exposure, or lifestyle changes during adulthood. Although it is ... No age related effects on sperm were noted in separate control groups recruited in different geographical locations, indicating ... Theoretically, this exposure to high levels of phytoestrogen in men may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A few ...
A number of the effects that had been thought after early studies to be attributable to prenatal exposure to cocaine are ... children had been exposed to crack in utero may have expected these children to be disruptive and developmentally delayed. ... Ackerman, John P.; Riggins, Tracy; Black, Maureen M. (2010). "A Review of the Effects of Prenatal Cocaine Exposure Among School ... McCarthy DM, Kabir ZD, Bhide PG, Kosofsky BE (2014). "Effects of prenatal exposure to cocaine on brain structure and function ...
"Life-span exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal life increases cancer effects in rats". Environ Health ... The investigation was delayed and eventually the statute of limitations on the charges against Searle expired and a grand jury ... "EFSA delay Aspartame review findings until 2013". August 8, 2012. Archived from the original on August 22, ... The double blind controlled study has been concluded and found no evidence of safety issues or side effects even amongst those ...
Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol ... Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration. Long-term effects of alcohol include changes in ... Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. Alcohol consumption can cause ... But this does not appear to be true for women." Alcoholic beverage Short-term effects of alcohol consumption Long-term effects ...
... and may have lasting effects on reproductive function, for both childhood and adult exposures. Prenatal phthalate exposure has ... In another study, pubertal administration of higher-dose DEHP delayed puberty in rats, reduced testosterone production, and ... Studies in mice have shown other adverse health effects due to DEHP exposure. Ingestion of 0.01% DEHP caused damage to the ... 2015). "Prenatal phthalate exposure and reproductive function in young men". Environmental Research. 138: 264-70. Bibcode: ...
Prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly is difficult due to the variability present in the causes of the disease. Early detection, ... Developmental delay in motor and communication skills will result. Congenital microcephaly has also been attributed to serine ... Women who are at risk of contracting TORCH infections or exposure to Zika virus are recommended to undergo screening as most ... There is currently no treatment to reverse the neuropathology of achalasia or the effects of microcephaly. Instead, treatment ...
... has been central to the recognition of the effects or contribution of prenatal tobacco and childhood secondhand smoke exposure ... Weitzman has also demonstrated that delayed school entry is associated with higher rates of extreme behavior. In his role as ... Weitzman has studied the neurotoxic effects of lead exposure on children. His research on preventing childhood lead exposure ... "Prenatal Smoke Exposure Associated with Adolescent Hearing Loss , Brown Hearing Centers". Archived ...
Ackerman JP, Riggins T, Black MM (March 2010). "A review of the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure among school-aged children ... Other problems associated with FASD include delayed or uncoordinated motor skills, hearing or vision problems, learning ... Prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE) is associated with premature birth, birth defects, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ( ... Further research is required to determine the long-term effects of in utero exposure to opioid medications on children. Smoking ...
... (or prenatal maternal stress) is exposure of an expectant mother to psychosocial or physical stress, which can ... "Maternal prenatal depression and epigenetic age deceleration: testing potentially confounding effects of prenatal stress and ... found that prenatal psychosocial stress can cause delays in child growth and development through assessing the child's weight, ... Prenatal stress does have an effect on brain sexual differentiation after measuring the volume of the sexually dimorphic ...
Prenatal exposure to some hormones can cause vaginal anomalies as can the lack of necessary hormones needed for normal ... Psychosocial effects can also exist. Some anomalies are found upon examination shortly after birth or when the development of ... Correction of an imperforate hymen may be delayed until puberty. The hymen can be unusually thick or partially obstructed by ... Inheritance can play a part as can prenatal exposure to hormones and teratogens. Though the presence of a vaginal anomaly does ...
A 2019 study further investigated neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure. This ... Diav-Citrin, O (2011). "Prenatal exposures associated with neurodevelopmental delay and disabilities". Developmental ... Toxins include fetal exposure to lead, mercury, and ethanol or hazardous environments. Prenatal exposure to mercury may lead to ... Prenatal memory Prenatal and perinatal psychology Fetal pig Timeline of human prenatal development Transplacental ...
Doppler fetal monitors use the Doppler effect to detect the fetal heartbeat during prenatal care. These are hand-held, and some ... Ang, E. S. B. C.; Gluncic, V.; Duque, A.; Schafer, M. E.; Rakic, P. (2006). "Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts ... It is currently believed that the risk of delayed diagnosis is greater than the small risk, if any, associated with undergoing ... Biological effects of non-thermal origin have been reported in animals but, to date, no such effects have been demonstrated in ...
Golan H, Huleihel M (July 2006). "The effect of prenatal hypoxia on brain development: Short- and long-term consequences ... Mednick SA, Machon RA, Huttunen MO, Bonett D (February 1988). "Adult schizophrenia following prenatal exposure to an influenza ... Golan H, Kashtutsky I, Hallak M, Sorokin Y, Huleihel M (2004). "Maternal hypoxia during pregnancy delays the development of ... A number of viral exposures during prenatal development, have been associated with an increased risk of schizophrenia. ...
Adverse effects of lead exposure in pregnancy include miscarriage, low birth weight, neurological delays, anemia, ... The review found that "Most of the studies evaluating prenatal exposure observed a negative effect on mental development and an ... A systematic review of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure was done in 2014 ... "A systematic review of neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal and postnatal organophosphate pesticide exposure". Toxicol Lett. ...
Holzer G, Riegler E, Hönigsmann H, Farokhnia S, Schmidt JB, Schmidt B (September 2005). "Effects and side-effects of 2% ... Actions of estradiol are required before the exposure of progesterone in the luteal phase.[citation needed] ... Individuals without it (or other estrogens) will become tall and eunuchoid, as epiphyseal closure is delayed or may not take ... the programming of adult male sexual behavior in many vertebrates is largely dependent on estradiol produced during prenatal ...
Guo YL, Lambert GH, Hsu CC, Hsu MM (April 2004). "Yucheng: health effects of prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls and ... The primary molars present also functions as a space maintainer, prevent alveolar bone resorption and delays future ... In a smaller capacity, chemotherapy was also found to have a similar effect. Thalidomide (N-phthaloylglutamine) was also ... Exposure to PCBs (such as dioxin),[17][18][19] allergies,[20] and toxic epidermal necrolysis folloeing a drug reaction[21] may ...
Adverse experiences during development (e.g. prenatal exposure to maternal stress,[66][67] poor attachment histories,[68] ... The HPA axis ultimately results in the release of cortisol, which generally has immunosuppressive effects. However, the effect ... found that chronic stress associated with care giving for a person with Alzheimer's disease leads to delayed wound healing. ... June 2007). Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament. Journal of the American ...
Melanogenesis leads to delayed tanning and first becomes visible about 72 hours after exposure. The tan that is created by an ... Woodruff, Charles Edward (1905). The Effects of Tropical Light on White Men. Rebman Company. p. 186. Retrieved 27 July 2022.. ... about 4 times more than during prenatal development),[85] part of which comes from reserves in the mother's skeleton. Adequate ... Aside from sun exposure and hormones, hyperpigmentation can be caused by skin damage, such as remnants of blemishes, wounds or ...
"Prenatal nicotine exposure and child behavioural problems". European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry. 23 (10): 913-929. doi: ... and may have treatment effects comparable to active controls (controls proven to have a clinical effect) over that time period. ... Difficulties managing anger are more common in children with ADHD[43] as are delays in speech, language and motor development.[ ... Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure.. *^ Cortese S, Adamo N, Del Giovane C, Mohr-Jensen C, Hayes AJ, ...
... prenatal androgen exposure, interactions with family, and cultural and societal factors. Because of the complex and ... The effects of excessive androgens differ in fetuses with XX chromosome (female) and XY chromosomes (male). In XX chromosome ... short neck and delayed puberty. The incidence is 1 in 2500 live-born females, while most patients do not survive for more than ... In the normal prenatal stages of fetal development, the fetus is exposed to testosterone - albeit more in male fetuses than ...
... there was some evidence that prenatal exposure to cannabis was associated with "deficits in language, attention, areas of ... After oral ingestion of cannabis, the onset of effect is delayed relative to smoking, taking 30 minutes to 2 hours, but the ... Canada, Health (2 March 2018). "Health effects of cannabis". Retrieved 17 November 2022. "Health effects of ... but exposures are lower compared with tobacco or dual smokers. Increased levels of acrolein exposure by tobacco smoking but not ...
His mental powers granted by the mutagenic effects from exposure to Terrigen Mist give him the ability to numb, override, and ... When trying Máximus on his mind control with Spider-Man, Triton uses the Gyro-Cube to delay Máximus so they can find Black Bolt ... director of the Prenatal Care Center. Subjected to the DNA-altering Terrigen Mist when he was an infant, Maximus peculiarly ... Maximus miscalculates, however, and the device has no effect. Out of spite, Maximus uses the device to erect a "negative zone" ...
... while some unexplained environmental health hazards are thought to have the opposite effect. The effects of gestational ... The sex ratio of the total population is affected by various factors including natural factors, exposure to pesticides and ... Other researchers argue that an unbalanced sex ratio should not be automatically held as evidence of prenatal sex selection; ... For studies reveal underreporting or delayed reporting of female births in China, see Merli MG, Raftery AE (February 1990). " ...
There is evidence that schizophrenia is associated with prenatal exposure to rubella, influenza, and toxoplasmosis infection. ... The practice of delaying or spacing out these vaccinations increases the amount of time the child is susceptible to these ... Riots broke out on the day a vaccination law took effect; vaccination symbolized the most feared and most tangible aspect of a ... Adverse effects ascribed to vaccines typically have an unknown origin, an increasing incidence, some biological plausibility, ...
Sex hormones have effects throughout a woman's body. Some workplace exposures can cause an imbalance of estrogen and ... avoiding or delaying seeking healthcare with these implications. Reproductive health can be impacted by exposures in the ... Access to reproductive and sexual health services including family planning: Family planning counseling, pre-natal care, safe ... Exposure during the first 3 months of pregnancy might cause a birth defect or a miscarriage. Exposure during the last 6 months ...
In another study, prenatal drug exposure was shown to have significantly negative effects on cognitive functioning, as measured ... It was found that; IQ decreases during summer breaks from schooling, children with delayed school entry have lower IQ's, those ... Pulsifer MB, Butz AM, O'Reilly Foran M, Belcher HM (Jan 2008). "Prenatal drug exposure: effects on cognitive functioning at 5 ... "The effects of low to moderate prenatal alcohol exposure in early pregnancy on IQ in 5-year-old children". BJOG. 119 (10): 1191 ...
Symptoms associated with CMV, such as hearing loss, can result in further developmental delay. A delay in general speech and ... The earlier the mother contracts the virus during pregnancy the more severe the effects are on the fetus, similarly the ... Congenital cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection refers to a condition where cytomegalovirus is transmitted in the prenatal period. ... may be a source of exposure to CMV. Since CMV is transmitted through contact with infected body fluids, including urine and ...
"Prenatal valproate exposure and risk of autism spectrum disorders and childhood autism". JAMA. 309 (16): 1696-1703. doi:10.1001 ... Common side effects of valproate include nausea, vomiting, somnolence, and dry mouth. Serious side effects can include liver ... While developmental delay is usually associated with altered physical characteristics (dysmorphic features), this is not always ... It is worthy of mentioning that some adverse effects related to valproic acid may be dose-dependent such as pancytopenia. There ...
Although fetal production is impaired, it causes no prenatal effects, as the placental connection allows maternal blood to " ... throughout their prenatal lives. Milder degrees of continuing androgen exposure continue throughout childhood and adolescence ... delaying reconstructive surgery until the patient is old enough to participate in the decision. (See Ambiguous genitalia and ... "lower cognitive processing in CAH girls and women with long-term DEX exposure." Administration of pre-natal dexamethasone has ...
Early exposure to potential allergens may be protective. Specifically, early exposure to eggs and peanuts reduces the risk of ... It tests for delayed food reactions. Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it poses the same ... Cytokines from mast cells may also play a role in the persistence of long-term effects. Diagnosis is usually based on a medical ... Gunaratne AW, Makrides M, Collins CT (July 2015). "Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty ...
University of Michigan researchers found that children in China who had the highest prenatal exposure to naled had, at age 9 ... The mule deer is among those most resistant to its effects. Naled is banned in the European Union because of concerns about the ... "Study links mosquito spray to delayed motor skills in babies". CNN. "'Like it's been nuked': Millions of bees dead ... Chronic exposure to dichlorvos, a metabolite of naled, has also been linked to neurological issues, such as Parkinson's disease ...
Their honeymoon is delayed by a considerable period, during which they conceive twins who are nurtured in uterine replicators; ... Mark looks a bit different than Miles because of crude attempts to simulate the effects of the chemical Miles was exposed to in ... When his famous grandfather learns of the prenatal damage, he tries to abort the fetus in the replicator, and later tries to ... Happily, Miles survives a near-death illness caused by exposure to a Cetagandan nanotech biological weapon, though he does ...
"Expanding Prenatal Care to Unauthorized Immigrant Women and the Effects on Infant Health". Obstetrics and Gynecology. 130 (5): ... Death by exposure to the elements-leading to hypothermia, dehydration, heat stroke, drowning, and suffocation-has been reported ... Preston, Julia (October 2, 2007). "Court Orders a New Delay on Illegal Worker Rules". The New York Times. Archived from the ... A direct effect of the deportation laws of 1996 and the Patriot Act has been a dramatic increase in deportations. Prior to ...
In addition, prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRI) causes a shift in perceptual narrowing on ... Zhou X, Merzenich MM (March 2008). "Enduring effects of early structured noise exposure on temporal modulation in the primary ... PNN development coincides with the closure of critical periods, and both PNN formation and critical period timing is delayed in ... Weikum WM, Oberlander TF, Hensch TK, Werker JF (October 2012). "Prenatal exposure to antidepressants and depressed maternal ...
The negative effects of pregestational diabetes are due to high blood sugar and insulin levels primarily during the first ... "Prenatal Care , ADA". Retrieved 2020-10-29. Rodekamp E, Harder T, Kohlhoff R, Dudenhausen JW, Plagemann A ( ... Nomura Y, Marks DJ, Grossman B, Yoon M, Loudon H, Stone J, Halperin JM (January 2012). "Exposure to Gestational Diabetes ... ingestion of diabetic breast milk has also been linked to delayed language development on a dose-dependent basis. In some cases ...
Coles CD, Brown RT, Smith IE, Platzman KA, Erickson S, Falek A (1991). "Effects of prenatal alcohol exposure at school age. I. ... Functional impairments are deficits, problems, delays, or abnormalities due to prenatal alcohol exposure (rather than ... Exposure level is assessed as confirmed exposure, unknown exposure, and confirmed absence of exposure by the IOM, CDC and ... or functional impairment Prenatal alcohol exposure: Confirmed or Unknown prenatal alcohol exposure Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS ...
Puberty in young adults with cerebral palsy may be precocious or delayed. Delayed puberty is thought to be a consequence of ... The effects of cerebral palsy fall on a continuum of motor dysfunction, which may range from slight clumsiness at the mild end ... Moreover, there is no one reason why some CP cases come from prenatal brain damage, and it's not known if those cases have a ... exposure to methylmercury during pregnancy, a difficult delivery, and head trauma during the first few years of life, among ...
Prenatal evaluation is possible. Amniotic fluid cell culturing is used to demonstrate that fetal cells are deficient in RNA ... COFS syndrome is named so due to the effects it has on the brain, eyes, face, and skeletal system, as the disease frequently ... Diagnosis is determined by a specific test for DNA repair, which measures the recovery of RNA after exposure to UV radiation. ... at which point growth slows and developmental delays are noticed. Symptoms are not apparent until they are 1 year. Life ...
In utero exposure to cocaine and other street drugs can lead to porencephaly. The presence of porencephalic cysts or cavities ... Though, there is no direct correlation between mutations of the COL4A1 gene, it appears that it has an influential effect on ... Patients with severe cases of porencephaly have epileptic seizures and developmental delays, whereas patients with a mild case ... Schizencephaly Gul A, Gungorduk K, Yildirim G, Gedikbasi A, Ceylan Y (2009). "Prenatal diagnosis of porencephaly secondary to ...
"The Effects of Years Lived in the United States on the General Health Status of California's Foreign-Born Populations." Journal ... Patients in various detention centers stated that they were denied surgeries due to delays by ICE or other forms of care such ... Similarly, another proposal specifically targets increased funding for prenatal care, with studies showing that preventative ... his colleagues also found that ICE detainees were particularly susceptible to contracting chicken pox due to increased exposure ...
Results of search for su:{Prenatal exposure delayed effects} Refine your search. *. Availability. * Limit to currently ... Neurotoxicity of prenatal carbon monoxide exposure / Laurence D. Fechter. by Fechter, Laurence D , Health Effects Institute. ... Prenatal exposure to toxicants : developmental consequences / edited by Herbert L. Needleman and David Bellinger. by Needleman ... Functional teratogenesis : functional effects on the offspring after parental drug exposure / editors, Tomoko Fujii, Perrie M. ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. fr. dc.subject.other. Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Technology. fr. ... IPCS Task Group on Principles for Evaluating Health Risks to Progeny Associated with Exposure to Chemicals during Pregnancy. fr ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. fr. dc.subject.other. Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Technology. fr. ... IPCS Task Group on Principles for Evaluating Health Risks to Progeny Associated with Exposure to Chemicals during Pregnancy. fr ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. en. dc.subject.other. Pharmacology, Toxicology and Clinical Technology. en. ... Principles for evaluating health risks to progeny associated with exposure to chemicals during pregnancy. ... IPCS Task Group on Principles for Evaluating Health Risks to Progeny Associated with Exposure to Chemicals during Pregnancy. en ... Principles for evaluating health risks to progeny associated with exposure to chemicals during pregnancy. en. ...
... prenatal exposure delayed effects; vaccines ... to examine the effects of low-moderate arsenic exposure and ... Background: Arsenic exposure and micronutrient deficiencies may alter immune reactivity to influenza vaccination in pregnant ... Objectives: The Pregnancy, Arsenic, and Immune Response (PAIR) Study was designed to assess whether arsenic exposure and ...
Undetected, hearing loss delays speech, language, and cognitive development. Numerous studies have shown that prenatal lead ... However, knowledge about the effects of maternal lead exposure at current United States levels (i.e., blood lead levels , 10 μg ... The goal of this study is to examine the gene-environment interactions between prenatal blood lead exposure and APOE genotype ... Evaluation of the Modifying Effect of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Genotype on the Association of Prenatal Blood Lead Levels and ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects * Regression Analysis * Tobacco Smoke Pollution / adverse effects* Substances * Dopamine ... In females, no significant main effects of DAT1 genotype or prenatal smoke exposure or interaction effects on any symptoms were ... Interaction of dopamine transporter genotype with prenatal smoke exposure on ADHD symptoms J Pediatr. 2008 Feb;152(2):263-9. ... Results: There was no bivariate association between DAT1 genotype, prenatal smoke exposure and symptoms of attention deficit ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects 1 0 Primary Ovarian Insufficiency 1 0 Osteoporosis 1 0 ...
Delayed Effects, Prenatal Exposure. Late Effects, Prenatal Exposure. Tree number(s):. C12.050.703.824.500. SP4.606.806.420. ... Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects Entry term(s). Delayed Effects, Prenatal Exposure Late Effects, Prenatal Exposure ... Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects - Preferred Concept UI. M0017541. Scope note. The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero ... for mammals only; note PRECONCEPTION INJURIES; MATERNAL EXPOSURE & PATERNAL EXPOSURE are available for environmental exposure ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/therapy, Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis, Prenatal Care, Substance-Related Disorders/ ... Gabapentin/adverse effects, Zolpidem/adverse effects, Eszopiclone/adverse effects, Benzodiazepines/adverse effects ...
9 Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. *3 Brain --drug effects. *3 Discrimination Learning --drug ef... ... Effect of prenatal haloperidol administration on anxiety patterns in rats.. Singh, Y; Jaiswal, A K; Singh, M; Bhattacharya, S K ... Behavioural effects of prenatal diazepam administration on anxiety patterns in rats.. Singh, Y; Jaiswal, A K; Singh, M; ... Comparative effects of prenatal and postnatal undernutrition on learning and memory in rats.. Jaiswal, A K; Upadhyay, S N; ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects (1) * Self-Help Groups (1) * Wounds and Injuries (1) ...
... medical effects or developmental delays during the childs first year of life that medically indicate prenatal exposure to a ... 6) prenatal exposure to a controlled substance, as defined in section 253B.02, subdivision 2, used by the mother for a ... i) Effect of delivery under subsection (h); no duties or confirmation. A secured party does not relinquish possession, even if ... An injurious or dangerous environment may include, but is not limited to, the exposure of a child to criminal activity in the ...
No article was found for Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects and INS[original query]. ...
A cumulative effect of exposure might also be possible ((87)), and the influence of the exposure of timing on pregnancy outcome ... Approximately one-third of the women who sought prenatal care at the Navy Regional Medical Center at Camp Lejeune moved or were ... The third trimester of pregnancy is usually regarded as the most important for fetal growth and toxicity resulting in delayed ... In addition, the effects of timing and duration of exposure were examined by linking data from family base housing with birth ...
... and delayed motor development. Farmworkers are at heightened risk of acute exposure effects of the chemical (including ... Prenatal and early life exposure to chlorpyrifos is linked to lower birth weight and neurodevelopmental harms, including ... This entry was posted on Monday, July 22nd, 2019 at 12:00 am and is filed under Agriculture, Brain Effects, Children/Schools, ... Chlorpyrifos, Developmental Disorders, Dow Chemical, Nervous System Effects, Take Action, Uncategorized. You can follow any ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. publications Timeline , Most Recent This graph shows the total number of publications ... "Prenatal Injuries" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject ... written about "Prenatal Injuries" by people in this website by year, and whether "Prenatal Injuries" was a major or minor topic ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Prenatal Injuries" by people in Profiles. ...
Association between prenatal exposure to household inhalants exposure and ADHD-like behaviors at around 3 years of age: ... Deleterious effects of incense smoke exposure on kidney function and architecture in male albino rats. Inhal Toxicol. 2016;28(8 ... resulting in delayed-onset respiratory problems. In cases of severe acute exposure, patients may present with shortness of ... Potential health effects of exposure to carcinogenic compounds in incense smoke in temple workers. Chem Biol Interact. 2008;173 ...
... medical effects or developmental delays during the childs first year of life that medically indicate prenatal exposure to a ... 6) prenatal exposure to a controlled substance, as defined in section 253B.02, subdivision 2, used by the mother for a ... 451, A bill for an act relating to family law; modifying provision related to the effect of a recognition of parentage; making ... including a growth delay, which may be referred to as a failure to thrive, that has been diagnosed by a physician and is due to ...
No article was found for Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects and HSD11B2[original query]. ...
No effect modifications were observed for allergic sensitization. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that the risk of early ... data collection included questionnaires to measure tobacco smoke exposure and clinical outcomes up to age 4 and medical ... genes modify the effect of early maternal smoking on the development of childhood asthma, wheeze and allergic sensitization. ... Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects, Prospective Studies, Respiratory Hypersensitivity, Respiratory Sounds, Smoking, Tumor ...
Iron deficiency anemia and lead exposure during infancy and childhood have been found to have long-lasting detrimental effects ... These programs are state-required multidisciplinary services for children with developmental delays or at risk for delays.[12, ... Nutritional and environmental issues may begin in the prenatal setting; adequate prenatal nutrition and healthcare for women ... Exposure to lead and other chemicals. Risk assessment or screening for lead exposure should be done at 1 year of age unless ...
Evaluation of the influence of prenatal transportation stress on GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion ... Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects * Stress, Physiological * Testis * Testosterone * Transportation Identity. PubMed Central ID ... This study examined the relationship of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with exogenous GnRH-induced LH and testosterone ... Evaluation of the influence of prenatal transportation stress on GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion ...
... no significant effect of prenatal stress exposure and no interaction of the 2 prenatal exposures.While each prenatal exposure ... with no significant effect of prenatal EtOH exposure and no interaction of the 2 prenatal exposures. Performance in a TTTC task ... Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects * Rats * Rats, Long-Evans * Stress, Psychological Identity. Digital Object Identifier (DOI) * ... of prenatal EtOH and prenatal stress exposures on learning or anxiety at the exposure levels employed in this dual exposure ...
... case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. ... in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying ... Comparison of motor delays in young children with fetal alcohol syndrome to those with prenatal alcohol exposure and with no ... prenatal alcohol exposure. Alcohol Clin Exp Res 2006;30:2037-2045. 23. Wacha VH, Obrzut JE. Effects of Fetal Alcohol Syndrome ...
Bashash et al, Prenatal Fluoride Exposure and Cognitive Outcomes in Children at 4 and 6-12 Years of Age in Mexico, ... Fluorides Effect on Fetal Brain. The human placenta does not prevent the passage of fluoride from a pregnant mothers ... and compares the response from the public health community to the delayed response to the obvious harm caused by lead. ... Green (2019) reported substantial IQ loss in Canadian children from prenatal exposure to fluoride from water fluoridation. ...
Maternal Exposure Pregnancy Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects Prospective Studies Retrospective Studies *. Source: ... Title : Prenatal DDT and DDE Exposure and Child IQ in the CHAMACOS Cohort Personal Author(s) : Gaspar, Fraser W.;Harley, Kim G ... We conclude that prenatal DDT levels may be associated with delayed Processing Speed in children at age 7years and the ... Prenatal DDT and DDE Exposure and Child IQ in the CHAMACOS Cohort. ...
  • While the effect of this force is not fully understood, research suggests that it may change cell permeability and have adverse effects on both early and late prenatal and postnatal development. (
  • Epidemiological and animal-based studies have suggested that prenatal and postnatal fluoride exposure has adverse effects on neurodevelopment. (
  • To characterize the neurochemical and neuroanatomical mechanisms that may mediate these behavioral effects in rats, we studied the development [postnatal days (PD) 1, 3, 7, 17, 27, 35, 90, and 26 months postnatally] of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in hippocampus, neocortex and striatum as a function of prenatal Ch availability. (
  • At least in experimental animals, genetical y modified strains, because on the differential effects of a wide greater susceptibility to chemical in these species the interval between variety of carcinogens in humans at carcinogens in utero and during birth and sexual maturity is only a different stages of life, including var early postnatal life is usual y man few weeks. (
  • Conclusions: The PAIR Study is well positioned to examine the effects of low-moderate arsenic exposure and micronutrient deficiencies on immune outcomes in women and infants. (
  • Because a sizable population of young, married women were supplied with this water in their homes, concern has been raised about the potential adverse effects of VOCs on pregnancy outcomes. (
  • METHODS: In the Swedish prospective birth cohort BAMSE (Children, Allergy, Milieu, Stockholm, Epidemiological Survey) (n=4089), data collection included questionnaires to measure tobacco smoke exposure and clinical outcomes up to age 4 and medical examinations with blood sampling for specific IgE measurements and genotyping. (
  • However, the interactive effects of these 2 developmental teratogens on behavioral outcomes have not been systematically evaluated.We combined an established moderate prenatal EtOH consumption paradigm where Long-Evans rat dams voluntarily consume either a 0 or 5% EtOH solution in 0.066% saccharin water (resulting in a mean peak maternal serum EtOH concentration of 84 mg/dl) with a novel prenatal stress paradigm. (
  • Risk factors for adverse life outcomes in fetal alcohol syndrome and fetal alcohol effects. (
  • In the last article in this series on natural childbirth, I reviewed evidence suggesting that routine prenatal ultrasound does not improve birth outcomes for mothers or babies, and that organizations like the American College of Obstetricians & Gynecologists recommend ultrasound scans only for specific reasons. (
  • Unlike observations made at 48 months, prenatal exposure to marijuana was not associated with the cognitive and verbal outcomes. (
  • But our findings are among the first to link prenatal folic acid exposure to improved brain health outcomes in young people," and to show the effect is due to specific changes in brain development, he told Reuters Health in an email. (
  • Children's National will serve as the magnetic resonance image (MRI) coordinating center for the four-year Outcomes of babies with opioid exposure (OBOE) study. (
  • We will be able to very carefully characterize the infants' neurological and behavioral outcomes, describing neurodevelopmental consequences that are associated with prenatal exposure to opioids," she says. (
  • BACKGROUND: As a teratogen, alcohol exposure during pregnancy can impact fetal development and result in adverse birth outcomes. (
  • [ 104 ] In several animal reproductive studies, the use of carbamazepine at doses higher than the recommended dose in humans has been associated with teratogenic effects in rats and mice. (
  • There is some criticism of the EPA's methods for setting "tolerances" for pesticide exposure in humans. (
  • However, in real life, humans are often exposed to a number of different chemicals over long periods of time - this type of exposure can cause problems that might not be observed in a short-term study of the effects of a single chemical. (
  • Although it is widely understood that exposure to pesticides is dangerous to humans, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) data show that a high percentage of individuals tested had certain pesticides or the chemical breakdown of those pesticides in their blood or urine. (
  • Data demonstrated that humans are less sensitive to the effect that causes developmental toxicity in rabbits and the PBPK model incorporated this information, resulting in a higher HEC for the developmental endpoint than for the nasal endpoint. (
  • Studies in experimental incidence and multiplicity of tumours to Wilms tumour in humans - in the animals increase and the latency period de adult rat after perinatal exposure to a creases with increasing dose. (
  • In humans, the fetal stage of prenatal development begins about eight weeks after fertilization , when the major structures and organ systems have formed, until birth. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that higher prenatal and early childhood exposure to lead may be associated with delayed pubertal development in girls but not boys. (
  • Earlier reports from Perera's group had found that higher prenatal exposure to PAHs is associated with lower weight and smaller head size at birth and developmental delays at age 3. (
  • Numerous studies have shown that prenatal lead exposure is associated with a variety of neurobehavioral and electrophysiologic abnormalities. (
  • The goal of this study is to examine the gene-environment interactions between prenatal blood lead exposure and APOE genotype while examining the infant auditory brainstem response pattern. (
  • Iron deficiency anemia and lead exposure during infancy and childhood have been found to have long-lasting detrimental effects on neurodevelopment. (
  • Risk assessment or screening for lead exposure should be done at 1 year of age unless local prevalence indicates that earlier screening is advisable. (
  • For children, the most common source of lead exposure is lead-based paint deteriorated into chips and lead dusts (CDC 1997). (
  • however, the evidence is lacking on the role of lead exposure during sensitive developmental periods on sexual maturation. (
  • OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of prenatal and early childhood lead exposure with pubertal stages among 264 boys and 283 girls aged 9.8-18.0 years in Mexico City. (
  • Primarily caused by swallowing or breathing in dust from deteriorating lead-based paint, lead poisoning can cause learning and … your home for lead hazards: The most common cause of lead exposure is from swallowing or breathing in dust from deteriorating lead-based paint. (
  • The study is the latest to link prenatal acetaminophen to developmental issues. (
  • Cholesterol and ApoE are important in the neurodevelopment of the fetus (cholesterol is used in neuronal metabolism) and may serve as modifiers of the response to maternal nutrient intake or maternal exposure to neurotoxins. (
  • Women who are thinking of becoming pregnant need to be aware of the very serious negative effects of alcohol on their developing baby (fetus).Prenatal alcohol exposure is the most common cause of birth defects in the United States.Exposure to alcohol during pregnancy damages the brain and behavior of children-these effects are 100 percent preventable. (
  • High birth weight, low gestational age and certain in utero exposures have all been related to the risk of ALL, but it is not known whether they exert their effects by being risk factors for the development of preleukemic cells in an otherwise healthy fetus. (
  • Prenatal drug and or alcohol exposure can cause permanent damage to a fetus (unborn child). (
  • It's been known for more than 20 years that prenatal exposure to folic acid protects the fetus against spina bifida and other neural tube defects," said senior study author Dr. Joshua L. Roffman from Massachusetts General Hospital in Charlestown. (
  • The fetus is not as sensitive to damage from environmental exposures as the embryo was, though toxic exposures can often cause physiological abnormalities or minor congenital malformation. (
  • AN - PRENATAL NUTRITION is also available HN - 2008 BX - Mother Nutrition BX - Nursing Mother Nutrition FX - Maternal Nutrition Physiology DH - Prenatal Nutrition DI - 052506 MN - SP6.021.082 MS - Nutrition of FETUS and mother during PREGNANCY. (
  • This document summarizes the results of the trial, discusses limitations in the interpretation of the results, reviews the potential long-term adverse effects of this ZDV regimen for infants and women, and provides recommendations for the use of ZDV to reduce perinatal transmission and for medical monitoring of pregnant women and infants receiving this therapy. (
  • Though both animal and human studies have shown that temperature elevations can cause abnormal development and birth defects, so far human studies have not shown a direct causal relationship between diagnostic ultrasound exposure during pregnancy and adverse effects to the developing baby. (
  • 1) thermal rather than nonthermal mechanisms are more likely to induce adverse effects in utero, and (2) while the probability of an adverse thermal event is usually small, under some conditions it can be disturbingly high. (
  • Many pregnant women use such medications without prior consideration to the adverse effects of these substances on their unborn children. (
  • Many studies of a variety of experimental, agricultural and domestic animals were conducted in the 1940s and showed serious adverse effects of the drug including cancer, fetal death, and sterility of offspring. (
  • It wasn't until 1971 that the magnitude of the adverse effects of stilboestrol use started to emerge. (
  • Although treatment is primarily provided on an outpatient basis, patients with schizophrenia may require hospitalization for exacerbation of symptoms caused by noncompliance with pharmacotherapy, substance abuse, adverse effects or toxicity of medications, medical illness, psychosocial stress, or the waxing and waning of the illness itself. (
  • The model enabled calculation of human equivalent con- centrations (HECs) to the animal no-observed-adverse-effect levels (NOAELs) using chemical-specific parameters to determine the internal dose instead of default assumptions. (
  • Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with brain disorders / John M. Freeman, editor. (
  • It highlights the mounting evidence that fluoride is impairing brain development, and compares the response from the public health community to the delayed response to the obvious harm caused by lead. (
  • The risk of inducing thermal effects is greater in the second and third trimesters, when fetal bone is intercepted by the ultrasound beam and significant temperature increase can occur in the fetal brain. (
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure is a frequent cause of structural or functional effects on the brain, heart, bones and spine, kidneys, vision and hearing. (
  • Although the full spectrum of physical damage that drugs of abuse can cause cannot be documented, one thing is certain: the effect of maternal drug use on fetal brain development is the most critical and most studied effect. (
  • Infants may have slow growth and delays in their development, unusual facial features, irritability, brain and neurological disorders, mental retardation and problems with attachment to parents. (
  • The effects of alcohol on the developing brain during pregnancy cannot be reversed. (
  • When a woman takes drugs or drinks alcohol during pregnancy, changes can occur in the body and brain of her baby causing long-term effects. (
  • Defects of the corpus callosum (CC) have proven to be a reliable indicator of prenatal alcohol exposure as it affects the brain. (
  • In this study, folic acid fortification was associated with slower thinning of the brain cortex, and this delayed thinning was associated with lower odds of developing psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. (
  • The results demonstrate that prenatal folic acid may confer additional protective, long-lasting effects on brain health, beyond its effects on neural tube defect prevention, he added. (
  • The most profound effects of prenatal alcohol exposure are brain damage and the resulting impairments in behavioral and cognitive functioning. (
  • The team is looking for early biological clues of brain development delay or dysfunction. (
  • Confirmed prenatal alcohol exposure plus structural brain abnormalities or microcephaly, plus otherwise unexplained behavioral and cognitive abnormalities that result in significant impairment. (
  • Prenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) can result in a continuum of developmental abnormalities that are highly variable depending on the severity, duration, frequency, and timing of exposure during gestation. (
  • Structural abnormalities of the CC occur along a continuum, like most alcohol-induced anomalies, whereby more severe prenatal exposure results in a greater expression of the abnormal trait. (
  • Impact of combined prenatal ethanol and prenatal stress exposure on anxiety and hippocampal-sensitive learning in adult offspring. (
  • Prenatal ethanol (EtOH) and prenatal stress have both been independently shown to induce learning deficits and anxiety behavior in adult offspring. (
  • 12. Gareri J, Lynn H, Handley M, Rao C, Koren G. Prevalence of fetal ethanol exposure in a regional population-based sample by meconium analysis of fatty acid ethyl esters. (
  • This study will focus on the APOE genotype as a genetic effect modifier. (
  • To demonstrate that children homozygous for the 10-repeat allele of the common dopamine transporter (DAT1) polymorphism who were exposed to maternal prenatal smoke exhibited significantly higher hyperactivity-impulsivity than children without these environmental or genetic risks. (
  • In spite of all the epidemiological data that associate the risk of acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) to genetic predisposition and environmental exposures, the incidence of childhood ALL among siblings to children with the disease is at most only weakly increased, and a large population- and register-based study indicates that it may even be reduced. (
  • Exploration of the prenatal origin of childhood leukemia and the significance of the genetic aberrations is critical for the understanding of the natural history of childhood ALL. (
  • Exposure to pollution could cause direct genetic damage or could cause epigenetic changes, which are changes in how genes are expressed. (
  • Adopted children can present with delays, psychological problems both genetic and environmentally exposed, and/or residual effects of biological maternal poor choices. (
  • Children with chronic physical and mental health issues, a history of in utero substance abuse exposure, high lead levels, child abuse , neglect, domestic violence, and developmental delay are generally eligible for early intervention services, as part of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) Part C (birth to age 3 years) or part B (3 to 5 years). (
  • Jones et al [ 123 ] observed craniofacial defects, fingernail hypoplasia, and developmental delay in the eight children retrospectively ascertained to have been exposed to carbamazepine in utero. (
  • 13. Hutson J, Magri R, Suarez H, Miguez H, Gareri J, Koren G. High prevalence of prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs of abuse in Uruguay as determined by meconium analysis. (
  • Gaily et al [ 124 ] observed that the prevalence of mental delay is the same or slightly increased among infants of epileptic mothers compared with the general population. (
  • The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between exposure to fluoridated water and Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) prevalence among children and adolescents in the United States. (
  • Fetal development can be disrupted by toxic chemical exposures in less time than the 6-month intervals at which the wells are being monitored. (
  • Women who consume methylmercury during pregnancy can bear children who have neurological issues because methylmercury has toxic effects on the nervous system during embryonic development. (
  • In developing countries - where two thirds of these deaths occur - such poisonings are associated strongly with excessive exposure to, and inappropriate use of, toxic chemicals. (
  • Baumann's statement is especially troubling, given that in 2009, Scientific American published a study which found "Roundup's inert ingredients amplified the toxic effect on human cells [particularly embryonic, placental and umbilical cord cells] - even at concentrations much more diluted than those used on farms and lawns. (
  • The effect is comparable, she says, to the damage seen in children exposed to low levels of the toxic metal lead. (
  • In this new study, the researchers conducted a hypothesis testing case-control study to evaluate concerns about the toxic effects of organic-mercury (Hg) from Thimerosal-containing (49.55% Hg by weight) vaccines on the risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (NDs). (
  • Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs) is an all-encompassing term for the range of effects that can occur in someone whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. (
  • Even though fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are the most commonly identifiable causes of developmental delays and intellectual disabilities, they remain significantly under-recognized," said Dr. Williams. (
  • The researchers evaluated associations between prenatal folic acid exposure, maturation of the brain's cortex, and the risk of psychiatric disorders in youths 8 to 18 years of age born before, during, and after full implementation of folic acid fortification of grain products between 1996 and 1998. (
  • Fetal alcohol exposure can lead to a range of developmental disorders, including impaired fetal growth and development of multiple organ systems. (
  • A new study conducted by a team of collaborative researchers from the non-profit 501(c)3 Institute of Chronic Illnesses, Inc and CoMeD, Inc, as well as researchers from the Simpson University and the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas has found a dose-response relationship between organic mercury exposure from Thimerosal-containing vaccines and neurodevelopmental disorders. (
  • Developmental delay is a condition in which of developmental disorders at an earlier age through the child is not developing and/or does not reach skills intervention services are cost effective and improve the in accordance with the sequence of predetermined stag- developmental prognosis, resulting in short and long- es ( 2 ). (
  • Currently, there is little awareness al population show developmental disorders ( 3 ) and are about the problem of delayed development and there is classified into different categories (gross motor, fine no strategy to improve development of disadvantaged motor, social skill, speech and mental skill) ( 4 ). (
  • OBJECTIVE: We studied whether variations in single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the TNF, glutathione S transferase P1 (GSTP1) and beta2-adrenoreceptor (ADRB2) genes modify the effect of early maternal smoking on the development of childhood asthma, wheeze and allergic sensitization. (
  • ND cases were diagnosed with pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), specific developmental delay, tic disorder or hyperkinetic syndrome of childhood. (
  • Mohammed H. The effect of a maternal training programme on early childhood develop- ment in Egypt. (
  • Systematic reviews of the scientific literature demon- on caregivers (mothers) with regard to motor, social and strate effectiveness of early childhood development pro- cognitive development of children and to identify those grammes in preventing developmental delay ( 6 ). (
  • [ 12 , 13 ] These programs are state-required multidisciplinary services for children with developmental delays or at risk for delays. (
  • Fatty acid ethyl esters (FAEEs) in meconium are validated biomarkers of heavy fetal alcohol exposure that may potentially be used clinically for identifying children at risk for alcohol-related disabilities. (
  • Green (2019) reported substantial IQ loss in Canadian children from prenatal exposure to fluoride from water fluoridation. (
  • High exposure in children can leave residual cognitive deficits. (
  • Ingestion is the main route of exposure for the general population, particularly children (ATSDR 2005). (
  • A new clinical report co-authored by Janet F. Williams, M.D., FAAP, professor of pediatrics in the School of Medicine at the Health Science Center, identifies prenatal exposure to alcohol as the leading preventable cause of birth defects and intellectual and neurodevelopmental disabilities in children. (
  • Thousands of children are born with the effects of prenatal alcohol exposure. (
  • Cognitive and receptive language development were examined in 135 60-month-old and 137 72-month-old children for whom prenatal exposure to marijuana, cigarettes, and alcohol had been ascertained. (
  • A prenatal origin of the first cytogenetic aberration(s) in t(12;21)-positive, high-hyperdiploid and some other subsets of ALL has been suggested by mathematical modelling of the incidence curve, and demonstrated in twin studies, and by backtracking of clone-specific cytogenetic aberrations or immune gene rearrangements to the Guthrie cards from children with ALL. (
  • Children are especially susceptible to the harmful effects of pesticide residues due to their lower body mass, rapid development, and higher rates of consumption of affected products. (
  • To determine prenatal exposures to PAH and other pollutants, mothers of these children wore special backpacks containing air sampling equipment for 48 hours during their third trimester of pregnancy, capturing both indoor and outdoor air quality. (
  • Studies of children in China who live near coal-burning plants have found that PAH exposure is associated with delayed motor development. (
  • 1966 Lead exposures of epidemic proportions in children near lead smelters. (
  • This study assessed the nearly one in six children had developmental delays ( 5 ). (
  • There was no bivariate association between DAT1 genotype, prenatal smoke exposure and symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. (
  • What are the signs and symptoms of Prenatal Drug Exposure? (
  • In bioassays for ment of nephroblastomas - embryo tentially carcinogenic exposures. (
  • Here we describe the first case of a neonate identified as part of a research study on a pilot neonatal screening program for prenatal alcohol exposure. (
  • Experts in environmental health have taken notice of the harmful effects of fluoride. (
  • It's surprising that the effects [of prenatal exposure] are so persistent," says Kimberly Gray, an epidemiologist at the National Institute of Environmental Health Studies, which helped fund Perera's study. (
  • Concern has been raised about possible unintended consequences (both positive and negative) of folic acid fortification and supplementation, as the pleiotropic effects of the folate pathway are yet to be fully elucidated. (
  • Choline (Ch) supplementation during embryonic days (ED) 12-17 enhances spatial and temporal memory in adult and aged rats, whereas prenatal Ch deficiency impairs attention performance and accelerates age-related declines in temporal processing. (
  • Moreover, prenatal Ch supplementation reduced hippocampal AChE activity as compared to control animals over the same developmental period. (
  • In summary, the deleterious effects of alcohol exposure in relation to nutrient homeostasis further validate that avoidance of alcohol consumption during pregnancy is the most effective way to mitigate the teratogenic effects of alcohol. (
  • Despite longstanding recommendations that women of child-bearing age take folic acid to protect against neural tube defects, especially in the event of unplanned pregnancy, most women who are capable of pregnancy do not take prenatal folic acid supplements (e.g., prenatal vitamins), and less than half of the world's population lives in countries that require folic acid fortification of grain products," Roffman said. (
  • Lead testing also should be considered whenever a young child has persistent anemia, lives in housing built before 1977 (when lead was banned from being used in housing paint), or has developmental delay. (
  • yet fetal alcohol exposure is one of the most common preventable causes of birth defects. (
  • Fetal alcohol exposure is among the most preventable causes of common neurodevelopmental disabilities. (
  • Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (n = 922), tics (n = 551), attention deficit disorder/attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder (ADD/ADHD) (n = 20,260), mental retardation (MR) (n = 915), and specific delays in development (SDD) (n = 24,630) incidence rates were examined using frequency risk ratio (RR) and logistic regression models. (
  • Adult female offspring were evaluated for anxiety-like behavior using an elevated plus-maze and hippocampal-sensitive learning using a 2-trial trace conditioning (TTTC) task.TMT exposure produced a threefold increase in maternal serum corticosterone compared to nonexposed, unhandled controls. (
  • Offspring exposed to prenatal stress displayed significant increases in anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze in terms of open arm entries and time spent on the open arms, with no significant effect of prenatal EtOH exposure and no interaction of the 2 prenatal exposures. (
  • A quantitative human health risk assessment was conducted for inhalation exposure. (
  • Functional neuroteratology of short-term exposure to drugs : correlation between structural or biochemical alterations and functional endpoints / editors, Tomoko Fujii, Gerard J. Boer. (
  • Background: Arsenic exposure and micronutrient deficiencies may alter immune reactivity to influenza vaccination in pregnant women, transplacental transfer of maternal antibodies to the foetus, and maternal and infant acute morbidity. (
  • Objectives: The Pregnancy, Arsenic, and Immune Response (PAIR) Study was designed to assess whether arsenic exposure and micronutrient deficiencies alter maternal and newborn immunity and acute morbidity following maternal seasonal influenza vaccination during pregnancy. (
  • The critical effects of acute duration iodomethane exposure are: (1) fetal losses in rabbits, (2) lesions in rat nasal epithelium, and (3) transient neurotoxicity in rats. (
  • Iodomethane HECs for workers and bystanders were derived using the PBPK model and NOAELs for acute exposure endpoints of concern. (
  • Nasal olfactory degeneration is the primary endpoint for risk assessment of acute exposure to iodomethane. (
  • However, a significant interaction between DAT1 genotype and prenatal smoke exposure emerged (P = .012), indicating that males with prenatal smoke exposure who were homozygous for the DAT1 10r allele had higher hyperactivity-impulsivity than males from all other groups. (
  • These study findings corroborate earlier studies showing the neurotoxic effects of fluoride (see reference list below). (
  • Our findings are consistent with previous analyses and reinforce the reproductive effects of lead for girls. (
  • Functional teratogenesis : functional effects on the offspring after parental drug exposure / editors, Tomoko Fujii, Perrie M. Adams. (
  • The relationship between fluoride exposure and ADHD warrants future study. (
  • In farming communities, there's a strong correlation between Roundup exposure and attention deficit disorder (ADHD), likely due to glyphosate's capacity to disrupt thyroid hormone functions. (
  • Prenatal availability of choline alters the development of acetylcholinesterase in the rat hippocampus. (
  • These results show that prenatal Ch availability has long-term consequences on the development of the hippocampal cholinergic system. (
  • The effects of chemicals, such as opiates, cocaine, nicotine, alcohol, and new recreational drugs, on fetal development have been seriously studied only in the last 30-40 years. (
  • Prenatal exposure to certain pesticides can affect cognitive development and behavior. (
  • Alcohol-induced alteration of the intrauterine environment is the main source of developmental deficits and nutritional insufficiencies can worsen the effects on fetal development. (
  • In this review, we discuss studies examining the collective and interactive effects of nutrition (specifically iron, selenium, vitamin A, thiamine, zinc, folate, vitamin B12, choline, and amino acids) relative to gestational alcohol consumption and its effects on fetal growth and development. (
  • This study aimed to determine the effect of maternal health education on motor, social and cognitive development in infants less than two years old, and to identify the factors that could affect normal development. (
  • Fetal alcohol exposure at any stage of pregnancy can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD), a group of life-long conditions characterized by congenital malformations, as well as cognitive, behavioral, and emotional impairments. (
  • Exposure to high amounts of lead may induce encephalopathy. (
  • A growing body of both epidemiological and experimental evidences has reported the negative effects of incense use on human well-being, posing a potential threat at public significance. (
  • Despite the clinical and social importance of prenatal alcohol use, limited routinely collected information or epidemiological data exists in Canada. (
  • Neurocognitive and behavioral problems from prenatal alcohol exposure are lifelong, but early recognition, diagnosis and therapy for any FASD condition can improve a child's health. (
  • WEDNESDAY, Jan. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) - Toddlers whose mothers used acetaminophen - best known as Tylenol - early in pregnancy may have a heightened risk of language delays, a new study suggests. (
  • Although a number of gestational and early life contributors to this effect have been identified, there is a dearth of research to examine whether gestational factors and weight gain velocity in infancy exert independent effects on subsequent body composition and fat distribution. (
  • There was no effect of prenatal Ch status on either cortical or striatal AChE activity at any age measured, and by PD90 the effect of Ch on hippocampal AChE was no longer observed. (
  • Changes in cell density in Layers IV and V at post-natal Day 8 show that these initial changes have prolonged effects on cortical organization. (
  • Prenatal Injuries" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (
  • [ Chudley: 2005 ] Facial effects and internal organ birth defects result from significant first trimester fetal alcohol exposure and can occur before pregnancy is recognized. (
  • When modern sophisticated equipment is used at maximum operating settings for Doppler examinations, the acoustic outputs are sufficient to produce obvious biological effects, e.g. significant temperature increase in tissue or visible motion of particles due to radiation pressure streaming effects. (
  • Researchers found that when moms-to-be used the painkiller during the first trimester, their daughters were more likely to have language delays at age 2.5 years. (
  • Delayed thinning has been associated with higher intelligence, whereas accelerated thinning has been associated with schizophrenia and autism, the researchers note. (
  • This cohort study examined the relationship between VOC exposure and fetal growth retardation (measured as SGA and decreased MBW) and preterm delivery in three groups with different exposures to contaminated drinking water and in an unexposed comparison population. (
  • 1998. Documentation of the threshold limit values and biological exposure indices. (
  • 20 years later, serious concerns about the human safety and biological effects of DDT led 86 countries to ban its use. (
  • Glyphosate has a number of known biological effects that align with the known pathologies associated with autism. (
  • 0.001) were significantly more likely than male controls to receive increased organic-Hg exposure from Thimerosal-containing hepatitis B vaccines administered within the first six months of life. (
  • With a growing national and global acceptance of marijuana use, research on the effects of cannabis exposure during pregnancy is more urgent now than ever. (
  • Rosa's review of all known maternal antiepileptic cohorts receiving carbamazepine revealed a tenfold increase in spina bifida compared with the general population and an absolute risk of spina bifida of 1% without the confounding effect of valproate. (
  • For 131 days prior to mating, with exposure continued in females on gestation days 1-20 and lactation days 5-20. (
  • Prenatal Ch deficiency increased hippocampal AChE activity as compared to control animals in both males and females from the 2nd to 5th week postnatally. (
  • There are examples of other prenatal exposures, and maternal events, that affect males and females differently,' she said. (
  • The potential benefits, unknown long-term effects, and gaps in knowledge about her specific clinical situation must be discussed with the woman. (
  • If clinical suspicion of cyanide poisoning is high, administer NITHIODOTE without delay. (
  • however, the clinical spectrum of the effects of Zika virus infection during pregnancy is not yet known. (
  • Fetal alcohol syndrome is a clinical diagnosis usually made by a geneticist based on the history of exposure and the presence of specific problems as noted above. (
  • Evaluation of the influence of prenatal transportation stress on GnRH-stimulated luteinizing hormone and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls. (
  • This study examined the relationship of prenatal transportation stress (PNS) with exogenous GnRH-induced LH and testosterone secretion in sexually mature Brahman bulls. (
  • Prenatal exposure to toxicants : developmental consequences / edited by Herbert L. Needleman and David Bellinger. (