The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Organic compounds in which mercury is attached to a methyl group.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A group of Indian Ocean Islands, east of Tanzania. Their capital is Victoria. They were first claimed by the French in 1744 but taken by the English in 1794 and made a dependency of MAURITIUS in 1810. They became a crown colony in 1903 and a republic within the Commonwealth in 1976. They were named for the French finance minister, Jean Moreau de Sechelles, but respelled by the English in 1794. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1102 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p496)
Substances or energies, for example heat or light, which when introduced into the air, water, or land threaten life or health of individuals or ECOSYSTEMS.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Industrial products consisting of a mixture of chlorinated biphenyl congeners and isomers. These compounds are highly lipophilic and tend to accumulate in fat stores of animals. Many of these compounds are considered toxic and potential environmental pollutants.
Compounds which contain the methyl radical substituted with two benzene rings. Permitted are any substituents, but ring fusion to any of the benzene rings is not allowed.
An umbrella term used to describe a pattern of disabilities and abnormalities that result from fetal exposure to ETHANOL during pregnancy. It encompasses a phenotypic range that can vary greatly between individuals, but reliably includes one or more of the following: characteristic facial dysmorphism, FETAL GROWTH RETARDATION, central nervous system abnormalities, cognitive and/or behavioral dysfunction, BIRTH DEFECTS. The level of maternal alcohol consumption does not necessarily correlate directly with disease severity.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A major group of unsaturated cyclic hydrocarbons containing two or more rings. The vast number of compounds of this important group, derived chiefly from petroleum and coal tar, are rather highly reactive and chemically versatile. The name is due to the strong and not unpleasant odor characteristic of most substances of this nature. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed, p96)
A synthetic nonsteroidal estrogen used in the treatment of menopausal and postmenopausal disorders. It was also used formerly as a growth promoter in animals. According to the Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP 85-002, 1985), diethylstilbestrol has been listed as a known carcinogen. (Merck, 11th ed)
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
A republic in the Greater Antilles in the West Indies. Its capital is Santo Domingo. With Haiti, it forms the island of Hispaniola - the Dominican Republic occupying the eastern two thirds, and Haiti, the western third. It was created in 1844 after a revolt against the rule of President Boyer over the entire island of Hispaniola, itself visited by Columbus in 1492 and settled the next year. Except for a brief period of annexation to Spain (1861-65), it has been independent, though closely associated with the United States. Its name comes from the Spanish Santo Domingo, Holy Sunday, with reference to its discovery on a Sunday. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p338, 506 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p151)
The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.
The thick green-to-black mucilaginous material found in the intestines of a full-term fetus. It consists of secretions of the INTESTINAL GLANDS; BILE PIGMENTS; FATTY ACIDS; AMNIOTIC FLUID; and intrauterine debris. It constitutes the first stools passed by a newborn.
An organochlorine pesticide, it is the ethylene metabolite of DDT.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Marine fish and shellfish used as food or suitable for food. (Webster, 3d ed) SHELLFISH and FISH PRODUCTS are more specific types of SEAFOOD.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals.
Benzene derivatives that include one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the ring structure.
Female parents, human or animal.
Exogenous agents, synthetic and naturally occurring, which are capable of disrupting the functions of the ENDOCRINE SYSTEM including the maintenance of HOMEOSTASIS and the regulation of developmental processes. Endocrine disruptors are compounds that can mimic HORMONES, or enhance or block the binding of hormones to their receptors, or otherwise lead to activating or inhibiting the endocrine signaling pathways and hormone metabolism.
An agent that causes the production of physical defects in the developing embryo.
Neurologic disorders associated with exposure to inorganic and organic forms of MERCURY. Acute intoxication may be associated with gastrointestinal disturbances, mental status changes, and PARAPARESIS. Chronic exposure to inorganic mercury usually occurs in industrial workers, and manifests as mental confusion, prominent behavioral changes (including psychosis), DYSKINESIAS, and NEURITIS. Alkyl mercury poisoning may occur through ingestion of contaminated seafood or grain, and its characteristic features include POLYNEUROPATHY; ATAXIA; vision loss; NYSTAGMUS, PATHOLOGIC; and DEAFNESS. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch20, pp10-15)
A group of compounds that has the general structure of a dicarboxylic acid-substituted benzene ring. The ortho-isomer is used in dye manufacture. (Dorland, 28th ed)
An agricultural fungicide and seed treatment agent.
Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)
Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Non-steroidal compounds with estrogenic activity.
Chemicals that, while not possessing inherent pesticidal activity, nonetheless promote or enhance the effectiveness of other pesticides when combined.
An insecticide synergist, especially for pyrethroids and ROTENONE.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Contamination of the air by tobacco smoke.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Chemicals used to destroy pests of any sort. The concept includes fungicides (FUNGICIDES, INDUSTRIAL); INSECTICIDES; RODENTICIDES; etc.
A filament-like structure consisting of a shaft which projects to the surface of the SKIN from a root which is softer than the shaft and lodges in the cavity of a HAIR FOLLICLE. It is found on most surfaces of the body.
A silver metallic element that exists as a liquid at room temperature. It has the atomic symbol Hg (from hydrargyrum, liquid silver), atomic number 80, and atomic weight 200.59. Mercury is used in many industrial applications and its salts have been employed therapeutically as purgatives, antisyphilitics, disinfectants, and astringents. It can be absorbed through the skin and mucous membranes which leads to MERCURY POISONING. Because of its toxicity, the clinical use of mercury and mercurials is diminishing.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Water that is intended to be ingested.
The presence in food of harmful, unpalatable, or otherwise objectionable foreign substances, e.g. chemicals, microorganisms or diluents, before, during, or after processing or storage.
Sulfonic acid derivatives that are substituted with an aliphatic hydrocarbon group.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
A developmental defect in which a TESTIS or both TESTES failed to descend from high in the ABDOMEN to the bottom of the SCROTUM. Testicular descent is essential to normal SPERMATOGENESIS which requires temperature lower than the BODY TEMPERATURE. Cryptorchidism can be subclassified by the location of the maldescended testis.
Hydrocarbon compounds with one or more of the hydrogens replaced by CHLORINE.
A selective triazine herbicide. Inhalation hazard is low and there are no apparent skin manifestations or other toxicity in humans. Acutely poisoned sheep and cattle may show muscular spasms, fasciculations, stiff gait, increased respiratory rates, adrenal degeneration, and congestion of the lungs, liver, and kidneys. (From The Merck Index, 11th ed)
The aglycone of CYCASIN. It acts as a potent carcinogen and neurotoxin and inhibits hepatic DNA, RNA, and protein synthesis.
A glucocorticoid given orally, parenterally, by local injection, by inhalation, or applied topically in the management of various disorders in which corticosteroids are indicated. Its lack of mineralocorticoid properties makes betamethasone particularly suitable for treating cerebral edema and congenital adrenal hyperplasia. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p724)
Agents that mimic neural transmission by stimulation of the nicotinic receptors on postganglionic autonomic neurons. Drugs that indirectly augment ganglionic transmission by increasing the release or slowing the breakdown of acetylcholine or by non-nicotinic effects on postganglionic neurons are not included here nor are the nonspecific cholinergic agonists.
A clear, colorless liquid rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and distributed throughout the body. It has bactericidal activity and is used often as a topical disinfectant. It is widely used as a solvent and preservative in pharmaceutical preparations as well as serving as the primary ingredient in ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES.
Compounds that contain two halogenated benzene rings linked via an OXYGEN atom. Many polybrominated diphenyl ethers are used as FLAME RETARDANTS.
A plasticizer used in most plastics and found in water, air, soil, plants and animals. It may have some adverse effects with long-term exposure.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon used as an industrial solvent and cooling liquid in electrical transformers. It is a potential carcinogen.
Neurologic disorders caused by exposure to toxic substances through ingestion, injection, cutaneous application, or other method. This includes conditions caused by biologic, chemical, and pharmaceutical agents.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.
A soft, grayish metal with poisonous salts; atomic number 82, atomic weight 207.19, symbol Pb. (Dorland, 28th)
Nicotine is highly toxic alkaloid. It is the prototypical agonist at nicotinic cholinergic receptors where it dramatically stimulates neurons and ultimately blocks synaptic transmission. Nicotine is also important medically because of its presence in tobacco smoke.
Structural abnormalities of the central or peripheral nervous system resulting primarily from defects of embryogenesis.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The observable response an animal makes to any situation.
Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, in the FETUS in utero.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
Any observable response or action of a child from 24 months through 12 years of age. For neonates or children younger than 24 months, INFANT BEHAVIOR is available.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a father.
An organothiophosphate cholinesterase inhibitor that is used as an insecticide and as an acaricide.
The ability to learn and to deal with new situations and to deal effectively with tasks involving abstractions.
An alkaloid ester extracted from the leaves of plants including coca. It is a local anesthetic and vasoconstrictor and is clinically used for that purpose, particularly in the eye, ear, nose, and throat. It also has powerful central nervous system effects similar to the amphetamines and is a drug of abuse. Cocaine, like amphetamines, acts by multiple mechanisms on brain catecholaminergic neurons; the mechanism of its reinforcing effects is thought to involve inhibition of dopamine uptake.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
Materials applied to fabrics, bedding, furniture, plastics, etc. to retard their burning; many may leach out and cause allergies or other harm.
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.
A very loosely defined group of drugs that tend to reduce the activity of the central nervous system. The major groups included here are ethyl alcohol, anesthetics, hypnotics and sedatives, narcotics, and tranquilizing agents (antipsychotics and antianxiety agents).
Fetal and neonatal addiction and withdrawal as a result of the mother's dependence on drugs during pregnancy. Withdrawal or abstinence symptoms develop shortly after birth. Symptoms exhibited are loud, high-pitched crying, sweating, yawning and gastrointestinal disturbances.
A group of mental disorders associated with organic brain damage and caused by poisoning from alcohol.
Carbon-containing phosphoric acid derivatives. Included under this heading are compounds that have CARBON atoms bound to one or more OXYGEN atoms of the P(=O)(O)3 structure. Note that several specific classes of endogenous phosphorus-containing compounds such as NUCLEOTIDES; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and PHOSPHOPROTEINS are listed elsewhere.
Chemical compounds which pollute the water of rivers, streams, lakes, the sea, reservoirs, or other bodies of water.
The entire nerve apparatus, composed of a central part, the brain and spinal cord, and a peripheral part, the cranial and spinal nerves, autonomic ganglia, and plexuses. (Stedman, 26th ed)
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Chlorinated hydrocarbons containing heteroatoms that are present as contaminants of herbicides. Dioxins are carcinogenic, teratogenic, and mutagenic. They have been banned from use by the FDA.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Derivatives of caprylic acid. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain a carboxy terminated eight carbon aliphatic structure.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A central nervous system stimulant and sympathomimetic with actions and uses similar to DEXTROAMPHETAMINE. The smokable form is a drug of abuse and is referred to as crank, crystal, crystal meth, ice, and speed.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
Male parents, human or animal.
The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.
The monitoring of the level of toxins, chemical pollutants, microbial contaminants, or other harmful substances in the environment (soil, air, and water), workplace, or in the bodies of people and animals present in that environment.
The measurement of an organ in volume, mass, or heaviness.
A polychlorinated pesticide that is resistant to destruction by light and oxidation. Its unusual stability has resulted in difficulties in residue removal from water, soil, and foodstuffs. This substance may reasonably be anticipated to be a carcinogen: Fourth Annual Report on Carcinogens (NTP-85-002, 1985). (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
Standardized tests that measure the present general ability or aptitude for intellectual performance.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Damages to the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN or the FETUS before BIRTH. Damages can be caused by any factors including biological, chemical, or physical.
Pesticides designed to control insects that are harmful to man. The insects may be directly harmful, as those acting as disease vectors, or indirectly harmful, as destroyers of crops, food products, or textile fabrics.
Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Particles of any solid substance, generally under 30 microns in size, often noted as PM30. There is special concern with PM1 which can get down to PULMONARY ALVEOLI and induce MACROPHAGE ACTIVATION and PHAGOCYTOSIS leading to FOREIGN BODY REACTION and LUNG DISEASES.
Metals with high specific gravity, typically larger than 5. They have complex spectra, form colored salts and double salts, have a low electrode potential, are mainly amphoteric, yield weak bases and weak acids, and are oxidizing or reducing agents (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The upper part of the human body, or the front or upper part of the body of an animal, typically separated from the rest of the body by a neck, and containing the brain, mouth, and sense organs.
Liquid perfluorinated carbon compounds which may or may not contain a hetero atom such as nitrogen, oxygen or sulfur, but do not contain another halogen or hydrogen atom. This concept includes fluorocarbon emulsions and fluorocarbon blood substitutes.
Lengthy and continuous deprivation of food. (Stedman, 25th ed)
An ester of phthalic acid. It appears as a light-colored, odorless liquid and is used as a plasticizer for many resins and elastomers.
Compounds that specifically inhibit the reuptake of serotonin in the brain.
Intellectual or mental process whereby an organism obtains knowledge.
The physical activity of a human or an animal as a behavioral phenomenon.
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The male reproductive organs. They are divided into the external organs (PENIS; SCROTUM;and URETHRA) and the internal organs (TESTIS; EPIDIDYMIS; VAS DEFERENS; SEMINAL VESICLES; EJACULATORY DUCTS; PROSTATE; and BULBOURETHRAL GLANDS).
Tests designed to assess neurological function associated with certain behaviors. They are used in diagnosing brain dysfunction or damage and central nervous system disorders or injury.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
A behavior disorder originating in childhood in which the essential features are signs of developmentally inappropriate inattention, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Although most individuals have symptoms of both inattention and hyperactivity-impulsivity, one or the other pattern may be predominant. The disorder is more frequent in males than females. Onset is in childhood. Symptoms often attenuate during late adolescence although a minority experience the full complement of symptoms into mid-adulthood. (From DSM-V)
Achievement of full sexual capacity in animals and in humans.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
A severe emotional disorder of psychotic depth characteristically marked by a retreat from reality with delusion formation, HALLUCINATIONS, emotional disharmony, and regressive behavior.
A group of CORTICOSTEROIDS that affect carbohydrate metabolism (GLUCONEOGENESIS, liver glycogen deposition, elevation of BLOOD SUGAR), inhibit ADRENOCORTICOTROPIC HORMONE secretion, and possess pronounced anti-inflammatory activity. They also play a role in fat and protein metabolism, maintenance of arterial blood pressure, alteration of the connective tissue response to injury, reduction in the number of circulating lymphocytes, and functioning of the central nervous system.
The exposure to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents by inhaling them.
The tendency to explore or investigate a novel environment. It is considered a motivation not clearly distinguishable from curiosity.
Learning the correct route through a maze to obtain reinforcement. It is used for human or animal populations. (Thesaurus of Psychological Index Terms, 6th ed)
A loosely defined group of drugs that tend to increase behavioral alertness, agitation, or excitation. They work by a variety of mechanisms, but usually not by direct excitation of neurons. The many drugs that have such actions as side effects to their main therapeutic use are not included here.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Disorders related or resulting from use of cocaine.
A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
An educational process that provides information and advice to individuals or families about a genetic condition that may affect them. The purpose is to help individuals make informed decisions about marriage, reproduction, and other health management issues based on information about the genetic disease, the available diagnostic tests, and management programs. Psychosocial support is usually offered.
The distance from the sole to the crown of the head with body standing on a flat surface and fully extended.
A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.
Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.
Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.
A potent mutagen and carcinogen. It is a public health concern because of its possible effects on industrial workers, as an environmental pollutant, an as a component of tobacco smoke.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Disturbances considered to be pathological based on age and stage appropriateness, e.g., conduct disturbances and anaclitic depression. This concept does not include psychoneuroses, psychoses, or personality disorders with fixed patterns.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.
Parliamentary democracy located between France on the northeast and Portugual on the west and bordered by the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean Sea.
Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
An anti-inflammatory 9-fluoro-glucocorticoid.
Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.
Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.
The main glucocorticoid secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX. Its synthetic counterpart is used, either as an injection or topically, in the treatment of inflammation, allergy, collagen diseases, asthma, adrenocortical deficiency, shock, and some neoplastic conditions.
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A response to a cue that is instrumental in avoiding a noxious experience.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.
Naturally occurring or experimentally induced animal diseases with pathological processes sufficiently similar to those of human diseases. They are used as study models for human diseases.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Feeling or emotion of dread, apprehension, and impending disaster but not disabling as with ANXIETY DISORDERS.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The number of CELLS of a specific kind, usually measured per unit volume or area of sample.

The role of domestic factors and day-care attendance on lung function of primary school children. (1/4202)

The results of studies examining the relationship of domestic factors to lung function are contradictory. We therefore examined the independent effects of maternal smoking during pregnancy, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS), the presence of a cat, type of heating and cooking used in the home and day-care attendance on lung function after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES). Nine hundred and eighty-nine children from 18 Montreal schools were studied between April 1990 and November 1992. Information on the child's health and exposure to domestic factors was collected by questionnaire. Spirometry was performed at school. The data were analysed by multiple linear regression with percent predicted FEV1, FVC, and FEV1/FVC as dependent variables. In the overall sample (both sexes combined), cat in the home (regression coefficient, beta = -1.15, 95% confidence interval, CI: -2.26-(-)0.05) and electric baseboard units (beta = -1.26, 95% CI: -2.39-(-)0.13) were independently associated with a lower FEV1/FVC, while day-care attendance (beta = -2.05, 95% CI: -3.71-(-)0.40) significantly reduced FEV1. Household ETS was significantly associated with increasing level of FVC (beta = 2.86, 95% CI: +0.55 to +5.17). In boys but not girls, household ETS (beta = -2.13, 95% CI: -4.07-(-)0.19) and the presence of a cat (beta = -2.19, 95% CI: -3.94-(-)0.45) were associated with lower FEV1/FVC. By contrast, day-care attendance was associated with lower FEV1 (beta = -2.92, 95% CI: -5.27-(-)0.56) and FEV1/FVC (beta = -1.53, 95% CI: -2.73-(-)0.33) in girls only. In conclusion, the results provide evidence that domestic factors and day-care attendance primarily affected airway caliber and gender differences were apparent in the effects of these factors.  (+info)

Metabolites of a tobacco-specific carcinogen in urine from newborns. (2/4202)

BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking during pregnancy can result in fetal exposure to carcinogens that are transferred from the mother via the placenta, but little information is available on fetal uptake of such compounds. We analyzed samples of the first urine from newborns whose mothers did or did not smoke cigarettes for the presence of metabolites of the potent tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK). METHODS: The urine was collected and analyzed for two metabolites of NNK, 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol (NNAL) and its glucuronide (NNAL-Gluc). Gas chromatography and nitrosamine-selective detection, with confirmation by mass spectrometry, were used in the analyses, which were performed without knowledge of the origin of the urine samples. RESULTS: NNAL-Gluc was detected in 22 (71%) of 31 urine samples from newborns of mothers who smoked; NNAL was detected in four of these 31 urine samples. Neither compound was detected in the 17 urine samples from newborns of mothers who did not smoke. The arithmetic mean level of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the 27 newborns of smokers for which both analytes were quantified was 0.14 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.083-0.200) pmol/mL. The levels of NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc in the urine from these babies were statistically significantly higher than those in the urine from newborns of nonsmoking mothers (geometric means = 0.062 [95% CI = 0.035-0.110] and 0.010 [considered as not detected; no confidence interval], respectively; two-sided P<.001). NNAL plus NNAL-Gluc levels in the 18 positive urine samples in which both analytes were quantified ranged from 0.045 to 0.400 pmol/mL, with an arithmetic mean level of 0.20 (95% CI = 0.14-0.26) pmol/mL, about 5%-10% of the levels of these compounds detected in the urine from adult smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Two metabolites of the tobacco-specific transplacental carcinogen NNK can be detected in the urine from newborns of mothers who smoked cigarettes during pregnancy.  (+info)

Effects of maternal acetazolamide treatment on body weights and incisor development of the fetal rat. (3/4202)

The incisor development of fetal rats on gestation day 19 was well correlated with their fetal weights. The number of odontoblasts in the mandibular incisors, an index of incisor development, increased more than that of the maxillary incisors with increase in fetal body weights. Maternal acetazolamide treatments were observed to suppress the mean fetal weight and to retard incisor development. A smaller incisor size, a thinner predentin layer, and fewer odontoblasts were characteristic of the acetazolamide group. There was also a good correlation between the fetal weights and the number of odontoblasts in the acetazolamide group. From these results, we postulated that the retarded incisor development of the fetal rats caused by the maternal acetazolamide treatment was related to their suppressed fetal weights. However, the regression coefficient of the fetal weights and the number of odontoblasts in the acetazolamide group was smaller than that of the vehicle control group. It may indicate that retarded incisor development in response to maternal acetazolamide treatment is to some extent independent of suppressed fetal weight.  (+info)

Mediators of ethnic-associated differences in infant birth weight. (4/4202)

PURPOSE: To examine whether ethnic differences in low birth weight babies of low-income women may be explained in part by group differences in prenatal health behaviors and psychosocial factors. METHODS: A prospective, survey of 1,071 low-income, primiparous African-American and Mexican-origin women was conducted in Los Angeles County, California. In face-to-face interviews, data were obtained on substance use, prenatal stress, social support, attitudes toward pregnancy, initiation of prenatal care, and medical risk. Medical chart data were abstracted regarding medical risk factors and labor, delivery, and neonatal data. Interview data were linked with birth outcome data retrieved from maternal medical records. Structural equation modeling was used to test a hypothesized model in which differences in birth weight were expected to be mediated by ethnic differences in substance use, psychosocial factors, and medical risk. RESULTS: As expected, African-American women delivered babies of earlier gestational age and lower birth weight than did women of Mexican origin. Direct predictors of low birth weight were use of drugs and cigarettes, prenatal stress, and positive attitudes toward pregnancy; together, these factors accounted for the observed ethnic differences in birth weight. CONCLUSION: These data contribute to our understanding of the factors that may account for ethnic-associated differences in low birth weight.  (+info)

Atypical handedness in schizophrenia: some methodological and theoretical issues. (5/4202)

An updated review of the literature strongly supports the view that in schizophrenia there is an atypical leftward shift in the handedness distribution that, while comprising different subtypes, is characterized by a more variable and less completely lateralized pattern of manual preference, referred to as mixed handedness (MH) or ambiguous handedness (AH). Only two studies revealed an increased prevalence of left-handedness suggestive of pathological left-handedness (PLH). This article also examines the current status of neurodevelopmental factors and mechanisms in schizophrenia that purport to explain these pathological shifts in handedness (PLH, MH, AH). Different theoretical positions were evaluated, each involving some aspect of left hemisphere insult (unilateral or bilateral). Finally, it was shown that these shifts predict certain key symptoms and neural substrates in schizophrenia including thought disorder, negative symptoms, neuropsychological impairment, family history, and brain anatomy. These subtypes may represent neurodevelopmental markers of insult during intrauterine life that are nongenetic in origin.  (+info)

Twins and maternal smoking: ordeals for the fetal origins hypothesis? A cohort study. (6/4202)

OBJECTIVE: To assess the direct and indirect effects of being a twin, maternal smoking, birth weight, and mother's height on blood pressure at ages 9 and 18 years. DESIGN: Longitudinal study. SUBJECTS: Cohort born in 1972-3. SETTING: Dunedin, New Zealand. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Blood pressure at ages 9 and 18 years. RESULTS: Compared with singletons, twins had a systolic blood pressure 4.55 (95% confidence interval 1.57 to 7.52) mm Hg lower at age 9 after adjustment for direct and indirect effects of sex, maternal smoking, mother's height, socioeconomic status, and birth weight, as well as concurrent height and body mass index. Blood pressure in children whose mothers had smoked during pregnancy was 1.54 (0.46 to 2.62) mm Hg higher than in those whose mothers did not. The total effect of birth weight on systolic blood pressure at age 9 was -0.78 (-1.76 to 0.20) mm Hg and that for mother's height was 0.10 (0.06 to 0.14) mm Hg. Similar results were obtained for systolic blood pressure at age 18. The total effect of twins, maternal smoking, and birth weight on diastolic blood pressure was not significant at either age. CONCLUSIONS: Twins had lower birth weight and lower systolic blood pressure at ages 9 and 18 than singletons. This finding challenges the fetal origins hypothesis. The effect of maternal smoking was consistent with the fetal origin hypothesis in that the infants of smokers were smaller and had higher blood pressure at both ages. This may be explained by pharmacological rather than nutritional effects. The total effect of birth weight on systolic blood pressure, after its indirect effect working through concurrent measures of height and body mass index was taken into account, was small.  (+info)

Tobacco smoke exposure at one month of age and subsequent risk of SIDS--a prospective study. (7/4202)

The aim of this investigation was to identify the sources of postnatal exposure to tobacco smoke at 1 month of age and to examine their relation to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). The Tasmanian Infant Health Survey was a prospective cohort study undertaken from 1988 to 1995. It involved 9,826 infants (89% of eligible infants) at higher risk of SIDS. Subsequently 53 eligible infants died of SIDS. Hospital interviews were available on 51 and home interviews on 35 SIDS infants. Urinary cotinine assays were conducted using gas-liquid chromatography (n = 100). Within a predictive model that explained 63% of urinary cotinine variance, the strongest predictor of cotinine and also of SIDS was maternal smoking, though the effects of prenatal and postnatal smoking could not be separated. However, for particular smoking-related behaviors, there was a discordance between prediction of cotinine concentration and prediction of risk of SIDS. If smoking mothers did not smoke in the room with the baby, the cotinine level in the infant's urine was reduced by a little more than a half (p = 0.009), but this was not associated with a reduction in SIDS risk (odds ratio = 1.09, 95% confidence interval 0.47-2.55). Similarly, the presence of other adult resident smokers was associated with a 63% increase in urinary cotinine (p = 0.047) but not with increased SIDS risk (odds ratio = 0.69, 95% confidence interval 0.34-1.40). However, the study lacked the power to detect modest effects, that is, those altering risk less than twofold.  (+info)

Health effects of passive smoking. 9. Parental smoking and spirometric indices in children. (8/4202)

BACKGROUND: A systematic quantitative review was conducted of the evidence relating parental smoking to spirometric indices in children. METHODS: An electronic search of the Embase and Medline databases was completed in April 1997 and identified 692 articles from which we included four studies in neonates, 42 cross-sectional studies in school aged children (22 were included in a meta-analysis), and six longitudinal studies of lung function development. RESULTS: In a pooled analyses of 21 surveys of school aged children the percentage reduction in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) in children exposed to parental smoking compared with those not exposed was 1.4% (95% CI 1.0 to 1.9). Effects were greater on mid expiratory flow rates (5.0% reduction, 95% CI 3.3 to 6.6) and end expiratory flow rates (4.3% reduction, 95% CI 3.1 to 5.5). Adjustment for potential confounding variables had little effect on the estimates. A number of studies reported clear evidence of exposure response. Where exposure was explicitly identified it was usually maternal smoking. Two studies in neonates have reported effects of prenatal exposure to maternal smoking. Of five cross sectional studies that compared effects of perinatal exposure (retrospectively assessed) with current exposure to maternal smoking in later childhood, the three largest concluded that the major effect was in utero or neonatal exposure. Longitudinal studies suggest a small effect of current exposure on growth in lung function, but with some heterogeneity between studies. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking is associated with small but statistically significant deficits in FEV1 and other spirometric indices in school aged children. This is almost certainly a causal relationship. Much of the effect may be due to maternal smoking during pregnancy.  (+info)

A high rate of co-occurring mental health disorders have been documented in children with prenatal alcohol exposure. Investigators have demonstrated that alcohols impact on the developing fetal brain, combined with environmental factors, is the source of this problem. However, more recent research has begun to focus on factors embedded in the child welfare system, preventable factors that can be an important determinant for risk of mental health problems in children. State Child Protective Services departments can develop policies that reduce mental health morbidity for children in the systems care who have been prenatally exposed to alcohol or illicit drugs.
Obesity is an escalating health problem worldwide, and hence the causes underlying its development are of primary importance to public health. There is growing evidence that suboptimal intrauterine environment can perturb the metabolic programing of the growing fetus, thereby increasing the risk of developing obesity in later life. However, the link between early exposures in the womb, genetic susceptibility, and perturbed epigenome on metabolic health is not well understood. In this study, we shed more light on this aspect by performing a comprehensive analysis on the effects of variation in prenatal environment, neonatal methylome, and genotype on birth weight and adiposity in early childhood. In a prospective mother-offspring cohort (N = 987), we interrogated the effects of 30 variables that influence the prenatal environment, umbilical cord DNA methylation, and genotype on offspring weight and adiposity, over the period from birth to 48 months. This is an interim analysis on an ongoing cohort study.
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
The Maternal Lifestyle Study (MLS) was the largest of the NIH longitudinal studies of children with prenatal cocaine exposure (PCE). MLS was a longitudinal multi-site observational study of the long-term effects of in-utero exposure to cocaine on child development. MLS was conducted at four geographically diverse, collaborating university centers (Wayne State University, University of Tennessee at Memphis, University of Miami, and Brown University). Participants were identified during the newborn period while in the hospital. The MLS began enrollment of a longitudinal birth cohort of 1,388 infant/mother dyads in 1993. Subjects in the follow-up were seen from 1 month of age through 16 years of age. The overall purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of drug use during pregnancy on acute neonatal events and long-term physical health, social, behavioral and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The study included five phases of data collection. The first phase examined acute effects of maternal ...
Background: Antidepressant use during pregnancy and the peripartum period is common despite the absence of clear evidence-based guidelines to direct clinical use of these compounds. Method: We compared obstetrical and neonatal outcomes as recorded in medical records among 84 pregnant women with major depressive or anxiety disorders (DSM-IV criteria) who took antidepressants during pregnancy (cases) versus a 2:1 age- and parity-matched control group of 168 unexposed women. Women in the case group had sought psychiatric consultation regarding the use of medication from the Perinatal and Reproductive Psychiatry Program at the Massachusetts General Hospital between 1996 and 2000. Results: There were no significant differences among cases versus controls and their offspring, with respect to various neonatal and obstetrical outcomes, including gestational age and weight, although 1-minute Apgar scores were slightly lower in exposed infants. Admissions to the special care nursery were more frequent, ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - A review of maternal prenatal exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors-implications for research on perinatal outcomes in the ECHO program. AU - on behalf of program collaborators for Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes. AU - Padula, Amy M.. AU - Monk, Catherine. AU - Brennan, Patricia A.. AU - Borders, Ann. AU - Barrett, Emily S.. AU - McEvoy, Cindy T.. AU - Foss, Sophie. AU - Desai, Preeya. AU - Alshawabkeh, Akram. AU - Wurth, Renee. AU - Salafia, Carolyn. AU - Fichorova, Raina. AU - Varshavsky, Julia. AU - Kress, Amii. AU - Woodruff, Tracey J.. AU - Morello-Frosch, Rachel. PY - 2020/1/1. Y1 - 2020/1/1. N2 - Exposures to environmental chemicals and psychosocial stressors during pregnancy have been individually associated with adverse perinatal outcomes related to birthweight and gestational age, but are not often considered in combination. We review types of psychosocial stressors and instruments used to assess them and classes of ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Influence of gestational age at exposure on the prenatal effects of γ-radiation. AU - Uma Devi, P.. AU - Baskar, R.. PY - 1996/8/16. Y1 - 1996/8/16. N2 - The abdominal region of pregnant Swiss albino mice was exposed to single dose of 0.5 Gy γ-radiation at gestation days from 1.5 to 17.5 days post-coitus (p.c.). The animals were sacrificed on day 18 p.c. and foetuses were examined for resorption and embryonic death, foetal death, growth retardation, small head, low brain weight, microphthalmia and any other gross morphological abnormalities. The period of maximum sensitivity for each effect varied. The only demonstrable effect of irradiation during the preimplantation period was an increase in prenatal mortality. Resorptions were maximal after exposure between days 2 and 4 p.c. The pre-implantation irradiated embryos which survived did not show any major foetal abnormalities. These results confirm earlier mouse studies using higher doses of X-rays. Small head, low brain weight ...
AMHERST, Mass. - Some studies indicate that early life exposure to pollutants such as PCBs and phthalates can predispose people to disease. Now environmental scientist Alicia Timme-Laragy at the University of Massachusetts Amherst has received a five-year, $1.7 million grant from the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences for a multi-level study of early life exposure to environmental contaminants and aberrant pancreas development, which may predispose one to diabetes.. Disease may result from environmental contaminant exposure in early life via oxidative stress, disrupted signaling pathways controlling embryo growth, or via subtle structural or functional changes to insulin-producing pancreatic beta cells, she notes. Results of this work will be relevant to public health officials concerned about such exposures as well as molecular biologists studying signaling pathways to gain a mechanistic understanding of disease processes very early in life.. The researchers will study toxic ...
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Previous research has provided inconclusive evidence regarding the neuropsychological difficulties of children born to mothers partaking in opioid or poly-drug use during pregnancy. Little is known about how these children fare as they get older. The present longitudinal study includes follow-up data on 45 children born to mothers who used heroin and poly-drugs and a group of 48 children without prenatal drug exposure. Most of the drug-exposed youths were placed in permanent foster or adoptive homes before one year of age. The youths (ages 17 to 21) were administered 10 neuropsychological tests. The drug-exposed youths had cognitive and fine motor functions within the normal range compared to population norms but performed significantly worse than the non-exposed group. There were indications of generally lower cognitive functions rather than specific problems with executive functioning. Lower mean birthweight in the risk group (619 grams mean difference, p < .001) only partially mediated the ...
Review a bibliography of major literature in the field of perinatal and family services on issues related to prenatal exposure and the effects on children.
Semantic Scholar extracted view of Effects of prenatal exposure to 2,4-D/2,4,5-T mixture on postnatal changes in rat brain glutamate, GABA, protein, and nucleic acid levels. by Fouad Kasim Mohammad et al.
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
RISK AND REALITY: THE IMPLICATIONS OF PRENATAL EXPOSURE TO ALCOHOL AND OTHER DRUGS By Joanne P. Brady, Marc Posner, Cynthia Lang and Michael J. Rosati The Education Development Center, Inc. 1994.
Risk of childhood asthma following prenatal exposure to negative life events and job stressors: A nationwide register-based study in Denmark ...
Bioethicists question medical practices surrounding a widely prescribed prenatal drug treatment to fix sex-organ deformities in babies with a congenital disorder
This is the first follow up study carried out in a developing country to assess the interactions between infections, predisposing factors, and environmental variables in the onset of wheezing. We have found that children were more likely to experience wheezing at the age of 4 if they had a prenatal exposure to malaria, low levels of total IgE at birth, and maternal asthma, and also clinical episodes of LRTI during infancy. However, a diagnostic bias may explain the association between LRTI and wheezing. Neither a history of clinical malaria nor the incidence of malaria was associated with wheezing. Among the environmental factors, only the number of people in the home was moderately associated with wheezing. Finally, indoor allergens were not associated with wheezing, although measurement error in dust collection could explain the lack of association.. Bacterial and possible viral infection during early life has been considered as a promoter or suppressor of asthma onset via the immune ...
Amaç: Prenatal ultrasonografi izlemlerinin yaygınlaşması ile intrauterin dönemde saptanan over kisti sayısı giderek artmaktadır. Prenatal saptanan over kistlerinin prenatal ve postnatal tedavisi ile ilgili deneyimlerimizi sunmak istiyoruz. Gereç ve Yöntem: 2002-2009 yılları arasında prenatal USde over kisti saptanan 12 hastanın kayıtları geriye dönük olarak incelendi. Kistlerin komplike olup olmadığı, prenatal ve postnatal boyutları, postnatal semptomları ve US izlemleri değerlendirildi. Bulgular: Serimizde 2 hastada basit over kisti, 9 hastada komplike over kisti ve 1 hastada bir tarafta basit over kisti, kontralateral tarafta komplike over kisti saptandı. Basit over kistlerin ortalama boyutu 3,3 ± 2,5 cm (1,0 - 6,0 cm) ve komplike over kistlerinin ortalama boyutu 4,5 ± 0,8 cm (3,2 - 5,5 cm) olarak ölçüldü. Basit over kistlerinden prenatal dönemde çapı 1 ve 3 cm ölçülen iki hastanın kisti doğum sonrası sırası ile 4 ve 6 hafta takip sonrası regrese ...
An epidemic in our country has spiraled out of control. According to the Arizona Task Force on Preventing Prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs, each year, an estimated 400,000 -440,000 infants (10-11% of all births) are affected by prenatal alcohol or illicit drug exposure ( Prenatal exposure to alcohol, tobacco, and illicit drugs has the potential to cause a full spectrum of physical, emotional, and developmental problems for these infants. The harm caused to the child can be significant and long-lasting, especially if the exposure is not detected and the effects are not treated as soon as possible. ...
It is known that the development and plasticity of the neuroendocrine system can be affected by many factors, and that adverse events during the prenatal period can result in long-lasting changes in adulthood. This study was aimed at evaluating the p
What do you do if you find out youre pregnant and could have a girl born with what looks like a small penis? For two decades, expectant mothers in thi ...
Sigma-Aldrich offers abstracts and full-text articles by [Huai-Cai Zeng, Qing-Zhi He, Yuan-Yuan Li, Cheng-Qiu Wu, Yi-Mou Wu, Shun-Qing Xu].
The history of advances in the understanding of the toxic effects of lead over the past 20 years is an outstanding example of how knowledge learned from research can impact public health. Measures that have had the greatest impact on reducing exposur
These studies explore how genetics, prenatal environments, delivery modes and early postnatal environments including feeding method affect the infant microbiome and lifelong health.
Biology of Reproduction contains original scientific research on a broad range of topics in the field of reproductive biology, as well as minireviews.
Ageing arises with the exhaustion of SC pools, with respect to both the amount of SCs and, importantly, SC functionality (Rossi et al, 2008). Hence, one explanation for the prenatal effect on ageing could be that the stress to which the embryos are exposed limits SC function, thereby also limiting the regenerative capacity of the tissues of the offspring. In this manner, the path to ageing would be shortened ab initio. The stress could directly affect the SCs, SC niches or both. In the particular case of replicative damage, it is probable that the niches would be the affected target, rather than the SCs, owing to the low cycling activity of SCs-a feature which is frequently used as a characteristic to identify them in vivo (Fuchs, 2009). Accordingly, the bone marrow of Seckel animals can reconstitute the haematopoietic pool of irradiated wild‐type animals to a large extent, whereas the opposite is not true. This means that there is an inherent dysfunction of the Seckel haematopoietic SC niche, ...
Brain-age: Impact of Prenatal Stress on brain ageing. Fetal programming, undernutrition and stress. Our project will determine structural and functional indicators of brain age.
Brain-age: Impact of Prenatal Stress on brain ageing. Fetal programming, undernutrition and stress. Our project will determine structural and functional indicators of brain age.
Prenatal development of mammals can be divided into ovum, embryonic, and fetal phases. The fetal phase represents over 80% of the prenatal period, and extends from the embryonic phase until birth. The fetal period begins when the specific species becomes identifiable. At the onset of the fetal phase, organs and systems are identifiable, but varying extents of tissue differentiation and development occur during the fetal period. The majority of the prenatal increase in body size and maturation of tissues and organs characterizes the fetal phase.. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...
In the modern womens changing world, often an association is made between alcohol and fetus - to be exact, the use of alcohol during pregnancy and prenatal
Prenatal Formulas list and information including what is Prenatal Formulas, health benefits and usage indications. Find articles and product list for other top low-carb products, fat-burners, nutrition bars and shakes.
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Prenatal ages and stages-measures and errors.: The continuing confusion concerning prenatal age is shown to be unnecessary once the ambiguous and superfluous te
If youre pregnant or considering getting pregnant, prenatal care should be at the top of your to do list. Learn more about prenatal testing.
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Prenatal development is both complicated and fast paced. In only 40 weeks, a single fertilized egg matures into a baby. We explore: when does life begin?
People differ in the size and composition of their chromosomes, which can affect the test results Prenatal blood screening for extra or missing chromosomes in
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Prenatal Testing and Procedures You Need to Know About- for those of us that are not doctors. Yeah, we dont have a medical degree, English please.
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Budding Ideas is an afternoon showcase of the exciting research ideas to come from a cross section of early and mid career researchers. The May program featured the five researchers listed below, with links to their Budding Ideas talks. ...
This document contains useful information for those taking this medication. It is not intended, in any way, to replace the advice of a trained health professional. For more information, consult the manufacturers literature, where you will find additional information about uncommon side effects as well as contraindications associated with this product.. ...
TY - CHAP. T1 - Influence of prenatal nicotine exposure on development of neurotransmission in central respiratory neurons. AU - Fregosi, Ralph F.. PY - 2008/1/1. Y1 - 2008/1/1. N2 - This chapter considers the influence of prenatal nicotine exposure on the development of neurotransmission in central respiratory neurons. Neonatal mammals that are nicotine exposed in utero show abnormalities in central ventilatory control, such as reduced ventilatory output (1,2), altered breathing pattern (2-4), increased apnea frequency (2,4) and duration (5), delayed arousal in response to hypoxia (6,7), decreased sensitivity to hypoxia (1,4,5,8-11), and diminished capacity for autoresuscitation following severe hypoxic exposure (12,13). Although these findings provide substantial evidence that development of central ventilatory control is altered by prenatal nicotine exposure, the mechanism of nicotines action on respiratory-related neurons has not been identified. Identifying these mechanisms is important ...
Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure on Central Nervous System DevelopmentPrenatal exposure to alcohol (ethanol) results in a continuum of physical, neurological, behavioral, and learning defects collectively grouped under the heading Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD).
Choline is a crucial nutrient that contributes to several biological functions and serves as a precursor molecule to the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. Choline is integral to the development and function of the central nervous system, and its availability during the prenatal period has lasting and protective effects on neural function. Researchers have found that prenatal choline supplementation in the rat enhances learning and memory processes later in life, especially those involving spatial memory. Researchers have also demonstrated that choline protects against a number of physical stressors to the neural environment, such as prenatal alcohol exposure, induced seizures, and chronic stress-induced exposure to corticosteroids. Compared to the study of these types of physical stressors, relatively little research has examined the influence of prenatal choline exposure on psychological stress later in life. In an attempt to contribute to this field, the present study examined the effects of prenatal
Maternal Immune Activation Leads to Activated Inflammatory Macrophages in Offspring. Several epidemiological studies have shown an association between infection or inflammation during pregnancy and increased risk of autism in the child. In addition, animal models have illustrated that maternal inflammation during gestation can cause autism-relevant behaviors in the offspring; so called maternal immune activation…
The foregoing section provides a foundation from which to speculate on the possible role of estrogen and testosterone in both schizophrenia and autism. The authors current paper describes the increased susceptibility to acute infection by T. gondii caused by estrogen. Some human studies suggest that latent toxoplasmosis results from high prenatal testosterone rather than estrogen due to finding low second to fourth finger digit ratios in T. gondii infected subjects . Second to fourth finger digit ratios, or so-called 2D:4D ratios, are proposed markers of prenatal androgen exposure.. Low 2D:4D ratios reflect higher prenatal testosterone exposure and high ratios indicate low testosterone compared to estrogen exposure. Low ratios or high prenatal testosterone are often associated with autism and high ratios or relatively higher prenatal estrogen with schizophrenia. Recent research has cast doubt on the reliability of digit ratio to predict individual prenatal androgen exposure although a modest ...
Schizophrenia patients typically exhibit cognitive impairments that directly affect their daily functioning, but are not effectively treated by current antipsychotics. Maternal immune activation (MIA) during pregnancy, which can be triggered by a variety of infectious agents, has been associated with the development of schizophrenia in adult offspring. Epidemiological evidence indicates that elevated maternal levels of the chemokine interleukin- 8 (IL-8) during MIA contribute to the neurodevelopmental alterations underlying the disorder. The present experiments used an animal model of neurodevelopmental disorders to study the effects of MIA and chemokine receptor antagonism on the behavior of rat offspring, with behavioral tests chosen to examine cognitive functions that are typically impaired in human schizophrenia patients. The viral mimetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid (polyI:C) (4.0 mg/kg, i.v.) was injected into pregnant Long-Evans (LE) dams on gestational day (GD) 15. Dams were also ...
University of North Carolina researchers studied the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure on newborn brains. See what they found.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Prenatal exposure to fever is associated with autism spectrum disorder in the boston birth cohort. AU - Brucato, Martha. AU - Ladd-Acosta, Christine Marie. AU - Li, Mengying. AU - Caruso, Deanna. AU - Hong, Xiumei. AU - Kaczaniuk, Jamie. AU - Stuart, Elizabeth. AU - Fallin, Daniele Daniele. AU - Wang, Xiaobin. PY - 2017/11/1. Y1 - 2017/11/1. N2 - Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is phenotypically and etiologically heterogeneous, with evidence for genetic and environmental contributions to disease risk. Research has focused on the prenatal period as a time where environmental exposures are likely to influence risk for ASD. Epidemiological studies have shown significant associations between prenatal exposure to maternal immune activation (MIA), caused by infections and fever, and ASD. However, due to differences in study design and exposure measurements no consistent patterns have emerged revealing specific times or type of MIA exposure that are most important to ASD risk. No prior ...
Water maze experience and prenatal choline supplementation differentially promote long-term hippocampal recovery from seizures in adulthood.
Maternal smoking during pregnancy increases the risk of Sudden Infant Death. A defect in cardiorespiratory control has been suggested. Chronic exposure to nicotine during fetal development of rat induced postnatal developmental disorders on central neural pathways [1], autonomic function [2], carotid body chemorecep-tors [3], ventilatory response to hyperoxia [4]. The interrelation between all these sparse data has to be investigated. We hypothesized that exposure to nicotine might impair or delay the development of respiratory control pathways, ie, of the carotid body chemoafferent pathway, causing an abnormal response to ventila-tory challenges. On the 5th day of gestation, pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats received a transdermal patch delivering, either 50 mg of nicotine free base over 21 days, or excipient. At birth, male pups were selected and analysed at postnatal day 3, 7, 11, 14, 21 and 68. The in vivo tyrosine hydroxylase activity was determined in offspring carotid bodies and brainstem ...
We previously showed that maternal cocaine administration resulted in a decrease in fetal rat body weight [9]. The present study demonstrated that the maternal cocaine treatment caused a significant decrease in fetal brain weight, as compared with the saline control group. This finding is consistent with the previous report in pregnant C57BL/6 mice, in which maternal subcutaneous administration of cocaine from gestation days 12-18 produced significant decreases in fetal body and brain weight [27]. The pair-fed studies demonstrated that maternal undernutrition was not a likely mediator of the effects caused by cocaine [27, 28]. Moreover, our data indicate that cocaine decreases fetal brain/body weight ratio, suggesting that cocaine have higher affinity toxic effects on the fetal brain than the body. Dow-Edwards [29] reported that fetal brain had between 26-42% more concentration of cocaine than fetal plasma after 90 min following either 30 or 60 mg/kg cocaine given via intragastric intubation to ...
Abstract. Chronic psychological stress is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Maternal active mastication during prenatal stress attenuates stress response. The aim of this study is to test the hypothesis that maternal active mastication influences the effect of prenatal stress on bone mass and bone microstructure in adult offspring. Pregnant ddY mice were randomly divided into control, stress, and stress/chewing groups. Mice in the stress and stress/chewing groups were placed in a ventilated restraint tube for 45 minutes, 3 times a day, and was initiated on day 12 of gestation and continued until delivery. Mice in the stress/chewing group were allowed to chew a wooden stick during the restraint stress period. The bone response of 5-month-old male offspring was evaluated using quantitative micro-CT, bone histomorphometry, and biochemical markers. Prenatal stress resulted in significant decrease of trabecular bone mass in both vertebra and distal femur of the offspring. Maternal active mastication ...
Objective: Determine the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce prenatal alcohol exposure in the Congo. Methods: We utilized a screening tool validated in the Congo to identify women who were drinking during pregnancy. The intervention was implemented by prenatal care providers comparing 162 women receiving the intervention with 58 (controls) who did not. The study endpoints were proportion of women who quit drinking, drinking days per week, drinks per drinking day, most drinks on any day, and number of binge episodes per week. Results: In the control group 36% of the women quit drinking compared to 54% in the intervention group (Chi-square 5.61; p = 0.02). The number of drinking days per week for the controls decreased by 50.1% compared to 68% for the intervention group (p = 0.008); drinks per drinking day for the controls decreased by 37% compared to 60.1% for the intervention group (p = 0.001); and most drinks on any occasion in the controls decreased by 38% compared to 61% for the ...
Background Prenatal substance use screening is recommended. The 4 Ps Plus screener includes questions on perceived problematic substance use in parents and partner that are not considered in risk stratification. Objectives This research examined the: (1) prevalence of self-reported problematic parental and partner substance use and associations with biochemically-verified prenatal substance use; (2) utility of self-reported perceptions of parent/partner substance use as proxies for prenatal substance use; and (3) degree to which the sensitivity of the 4Ps Plus can be augmented with consideration of parent/partner questions in risk stratification. Methods A convenience sample of 500 pregnant women was recruited between January 2017 and January 2018. Participants completed the 4Ps Plus and provided urine for drug testing. Diagnostic utility of problematic parent/partner substance use questions was assessed, then compared to the 4Ps Plus used as designed, and to the 4Ps Plus used with these 2 ...
A social- skills intervention called Childrens Friendship Training can lead to a decrease in hostile attributions or perceptions of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE)
Canadian researchers have identified several specific white matter regions and deep grey matter regions in the brain that seem to be sensitive to prenatal alcohol exposure.
The persistence of neurobehavioral effects in female rats (Mol:WIST) exposed to 500 ppm technical xylene (dimethylbenzene, GAS-no 1330-20-7) for 6 hours per day on days 7-20 of prenatal development was studied. The dose level was selected so as not to induce maternal toxicity or decreased viability of offspring. Investigations of learning and memory abilities were performed using a Morris water maze. This task requires rats to spatially navigate, using distal extramaze cues to locate a small platform under the surface of the water in a large pool. At the age of 16 weeks, the exposed offspring showed impairments when the platform was relocated in the pool. Impaired performances after platform relocation were also observed in exposed offspring at 28 and 55 weeks of age, although the difference was not statistically significant at 55 weeks. These data could indicate that the effect was partly reversible, although over a long time period. However, another explanation could be that the animals became ...
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Here, we show that male, but not female, offspring that were exposed to prenatal hypoxia develop altered circulatory and vascular function that implicates the ET-1 system. To summarize, we found the following: (1) IUGR males had increased conversion of bET-1 to active ET-1 compared with controls, and this effect was partially normalized with L-NAME treatment; (2) no differences in bET-1 conversion to active ET-1 were observed between aged control and IUGR female offspring; (3) no differences in ET-1 interaction with its receptors were observed between control and IUGR offspring in either male or female offspring; (4) male IUGR offspring were hypertensive, and this increase in BP was partially mitigated by treatment with the dual ETA/B receptor antagonist tezosentan; (5) female IUGR offspring were not hypertensive compared with control offspring, and tezosentan treatment had little effect in either female treatment group. These results suggest that the ET-1 system, and possibly the conversion of ...
Ahmed S, Atlas E. 2016. Bisphenol S- and bisphenol A-induced adipogenesis of murine preadipocytes occurs through direct peroxisome proliferator activated receptor gamma activation. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord 40(10):1566-1573, PMID: 27273607, 10.1038/ijo.2016.95. Alonso-Magdalena P, Quesada I, Nadal Á. 2015. Prenatal exposure to BPA and offspring outcomes. Dose Response 13(2):1559325815590395, PMID: 26676280, 10.1177/1559325815590395. Alonso-Magdalena P, Vieira E, Soriano S, Menes L, Burks D, Quesada I, et al. 2010. Bisphenol A exposure during pregnancy disrupts glucose homeostasis in mothers and adult male offspring. Environ Health Perspect 118(9):1243-1250, PMID: 20488778, 10.1289/ehp.1001993. Anderson OS, Peterson KE, Sanchez BN, Zhang Z, Mancuso P, Dolinoy DC. 2013. Perinatal bisphenol A exposure promotes hyperactivity, lean body composition, and hormonal responses across the murine life course. FASEB J 27(4):1784-1792, PMID: 23345456, 10.1096/fj.12-223545. Angle BM, Do RP, Ponzi D, ...
Methods We conducted a Mendelian randomization study to examine the association between maternal iron status with offspring adiposity and BP in adulthood. Instrumental variable (IV) analysis, using maternal C282Y as a genetic instrument for mothers ferritin, was performed. IV analysis uses the proportion of the variation in maternal ferritin that is explained by C282Y to provide an unconfounded estimate of the relationship with offspring outcomes. The results were compared to the results of multivariable ordinary least squares (OLS) regression examining the same relationship. Male and female offspring of mothers from the UK Women Cohort Study (UKWCS) were approached, of whom 348 with mean age of 41 years completed the study. About half were offspring of C282Y carriers. Offsprings BP, height and weight were measured at their local medical practice. Participants were also asked to self-measure their WC at home.. ...
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Prenatal nicotine exposure alters medullary nicotinic and AMPA-mediated control of respiratory frequency in vitro. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
Prenatal exposure to androgens as a factor of fetal programming. Sergio E. Both epidemiological and clinical evidence suggest a relationship between the prenatal environment and the risk of developing diseases during adulthood. The first observations about this relationship showed that prenatal growth retardation or stress conditions during fetal life were associated to cardiovascular, metabolic and other diseases in later life. However, not only those conditions may have lasting effects after birth.. Growing evidence suggests that prenatal exposure to steroids either of fetal or maternal origin could be another source of prenatal programming with detrimental consequences during adulthood. We have recently demonstrated that pregnant women with polycystic ovary syndrome exhibit elevated androgen levels compared to normal pregnant women, which could provide an androgen excess for both female or male fetuses.. We have further tested this hypothesis in an animal model of prenatal androgenization, ...
Whether intrauterine cocaine exposure (IUCE) explains unique variance in psychiatric functioning among school age children, even after controlling
Since the opioid epidemic was officially declared a federal public health emergency in October 2017, states have undertaken a wide range of activities to address opioid-related harms. In February 2019, ASTHO surveyed its members to understand how data is being utilized to address these harms in their jurisdictions. This brief summarizes the results of this survey and highlights data-based approaches used to address four types of opioid-related harms: prenatal substance exposure, neonatal abstinence syndrome, adverse childhood experiences, and injection drug use-associated infections.Read More ». ...
More than 17 percent of pregnant women between the ages of 15 and 44 smoke, according to the 2002 National Survey on Drug Use and Health.
(Medical Xpress)-Prenatal exposure to alcohol severely disrupts major features of brain development that potentially lead to increased anxiety and poor motor function, conditions typical in humans with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Anxiety-like behaviour and associated neurochemical and endocrinological alterations in male pups exposed to prenatal stress. AU - Laloux, Charlotte. AU - Mairesse, Jérôme. AU - Van Camp, Gilles. AU - Giovine, Angela. AU - Branchi, Igor. AU - Bouret, Sebastien. AU - Morley-Fletcher, Sara. AU - Bergonzelli, Gabriela. AU - Malagodi, Marithé. AU - Gradini, Roberto. AU - Nicoletti, Ferdinando. AU - Darnaudéry, Muriel. AU - Maccari, Stefania. PY - 2012/10. Y1 - 2012/10. N2 - Epidemiological studies suggest that emotional liability in infancy could be a predictor of anxiety-related disorders in the adulthood. Rats exposed to prenatal restraint stress ( PRS rats ) represent a valuable model for the study of the interplay between environmental triggers and neurodevelopment in the pathogenesis of anxious/depressive like behaviours. Repeated episodes of restraint stress were delivered to female Sprague-Dawley rats during pregnancy and male offspring were studied. Ultrasonic ...
In a prospective study (Morrow, Bandstra, Anthony, Ofir et al., 2001), a range of subtle deficits across the spectrum of neurobehavioural functioning were observed within the first postnatal week in infants with cocaine exposure. These deficits were partly correlated with reduced foetal growth. The deficits in functioning were larger as the number of trimesters of exposure increased. The authors suggest that prenatal cocaine exposure may produce more problematic effects in infants born prematurely and that cocaine exposed full-term infants may be more resilient. Other authors also suggest that any effect of cocaine on longer-term development is an indirect association, mediated by reduced birth weight, head circumference, other drug use or other prenatal issues (Behnke, Eyler, Garvan, Wobie & Hou, 2002; Bendersky & Lewis, 1999). In addition, one controlled study reports that mothers in a cocaine-exposed group had less frequent emotional contact with their infant and tended to have maladaptive ...
Researchers have known for years: what happens to mom in pregnancy affects the baby. That holds true with prenatal exposure to air pollution, which has lingering cardiovascular effects, such as birth defects and a higher risk of obesity, explained Jeanette Stingone, PhD, of Mount Sinai Health System.
The low activity allele of the maternal polymorphism, 5HTTLPR, in the serotonin transporter, SLC6A4, coupled with prenatal stress is reported to increase the risk for children to develop autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Similarly, maternal Slc6a4 knock-out and prenatal stress in rodents results in offspring demonstrating ASD-like characteristics. The present study uses an integrative genomics approach to explore mechanistic changes in early brain development in mouse embryos exposed to this maternal gene-environment phenomenon. Restraint stress was applied to pregnant Slc6a4 +/+ and Slc6a4 +/− mice and post-stress embryonic brains were assessed for whole genome level profiling of methylome, transcriptome and miRNA using Next Generation Sequencing. Embryos of stressed Slc6a4 +/+ dams exhibited significantly altered methylation profiles and differential expression of 157 miRNAs and 1009 genes affecting neuron development and cellular
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Prenatal alcohol exposure affects up to 2 to 5 percent of the US population. Children and adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) struggle with life-long learning and behavioral problems. Without appropriate supports, individuals with FASD are at high risk for secondary conditions, such as mental health problems, trouble with the law, school disruption, and substance abuse. An early diagnosis and appropriate services can help prevent these secondary problems.. The FASD Diagnostic and Evaluation Clinic is a multidisciplinary clinic created in partnership through Mt. Hope Family Center and Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at Golisano Childrens Hospital within the University of Rochester Medical Center. The Clinic currently serves children and adolescents from infancy through age 16 years old. Services available include FASD diagnostic evaluations and neuropsychological assessments to identify the child or adolescents strengths and weaknesses to aid in treatment ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Approaches for strengthening causal inference regarding prenatal risk factors for childhood behavioural and psychiatric disorders. AU - Lewis, Sarah J.. AU - Relton, Caroline. AU - Zammit, Stanley. AU - Smith, George Davey. PY - 2013/10. Y1 - 2013/10. N2 - BackgroundThe risk of childhood behavioural and psychiatric diseases could be substantially reduced if modifiable risk factors for these disorders were identified. The critical period for many of these exposures is likely to be in utero as this is the time when brain development is most rapid. However, due to confounding and other limitations of traditional epidemiological studies, identification of causal risk factors has proved challenging and on the whole research in this area has not been fruitful.ScopeIn this review, we highlight several alternative approaches including; comparisons across settings, the use of negative controls and natural experiments, which includes migration studies, studies of individuals conceived ...
The details of bibliography - Exploring the potential to use data linkage for investigating the relationship between birth defects and prenatal alcohol exposure
Teens whose mothers drank alcohol regularly throughout the first trimester of pregnancy have a threefold increased risk of developing severe behavior problems,
Background: New measures of exposure prevention activity were used to evaluate the effectiveness of a 16 month management focused intervention addressing hazardous substance exposures in manufacturing work settings. Methods: Exposure prevention efforts were assessed using a previously published rating scheme developed for this study.1 The rating scheme yields a set of measures of exposure potentia
Results for hazardous substances exposure equipment from BreathSpec, Depth-Clear, Honeywell NORTH and other leading brands. Compare and contact a supplier near ...
In 2001, researchers Leonie Welberg and Jonathan Seckl published the literature review Prenatal Stress, Glucocorticoids, and the Programming of the Brain, in which they report on the effects of prenatal stress on the development of the fetal brain. The fetus experiences prenatal stress while in the womb, or in utero. In discussing the effects of prenatal stress, the authors describe prenatal programming, which is when early environmental experiences permanently alter biological structure and function throughout life.. Format: Articles Subject: Publications, Theories ...
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Two experiments examined the psychological and biological antecedents of hierarchical differentiation and the resulting consequences for productivity and conflict within small groups. In Experiment 1, which used a priming manipulation, hierarchically differentiated groups (i.e., groups comprising 1 high-power-primed, 1 low-power-primed, and 1 baseline individual) performed better on a procedurally interdependent task than did groups comprising exclusively either all high-power-primed or all low-power-primed individuals. There were no effects of hierarchical differentiation on performance on a procedurally independent task. Experiment 2 used a biological marker of dominance motivation (prenatal testosterone exposure as measured by a digit-length ratio) to manipulate hierarchical differentiation. The pattern of results from Experiment 1 was replicated; mixed-testosterone groups achieved greater productivity than did groups comprising all high-testosterone or all low-testosterone individuals. ...
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... Washington DC Sons of male mice exposed to prenatal stress ar...Tracy Bale PhD of the University of Pennsylvania and colleagues pre... This study shows that the effects of maternal stress in mice are pass...In general female mice tend to respond more to stress than do males. ...,Effects,of,prenatal,stress,passed,across,generations,in,mice,biological,biology news articles,biology news today,latest biology news,current biology news,biology newsletters
For my course project, I have chosen the challenge area of prenatal risk factors with the subtopic of health. Prenatal health is a factor in a childs development and affects their school readiness and their learning. American babies, compared with those from other developed nations, are receiving inadequate prenatal care and less time at home with their parents during the first year of life (Lally, 2010). I am interested in assisting the women in my community receive quality prenatal care so that they have a safe pregnancy and so that their child has the best opportunity to be healthy, happy, and successful. In addition, I believe early childhood education is the foundation to a childs overall education and a mom who has quality prenatal care and has assistance for their childs development and learning from age birth to three, their child will be successful and ready to enter Pre-K or K. It is during the first few years of life that early experience starts shaping the foundational learning ...
한국 최고의 가격 Protocol for Life Balance Pre-Natal Multi비타민 With DHA - 90 Softgels 부터 알다 Pre-Natal Multivitamin With DHA 리뷰, 부작용, 쿠폰 및 eVitamins에서 더. 한국에 빠르고 신뢰할 수있는 운송. Pre-Natal Multivitamin With DHA 다른 제품으로 Protocol for Life Balance 당신의 건강 요구에.
Researchers looked at internalizing and externalizing behaviors in children at 0.5, 1.5, and 3 years of age, comparing children exposed to benzodiazepines and sedative-hypnotics during pregnancy to unexposed children.
Prenatal and early childhood exposure to the chemical solvent tetrachloroethylene (PCE) found in drinking water may be associated with long-term visual impairments, particularly in the area of colour discrimination, according to a new study.
Analysts forecast the Global Prenatal and Newborn Genetic Testing market to grow at a CAGR of 31.91 percent over the period 2014-2019.. Single User License of the report is Available at US $2500 Covered in this Report. This report covers the present scenario and the growth prospects of the Global Prenatal and Newborn Genetic Testing market for the period 2015-2019. The Global Prenatal and Newborn Genetic Testing market can be divided into two segments: Diagnostic Techniques and Screening Methods. To calculate the market size, the report considers revenue generated from these segments.. Global Prenatal and Newborn Genetic Testing Market 2015-2019, has been prepared based on an in-depth market analysis with inputs from industry experts. The report covers the Americas, and the APAC and EMEA regions; it also covers the Global Prenatal and Newborn Genetic Testing market landscape and its growth prospects in the coming years. The report includes a discussion of the key vendors operating in this ...
Rat ventricular repolarization is regulated primarily by the balance of Ito, Iss, and ICa,L,25 and changes in the number and/or properties of these channels deeply affect the shape and duration of AP. Ito channel density increases steeply from birth to 1 month of life in the rat, as shown by our data (Table 3) and in agreement with the literature.15,16 At variance with Ito, we found that ICa,L density is not affected by postnatal growth (Table 2), because it remains unaltered during development, as reported by Katsube et al22 and in contrast to Gomez et al.21 Hormonal systems play a major role in controlling the maturation of rat cardiac myocyte functional properties. Importantly, the densities of Ito and ICa,L are regulated by thyroid hormones in the rat cardiac ventricle.16,18,26 Moreover, postnatal evolution of sympathetic innervation parallels ventricular APD shortening in the rat and contributes to the developmental differences in Ito.27 Likewise, an abnormal sympathetic innervation in ...
Secondhand tobacco smoke exposure has immediate and substantial effects on blood and blood vessels in a way that increases the ... Prenatal and childhood passive smoke exposure does not appear to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel disease. Learning ... Delaying and discrediting legitimate research (see for an example of how the industry attempted to discredit Takeshi Hirayama's ... "Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke". U.S. National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on 2007- ...
Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. The effects of OP exposure on infants and children ... Some of these effects include delayed mental development, Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), morphological abnormalities ... Evidence of OP exposure in pregnant mothers are linked to several health effects in the fetus. ... A number of measurements exist to assess exposure and early biological effects for organophosphate poisoning. Measurements of ...
Learning difficulties, developmental delays, executive function problems,[64] and neurobehavioral effects.[65][66] Animal ... Prenatal and childhood passive smoke exposure does not appear to increase the risk of inflammatory bowel disease.[63] ... "Health Effects of Exposure to Environmental Tobacco Smoke". U.S. National Cancer Institute. Archived from the original on 2007- ... "Health Effects of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke". United States Environmental Protection Agency. Retrieved 2007-09-24.. ...
... prenatal exposure delayed effects MeSH C13.703.844.253 - depression, postpartum MeSH C13.703.844.506 - lactation disorders MeSH ...
"Prenatal Drug Exposure: Effects on Cognitive Functioning at 5 Years of Age". Clinical Pediatrics. 47 (1): 58-65. doi:10.1177/ ... delayed or uncoordinated motor skills, hearing or vision problems, learning disabilities, behavior problems, and inappropriate ... explores how the differences between children who were exposed to drugs prenatal and those with non-drug prenatal exposure ... Also, prenatal methamphetamine use is believed to have long-term effects in terms of brain development, which may last for many ...
Williams, Pamela; FLETCHER, Stacy (September 2010). "Health Effects of Prenatal Radiation Exposure". American Family Physician ... Unintended pregnancy: Unintended pregnancies preclude preconception care and delays prenatal care. They preclude other ... Also, prenatal methamphetamine use is believed to have long-term effects in terms of brain development, which may last for many ... Prenatal cocaine exposure is associated with, for example, premature birth, birth defects and attention deficit disorder. ...
One particular study examined the effects of prenatal cocaine exposure, among other factors, on cognitive ability in children. ... and delayed verbal memory (memory of words read or heard). The conclusion from this study is that prenatal meth exposure can be ... One study attempted to determine the neurotoxic effects (harm to nerve cells) of prenatal methamphetamine exposure on brain ... Patterns show that longitudinal memory effects of prenatal alcohol exposure manifest themselves both directly and also ...
In this role, she studied the effects of prenatal polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure on IQ, taking into account ... study which found that exposure to the pesticide chlorpyrifos could be associated with early childhood developmental delays. In ... The hypothesis was that the trees might have a beneficial effect on air quality. She later received the Bates award for ... At the Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health, she led the "Chlorpyrifos Exposure and Urban Residential ...
The effect of the developmental toxicants depends on the type of substance, dose and duration and time of exposure. Certain ... Prenatal BPA exposure is associated with aggression and neurobehaviour changes. Most toxicants are known to affect only a ... FAS disrupts normal development of the fetus, which may cause certain developmental stages to be delayed, skipped, or ... Other effects also seen with thalidomide exposure included deformed eyes and hearts, deformed alimentary and urinary tracts, ...
Further research is needed to establish the effect of prenatal exposure on fetal development. Only a few studies have been done ... increase in the risk of bronchial obstruction in the first two years of life and in the development of language delay in pre- ... The precise teratogenic effects observed in rat fetuses seem to be related to the period of exposure in development. Exposure ... Numerous studies have been carried out in animals to elucidate the adverse effects of BBP exposure. Long-term BBP exposure in ...
The effect of chronic exposure to carbon monoxide can depend on the stage of pregnancy in which the mother is exposed. Exposure ... It is estimated that 10% of all birth defects are caused by prenatal exposure to a teratogenic agent.[28] These exposures ... along with a delay in mental and physical development. Valproate has antifolate effects, leading to neural tube closure-related ... Clarren S, Alvord E, Sumi S, Streissguth A, Smith D (1978). "Brain malformations related to prenatal exposure to ethanol". J ...
Richardson GA, Conroy ML, Day NL (1996). "Prenatal cocaine exposure: Effects on the development of school-age children". ... Some short-term effects include executive function impairment, reading difficulty, and delayed state regulation. An opiate drug ... Prenatal exposure to various pesticides including organophosphates, and chlorpyrifos has also been linked to reduced IQ score. ... Kilbride H, Castor C, Hoffman E, Fuger KL (2000). "Thirty-six-month outcome of prenatal cocaine exposure for term or near-term ...
Henderson, J; Gray, R; Brocklehurst, P (2007). "Systematic review of effects of low-moderate prenatal alcohol exposure on ... Learning disabilities Speech and language delays Intellectual disability or low IQ Poor reasoning and judgment skills Sleep and ... "Prevention of Harm caused by Alcohol Exposure during Pregnancy" (PDF). "What are the Effects & Dangers of Alcohol During ... Burd, L; Blair, J; Dropps, K (2012-05-17). "Prenatal alcohol exposure, blood alcohol concentrations and alcohol elimination ...
Detection and diagnosis of perinatal stroke are often delayed due to prenatal onset or inadequacy of neonatal signs and ... "Phenytoin (Dilantin) Uses, Dosage, Side Effects". Retrieved 2020-04-21. "Benzodiazepines: Uses, types, side effects ... and prenatal cocaine exposure. Blood clotting disorders such as Hemophilia A and B result from low clotting factor quantities ... "Association of prenatal phenobarbital and phenytoin exposure with small head size at birth and with learning problems". Acta ...
Prenatal alcohol exposure can lead to fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASDs). The most severe form of FASD is fetal alcohol ... Short-term effects of alcohol consumption include intoxication and dehydration. Long-term effects of alcohol consumption ... Alcohol intoxication affects the brain, causing slurred speech, clumsiness, and delayed reflexes. Alcohol stimulates insulin ... But this does not appear to be true for women." Alcoholic beverage Short-term effects of alcohol consumption Long-term effects ...
"Long-term effects of prenatal exposure to perfluoroalkyl substances on female reproduction". Human Reproduction (Oxford, ... Delayed onset of menarche is associated with lower bone mineral density and may have psychosocial impacts. Other impacts on ... Based on a cohort study conducted in the Mid-Ohio Valley, no clear association was found between prenatal exposure to PFOA and ... Fei C, McLaughlin JK, Lipworth L, Olsen J (November 2010). "Prenatal exposure to PFOA and PFOS and risk of hospitalization for ...
"Prenatal cocaine exposure: Effects on mother- and teacher-rated behavior problems and growth in school-age children". ... hence they might delay or withhold treatment during pregnancy.[26] Moreover, some prenatal providers are not aware of the ... Effects on child health and development[edit]. Prenatal health[edit]. Prenatal care is an important part of basic maternal ... Goldschmidt L, Richardson GA, Willford J, Day NL (March 2008). "Prenatal marijuana exposure and intelligence test performance ...
"Life-span exposure to low doses of aspartame beginning during prenatal life increases cancer effects in rats". Environ Health ... The investigation was delayed and eventually the statute of limitations on the charges against Searle expired and a grand jury ... "EFSA delay Aspartame review findings until 2013". August 8, 2012. Archived from the original on August 22, ... The double blind controlled study has been concluded and found no evidence of safety issues or side effects even amongst those ...
... but it may be associated with chemical exposure or maternal smoking during prenatal development or pesticide exposure or ... Exposure to any of the temporary factors can cause up to a three-month delay before sperm quality returns to normal, due to ... No age related effects on sperm were noted in separate control groups recruited in different geographical locations, indicating ... Theoretically, this exposure to high levels of phytoestrogen in men may alter the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. A few ...
... and may have lasting effects on reproductive function, for both childhood and adult exposures. Prenatal phthalate exposure has ... In another study, pubertal administration of higher-dose DEHP delayed puberty in rats, reduced testosterone production, and ... Studies in mice have shown other adverse health effects due to DEHP exposure. Ingestion of 0.01% DEHP caused damage to the ... "Prenatal phthalate exposure and reproductive function in young men". Environmental Research. 138: 264-70. Bibcode:2015ER....138 ...
... specifically prenatal exposure to anti-Müllerian hormone. For the study, the researchers injected pregnant mice with AMH so ... These included problems with fertility, delayed puberty, and erratic ovulation. To reverse it, the researchers dosed the ... but agonist have to be started earlier to overcome the agonistic effect. Cetrorelix can be mixed with follitropin alpha without ... June 2018). "Elevated prenatal anti-Müllerian hormone reprograms the fetus and induces polycystic ovary syndrome in adulthood ...
Prenatal diagnosis of microcephaly is difficult due to the variability present in the causes of the disease. Early detection, ... Developmental delay in motor and communication skills will result. Congenital microcephaly has also been attributed to serine ... Women who are at risk of contracting TORCH infections or exposure to Zika virus are recommended to undergo screening as most ... There is currently no treatment to reverse the neuropathology of achalasia or the effects of microcephaly. Instead, treatment ...
... (or prenatal maternal stress) is exposure of an expectant mother to psychosocial of physical stress, which can ... "Maternal prenatal depression and epigenetic age deceleration: testing potentially confounding effects of prenatal stress and ... al found that prenatal psychosocial stress can cause delays in child growth and development through assessing the child's ... Prenatal stress does have an effect on brain sexual differentiation after measuring the volume of the sexually dimorphic ...
"Effect of prenatal protein malnutrition on long-term potentiation and BDNF protein expression in the rat entorhinal cortex ... "In utero protein restriction causes growth delay and alters sperm parameters in adult male rats". Reproductive Biology and ... "Exposure to undernutrition in fetal life determines fat distribution, locomotor activity and food intake in ageing rats" ... Prenatal protein malnutrition[edit]. See also: Prenatal nutrition. Protein malnutrition is detrimental at any point in life, ...
Prenatal exposure to some hormones can cause vaginal anomalies as can the lack of necessary hormones needed for normal ... Psychosocial effects can also exist. Some anomalies are found upon examination shortly after birth or when the development of ... Correction of an imperforate hymen may be delayed until puberty. The hymen can be unusually thick or partially obstructed by ... Inheritance can play a part as can prenatal exposure to hormones and teratogens. Though the presence of a vaginal anomaly does ...
Diav-Citrin, O (2011). "Prenatal exposures associated with neurodevelopmental delay and disabilities". Developmental ... "The Effects Of Drugs And Alcohol On Fetal Development , LIVESTRONG.COM." LIVESTRONG.COM - Lose Weight & Get Fit with Diet, ... Toxins include fetal exposure to lead, mercury, and ethanol or hazardous environments. Prenatal exposure to mercury may lead to ... Espy, K (2011). "Prenatal tobacco exposure: Developmental outcomes in the neonatal period". Developmental Psychology. 47: 153- ...
A 2019 study further investigated neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal methamphetamine exposure. This ... Diav-Citrin, O (2011). "Prenatal exposures associated with neurodevelopmental delay and disabilities". Developmental ... Toxins include fetal exposure to lead, mercury, and ethanol or hazardous environments. Prenatal exposure to mercury may lead to ... Prenatal memory Prenatal and perinatal psychology Fetal pig Timeline of human prenatal development Transplacental ...
Ang, E. S. B. C.; Gluncic, V.; Duque, A.; Schafer, M. E.; Rakic, P. (2006). "Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts ... Biological effects of non-thermal origin have been reported in animals but, to date, no such effects have been demonstrated in ... and speech delays. The above findings, however, were not confirmed in a later follow-up study. A later study, however, ... "Sinistrality-a side-effect of prenatal sonography: A comparative study of young men". Epidemiology. 12 (6): 618-23. doi:10.1097 ...
Delayed speech. Limited vocabulary. Most common. Least common. Speech therapy Cardiovascular complications. Mitral valve ... Prenatal testing is available to test for CLS of an offspring if a family member has been diagnosed with CLS. [3] ... Because sudden excitement or fright can trigger a SIDA episode it is important to minimize exposure to startling stimuli. ... indicating that disease etiology most likely arises from loss-of-function effects. Substitution mutations (which alter a single ...
... valid research about the effects of different forms of health care, the potential for harm from exposure to particular agents, ... Parent-infant bonding can also be affected by the noise of the NICU, which in turn can delay the interactions between parents ... The Gato Box is a small rectangular instrument that stimulates a prenatal heartbeat sound in a soft and rhythmic manner that ... Studies on the long term effects on music therapy in children with autism indicate many positive effects in children. Some of ...
Early exposure to potential allergens[2][3]. Treatment. Avoiding the food in question, having a plan if exposure occurs, ... It tests for delayed food reactions.[44][45][46]. *Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it poses the ... Clayton, E (2012). Adverse Effects of Vaccines: Evidence and Causality. Institute of Medicine. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-309-21435-3. . ... Gunaratne AW, Makrides M, Collins CT (2015). "Maternal prenatal and/or postnatal n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids ( ...
Puberty in young adults with cerebral palsy may be precocious or delayed. Delayed puberty is thought to be a consequence of ... However, orthopaedic manifestations of cerebral palsy are diverse.[11][12] The effects of cerebral palsy fall on a continuum of ... Nelson KB, Blair E. (3 September 2015). "Prenatal Factors in Singletons with Cerebral Palsy Born at or near Term". The New ... exposure to methylmercury during pregnancy, a difficult delivery, and head trauma during the first few years of life, among ...
Seg5 Problem List, Seg6 Immunizations, Seg7 Exposure to Hazardous Substances, Seg8 Family/Prenatal/Cumulative Health/Medical/ ... It has been plagued by delays and its CEO was fired over a multimillion-dollar contracts scandal in 2009.[67] ... it was not until the 1950s that informatics began to have an effect in the United States.[41] ... Seg8 Family/Prenatal/Cumulative Health/Medical/Dental Nursing History, Seg14D Therapies ● S.15 Health guidance. ● Seg10 Care/ ...
Referrals are made to genetics clinics for a variety of reasons, including birth defects, developmental delay, autism, epilepsy ... Chromosome analysis is also performed in the prenatal setting to determine whether a fetus is affected with aneuploidy or other ... Marchini J, Cardon LR, Phillips MS, Donnelly P (2004). "The effects of human population structure on large genetic association ... teratogen exposure, family history of a genetic disease), test results (abnormal maternal serum screen, abnormal ultrasound), ...
Kleinberg DL, Ruan W (2008). "IGF-I, GH, and sex steroid effects in normal mammary gland development". J Mammary Gland Biol ... Development of the breasts during the prenatal stage of life is independent of biological sex and sex hormones.[20] During ... albeit delayed) in spite of GH/IGF-1 axis insufficiency, and in some the breasts may actually be large in relation to body size ... Exposure of macromastic breast stromal tissue to non-macromastic breast epithelial tissue was found to cause increased alveolar ...
Media effects[edit]. Constant exposure to media that presents body ideals may constitute a risk factor for body dissatisfaction ... Obstetric complications: prenatal and perinatal complications may factor into the development of anorexia nervosa, such as ... The most common gastrointestinal complications of anorexia nervosa are delayed stomach emptying and constipation, but also ... A low BUN level may indicate the effects of malnutrition.[89]. *BUN-to-creatinine ratio: A BUN to creatinine ratio is used to ...
Effects of donor's age, tissue, and genotype". Laboratory Investigation. 23 (1): 86-92. PMID 5431223.. ... 2001). "Cerebro-Oculo-Facio-Skeletal Syndrome with a Nucleotide Excision-Repair Defect and a Mutated XPD Gene, with Prenatal ... dry skin and pigmentation after exposure.[52] When the eye is exposed to sunlight, it becomes irritated and bloodshot, and the ... delayed tooth eruption, abnormal hair pattern, beaked noses, mild to severe mental retardation and dysmorphism.[94] ...
For some, the risk-benefit of one day of work and one day of prenatal check-ups is the deciding factor. For example, a woman ... The massage occurs twice a day as it is believed to have healing effects on the baby and reduce typical infant complaints like ... Others refer the case without delay due to the risk. However, in both cases foods like millet puwa (millet flour, cumin seed, ... and exposure to educated couples and foreign ideologies that has shifted family dynamics from the relatives to just the couple ...
Prenatal diagnosis of fetal varicella infection can be performed using ultrasound, though a delay of 5 weeks following primary ... Intentional exposure[edit]. Because chickenpox is usually more severe in adults than it is in children, some parents ... If aciclovir by mouth is started within 24 hours of rash onset, it decreases symptoms by one day but has no effect on ... Exposure to VZV in a healthy child initiates the production of host immunoglobulin G (IgG), immunoglobulin M (IgM), and ...
Kieler, Helle; Cnattingius, Sven; Haglund, Bengt; Palmgren, Juni; Axelsson, Ove (2001). "Sinistrality-a side-effect of prenatal ... "Prenatal exposure to ultrasound waves impacts neuronal migration in mice". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. 103 ... and speech delays.[73][74]*The above findings, however, were not confirmed in a later follow-up study.[75] ... Biological effects of non-thermal origin have been reported in animals but, to date, no such effects have been demonstrated in ...
en:Health effects of pesticides (3). *en:Health effects of sunlight exposure (3) ... en:Prenatal development (13). *en:Prenatal testing (28). *en:Prescription drug (18) ... en:Delayed puberty (8) → 사춘기지연 *en:Delirium (44) → 섬망 *en:Dementia with Lewy bodies (29) ...
... evidence from a longitudinal study of prenatal alcohol and prenatal stress effects" (PDF). Child Dev. 79 (1): 100-13. doi: ... prenatal alcohol exposure, learning difficulties[27] and people with traumatic brain injury[79] or who have had cochlear ... developmental delays, and typical development". J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 47 (6): 591-601. doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.2005.01546 ... In animal models, prenatal stress significantly increased tactile avoidance.[27]. *Studies using event-related potentials (ERPs ...
Prenatal Exposure to Acetaminophen and Risk of ADHD. Pediatrics. November 2017, 140 (5): e20163840. PMC 5654387. PMID 29084830 ... Treatment seems to have positive effects on brain structure.. *^ Cortese, Samuele; Adamo, Nicoletta; Del Giovane, Cinzia; Mohr- ... These children respond more impulsively to rewards and choose small, immediate rewards over larger, delayed incentives. ... Den Heijer AE, Groen Y, Tucha L, Fuermaier AB, Koerts J, Lange KW, Thome J, Tucha O. Sweat it out? The effects of physical ...
The effects of current antidepressant drugs are often significantly delayed, with improvements beginning around 3-6 weeks after ... CMS involves the exposure of animals to a series of mild and unpredictable stressors (periods of food and water deprivation, ... Models of early life stress involve prenatal stress, early postnatal handling and maternal separation. All these treatments ... Consequently, the majority of animal models of depression are based on the exposure to various types of acute or chronic ...
Health Effects of Exposure to Secondhand Smoke. United States Environmental Protection Agency. Iliwekwa mnamo 2007-09-24. ... "Prenatal and postnatal environmental tobacco smoke exposure and children's health". Pediatrics 113 (4 Suppl): 1007-15. doi: ... how the tobacco industry attempted to delay and discredit the 1997 Australian National Health and Medical Research Council ... Effect of cigarette butt pollution on marine life. *↑ Hackendahl NC, Sereda CW (Machi 2004). "The Dangers of Nicotine Ingestion ...
Prenatal cocaine exposure. *Neonatal withdrawal syndrome. *Parental child abduction. *Parental responsibility. *Parenting plan ... This same study also focused specifically on the effects that Down syndrome has on object permanence. They found that the ... "Object Permanence After a 24-Hr Delay and Leaving the Locale of Disappearance: The Role of Memory, Space, and Identity" ...
Kanarek RB, Swinney D (February 1990). "Effects of food snacks on cognitive performance in male college students". Appetite. 14 ... January 2008). "Maternal and child undernutrition: global and regional exposures and health consequences". Lancet. 371 (9608): ... Proper prenatal nutrition is responsible for this small prevalence of low birthweight infants.[1] However, low birthweight ... delayed mental and physical development, negative behavioral consequences, reduced auditory and visual function, and impaired ...
Adverse experiences during development (e.g. prenatal exposure to maternal stress,[55][56] poor attachment histories,[57] ... The HPA axis ultimately results in the release of cortisol, which generally has immunosuppressive effects. However, the effect ... found that chronic stress associated with care giving for a person with Alzheimer's disease leads to delayed wound healing. ... June 2007). Prenatal Exposure to Maternal Depression and Cortisol Influences Infant Temperament. Journal of the American ...
... and sometimes delays initiation of prenatal care.[15] The great majority of abortions result from unintended pregnancies. ... More likely to have delinquent and criminal behavior.[21] (see also Legalized abortion and crime effect) ... Infanticide ('customary neonaticide') or abandonment (sometimes in the form of exposure) are other traditional ways of dealing ... Delay from unintended pregnancy is in addition to that from other risk factors for delay.[5] Unwanted pregnancies have more ...
Holzer G, Riegler E, Hönigsmann H, Farokhnia S, Schmidt JB, Schmidt B (September 2005). "Effects and side-effects of 2% ... Actions of estradiol are required before the exposure of progesterone in the luteal phase.[citation needed] ... Individuals without it (or other estrogens) will become tall and eunuchoid, as epiphyseal closure is delayed or may not take ... the programming of adult male sexual behavior in many vertebrates is largely dependent on estradiol produced during prenatal ...
"The harmful effects of Scared Straight and boot-camp programs may be attributable to juvenile offenders' vicarious exposure to ... March 2009). "Unintended pregnancy and associated maternal preconception, prenatal and postpartum behaviors". Contraception. 79 ... language delays or impairments, lack of emotional control (learning to control one's anger), and cruelty to animals.[9] ... This suggests that exposure to criminals could create a sense of idealization and defeat the entire purpose of scared straight ...
When subjects are asked to complete a learning task after short term exposure they often have difficulties. Prenatal stress ... June 2006). "Effects of a 14-day healthy longevity lifestyle program on cognition and brain function". Am J Geriatr Psychiatry ... after a delay, asks the infants to imitate the actions. Studies using deferred imitation have shown that 14-month-olds' ... The more long term the exposure to stress is, the more impact it may have. However, short term exposure to stress also causes ...
产前可卡因摄入(英语:Prenatal cocaine exposure) ... 母亲年龄 / 父亲年龄(英语:Paternal age effect) ... Early versus delayed initiation of breastfeeding. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2000, (2): CD000043. PMID 10796101. doi:10.1002/ ... Effect of breast feeding on risk of coeliac disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Arch. Dis ... Postnatal exposure to methyl mercury from fish consumption: a review and new data from the Seychelles Child Development Study. ...
... exposure and health effects in children may be affected by confounding and overestimate the effects of low-level lead exposure. ... with a delay of a few weeks.[22] Thus EP levels in conjunction with blood lead levels can suggest the time period of exposure; ... A correlation has also been found between prenatal and early childhood lead exposure and violent crime in adulthood.[62] ... its effects on the central nervous system are not.[54] While peripheral effects in adults often go away when lead exposure ...
... there was some evidence that prenatal exposure to cannabis was associated with "deficits in language, attention, areas of ... the onset of effect is delayed relative to smoking, taking 30 minutes to 2 hours, but the duration is prolonged due to ... Short-term effects[edit]. When smoked, the short-term effects of cannabis manifest within seconds and are fully apparent within ... Cardiovascular effects[edit]. Short-term (one to two hours) effects on the cardiovascular system can include increased heart ...
Morain SR, Wootton SH, Eppes C «A Devastating Delay - Zika and the Implementation Gap» (en anglès). N Engl J Med, 2017 Oct 19; ... Yockey, LJ; Varela, L; Rakib, T; Khoury-Hanold, W; et al «Vaginal Exposure to Zika Virus during Pregnancy Leads to Fetal Brain ... Ndeffo-Mbah, ML; Parpia, AS; Galvani, AP «Mitigating Prenatal Zika Virus Infection in the Americas» (en anglès). Ann Intern Med ... Ghezzi S, Cooper L, Rubio A, Pagani I, et al «Heparin prevents Zika virus induced-cytopathic effects in human neural progenitor ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION ... Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Subscribe to New Research on Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects ... Late Effects, Prenatal Exposure; Delayed Effects, Prenatal Exposure. Networked: 0 relevant articles (0 outcomes, 0 trials/ ...
Drug Therapy Fetus Lactation Milk, Human Pregnancy Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects Newborn infants Handbooks sähkökirjat ...
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Age dramatically delays the time if takes to recover the sense of taste following a significant nerve injury, Medical College ... Prenatal Choline May Ameliorate Effects of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Archives. Archives. Select Month. February 2019. January ... Age dramatically delays the time if takes to recover the sense of taste following a significant nerve injury, Medical College ... Age dramatically delays recovery of the sense of taste. April 21, 2010. ...
Results of search for su:{Prenatal exposure delayed effects.} Refine your search. *Availability * Limit to currently ... Neurotoxicity of prenatal carbon monoxide exposure / Laurence D. Fechter.. by Fechter, Laurence D , Health Effects Institute. ... Prenatal exposure to toxicants : developmental consequences / edited by Herbert L. Needleman and David Bellinger.. by Needleman ... Functional teratogenesis : functional effects on the offspring after parental drug exposure / editors, Tomoko Fujii, Perrie M. ...
Little is known about human health effects. This study dis … ... Phthalate effects are much more severe after in utero than ... Maternal Exposure * Phthalic Acids / metabolism * Phthalic Acids / toxicity* * Pregnancy * Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects* ... Phthalate effects are much more severe after in utero than adult exposure. Little is known about human health effects. This ... However, the possible effects of MEP appear to be limited to humans. This may be due to differences in exposure routes ( ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Administration, Oral. AIDS-Related Complex. Zidovudine. Additional relevant MeSH terms: ... Lack of long-term effects of in utero exposure to zidovudine among uninfected children born to HIV-infected women. Pediatric ... Effect of maternal zidovudine treatment on viral load. JAMA. 1996 Feb 28;275(8):599-605. ... to the mother and to the newborn could in theory decrease the risk of infection to the newborn by reducing the exposure of the ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects* * Regression Analysis * Risk Factors * Socioeconomic Factors * Young Adult ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Subject:. Drug Evaluation. Subject:. Substance abuse. Subject:. Pregnant women. ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects /economics /epidemiology; Prevalence; Quality-Adjusted Life Years; Risk Reduction Behavior; ... By the same token, the BTA effect size was larger among those who had previously heard of the Milgram experiment than those who ... The findings indicate that while AA families may hold more authoritarian attitudes than EA families, the direction of effect of ... It has been reported that gemcitabines effect on response rate and survival is disappointing.3 No data exist (...) careful ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*. Risk Factors. Smoking / adverse effects*. Transforming Growth Factor alpha / genetics. ... 16876057 - Difference in alveolar molding effect and growth in the cleft segments: 3-dimensional a.... 9152127 - Racial ...
This study was performed to analyse the effects of low-protein diet (7%) on bone mass and mineral metabolism in rat pups whose ... Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects. Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena / physiology. Random Allocation. Rats. Rats, ... 11760154 - Exposure to flaxseed or its purified lignan during suckling only or continuously does n.... 3602124 - Effects of pre ... 17299084 - Prenatal exposure to a low-protein diet programs disordered regulation of lipid metabol.... 870284 - Cestrum diurnum ...
... are seeking the most sensitive means to indicate potential toxicity of chemicals in an attempt to prevent harmful human effects ... Delayed effects of prenatal exposure to methylmercury: brain ul- trastructure and behavior. Teratology, 9:A37.Google Scholar ... Effects of methylmercury on prenatal development in mice.Teratology, 5:181-190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... Effects of prenatal x-irradiation on motor performance in the rat. American Journal of Physiology 201:703Google Scholar ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects * Vaccination * Hospital Affiliations. Dr. Abrams is affiliated (can practice and admit ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects; Immunoglobulin E ... In utero exposure; Prenatal exposure; Immune reaction; ... Early-life farm exposures and adult asthma and atopy in the Agricultural Lung Health Study. ... Objective: To examine associations between early-life farming exposures and current asthma and atopy in an older adult US ... Current asthma and early-life farming exposures were assessed via questionnaires. We defined atopy based on specific IgE>0.70 ...
Prenatal exposure delayed effects ... Neurotoxic effects; Prenatal exposure; Brain disorders; Brain ... Environmental exposure; Health effects; Mercury poisoning; Humans; Men; Women; Epidemiology; Exposure levels; Risk factors; ... The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the ... Accumulating evidence indicates that adverse effects may occur even at low-level methylmercury exposures from seafood and ...
prenatal exposure-delayed effects. en_US. dc.subject. seafood. en_US. dc.title. Separation of Risks and Benefits of Seafood ... may cause substantial underestimation of the effects of a toxic exposure. The adverse effects of methylmercury exposure from ... conferred by maternal fish intake during pregnancy resulted in an increased effect of the prenatal methylmercury exposure, as ... Objectives: Impact on the same health outcomes by two exposures originating from the same food source provides a classical ...
Prenatal Care [‎1]‎. Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects [‎1]‎. Prescription Drugs [‎1]‎. Prescriptions [‎1]‎. ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/physiopathology. *Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/prevention & control*. *RNA, Messenger/ ... Delayed BDNF alterations in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to prenatal stress: preventive effect of lurasidone treatment ... Psychiatric diseases may often represent the consequence of exposure to adverse events early in life. Accordingly, exposure to ... in male and female rats following exposure to prenatal stress (PNS). Since we found that the majority of alterations became ...
Study probes effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain development Health news. ... "In Ontario, were fortunate to have free services like Early Years Centres that can help offset the effects of being born into ... Study finds that children born to teen mothers have delayed development, likely due to social factors. ... New study examines how diet contributes to toxic exposure for pregnant women and children ...
Study probes effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on brain development Infections. 08/18/2019 Infections ...
Maternal Exposure; New York City; Pesticides*/toxicity; Pregnancy; Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects*/genetics ... While prenatal OP exposures have been associated with altered infant glucose metabolism, associations with pediatric adiposity ... Title: Prenatal maternal organophosphorus pesticide exposures, paraoxonase 1, and childhood adiposity in the Mount Sinai ... CONCLUSIONS: We observed little evidence of a relationship between prenatal OP exposures and child adiposity, although there ...
Chronic maternal undernutrition in the rat leads to delayed postnatal growth and elevated blood pressure of offspring. Pediatr ... Effects of prenatal nitrofen exposure on cardiac structure and function in the rat. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol.1986;86 :22- 32. ... Both prenatal and neonatal exposure to second-hand smoke has a deleterious effect on vascular smooth muscle function in infant ... Effects of Environmental Exposures on the Cardiovascular System: Prenatal Period Through Adolescence. Suzanne M. Mone, Matthew ...
Undetected, hearing loss delays speech, language, and cognitive development. Numerous studies have shown that prenatal lead ... However, knowledge about the effects of maternal lead exposure at current United States levels (i.e., blood lead levels , 10 μg ... The goal of this study is to examine the gene-environment interactions between prenatal blood lead exposure and APOE genotype ... Evaluation of the Modifying Effect of Apolipoprotein E (APOE) Genotype on the Association of Prenatal Blood Lead Levels and ...
Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects -- Child ( mesh ). Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects -- Infant ( mesh ). Crack Cocaine -- ... At present, long-term followup on the effects of prenatal. exposure to cocaine and cocaine derivatives is extremely. limited. ... infants without alcohol exposure, alcohol but no cocaine. exposure, and neither cocaine nor alcohol exposure. Results. showed ... suggests that behavioral problems may result from prenatal. cocaine exposure.. The results of this analysis are shown in Table ...
Prenatal exposure, for example, has been linked to delayed brain development, reduced IQ, and attention deficits.3,4 Symptoms ... Long-term exposure has been linked to neurological effects, such as:5 ... "If you tell me what you typically eat, I can tell you how high your pesticide exposure is likely to be. The study suggests that ... Organics Carry Less Risk of Exposure to Both Pesticides and Antibiotic Resistant Bacteria A Stanford University meta-analysis11 ...
prenatal alcohol exposure under the FASD umbrella are Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS), Partial Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (PFAS), ... FASD Effects Are Life-Long. According to the National Organization on Fetal Alcohol Syndrome, infants with an FASD suffer from ... poor coordination or motor skill delays;. hypersensitivity to sound and touch; difficulty with change; organizational ... Prenatal alcohol exposure can also cause:. heart, lung, and kidney defects; hyperactivity, attention, and memory problems; ...
  • PURPOSE: Adverse health effects of developmental toxicants may induce abnormal functional programming that leads to lasting functional deficits. (
  • The functional deficits caused by prenatal methylmercury exposure appear to be permanent, and their extent may depend on the joint effect of toxicants and nutrients. (
  • At realistic imprecision levels, mercury-associated deficits increased by up to 2-fold when compared with the unadjusted effects. (
  • A growing body of literature documents poor global developmental outcomes ( 4 , 17 , 18 ), as well as domain specific deficits in motor, learning, attention, processing speed, language, and executive functioning ( 19 - 21 ) amongst children with prenatal alcohol exposure. (
  • The different chemical forms (organic and inorganic) of mercurial compounds exhibit different degrees of toxicity with effects including hearing loss, vision disturbance, motor deficits, and retarded or abnormal walking ability [ 1 , 2 ]. (
  • [ 2 ] It was used to describe a combination of abnormalities that included craniofacial, extremity, and cardiovascular anomalies, as well as growth deficits and developmental delays in 8 unrelated children born to alcoholic mothers. (
  • Prenatal exposure to even low doses of alcohol may lead to severe and highly variable deficits in the brain of a fetus, according to a new study conducted in mice. (
  • In addition, low-level prenatal exposure is associated with reduced IQ scores and deficits in working memory. (
  • Electronic databases (MEDLINE, Psych INFO, and Psych ARTICLES) were searched to find papers on the developmental outcomes of prenatal alcohol exposure in neonates, infants and toddlers and pre-school aged children. (
  • MOST IMPORTANT FINDINGS: Accumulating evidence indicates that adverse effects may occur even at low-level methylmercury exposures from seafood and freshwater fish. (
  • The adverse effects of methylmercury exposure from fish and seafood are therefore likely to be underestimated by unadjusted results from observational studies, and the extent of this bias will be study dependent. (
  • After reviewing the data, the US Environmental Protection Agency proposed a reference dose (an estimate of a daily dose that is likely to be without a risk of adverse effects over a lifetime) for methyl mercury that is substantially lower than previous guidelines from the World Health Organization, the US Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, and the US Food and Drug Administration. (
  • Animal studies have shown some of the adverse effects of PAE on placental development, but few studies have examined these effects in humans. (
  • Prenatal pesticide exposure may cause lasting neurotoxic damage and add to the adverse effects of malnutrition in developing countries. (
  • The developing brain is particularly susceptible to adverse effects of environmental toxicants and nutritional deficiencies. (
  • In the area of neurobehavioral toxicology, we are continuing projects to characterize the adverse effects of prenatal and adolescent nicotine exposure. (
  • Therefore, the protection provided by the Hsf-1 pathway is not uniform, making some brain areas more vulnerable to the adverse effects of alcohol and other environmental stressors during certain developmental or growth stages. (
  • This study was performed to analyse the effects of low-protein diet (7%) on bone mass and mineral metabolism in rat pups whose mothers were submitted to protein-restricted diet during late pregnancy and early post-natal periods. (
  • Effect of aldrin on the condition avoidance response and electroshockseizure threshold of offspring from aldrin-treated mothers. (
  • Among mothers who drink during pregnancy fetal alcohol exposure is influenced not only by mother's intake but also by genetic variants carried by both the mother and the fetus. (
  • This effect was only seen amongst the offspring of mothers who were moderate drinkers (1-6 units alcohol per week during pregnancy (per allele effect estimates were -1.80 (95% CI= -2.63 to -0.97) p=0.00002, with no effect among children whose mothers abstained during pregnancy (0.16 (95%CI= -1.05 to 1.36) p=0.80), p-value for interaction =0.009). (
  • WEDNESDAY, Jan. 10, 2018 (HealthDay News) -- Toddlers whose mothers used acetaminophen -- best known as Tylenol -- early in pregnancy may have a heightened risk of language delays, a new study suggests. (
  • Among girls, the study found, the risk of language delay rose in tandem with mothers' prenatal acetaminophen use. (
  • If a mom had taken more than six tablets in the first trimester, her daughter's risk of language delay was about six times higher, versus girls whose mothers did not use the drug. (
  • Although the dominant health concerns arise from gestational exposure, infants and children may be exposed postnatally to MeHg from breast milk should their mothers consume foods that contain high levels or if they consume fish or foodstuffs that contain fish products. (
  • The cohort consisted of 233 infants who were born at 33 to 42 weeks of gestation between January 2001 and March 2003 to mothers attending ambulatory prenatal clinics in the first and second trimesters of pregnancy. (
  • This risk status may occur because low SES mothers often lack adequate prenatal care and are more likely to give birth to low birth weight children. (
  • We know that mothers' exposure to air pollution during pregnancy can affect lung development of their babies and lead to subsequent respiratory disorders, including asthma, although little is known about whether timing of the exposure is important to consider," said lead author Yueh-Hsiu Mathilda Chiu, ScD, from the Department of Pediatrics at Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York. (
  • Daily exposure to air pollution from sources including traffic, power plants, and other industrial sources consisting of fine particles in the prenatal period was estimated based on where these mothers lived. (
  • The researchers found that exposure to higher levels of fine particles in the second trimester was most strongly associated with increased asthma onset among the children, particularly for those born to non-obese mothers. (
  • It is possible that the effect of maternal obesity, another known risk factor of childhood asthma onset, may be so strong that it was difficult to determine additional effects of air pollution among children born to obese mothers in this setting. (
  • Based on data from the PELAGIE mother-child cohort's large population-based sample with prospectively assessed exposure, we previously reported an increased level of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorders and aggression disorders among 2 year-old children whose mothers were exposed to organic solvents at work during the beginning of their pregnancy [ 13 ]. (
  • One measure was different, the researchers found: During the first trimester, mothers who had children with autism had slightly deeper ultrasounds than women who had typically developing children and children with developmental delays. (
  • The study participants included the mothers of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), developmental delay (DD) and those with typical development (TD). (
  • After controlling for mothers' mood during pregnancy, SSRI exposure was associated with decreased neonatal serum S100B levels. (
  • Given that fewer children per woman and delayed marriage and childbearing could mean more resources per child and better health and survival rates for mothers and children, this is an important link. (
  • Evidence of OP exposure in pregnant mothers are linked to several health effects in the fetus. (
  • Prenatal and perinatal factors associated with brain disorders / John M. Freeman, editor. (
  • This study discusses two recent studies on perinatal phthalate exposure, which indicated that human testicular development might be susceptible to phthalates. (
  • Medline database was searched for urban cohort studies with perinatal exposure to cats and/or dogs and subsequent asthma or allergic disease. (
  • Six found a reduction in allergic disease associated with perinatal exposure to dogs or, cats or dogs. (
  • In conclusion, this study demonstrates that exposure to low-dose of cinnabar during the perinatal and developmental stages results in irreversible and severe injuries of the neurotoxicity in offspring, and NO x and Na + /K + -ATPase activities may exist potential and useful biomarkers for neurotoxicity-induced by low-doses of mercuric compounds. (
  • Animal experimental work has provided a large body of evidence showing that manipulation of the prenatal and perinatal diet instigates clear effects on a wide range of health-related outcomes in the offspring, with decreased life span as a final outcome. (
  • While prenatal OP exposures have been associated with altered infant glucose metabolism, associations with pediatric adiposity remain unknown. (
  • The goal of this study is to examine the gene-environment interactions between prenatal blood lead exposure and APOE genotype while examining the infant auditory brainstem response pattern. (
  • Notably, serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) are antidepressant agents increasingly prescribed to manage antenatal mood disorders, and depressed maternal mood per se during pregnancy impacts infant behavior, also raising concerns about long-term consequences following such developmental exposure. (
  • Thus, prenatal depressed maternal mood and SRI exposure were found to shift developmental milestones bidirectionally on infant speech perception tasks. (
  • A range of assessment modalities (or tools) was used to determine neurodevelopmental outcomes of prenatal exposure to alcohol in the age group under review, the most frequently described being the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID) ( n = 19). (
  • Significant infant exposure to alcohol during pregnancy may be associated with a broad spectrum of developmental problems that can range from learning disabilities to severe mental retardation. (
  • Exposure to smoke during pregnancy is associated with several detrimental outcomes in newborns, including a significantly higher risk for sudden infant death. (
  • RESULTS: Amount of prenatal MDMA exposure predicted poorer infant mental and motor development at 12 months in a dose-dependent manner. (
  • Examine the possible effects of exposure to multiple substances and other risk factors on maternal and infant outcomes. (
  • Nevertheless, only a few human studies have directly assessed the effects of prenatal cortisol exposure on infant cortisol reactivity, and none have investigated sex differences or potential interactions between prenatal cortisol and psychological distress. (
  • Here we report on a prospective longitudinal investigation ( N = 236) of in utero exposure to maternal cortisol and distress in a relatively high socioeconomic status and low-risk population to determine whether these exposures interact in their effects on infant ( M age = 3.0 months, range = 2.3-5.0 months, 51.9% male) cortisol reactivity and whether there are sex differences in these effects. (
  • The findings suggest that sex differences in the effects of prenatal cortisol and distress on infant cortisol reactivity are a plausible mechanism by which maternal experiences during pregnancy contribute to sex differences in the development of psychopathology. (
  • Behavioral effects of ionizing radiations. (
  • Physiological and Behavioral Effects. (
  • Prenatal fluoxetine exposure affects cytokine and behavioral response to an immune challenge. (
  • We applied structural equation modeling to capture the longitudinal association of prenatal exposure to solvents with children's behavioral traits at 2 and 6 years. (
  • There are permanent neurological, developmental, and behavioral consequences that are directly attributable to prenatal drug exposure. (
  • According to the investigators, this is the first meta-analysis that reviewed behavioral and cognitive interventions for ADHD and examined their effect on cognitive interventions. (
  • Behavioral observations of G2 females revealed that low prenatal E modestly masculinized play behavior and increased the frequency of attempts to displace competitors relative to ultralow E and control animals. (
  • The two principal applied foci concern behavioral toxicology, the negative impact of chemical exposure, and therapeutics, development of treatments to reverse cognitive impairment and addiction. (
  • The use of antidepressants during pregnancy has no long term neuro-developmental or behavioral effects on the child, however they may be associated with an increased risk of postpartum haemorrhage, suggests the findings from three studies published in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (BJOG). (
  • In another study, an Australian team analyzed data from 49,000 women registered on the Danish National Birth Cohort, to examine the impact of prenatal exposure to SSRIs on behavioral problems at aged 7. (
  • In the past decade, there has been a 33% increase in non-medical opioid use among pregnant women in the U.S. Hence, hospitals have seen a near tripling of treatment of newborns for prenatal opioid exposure, with stays in the NICU increasing sevenfold over the same period. (
  • Health outcomes, including long-term outcomes, have not been systematically studied for children with prenatal opioid exposure. (
  • Exposure during pregnancy to CBZ, LTG, and VPA, each as monotherapy, is associated with developmental delay with or without signs of autism. (
  • The child with major malformations is more likely to have developmental delay with or without signs of autism than the child who does not have major malformations. (
  • The diagnosis of both FAS and ARND is usually made over time because the developmental delay may be inapparent until the child is 2 or 3 years old. (
  • In the United States, prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is the most common preventable cause of developmental delay. (
  • These children have a higher than normal probability of having a developmental delay. (
  • Although there is no single set of indicators identifying children as being at risk for a developmental delay, there are several situations or characteristics that suggest children are at risk (Ramey & Campbell, 1984). (
  • The new study compared ultrasound exposure among three groups: 107 children diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, 104 children diagnosed with a developmental delay, and 209 typically developing children. (
  • SSRIs also were elevated among boys with developmental delay, with the strongest exposure effect in the third trimester. (
  • lack of information on SSRI dosage precluding dose-response analyses, and the relatively small sample of children with developmental delay resulting in imprecise estimates of association. (
  • Weiland K, Neidell M, Rauh V, Perera F. Cost of developmental delay from prenatal exposure to airborne polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. (
  • Early life exposure to ambient polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can result in developmental delay. (
  • The negative health effects of PAHs have been well-documented but the cost of developmental delay due to PAH exposure has not been studied. (
  • Here we have used the cohort results to estimate the annual costs of preschool special education services for low-income NYC children with developmental delay due to PAH exposure using the Environmentally Attributable Fraction method. (
  • Associations between children's cognitive function and both maternal and child genotype at these loci can shed light on the effects of maternal alcohol consumption on offspring cognitive development. (
  • Exposure to secondhand smoke may increase the risk of cognitive impairment and dementia in adults 50 and over. (
  • This is important because we have data to indicate that untreated depression and anxiety may also have a negative effect on both cognitive and motor development. (
  • Effects of prenatal exposure to mercury on cognitive and psychomotor function in one-year-old infants: epidemiologic cohort study in Poland. (
  • ABSTRACT This article presents a reappraisal of the literature on the enduring cognitive effects of early malnutrition. (
  • The only cognitive processes for which enduring cognitive changes were demonstrated in rehabilitated animals - outside of effects mediated by these affective changes - are cognitive flexibility and, possibly, susceptibility to proactive interference. (
  • The findings add to previous research showing the harmful effects of air pollution on cognitive performance in children. (
  • 2018. The impact of exposure to air pollution on cognitive performance. (
  • The study followed an earlier study showing that exposure to traffic-related pollutants in schools was associated with slower cognitive development. (
  • 2017). Impact of commuting exposure to traffic-related air pollution on cognitive development in children walking to school . (
  • We have documented the effects of nicotine and selective nicotinic receptor subtype drugs on cognitive function including learning, memory and attention. (
  • With the exception of the increased odds of motor delay in the lowest PBO exposure group, prenatal exposure to PBO seems to have an impact on cognitive rather than motor development, which is quite worrisome because mental development scores are more predictive of school readiness. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: Findings document persistent neurotoxic effects of heavier prenatal MDMA exposure on motor development through the first year of life. (
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the neurotoxic effects of low-dose of cinnabar (10 mg/kg/day) on developing mice. (
  • Neurotoxic effects have also been linked to poisoning with OP pesticides causing four neurotoxic effects in humans: cholinergic syndrome, intermediate syndrome, organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy (OPIDP), and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder (COPIND). (
  • But the safety of these replacement insecticides remained unclear, as they had never been evaluated for long-term neurotoxic effects after low-level exposure. (
  • In utero exposure to maternal psychological distress is a risk factor for developmental psychopathology, and these effects are believed to partially occur via dysregulation of the maternal and fetal hypothalamus-adrenal-pituitary axes. (
  • These findings indicate that levels of growth factors and hormones are strongly associated with stem cell potential in human umbilical cord blood and point to a potential mechanism that may mediate the relationship between in utero exposure to hormones and cancer risk in the offspring. (
  • Giving an antiviral agent (such as AZT) to the mother and to the newborn could in theory decrease the risk of infection to the newborn by reducing the exposure of the fetus to maternal virus, or by preventive treatment of the fetus before exposure. (
  • Laws in 12 states ( see table, ) specify either that a child born exposed to drugs is presumed to be abused or neglected or that positive results from a toxicology test performed on a newborn or signs of prenatal drug exposure in newborns constitute evidence of child abuse or neglect. (
  • Research shows that there are critical windows of vulnerability during prenatal and early postnatal development, during which chemical exposures can cause potentially permanent damage to the growing embryo and fetus. (
  • Prenatal exposure to toxicants : developmental consequences / edited by Herbert L. Needleman and David Bellinger. (
  • Concern has been raised about possible unintended consequences (both positive and negative) of folic acid fortification and supplementation, as the pleiotropic effects of the folate pathway are yet to be fully elucidated. (
  • This White Paper therefore concludes that, as early development ( in utero and during the first years of postnatal life) is particularly sensitive to developmental disruption by nutritional factors or environmental chemical exposures, with potentially adverse consequences for health later in life, both research and disease prevention strategies should focus more on these vulnerable life stages. (
  • Thus, we studied the consequences of chronic prenatal exposure to CO on the cellular electrophysiological maturation (action potential [AP] and ionic currents) of rat hearts from birth to 2 months of age. (
  • This report also examines what is known about other risk factors that may amplify these effects or produce similar consequences. (
  • Cite this: The Neurodevelopmental Consequences of Prenatal Alcohol Exposure - Medscape - Aug 01, 2005. (
  • Professor of Medicine Karl-Heinz Krause, Geneva/Switzerland says: "This statement is misleading as long-term consequences of organophosphates poisoning include organophosphate-induced delayed polyneuropathy and chronic organophosphate-induced neuropsychiatric disorder. (
  • In the absence of RCTs, the most valuable evidence is provided by longitudinal studies with a wealth of baseline data and frequent followups which enable assessment of pet exposure prior to the outcome of allergic disease. (
  • The purpose of the National Children's Study (NCS) is to evaluate the health risks to children in this country from environmental exposures by using a longitudinal cohort design (Children's Health Act of 2000). (
  • If you tell me what you typically eat, I can tell you how high your pesticide exposure is likely to be. (
  • To examine possible effects on blood pressure, neurological function, and neurobehavioral tests in school-aged children with and without prenatal pesticide exposure in an area where stunting is common. (
  • Maternal interview included detailed assessment of occupational history to determine pesticide exposure during pregnancy. (
  • Recent and current pesticide exposure was assessed by erythrocyte acetylcholine esterase activity and urinary excretion of organophosphate metabolites. (
  • After confounder adjustment, prenatal pesticide exposure was associated with a higher systolic blood pressure than in the controls. (
  • The effects differ from those due to acute pesticide exposure. (
  • Certain reproductive effects in fertility, growth, and development for males and females have been linked specifically to OP pesticide exposure. (
  • In females menstrual cycle disturbances, longer pregnancies, spontaneous abortions, stillbirths, and some developmental effects in offspring have been linked to OP pesticide exposure. (
  • Preclinical studies found prenatal exposure related to long-term learning and memory impairments. (
  • We found prenatal SSRI exposure was nearly three times as likely in boys with ASD relative to those with typical development, with the greatest risk occurring when exposure took place during the first trimester," said Li-Ching Lee, psychiatric epidemiologist in the Bloomberg School's Department of Epidemiology. (
  • PRINCIPA CONCLUSIONS: The lasting functional changes caused by neurodevelopmental methylmercury toxicity fit into the pattern of functional programming, with effects opposite to those linked to beneficial stimuli. (
  • Prenatal alcohol exposure can cause life altering neurodevelopmental disabilities, referred to in the aggregate as Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Disorders (FASD). (
  • Meanwhile, consumer groups have raised questions about the potential link between mercury exposure and autism spectrum disorders as well as other adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. (
  • This study is investigating the neurodevelopmental effects of prenatal exposure to lamotrigine (LTG), sodium valproate (VPA), or carbamazepine (CBZ) monotherapies. (
  • ARND (Alcohol-Related Neurodevelopmental Disorder): does not include the facial characteristics and often does not include the growth delay. (
  • A new Spanish study shows a link between prenatal exposure to air pollution and changes in the corpus callosum, a region of the brain associated with neurodevelopmental disorders such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). (
  • Background: Exposure to organochlorine compounds (OCs) can alter thyroid function in humans, and hypothyroidism during early life can adversely affect a child's neurodevelopment. (
  • Cholesterol and ApoE are important in the neurodevelopment of the fetus (cholesterol is used in neuronal metabolism) and may serve as modifiers of the response to maternal nutrient intake or maternal exposure to neurotoxins. (
  • Prenatal exposure to organophosphates has been linked to neurodevelopment delays, lower IQ scores and attention problems. (
  • Our objective is to explore whether occupational exposure of pregnant women to solvents may impair the neurodevelopment of their babies and consequently affect their behavior in childhood. (
  • Only three epidemiological studies have explored the impact of prenatal exposure to solvents on human neurodevelopment. (
  • The investigators controlled for exposures to other pollutants, such as tobacco smoke and lead, which might have contributed to neurodevelopment problems. (
  • Children with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism or delayed puberty are more likely to develop neurodevelopment disorders, such as autism spectrum disorder, ADHD and intellectual disabilities, compared with those who undergo normal puberty, according to findings published in the Journal of Neuroendocrinology. (
  • Results: Adjustment for the benefits conferred by maternal fish intake during pregnancy resulted in an increased effect of the prenatal methylmercury exposure, as compared with the unadjusted results. (
  • Conclusions: In a large US farming population, early-life farm exposures, particularly maternal farming activities while pregnant, were strongly associated with reduced risk of atopy in adults. (
  • Conclusions: These results suggest that uncontrolled confounding from a beneficial parameter, and imprecision of this confounder, may cause substantial underestimation of the effects of a toxic exposure. (
  • CONCLUSIONS: The results may be of public health importance because delayed psychomotor or mental performance in infants is assumed to be an indicator of later neurocognitive development in children, which may persist into adult life. (
  • Conclusions- Prenatal CO exposure affects the physiological shortening of APD in neonatal rats. (
  • We know that ADHD is linked to substance use, but as is often the case with psychology research, there are some challenges in drawing conclusions about cause-and-effect. (
  • Neurobehavioral outcomes are usually non-specific, and imprecise exposure assessment results in a bias toward the null. (
  • Numerous studies have shown that prenatal lead exposure is associated with a variety of neurobehavioral and electrophysiologic abnormalities. (
  • According to the Institute of Medicine, "Of all the substances of abuse (including cocaine, heroin and marijuana), alcohol produces by far the most serious neurobehavioral effects in the fetus. (
  • At the same time, the brain depends on appropriate supplies of essential nutrients, and malnutrition, as apparent from stunted growth, may result in delayed neurobehavioral development. (
  • F1- and F2-Cin-V groups were found to increase brain Hg contents and prominent neurobehavioral defects compared with F1-C-V group, suggesting that the fetal brain was more susceptible to irreversible effects for cinnabar-induced damage. (
  • Fetal exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) has been associated with adverse neurobehavioral outcomes across the lifespan and can persist across multiple generations of offspring. (
  • The dietary questionnaire response is likely to be an imprecise proxy for the transfer of seafood nutrients to the fetus, and this imprecision may bias the confounder-adjusted mercury effect estimate. (
  • There are no studies of sequelae of prenatal MDMA exposure in humans, despite potential harmful effects to the fetus. (
  • instead, it raises the question of how society can best deal with the agonizing problem of prenatal substance abuse-a problem that poses serious risks to both a pregnant woman and her fetus. (
  • However, the possible effects of MEP appear to be limited to humans. (
  • [9] reviewing the evidence accumulated on a worldwide basis, the International Agency for Research on Cancer concluded in 2004 that "Involuntary smoking (exposure to secondhand or 'environmental' tobacco smoke) is carcinogenic to humans. (
  • These results provide a basis for prioritizing future primary studies regarding the endocrine disrupting properties of UOG air pollutants, including exposure research in wildlife and humans. (
  • But it's not at all clear whether a similar thing might happen in humans, and if so, whether such effects might contribute to autism. (
  • Studying the effects of poor nutrition in utero in humans, though, is obviously less straightforward. (
  • In this work, we review the scientific literature providing evidence that adult and early life exposure to chemicals associated with UOG operations can result in adverse reproductive health and developmental effects in humans. (
  • Poisoning through environmental chemicals has been with humans for a long time: from lead poisoning in ancient Rome over workplace exposure to mercury in 19th century Britain to multiple tragedies due to environmental poising in the 20th century. (
  • As phthalates are produced as bulk chemicals worldwide, these new findings raise concern about the safety of phthalate exposure for pregnant women and infants. (
  • Prenatal phthalate exposure and reduced masculine play in boys. (
  • 1975. [Effect of methyl parathion or zineb administration on the activity of some hepatic enzymes in rats]. (
  • 1944. The effect of the administration of sodium bromide to pregnant rats on the learning ability of offspring: IIL Three-table test. (
  • Delayed BDNF alterations in the prefrontal cortex of rats exposed to prenatal stress: preventive effect of lurasidone treatment during adolescence. (
  • Accordingly, exposure to stress during gestation in rats has a strong impact on development and can cause long-term abnormalities in adult behavior. (
  • Considering that neuronal plasticity has emerged as a major vulnerability element in psychiatric disorders, we investigated the postnatal developmental profile of Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor expression (BDNF), an important mediator for long-term functional deterioration associated to mental illness, in male and female rats following exposure to prenatal stress (PNS). (
  • Exposure to 2400 MHz induces oxidative stress in the brains and ovaries of female rats. (
  • The effects of long-term exposure to a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field on growth and pubertal development in female Wistar rats. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a 2450 MHz electromagnetic field (EMF) (wireless internet frequency) on the growth and development of female Wistar rats. (
  • Exposure to 2450 MHz EMF, particularly in the prenatal period, resulted in postnatal growth restriction and delayed puberty in female Wistar rats. (
  • The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of prenatal exposure to CO on cellular electrophysiological maturation in male Wistar rats. (
  • Prenatal exposure to VPA also causes weaker and delayed auditory cortex responses in rats. (
  • In this study, we document speech sound discrimination ability in VPA exposed rats and document the effect of extensive speech training on auditory cortex responses. (
  • Today researchers and clinicians are seeking the most sensitive means to indicate potential toxicity of chemicals in an attempt to prevent harmful human effects. (
  • Specific reproductive effect includes testicular toxicity, decreased testicular testosterone levels and inhibition of ovulation. (
  • Fetal exposure to CDFs cause placental lesions, kidney toxicity, fetal mortality, low birth weight, cleft palate, decreased thymus and lung weight, altered bone development and liver enzyme activity (ATSDR 1994b). (
  • However, typical human exposures occur at low to moderate doses. (
  • Growth delay may occur in the prenatal or postnatal period, or both. (
  • Prenatal factors , conditions that occur during pregnancy such as Rh incompatibility (blood incompatibility), viral infections, toxemia (toxic substances in the blood), and exposure to drugs may place children at risk. (
  • The presence of altered mental status (e.g., confusion and disorientation) and/or mydriasis is suggestive of true cyanide poisoning although these signs can occur with other toxic exposures as well. (
  • A key concept is that toxic effects may be manifest as subtle disturbances of behavior long before any classical symptoms of poisoning become apparent. (
  • A relatively recent study suggests that prenatal exposure to the toxic rice oil is associated with increased abnormal sperm morphology and reduced sperm motility (Guo, et al. (
  • Although cinnabar is supposed to have many therapeutic properties and is generally disregarded to result in significant mercury absorption from the gastrointestinal (G-I) tract following oral administration, its high mercury content highlights the need for studies on its possible toxic effects. (
  • Not all smoke inhalation victims will have cyanide poisoning and may present with burns, trauma, and exposure to other toxic substances making a diagnosis of cyanide poisoning particularly difficult. (
  • It is reassuring to find that prenatal exposure to antidepressants did not affect a child's behavior at age 7, however as with any medication, the benefits and risks but always be considered. (
  • BACKGROUND: Observational studies have generated conflicting evidence on the effects of moderate maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy on offspring cognition mainly reflecting problems of confounding. (
  • Claimed to be the largest of its kind, a new study 1 published in the Environmental Health Perspectives looked at the diets of nearly 4,500 people living in six US cities, assessing exposure levels to organophosphates (OPs), which are among the most commonly used insecticides on American farms. (
  • All G1 animals conceived and produced offspring (G2), the treatment of which resulted from continuous maternal exposure during pregnancy and lactation. (
  • C57BL/6J dams were exposed to BPA from preconception until lactation through the diet at doses (10 μg/kg bw/d-lower dose or 10 mg/kg bw/d-upper dose) representative of human exposure levels. (
  • Collectively, our results provide further support to the notion that exposure to early life stress has a negative impact on neuronal plasticity and that pharmacological intervention during critical time windows may prove effective in preventing neuroplastic dysfunction, leading to long-term beneficial effects on brain function. (
  • For example, research with nonhuman animals shows that the timing of brain plasticity in the visual system can be shifted forward or reopened after closure by pharmacological manipulations, and that total sensory deprivation from birth (i.e., dark rearing) can delay the onset and closure of relevant critical periods ( 11 ). (
  • Brain and ovary TOS and OSI values in the prenatal group were significantly increased (p (
  • Exposure is linked to Parkinson's disease, lung cancer, and brain damage in children. (
  • 13 ] also reported that long-term exposure to low dose of cinnabar (10 mg/kg/day, for more than 77 consecutive days) induced neurotoxicological effects, which were associated with significant Hg accumulation in the brain. (
  • Global brain volume was not affected by fetal exposure. (
  • However, several brain regions showed significantly thinner cortex - in particular, the precuneus and rostral middle frontal regions, which partially accounted for the observed association between fetal exposure to fine particles and impaired inhibitory control (the ability to control your own behavior, especially impulsive behavior). (
  • In the current study, an international team led by Dr. Hashimoto-Torii investigated Hsf-1 activation in different areas of the mouse brain to better understand the molecular and cellular events that underlie the neurobiological damage caused by exposure to alcohol and other harmful substances. (
  • Previous studies suggest that Hsf1 activation at certain levels protects brain cells by increasing their tolerance to harsh conditions in the prenatal environment. (
  • The researchers showed that dividing brain cells, with high levels of Hsf1 activation induced by alcohol exposure, became neurons but exhibited delayed migration. (
  • Delayed migration can alter the brain's neurocircuitry and cause less efficient communication among brain regions. (
  • This may be due to differences in exposure routes (inhalation and dermal absorption which circumvents liver detoxification in addition to oral) and metabolism, or this association could be spurious. (
  • Among the cardiovascular problems that may be caused by environmental exposures are abnormal anatomic development, dysrhythmias, conduction system defects, myocardial abnormalities, and derangements in blood pressure and cholesterol metabolism. (
  • CDFs also cause anemia, altered lipid metabolism, reduced muscle mass ('wasting syndrome') and altered immunological effect. (
  • Neurotoxicity of prenatal carbon monoxide exposure / Laurence D. Fechter. (
  • Developmental effects include low birth weight, premature birth, hyperpigmentation of the skin and nails, deformed nails, eye inflammation, acne, pneumonia and bronchitis in newborns, delayed development and decreased IQ (ATSDR 1994b). (
  • Functional teratogenesis : functional effects on the offspring after parental drug exposure / editors, Tomoko Fujii, Perrie M. Adams. (
  • Primed by inaccurate media reports, educators have begun attributing these behaviors, as well as a wide range of other behaviors and developmental delays, to the effects of prenatal drug exposure. (
  • Although prenatal drug exposure has captured a great deal of public attention, prenatal exposure to alcohol is more widespread and has perhaps an even more serious impact. (
  • Meanwhile, several states have expanded their child welfare laws to address prenatal drug exposure (treating the issue as a matter of civil rather than criminal law). (
  • 1 Tobacco smoking is an important source of chronic exposure to carbon monoxide (CO): CO contained in cigarette smoke (≈4%) easily crosses the placental barrier by passive diffusion, causing a 4-fold increase in carboxyhemoglobin levels in the umbilical cord blood. (
  • Prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), medications frequently prescribed to treat depression, anxiety and other mental-health disorders, is associated with a higher incidence of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and developmental delays (DD) in male children, a study of nearly 1,000 mother-child pairs has found. (
  • This study provides further evidence that in some children, prenatal exposure to SSRIs may influence their risk for developing an autism spectrum disorder," Hertz-Picciotto said. (
  • Prenatal exposure to plant emissions was measured by a biomarker of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure in umbilical cord blood. (
  • Children with developmental delays were exposed to 6.1 scans, and typically developing children were exposed to 6.3 scans, the researchers found. (
  • Increasing pre-kindergarten early literacy skills in children with developmental disabilities and delays. (
  • Principles for evaluating health risks to progeny associated with exposure to chemicals during pregnancy / published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organisation, and the World Health Organization. (
  • Many of the major diseases - and dysfunctions - that have increased substantially in prevalence over the last 40 years seem to be related in part to developmental factors associated with either nutritional imbalance or exposures to environmental chemicals. (
  • 14 Industrial chemicals are not routinely tested to identify such effects, and therefore the safety of currently used pesticides in this regard is unknown. (
  • Further, we recommend systematic reviews of the health impacts of exposure to specific chemicals, and comprehensive environmental sampling of a broader array of chemicals. (
  • Effects of environmental agents on the attainment of puberty: considerations when assessing exposure to environmental chemicals in the National Children's Study. (
  • The Exposure to Chemical Agents Working Group of the National Children's Study (NCS) presents an approach to assess exposure for chemicals that may affect the age of maturity in children. (
  • The analysis of environmental samples and use of questionnaire data are essential in the assessment of chemicals that cannot be measured in biologic specimens, and they can assist in the evaluation of exposure to nonpersistent chemicals. (
  • The NCS is uniquely poised to evaluate the effects of environmental chemicals on the age at puberty, and the above approach will allow the NCS to accomplish this task. (
  • These findings may contribute to the understanding of the effects of prenatal environment on the development of physiological systems that are important to coping with infectious challenges, and assist in understanding the limitations and precautions that should be taken in the use of SSRIs during pregnancy. (
  • In a recent study, Norwegian researchers took a new look at the effects of prenatal exposure to selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on motor development in children at three years of age. (
  • The authors concluded that prenatal exposure to SSRIs was weakly associated with delayed motor development in children at 3 years of age, "but not to the extent that the delay was of clinical importance. (
  • A study from the Norwegian Institute of Public Health looked at the effects of prenatal exposure to SSRIs on motor skill development at 3 years old in 51,404 children from the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study. (
  • Our results show that treatment with SSRIs during longer time periods in pregnancy was weakly associated with a delayed motor development at age three. (
  • Infections, lead poisoning, head injuries, and prenatal exposure to toxins are a few of the many possible environmental effects that may result in physiological abnormalities. (
  • One of the most visible effects of CDF exposure are skin and nail abnormalities, including nail loss, nail hemorrhage, skin lesions, absent or atrophied sebaceous glands, loss of eyelashes and fingernails. (
  • Some of these effects include delayed mental development, Pervasive developmental disorder (PDD), morphological abnormalities in the cerebral surface. (
  • Prenatal maternal organophosphorus pesticide exposures, paraoxonase 1, and childhood adiposity in the Mount Sinai Children's Environmental Health Study. (
  • Many environmental conditions believed to contribute to developmental delays are related to the socioeconomic status (SES) of children's families (Wachs & Gruen, 1982). (
  • We examined associations between weekly averaged prenatal PM2.5 levels and children's asthma using distributed lag models. (
  • Pregnant women's occupational exposure to solvents may affect their children's behavior in early childhood. (
  • Benefiting from a longer follow-up of the children up to school age, this study examines whether the impact of prenatal occupational exposure to organic solvents on the children's behavior persisted to age 6. (
  • The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health previously has reported the significant effect of prenatal exposure to ambient PAHs on delayed mental development at three years, using the Bayley Scales in a cohort of low-income women and children in New York City (NYC). (
  • Exposures to drugs, chemical and biological agents, therapeutic radiation, and other factors before and after birth can lead to pediatric or adult cardiovascular anomalies. (
  • In addition, biological and lifestyle factors can strongly affect cardiovascular health, sometimes by interacting with the effects of environmental exposures. (
  • Because studies assessing the effects of prenatal exposure to medication (or other environmental exposures) take decades to complete and because there are so many factors during pregnancy and after birth which may affect the child's development, our information regarding this important question is limited and sometimes difficult to interpret. (
  • Previous research has also highlighted that the severity and type of impact associated with prenatal alcohol exposure depends on several factors, including but not only related to metrics of alcohol exposure. (
  • To help prevent developmental delays from occurring, it is first necessary to develop an understanding of factors that place children at risk . (
  • Could prenatal ultrasounds, which have become more routine and more powerful, be one of those factors? (
  • The second chapter discusses environmental factors which, by themselves or in combination with the effects of prenatal exposure to alcohol or other drugs, can affect a child's development. (
  • Because of low rates of SSRI use during pregnancy and possible co-existing factors influencing susceptibility to ASD from SSRI exposure, any contribution of these medications to the increase in the prevalence of ASDs likely is minimal," Lee said. (
  • The approach of the NCS is to centralize its activities around hypotheses that evaluate the relationship between a wide array of environmental exposures (i.e., chemical, biologic, physical, and psychosocial factors) and priority health outcomes. (
  • This article presents a brief background on the factors associated with the age of maturity and discusses the assessment for exposure to environmental chemical agents in the developing child by using a life-stage approach. (
  • Early-life farm exposures and adult asthma and atopy in the Agricultural Lung Health Study. (
  • This study will focus on the APOE genotype as a genetic effect modifier. (
  • Thus, the goal of this study was to assess the effects of prenatal exposure to FLX on the response to an immune challenge in offspring mice. (
  • The study is the latest to link prenatal acetaminophen to developmental issues. (
  • The study does not prove that pyrethroids cause behavior problems, but the authors said their findings suggest that more research is needed to determine their potential effects on children. (
  • This is the firstlongitudinal study which investigates the effects of EMF induced by wireless internet on pubertal development beside growth. (
  • For example, the large Swedish study from Brown and colleagues published a few weeks ago did not show any association between prenatal SSRI exposure and risk for motor disorders in children up to 14 years of age. (
  • They conducted a population-based prospective pregnancy cohort study and attempted to take into consideration the effect of untreated maternal anxiety and depressive symptoms before, during, and after pregnancy. (
  • This is the first study to examine the effects of prenatal exposure to methamphetamine, marijuana, and cigarette smoking on human placental development. (
  • In our study, we assessed whether higher exposure to particulate air pollution at more specific time windows in pregnancy were particularly linked to higher asthma risk in urban children. (
  • As a nationally representative population study reported that 70% of French pregnant women work during their pregnancy [ 3 ], the issue of occupational solvent exposures in this population is particularly relevant in terms of public health. (
  • On almost every measure, prenatal ultrasounds didn't seem related to a risk of developing autism, a recent study finds. (
  • The study is one of four parallel international cohort studies being conducted by the CCCEH that examine the health effects of exposure of pregnant women and babies to indoor and outdoor air pollutants in urban areas. (
  • Ovary-intact sheep were used in a multigenerational study, to determine whether chronic exposure to low levels of estrogen disrupts reproductive function and behavior. (
  • After years of study, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) determined that there are no safe levels of exposure and was set to ban all uses of this pesticide in 2015. (
  • While the study included girls, the substantially stronger effect in boys suggests a possible gender difference in the effect of prenatal SSRI exposure, the authors said. (
  • An excellent example of such a study was performed by Ozanne and Hales (3), who demonstrated that mice that were undernourished prenatally had a 25% shorter life span than those that had not been undernourished before birth, and as such, the effects of dietary restriction in prenatal life were larger than those of postnatal diet. (
  • A Spanish study investigating the effects of traffic-related air pollution on children walking to school has found higher levels of particulate matter and black carbon were associated with decreased growth in working memory capacity. (
  • The strongest association was seen for having a mother who performed farm activities while pregnant (Odds Ratio=0.60, 95% Confidence Interval=0.48-0.74) and remained significant in models with correlated early-life exposures including early childhood farm animal contact and raw milk consumption. (
  • These fine particles, which are more likely to be inhaled deep into the lungs, have been linked to the greatest health risk and previous studies have suggested that effects on pregnant women can be transferred to the growing baby. (
  • The occupational exposure to solvents of the pregnant women was self-reported prospectively at the beginning of their pregnancy ( N = 715). (
  • Some states have attempted to criminalize prenatal drug use or treat it as grounds for terminating parental rights, while others have placed a priority on making drug treatment more readily available to pregnant women. (
  • WHO HQ Library catalog › Results of search for 'su:{Prenatal exposure delayed effects. (
  • RESULTS: Exposure to the farming environment in utero and in early childhood had little or no association with asthma but was associated with reduced odds of atopy. (
  • These results extend previous work done primarily on childhood outcomes and suggest that protective associations of early-life farming exposures on atopy endure across the life-course. (
  • Results indicated that prenatal FLX modulated aspects of the response to the endotoxin challenge. (
  • These results provide an indication that prenatal modulations of the serotonergic system had lasting implications for host response to an immune challenge. (
  • Exposure, especially in the prenatal period, results in delayed puberty and postnatal growth restriction. (
  • Differences in the timing of exposures between studies may also provide a reason for varied results. (
  • Results revealed both sexually dimorphic and interactive effects of prenatal cortisol and distress, even after controlling for postnatal distress. (
  • Criticism of the famine studies has always been that the circumstances existing during these hunger periods were extremely severe and must also have caused severe stress and other physical discomfort, making it difficult to determine whether any results of prenatal famine exposure can be attributed to the state of undernutrition per se. (
  • Results found that untreated prenatal depression (231 children) was associated with an increased risk of problem behavior in the children, hyperactivity, inattention, and peer problems. (
  • In evaluating the results, researchers controlled for gender, gestational age, ethnicity, maternal education and intelligence, quality of the home environment, and prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke and chlorpyrifos. (
  • While the results demonstrate that a significant prenatal exposure to permethrin in personal air and/or plasma was not associated with performance scores for the Bayley Mental Developmental Index or the Psychomotor Developmental Index at 36 months, children who were more highly exposed to PBO in personal air samples (≥4.34 ng/m3) scored 3.9 points lower on the Mental Developmental Index than those with lower exposures. (
  • Effects of barbiturates on behavior of rat offspring as measured in learning and reasoning situations. (
  • Increased externalizing behavior score at age 2 was associated with prenatal exposure to solvents (standardized score: 0.34 (95% CI = 0.11, 0.57) for occasional exposure and 0.26 (0.05, 0.48) for regular exposure). (
  • University of Rochester researchers and NIEHS grantees Shanna Swan, Ph.D., and Bernard Weiss, Ph.D., reported for the first time that prenatal exposure to phthalates causes reduced masculine behavior in boys. (
  • Where evidence about environmental exposures is limited, we have included models of disease and other exposures that are suggestive of the potential impact of environmental exposures. (
  • In areas in which direct evidence about environmental exposures is limited, models of disease and other types of exposures are often suggestive about the potential impact of environmental exposures. (
  • Findings demonstrate extensive evidence for poor global developmental outcomes in children prenatally exposed to alcohol, particularly with moderate to severe levels of prenatal alcohol exposure. (
  • Recent evidence suggests that children born with NAS may be at increased risk for developmental delays. (
  • Prolonged SSRI exposure was associated with a delay in fine motor development. (
  • After adjusting for symptoms of anxiety and depression in the mother before and during pregnancy, the researchers observed a small but statistically significant delay in fine motor development in SSRI-exposed children, odds ratio 1.42 (95% CI 1.07-1.87) compared to children with no SSRI exposure. (
  • This analysis suggests mechanisms by which SSRI exposure in utero may lead to congenital heart defects in infants. (
  • The research published today examines the effects SSRI use on the health of both the mother and the long term development of the child. (
  • Age dramatically delays the time if takes to recover the sense of taste following a significant nerve injury, Medical College of Georgia researchers said. (
  • Researchers found that when moms-to-be used the painkiller during the first trimester, their daughters were more likely to have language delays at age 2.5 years. (
  • Among these children, the researchers found significant associations between the marker of exposure in cord blood and delayed motor and average development at age two. (
  • The researchers discovered that in the first group of children, prenatal exposure to coal-burning emissions was linked with significantly lower average developmental scores and reduced motor development at age two. (
  • The researchers note that, in addition to alcohol and other environmental toxins, Hsf1 is activated by other substances and certain maternal biological processes in animal models, potentially amplifying the effects of alcohol exposure on fetal development. (
  • Methylmercury: A review of health hazards and side effects associated with the emission of mercury compounds into natural systems. (
  • Mercury is ubiquitous in the global environment, ensuring universal exposure. (
  • Despite or perhaps because of the lack of sufficient or consistent scientific data, public concern about a link between mercury exposure and developmental disabilities has been rising. (
  • The principal source of human exposure to organic mercury is fish consumption. (
  • METHODS: Mercury levels in cord and maternal blood at delivery were used to assess prenatal environmental exposure to mercury. (
  • Neurological effects include decreased activity and tremors at high doses. (
  • The Center's prior research findings have shown that exposure to air pollutants are associated with an increase in risk for developmental delays among children living in New York City. (
  • In earlier research, it was shown that exposure to air pollutants are linked with an increase in risk for developmental delays among children living in New York City and the new findings contribute to a further understanding of how air pollution impacts child health. (
  • For these reasons, we aimed to assess whether prenatal exposure to CO (a proxy of maternal smoking) could affect the electrophysiological maturation of the ventricular myocytes, eventually predisposing the heart to arrhythmias. (
  • As they assess the threat that prenatal exposure to alcohol and other drugs presents to children and schools, policy makers and practitioners must separate myth from fact. (
  • Fetal, early childhood, and adolescent environmental exposures can impair cardiovascular health and function. (
  • In age effect studies we have shown that adolescents self-administer greater amounts of nicotine than adults and that particularly in females greater adolescent-onset of nicotine self-administration continues into adulthood. (
  • Drinking of alcohol during pregnancy is known to have widespread negative effects on fetal growth and development ( 1 - 4 ). (
  • Opioid use during pregnancy has also been associated with other adverse health effects, including poor fetal growth, preterm birth, stillbirth , and specific birth defects . (
  • Prenatal exposure has been linked to impaired fetal growth and development. (