CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
'Infant, Premature, Diseases' refers to health conditions or abnormalities that specifically affect babies born before 37 weeks of gestation, often resulting from their immature organ systems and increased vulnerability due to preterm birth.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.
Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The sequence in which children are born into the family.
Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.
The lengths of intervals between births to women in the population.
Mechanical or anoxic trauma incurred by the infant during labor or delivery.
The offspring in multiple pregnancies (PREGNANCY, MULTIPLE): TWINS; TRIPLETS; QUADRUPLETS; QUINTUPLETS; etc.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Delivery of an infant through the vagina in a female who has had a prior cesarean section.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.

Maternal exposure to low-level air pollution and pregnancy outcomes: a population-based study. (1/1489)

BACKGROUND: Recent reports have shown that air pollution may increase the risk of adverse birth outcomes. We have evaluated the relationship between ambient air pollution and the occurrence of low birth weight and preterm delivery using routinely collected data in Lithuania. METHODS: This epidemiological study comprised all singleton newborns (N = 3,988), born to women in 1998, who resided in the City of Kaunas. Birth data and information on maternal characteristics were obtained from the Lithuanian National Birth Register. To estimate residential exposure levels, we used measurements of ambient nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and formaldehyde, which were collected at 12 monitoring posts. Multivariate logistic regression was used to estimate the effect that each pollutant would have on low birth weight (LBW) and premature birth while controlling for potential confounders. RESULTS: Adjusted odds ratios (OR) for LBW increased with increasing formaldehyde exposure (OR2nd tertile = 1.86, 95% CI 1.10-3.16; OR3rd tertile = 1.84, 95% CI 1.12-3.03). Adjusted ORs of preterm birth for the medium and high NO2 tertile exposures were OR = 1.14 (95% CI 0.77-1.68) and OR = 1.68 (95% CI 1.15-2.46), respectively. The risk of preterm birth increased by 25% (adjusted OR = 1.25, 95% CI 1.07-1.46) per 10 microg/m3 increase in NO2 concentrations. An analysis by trimester showed that pregnancy outcomes were associated with first-trimester exposure to air pollutants. However, there were no significant relationships in other pregnancy periods between preterm birth and exposure to formaldehyde or between LBW and NO2 exposure. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that in the City of Kaunas there might be a relationship between maternal exposure to ambient formaldehyde and the risk of LBW, as well as between NO2 exposure and the risk of preterm birth.  (+info)

A candidate gene association study on preterm delivery: application of high-throughput genotyping technology and advanced statistical methods. (2/1489)

Preterm delivery (PTD) is the leading cause of infant mortality and morbidity worldwide. The etiology of PTD is largely unknown but is believed to be complex, encompassing multiple genetic and environmental determinants. To date, reports of genetic studies on PTD are sparse. We conducted a large-scale case-control study exploring the associations of 426 single-nucleotide polymorphisms with PTD in 300 mothers with PTD and 458 mothers with term deliveries at the Boston Medical Center. Twenty-five candidate genes were included in the final haplotype analysis, and a significant association of F5 gene haplotype with PTD was revealed and remained significant after Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (P=0.025). We applied different statistical algorithms (both Gibbs sampling and expectation-maximization) in reconstructing haplotype phases and different tests (both likelihood ratio test and permutation test) in association analyses, and all yielded similar results. We also performed exploratory ethnicity-specific analyses, which confirmed the consistent findings of the F5 gene across the ethnic groups. Moreover, IL1R2 (P=0.002 in Blacks), NOS2A (P<0.001 in Whites) and OPRM1 (P=0.004 in Hispanics) gene haplotypes were associated with PTD in specific ethnic groups but not at global significance level. In summary, our results underscore the potentially important role of F5 gene variants in the pathogenesis of PTD, and demonstrate the utility of high-throughput genotyping and a haplotype-based approach in dissecting genetic basis of complex traits.  (+info)

Relation of cervical length at 22-24 weeks of gestation to demographic characteristics and obstetric history. (3/1489)

Preterm delivery is the main cause of neonatal death and ultrasonographic cervical assessment has been shown to be more accurate than digital examination in recognizing a short cervix. This is a cross-sectional study, involving 1131 women at 22-24 weeks of pregnancy, designed to determine the distribution of cervical length and to examine which variables of demographic characteristics and obstetric history increase the risk of a short cervix (15 mm or less). The distribution of maternal demographic and obstetric history characteristics among patients with cervical length pound 15 mm was analyzed and compared to the findings for the general population. Risk ratios (RR) between subgroups were generated from this comparison. Median cervical length was 37 mm and in 1.5% of cases it was 15 mm or less. The proportion of women with a short cervix (< or =15 mm) was significantly higher among patients with a low body mass index (RR = 3.5) and in those with previous fetal losses between 16-23 weeks (RR = 33.1) or spontaneous preterm deliveries between 24-32 weeks (RR = 14.1). We suggest that transvaginal sonographic measurement of cervical length be performed as part of a routine midtrimester ultrasound evaluation. There are specific variables of demographic characteristics and obstetric history which increase the risk of detecting a short cervix at 22-24 weeks.  (+info)

Nonnutritive swallowing and respiration relationships in preterm lambs. (4/1489)

The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of the different states of alertness on 1) nonnutritive swallowing (NNS) frequency, 2) the relationship between NNS and the respiratory cycle, and 3) the association of NNS with spontaneous apneas. Recordings of sleep states, diaphragm and laryngeal constrictor electrical activity, nasal flow, electrocardiogram, respiratory inductance plethysmography, and pulse oximetry were obtained from six preterm lambs without sedation. Analysis of 2,468 NNS showed that 1) NNS frequency was higher during quiet wakefulness and active sleep (AS) than in quiet sleep; 2) in all states of alertness, a greater number of NNS (38%) were preceded and followed by an inspiration; 3) although NNS and central apneas were rarely coincidental, AS appeared to favor their association; and 4) most obstructive apneas occurred in AS and were coincidental with bursts of NNS. Compared with results in full-term lambs, premature birth does not modify the NNS-respiratory coordination. However, AS in preterm lambs is characterized by a higher association of NNS bursts with obstructive apneas.  (+info)

Oxygen-sensitive Kv channel gene transfer confers oxygen responsiveness to preterm rabbit and remodeled human ductus arteriosus: implications for infants with patent ductus arteriosus. (5/1489)

BACKGROUND: Oxygen (O2)-sensitive K+ channels mediate acute O2 sensing in many tissues. At birth, initial functional closure of the ductus arteriosus (DA) results from O2-induced vasoconstriction. This mechanism often fails in premature infants, resulting in persistent DA, a common form of congenital heart disease. We hypothesized that the basis for impaired O2 constriction in preterm DA is reduced expression and function of O2-sensitive, voltage-gated (Kv) channels. METHODS AND RESULTS: Preterm rabbit DA rings have reduced O2 constriction (even after inhibition of prostaglandin and nitric oxide synthases), and preterm DA smooth muscle cells (DASMCs) display reduced O2-sensitive K+ current. This is associated with decreased mRNA and protein expression of certain O2-sensitive Kv channels (Kv1.5 and Kv2.1) but equivalent expression of the L-type calcium channel. Transmural Kv1.5 or Kv2.1 gene transfer "rescues" the developmental deficiency, conferring O2 responsiveness to preterm rabbit DAs. Targeted SMC Kv1.5 gene transfer also enhances O2 constriction in human DAs. CONCLUSIONS: These data demonstrate a central role for developmentally regulated DASMC O2-sensitive Kv channels in the functional closure of the DA. Modulation of Kv channels may have therapeutic potential in diseases associated with impaired O2 responsiveness, including persistent DA.  (+info)

Lung volumes and alveolar expansion pattern in immature rabbits treated with serum-diluted surfactant. (6/1489)

In acute respiratory distress syndrome, mechanical ventilation often induces alveolar overdistension aggravating the primary insult. To examine the mechanism of overdistension, surfactant-deficient immature rabbits were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium, and their lungs were treated with serum-diluted modified natural surfactant (porcine lung extract; 2 mg/ml, 10 ml/kg). By mechanical ventilation with a peak inspiration pressure of 22.5 cm H2O, the animals had a tidal volume of 14.7 ml/kg (mean), when 2.5 cm H2O positive end-expiratory pressure was added. This volume was similar to that in animals treated with nondiluted modified natural surfactant (24 mg/ml in Ringer solution, 10 ml/kg). However, the lungs fixed at 10 cm H2O on the deflation limbs of the pressure-volume curve had the largest alveolar/alveolar duct profiles (> or =48,000 microm2), accounting for 38% of the terminal air spaces, and the smallest (<6,000 microm2), accounting for 31%. These values were higher than those in animals treated with nondiluted modified natural surfactant (P <0.05). We conclude that administration of serum-diluted surfactant to immature neonatal lungs leads to patchy overdistension of terminal air spaces, similar to the expansion pattern that may be seen after dilution of endogenous surfactant with proteinaceous edema fluid in acute respiratory distress syndrome.  (+info)

Jail incarceration and birth outcomes. (7/1489)

This study examined the relationships between jail incarceration during pregnancy and infant birth weight, preterm birth, and fetal growth restriction. We used multivariate regression analyses to compare outcomes for 496 births to women who were in jail for part of pregnancy with 4,960 Medicaid-funded births as matched community controls. After adjusting for potential confounding variables, the relationship between jail incarceration and birth outcomes was modified by maternal age. Relative to controls, women incarcerated during pregnancy had progressively higher odds of low birth weight and preterm birth through age 39 years; conversely, jail detainees older than 39 years were less likely than controls to experience low birth weight or preterm birth. For women in jail at all ages, postrelease maternity case management was associated with decreased odds of low birth weight, whereas prenatal care was associated with decreased odds of preterm birth. Local jails are important sites for public health intervention. Efforts to ensure that all pregnant women released from jail have access to enhanced prenatal health services may improve perinatal outcomes for this group of particularly vulnerable women and infants.  (+info)

Paternal occupational exposure to 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin and birth outcomes of offspring: birth weight, preterm delivery, and birth defects. (8/1489)

Agent Orange is a phenoxy herbicide that was contaminated with 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD). We studied pregnancy outcomes among wives of male chemical workers who were highly exposed to chemicals contaminated with TCDD and among wives of nonexposed neighborhood referents. For exposed pregnancies, we estimated serum TCDD concentration at the time of conception using a pharmacokinetic model. The mean TCDD concentration for workers' births was 254 pg/g lipid (range, 3-16,340 pg/g). The mean referent concentration of 6 pg/g was assigned to pregnancies fathered by workers before exposure. A total of 1,117 live singleton births of 217 referent wives and 176 worker wives were included. Only full-term births were included in the birth weight analysis (greater than or equal to 37 weeks of gestation). Mean birth weight among full-term babies was similar among referents' babies (n = 604), preexposure workers' babies (n = 221), and exposed workers' babies (n = 292) (3,420, 3,347, and 3,442 g, respectively). Neither continuous nor categorical TCDD concentration had an effect on birth weight for term infants after adjustment for infant sex, mother's education, parity, prenatal cigarette smoking, and gestation length. An analysis to estimate potential direct exposure of the wives during periods of workers' exposure yielded a nonstatistically significant increase in infant birth weight of 130 g in the highest exposure group (TCDD concentration > 254 pg/g) compared with referents (p = 0.09). Mothers' reports of preterm delivery showed a somewhat protective association with paternal TCDD (log) concentration (odds ratio = 0.8; 95% confidence interval, 0.6-1.1). We also include descriptive information on reported birth defects. Because the estimated TCDD concentrations in this population were much higher than in other studies, the results indicate that TCDD is unlikely to increase the risk of low birth weight or preterm delivery through a paternal mechanism. Key words: birth defects, birth weight, congenital anomalies, dioxin, occupation, paternal exposure, preterm birth, TCDD.  (+info)

A premature birth is defined as the delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation. This can occur spontaneously or as a result of medical intervention due to maternal or fetal complications. Premature babies, also known as preemies, may face various health challenges depending on how early they are born and their weight at birth. These challenges can include respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, issues with feeding and digestion, developmental delays, and vision problems. With advancements in medical care and neonatal intensive care units (NICUs), many premature babies survive and go on to lead healthy lives.

A premature infant is a baby born before 37 weeks of gestation. They may face various health challenges because their organs are not fully developed. The earlier a baby is born, the higher the risk of complications. Prematurity can lead to short-term and long-term health issues, such as respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, anemia, infections, hearing problems, vision problems, developmental delays, and cerebral palsy. Intensive medical care and support are often necessary for premature infants to ensure their survival and optimal growth and development.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Pregnancy is a physiological state or condition where a fertilized egg (zygote) successfully implants and grows in the uterus of a woman, leading to the development of an embryo and finally a fetus. This process typically spans approximately 40 weeks, divided into three trimesters, and culminates in childbirth. Throughout this period, numerous hormonal and physical changes occur to support the growing offspring, including uterine enlargement, breast development, and various maternal adaptations to ensure the fetus's optimal growth and well-being.

Premature obstetric labor, also known as preterm labor, is defined as regular contractions leading to cervical changes that begin before 37 weeks of gestation. This condition can result in premature birth and potentially complications for the newborn, depending on how early the delivery occurs. It's important to note that premature labor requires medical attention and intervention to try to stop or delay it, if possible, to allow for further fetal development.

Birth weight refers to the first weight of a newborn infant, usually taken immediately after birth. It is a critical vital sign that indicates the baby's health status and is used as a predictor for various short-term and long-term health outcomes.

Typically, a full-term newborn's weight ranges from 5.5 to 8.8 pounds (2.5 to 4 kg), although normal birth weights can vary significantly based on factors such as gestational age, genetics, maternal health, and nutrition. Low birth weight is defined as less than 5.5 pounds (2.5 kg), while high birth weight is greater than 8.8 pounds (4 kg).

Low birth weight babies are at a higher risk for various medical complications, including respiratory distress syndrome, jaundice, infections, and developmental delays. High birth weight babies may face challenges with delivery, increased risk of obesity, and potential metabolic issues later in life. Regular prenatal care is essential to monitor fetal growth and ensure a healthy pregnancy and optimal birth weight for the baby.

Low birth weight is a term used to describe babies who are born weighing less than 5 pounds, 8 ounces (2,500 grams). It's often defined as a birth weight of 2,499 grams or less. This can be further categorized into very low birth weight (less than 1,500 grams) and extremely low birth weight (less than 1,000 grams). Low birth weight is most commonly caused by premature birth, but it can also be caused by growth restriction in the womb. These babies are at risk for numerous health complications, both in the short and long term.

Gestational age is the length of time that has passed since the first day of the last menstrual period (LMP) in pregnant women. It is the standard unit used to estimate the age of a pregnancy and is typically expressed in weeks. This measure is used because the exact date of conception is often not known, but the start of the last menstrual period is usually easier to recall.

It's important to note that since ovulation typically occurs around two weeks after the start of the LMP, gestational age is approximately two weeks longer than fetal age, which is the actual time elapsed since conception. Medical professionals use both gestational and fetal age to track the development and growth of the fetus during pregnancy.

Pregnancy outcome refers to the final result or status of a pregnancy, including both the health of the mother and the newborn baby. It can be categorized into various types such as:

1. Live birth: The delivery of one or more babies who show signs of life after separation from their mother.
2. Stillbirth: The delivery of a baby who has died in the womb after 20 weeks of pregnancy.
3. Miscarriage: The spontaneous loss of a pregnancy before the 20th week.
4. Abortion: The intentional termination of a pregnancy before the fetus can survive outside the uterus.
5. Ectopic pregnancy: A pregnancy that develops outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tube, which is not viable and requires medical attention.
6. Preterm birth: The delivery of a baby before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to various health issues for the newborn.
7. Full-term birth: The delivery of a baby between 37 and 42 weeks of gestation.
8. Post-term pregnancy: The delivery of a baby after 42 weeks of gestation, which may increase the risk of complications for both mother and baby.

The pregnancy outcome is influenced by various factors such as maternal age, health status, lifestyle habits, genetic factors, and access to quality prenatal care.

Congenital abnormalities, also known as birth defects, are structural or functional anomalies that are present at birth. These abnormalities can develop at any point during fetal development, and they can affect any part of the body. They can be caused by genetic factors, environmental influences, or a combination of both.

Congenital abnormalities can range from mild to severe and may include structural defects such as heart defects, neural tube defects, and cleft lip and palate, as well as functional defects such as intellectual disabilities and sensory impairments. Some congenital abnormalities may be visible at birth, while others may not become apparent until later in life.

In some cases, congenital abnormalities may be detected through prenatal testing, such as ultrasound or amniocentesis. In other cases, they may not be diagnosed until after the baby is born. Treatment for congenital abnormalities varies depending on the type and severity of the defect, and may include surgery, therapy, medication, or a combination of these approaches.

I. Definition:

An abortion in a veterinary context refers to the intentional or unintentional termination of pregnancy in a non-human animal before the fetus is capable of surviving outside of the uterus. This can occur spontaneously (known as a miscarriage) or be induced through medical intervention (induced abortion).

II. Common Causes:

Spontaneous abortions may result from genetic defects, hormonal imbalances, infections, exposure to toxins, trauma, or other maternal health issues. Induced abortions are typically performed for population control, humane reasons (such as preventing the birth of a severely deformed or non-viable fetus), or when the pregnancy poses a risk to the mother's health.

III. Methods:

Veterinarians may use various methods to induce abortion depending on the species, stage of gestation, and reason for the procedure. These can include administering drugs that stimulate uterine contractions (such as prostaglandins), physically removing the fetus through surgery (dilation and curettage or hysterectomy), or using techniques specific to certain animal species (e.g., intrauterine infusion of hypertonic saline in equids).

IV. Ethical Considerations:

The ethics surrounding veterinary abortions are complex and multifaceted, often involving considerations related to animal welfare, conservation, population management, and human-animal relationships. Veterinarians must weigh these factors carefully when deciding whether to perform an abortion and which method to use. In some cases, legal regulations may also influence the decision-making process.

V. Conclusion:

Abortion in veterinary medicine is a medical intervention that can be used to address various clinical scenarios, ranging from unintentional pregnancy loss to deliberate termination of pregnancy for humane or population control reasons. Ethical considerations play a significant role in the decision-making process surrounding veterinary abortions, and veterinarians must carefully evaluate each situation on a case-by-case basis.

A "premature infant" is a newborn delivered before 37 weeks of gestation. They are at greater risk for various health complications and medical conditions compared to full-term infants, due to their immature organ systems and lower birth weight. Some common diseases and health issues that premature infants may face include:

1. Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS): A lung disorder caused by the lack of surfactant, a substance that helps keep the lungs inflated. Premature infants, especially those born before 34 weeks, are at higher risk for RDS.
2. Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH): Bleeding in the brain's ventricles, which can lead to developmental delays or neurological issues. The risk of IVH is inversely proportional to gestational age, meaning that the earlier the infant is born, the higher the risk.
3. Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC): A gastrointestinal disease where the intestinal tissue becomes inflamed and can die. Premature infants are at greater risk for NEC due to their immature digestive systems.
4. Jaundice: A yellowing of the skin and eyes caused by an accumulation of bilirubin, a waste product from broken-down red blood cells. Premature infants may have higher rates of jaundice due to their liver's immaturity.
5. Infections: Premature infants are more susceptible to infections because of their underdeveloped immune systems. Common sources of infection include the mother's genital tract, bloodstream, or hospital environment.
6. Anemia: A condition characterized by a low red blood cell count or insufficient hemoglobin. Premature infants may develop anemia due to frequent blood sampling, rapid growth, or inadequate erythropoietin production.
7. Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP): An eye disorder affecting premature infants, where abnormal blood vessel growth occurs in the retina. Severe ROP can lead to vision loss or blindness if not treated promptly.
8. Developmental Delays: Premature infants are at risk for developmental delays due to their immature nervous systems and environmental factors such as sensory deprivation or separation from parents.
9. Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA): A congenital heart defect where the ductus arteriosus, a blood vessel that connects two major arteries in the fetal heart, fails to close after birth. Premature infants are at higher risk for PDA due to their immature cardiovascular systems.
10. Hypothermia: Premature infants have difficulty maintaining body temperature and are at risk for hypothermia, which can lead to increased metabolic demands, poor feeding, and infection.

Pregnancy complications refer to any health problems that arise during pregnancy which can put both the mother and the baby at risk. These complications may occur at any point during the pregnancy, from conception until childbirth. Some common pregnancy complications include:

1. Gestational diabetes: a type of diabetes that develops during pregnancy in women who did not have diabetes before becoming pregnant.
2. Preeclampsia: a pregnancy complication characterized by high blood pressure and damage to organs such as the liver or kidneys.
3. Placenta previa: a condition where the placenta covers the cervix, which can cause bleeding and may require delivery via cesarean section.
4. Preterm labor: when labor begins before 37 weeks of gestation, which can lead to premature birth and other complications.
5. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR): a condition where the fetus does not grow at a normal rate inside the womb.
6. Multiple pregnancies: carrying more than one baby, such as twins or triplets, which can increase the risk of premature labor and other complications.
7. Rh incompatibility: a condition where the mother's blood type is different from the baby's, which can cause anemia and jaundice in the newborn.
8. Pregnancy loss: including miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy, which can be emotionally devastating for the parents.

It is important to monitor pregnancy closely and seek medical attention promptly if any concerning symptoms arise. With proper care and management, many pregnancy complications can be treated effectively, reducing the risk of harm to both the mother and the baby.

Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) is a chronic lung disease that primarily affects premature infants. It is defined as the need for supplemental oxygen at 28 days of life or beyond, due to abnormal development and injury to the lungs.

The condition was first described in the 1960s, following the introduction of mechanical ventilation and high concentrations of oxygen therapy for premature infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). These treatments, while lifesaving, can also cause damage to the delicate lung tissue, leading to BPD.

The pathogenesis of BPD is complex and involves an interplay between genetic factors, prenatal exposures, and postnatal injury from mechanical ventilation and oxygen toxicity. Inflammation, oxidative stress, and impaired lung development contribute to the development of BPD.

Infants with BPD typically have abnormalities in their airways, alveoli (air sacs), and blood vessels in the lungs. These changes can lead to symptoms such as difficulty breathing, wheezing, coughing, and poor growth. Treatment may include oxygen therapy, bronchodilators, corticosteroids, diuretics, and other medications to support lung function and minimize complications.

The prognosis for infants with BPD varies depending on the severity of the disease and associated medical conditions. While some infants recover completely, others may have long-term respiratory problems that require ongoing management.

Fetal death, also known as stillbirth or intrauterine fetal demise, is defined as the death of a fetus at 20 weeks of gestation or later. The criteria for defining fetal death may vary slightly by country and jurisdiction, but in general, it refers to the loss of a pregnancy after the point at which the fetus is considered viable outside the womb.

Fetal death can occur for a variety of reasons, including chromosomal abnormalities, placental problems, maternal health conditions, infections, and umbilical cord accidents. In some cases, the cause of fetal death may remain unknown.

The diagnosis of fetal death is typically made through ultrasound or other imaging tests, which can confirm the absence of a heartbeat or movement in the fetus. Once fetal death has been diagnosed, medical professionals will work with the parents to determine the best course of action for managing the pregnancy and delivering the fetus. This may involve waiting for labor to begin naturally, inducing labor, or performing a cesarean delivery.

Experiencing a fetal death can be a very difficult and emotional experience for parents, and it is important for them to receive supportive care from their healthcare providers, family members, and friends. Grief counseling and support groups may also be helpful in coping with the loss.

Spontaneous abortion, also known as miscarriage, is the unintentional expulsion of a nonviable fetus from the uterus before the 20th week of gestation. It is a common complication of early pregnancy, with most miscarriages occurring during the first trimester. Spontaneous abortion can have various causes, including chromosomal abnormalities, maternal health conditions, infections, hormonal imbalances, and structural issues of the uterus or cervix. In many cases, the exact cause may remain unknown.

The symptoms of spontaneous abortion can vary but often include vaginal bleeding, which may range from light spotting to heavy bleeding; abdominal pain or cramping; and the passing of tissue or clots from the vagina. While some miscarriages occur suddenly and are immediately noticeable, others may progress slowly over several days or even weeks.

In medical practice, healthcare providers often use specific terminology to describe different stages and types of spontaneous abortion. For example:

* Threatened abortion: Vaginal bleeding during early pregnancy, but the cervix remains closed, and there is no evidence of fetal demise or passing of tissue.
* Inevitable abortion: Vaginal bleeding with an open cervix, indicating that a miscarriage is imminent or already in progress.
* Incomplete abortion: The expulsion of some but not all products of conception from the uterus, requiring medical intervention to remove any remaining tissue.
* Complete abortion: The successful passage of all products of conception from the uterus, often confirmed through an ultrasound or pelvic examination.
* Missed abortion: The death of a fetus in the uterus without any expulsion of the products of conception, which may be discovered during routine prenatal care.
* Septic abortion: A rare and life-threatening complication of spontaneous abortion characterized by infection of the products of conception and the surrounding tissues, requiring prompt medical attention and antibiotic treatment.

Healthcare providers typically monitor patients who experience a spontaneous abortion to ensure that all products of conception have been expelled and that there are no complications, such as infection or excessive bleeding. In some cases, medication or surgical intervention may be necessary to remove any remaining tissue or address other issues related to the miscarriage. Counseling and support services are often available for individuals and couples who experience a spontaneous abortion, as they may face emotional challenges and concerns about future pregnancies.

Infant Mortality is the death of a baby before their first birthday. The infant mortality rate is typically expressed as the number of deaths per 1,000 live births. This is a key indicator of the overall health of a population and is often used to measure the well-being of children in a society.

Infant mortality can be further categorized into neonatal mortality (death within the first 28 days of life) and postneonatal mortality (death after 28 days of life but before one year). The main causes of infant mortality vary by country and region, but generally include premature birth, low birth weight, congenital anomalies, sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS), and infectious diseases.

Reducing infant mortality is a major public health goal for many countries, and efforts to improve maternal and child health, access to quality healthcare, and socioeconomic conditions are crucial in achieving this goal.

Small for Gestational Age (SGA) is a term used in pediatrics to describe newborn infants who are smaller in size than expected for the number of weeks they have been in the womb. It is typically defined as a baby whose weight is below the 10th percentile for its gestational age. SGA can be further classified into two categories: constitutionally small (also known as physiologically small) and pathologically small. Constitutionally small infants are those who are genetically predisposed to being smaller, while pathologically small infants have a growth restriction due to factors such as placental insufficiency, maternal hypertension, or chromosomal abnormalities.

It is important to note that SGA is not the same as premature birth. Premature babies are those born before 37 weeks of gestation, regardless of their size. However, a baby can be both premature and SGA.

Infectious pregnancy complications refer to infections that occur during pregnancy and can affect the mother, fetus, or both. These infections can lead to serious consequences such as preterm labor, low birth weight, birth defects, stillbirth, or even death. Some common infectious agents that can cause pregnancy complications include:

1. Bacteria: Examples include group B streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes, which can cause sepsis, meningitis, or pneumonia in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.
2. Viruses: Examples include cytomegalovirus, rubella, varicella-zoster, and HIV, which can cause congenital anomalies, developmental delays, or transmission of the virus to the fetus.
3. Parasites: Examples include Toxoplasma gondii, which can cause severe neurological damage in the fetus if transmitted during pregnancy.
4. Fungi: Examples include Candida albicans, which can cause fungal infections in the mother and lead to preterm labor or stillbirth.

Preventive measures such as vaccination, good hygiene practices, and avoiding high-risk behaviors can help reduce the risk of infectious pregnancy complications. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of infections during pregnancy are also crucial to prevent adverse outcomes.

Respiratory Distress Syndrome (RDS), Newborn is a common lung disorder in premature infants. It occurs when the lungs lack a substance called surfactant, which helps keep the tiny air sacs in the lungs open. This results in difficulty breathing and oxygenation, causing symptoms such as rapid, shallow breathing, grunting noises, flaring of the nostrils, and retractions (the skin between the ribs pulls in with each breath). RDS is more common in infants born before 34 weeks of gestation and is treated with surfactant replacement therapy, oxygen support, and mechanical ventilation if necessary. In severe cases, it can lead to complications such as bronchopulmonary dysplasia or even death.

"Newborn animals" refers to the very young offspring of animals that have recently been born. In medical terminology, newborns are often referred to as "neonates," and they are classified as such from birth until about 28 days of age. During this time period, newborn animals are particularly vulnerable and require close monitoring and care to ensure their survival and healthy development.

The specific needs of newborn animals can vary widely depending on the species, but generally, they require warmth, nutrition, hydration, and protection from harm. In many cases, newborns are unable to regulate their own body temperature or feed themselves, so they rely heavily on their mothers for care and support.

In medical settings, newborn animals may be examined and treated by veterinarians to ensure that they are healthy and receiving the care they need. This can include providing medical interventions such as feeding tubes, antibiotics, or other treatments as needed to address any health issues that arise. Overall, the care and support of newborn animals is an important aspect of animal medicine and conservation efforts.

The birth rate is the number of live births that occur in a population during a specific period, usually calculated as the number of live births per 1,000 people per year. It is an important demographic indicator used to measure the growth or decline of a population over time. A higher birth rate indicates a younger population and faster population growth, while a lower birth rate suggests an older population and slower growth.

The birth rate can be affected by various factors, including socioeconomic conditions, cultural attitudes towards childbearing, access to healthcare services, and government policies related to family planning and reproductive health. It is also influenced by the age structure of the population, as women in their reproductive years (typically ages 15-49) are more likely to give birth.

It's worth noting that while the birth rate is an important indicator of population growth, it does not provide a complete picture of fertility rates or demographic trends. Other measures, such as the total fertility rate (TFR), which estimates the average number of children a woman would have during her reproductive years, are also used to analyze fertility patterns and population dynamics.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Retrospective studies, also known as retrospective research or looking back studies, are a type of observational study that examines data from the past to draw conclusions about possible causal relationships between risk factors and outcomes. In these studies, researchers analyze existing records, medical charts, or previously collected data to test a hypothesis or answer a specific research question.

Retrospective studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying trends, but they have limitations compared to prospective studies, which follow participants forward in time from exposure to outcome. Retrospective studies are subject to biases such as recall bias, selection bias, and information bias, which can affect the validity of the results. Therefore, retrospective studies should be interpreted with caution and used primarily to generate hypotheses for further testing in prospective studies.

Birth order is a term that refers to the sequence in which a person is born in their family, specifically in relation to their siblings. It is used in psychology and sociology to describe the various personality traits, behaviors, and developmental milestones that have been associated with being the firstborn, middle child, youngest child, or an only child.

For example, some studies suggest that firstborn children tend to be more responsible, achievement-oriented, and socially dominant than their younger siblings, while later-born children may be more easygoing, adventurous, and rebellious. However, it's important to note that these patterns are not universal and can be influenced by a variety of factors, including family size, spacing between siblings, gender, parenting style, and individual temperament.

Overall, birth order is just one factor among many that contribute to a person's development and identity, and should not be used as a definitive predictor of their traits or behaviors.

A birth certificate is an official document that serves as legal proof of a person's birth and provides important information about the individual, including their full name, date and place of birth, sex, parents' names, and other identifying details. In medical terms, a birth certificate may be used to establish a patient's identity, age, and other relevant demographic information.

Birth certificates are typically issued by the government agency responsible for vital records in the jurisdiction where the individual was born, such as a state or county health department. They are considered legal documents and are often required for various purposes, such as enrolling in school, applying for a passport, or obtaining government benefits.

It is important to note that birth certificates may be amended or corrected if there are errors or discrepancies in the information they contain. In some cases, individuals may also need to obtain certified copies of their birth certificate from the appropriate government agency in order to provide proof of their identity or other personal information.

Birth intervals refer to the length of time between the birth of one child and the conception of the next child. It is the duration from the delivery of one baby to the initiation of the pregnancy that results in another birth. This interval is an essential measure in reproductive health, as it can impact the health and well-being of both the mother and the children.

The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends a minimum birth interval of 24 months between pregnancies to reduce the risk of adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes. Shorter birth intervals are associated with increased risks for preterm birth, low birth weight, small for gestational age, and neonatal mortality. Additionally, short birth intervals can also negatively affect the mother's health, increasing the risk of maternal depletion syndrome, which may lead to nutritional deficiencies, anemia, and fatigue.

Birth intervals are influenced by various factors, including cultural norms, socioeconomic status, access to family planning services, and individual preferences. Encouraging longer birth intervals through improved access to family planning resources and education can contribute to better maternal and child health outcomes.

Birth injuries refer to damages or injuries that a baby suffers during the birthing process. These injuries can result from various factors, such as mechanical forces during delivery, medical negligence, or complications during pregnancy or labor. Some common examples of birth injuries include:

1. Brachial plexus injuries: Damage to the nerves that control movement and feeling in the arms and hands, often caused by excessive pulling or stretching during delivery.
2. Cephalohematoma: A collection of blood between the skull and the periosteum (the membrane covering the bone), usually caused by trauma during delivery.
3. Caput succedaneum: Swelling of the soft tissues of the baby's scalp, often resulting from pressure on the head during labor and delivery.
4. Fractures: Broken bones, such as a clavicle or skull fracture, can occur due to mechanical forces during delivery.
5. Intracranial hemorrhage: Bleeding in or around the brain, which can result from trauma during delivery or complications like high blood pressure in the mother.
6. Perinatal asphyxia: A lack of oxygen supply to the baby before, during, or immediately after birth, which can lead to brain damage and other health issues.
7. Subconjunctival hemorrhage: Bleeding under the conjunctiva (the clear membrane covering the eye), often caused by pressure on the head during delivery.
8. Spinal cord injuries: Damage to the spinal cord, which can result in paralysis or other neurological issues, may occur due to excessive force during delivery or medical negligence.

It's important to note that some birth injuries are unavoidable and may not be a result of medical malpractice. However, if a healthcare provider fails to provide the standard of care expected during pregnancy, labor, or delivery, they may be held liable for any resulting injuries.

Medical definitions of "Multiple Birth Offspring" refer to two or more children born to the same mother during one single pregnancy and childbirth. The most common forms of multiple birth offspring are twins (two babies), triplets (three babies), quadruplets (four babies), and so on.

The occurrence of multiple birth offspring is influenced by several factors, including genetics, maternal age, the use of fertility treatments, and other medical conditions. Multiple birth offspring may be identical (monozygotic) or fraternal (dizygotic), depending on whether they developed from a single fertilized egg or from separate eggs.

Multiple birth offspring often face unique health challenges, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and developmental delays, due to the limited space and resources available in the womb. As a result, they may require specialized medical care and attention both during and after pregnancy.

Maternal age is a term used to describe the age of a woman at the time she becomes pregnant or gives birth. It is often used in medical and epidemiological contexts to discuss the potential risks, complications, and outcomes associated with pregnancy and childbirth at different stages of a woman's reproductive years.

Advanced maternal age typically refers to women who become pregnant or give birth at 35 years of age or older. This group faces an increased risk for certain chromosomal abnormalities, such as Down syndrome, and other pregnancy-related complications, including gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and cesarean delivery.

On the other end of the spectrum, adolescent pregnancies (those that occur in women under 20 years old) also come with their own set of potential risks and complications, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and anemia.

It's important to note that while maternal age can influence pregnancy outcomes, many other factors – including genetics, lifestyle choices, and access to quality healthcare – can also play a significant role in determining the health of both mother and baby during pregnancy and childbirth.

"Delivery, Obstetric" is a medical term that refers to the process of giving birth to a baby. It involves the passage of the fetus through the mother's vagina or via Caesarean section (C-section), which is a surgical procedure.

The obstetric delivery process typically includes three stages:

1. The first stage begins with the onset of labor and ends when the cervix is fully dilated.
2. The second stage starts with full dilation of the cervix and ends with the birth of the baby.
3. The third stage involves the delivery of the placenta, which is the organ that provides oxygen and nutrients to the developing fetus during pregnancy.

Obstetric delivery requires careful monitoring and management by healthcare professionals to ensure the safety and well-being of both the mother and the baby. Various interventions and techniques may be used during the delivery process to facilitate a safe and successful outcome, including the use of medications, assisted delivery with forceps or vacuum extraction, and C-section.

Vaginal Birth after Cesarean (VBAC) is a medical term used to describe a woman's successful childbirth through the vagina after she has previously given birth via cesarean section. The process involves the mother going into labor naturally or being induced, and delivering the baby through the birth canal. VBAC is often pursued as a means to avoid the risks associated with repeat cesarean deliveries, such as infection, blood loss, and surgical complications. However, it's important to note that VBAC carries its own set of risks, including uterine rupture, which can be life-threatening for both mother and baby. As a result, careful consideration and consultation with healthcare providers are necessary before making a decision about attempting a VBAC.

In medical terms, parity refers to the number of times a woman has given birth to a viable fetus, usually defined as a pregnancy that reaches at least 20 weeks' gestation. It is often used in obstetrics and gynecology to describe a woman's childbearing history and to assess potential risks associated with childbirth.

Parity is typically categorized as follows:

* Nulliparous: A woman who has never given birth to a viable fetus.
* Primiparous: A woman who has given birth to one viable fetus.
* Multiparous: A woman who has given birth to more than one viable fetus.

In some cases, parity may also consider the number of pregnancies that resulted in stillbirths or miscarriages, although this is not always the case. It's important to note that parity does not necessarily reflect the total number of pregnancies a woman has had, only those that resulted in viable births.

A cohort study is a type of observational study in which a group of individuals who share a common characteristic or exposure are followed up over time to determine the incidence of a specific outcome or outcomes. The cohort, or group, is defined based on the exposure status (e.g., exposed vs. unexposed) and then monitored prospectively to assess for the development of new health events or conditions.

Cohort studies can be either prospective or retrospective in design. In a prospective cohort study, participants are enrolled and followed forward in time from the beginning of the study. In contrast, in a retrospective cohort study, researchers identify a cohort that has already been assembled through medical records, insurance claims, or other sources and then look back in time to assess exposure status and health outcomes.

Cohort studies are useful for establishing causality between an exposure and an outcome because they allow researchers to observe the temporal relationship between the two. They can also provide information on the incidence of a disease or condition in different populations, which can be used to inform public health policy and interventions. However, cohort studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, and they may be subject to bias if participants are not representative of the population or if there is loss to follow-up.

Baby (20 August 2014). "Fatherhood: Premature Birth". Baby Magazine. Retrieved 29 December 2020. Sports TV Guide, Listings, ... 1980 births, All stub articles, British television biography stubs). ...
Coslovich, Gabriella (14 December 2004). "ACMI's premature birth". The Age. Retrieved 28 February 2015. Veski Archived 4 ...
Coslovich, Gabriella (14 December 2004). "ACMI's premature birth". The Age. Retrieved 28 February 2015. LinkedIn John Smithies ... 1954 births, Australian curators, Living people, Monash University alumni, People from Melbourne, University of Tasmania alumni ...
"Big Earthquakes Cause Premature Births". Wired. Retrieved 12 November 2015. Lundy, Karen Saucier; Janes, Sharyn (2010). ... In utero exposure to Ramadan fasting has a negative effect on male birth rate causing a skewed sex ratio for total births. When ... The effects on exposed males and females is drastically different where the male birth rate drops by 26% the female birth rate ... Even job-related stress has been found to be associated with low birth weight and preterm birth. Working long hours, having ...
Filipinos are also an ethnic group that is a risk factor for premature births and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS or "Lou ... "Premature Birth Fact Sheet" (PDF). Honolulu, HI: Hawai'i Department of Health, Family Health Services Division. Majounie E, ... ISBN 978-0-8147-9691-7. "Preterm birth by Filipino women linked to genetic mutational change". Hayes D, Shor R, Pieron P, ...
Premature birth may be traumatic. Emotional difficulties in coping with the pain of childbirth can also cause psychological ... Goutaudier N, Lopez A, Séjourné N, Denis A, Chabrol H (September 2011). "Premature birth: subjective and psychological ... Ford E, Ayers S (December 2011). "Support during birth interacts with prior trauma and birth intervention to predict postnatal ... However, even normal birth can be traumatic, and thus PTSD is diagnosed based on symptoms of the mother and not whether or not ...
... , also known as premature birth, is the birth of a baby at fewer than 37 weeks gestational age, as opposed to full ... which can eventually lead to premature birth. Adult chronic disease is not always the case with premature birth in Black women ... which makes the main factor of premature birth challenging to identify. Filipinos are also at high risk of premature birth, and ... In many countries, rates of premature births have increased between the 1990s and 2010s. Complications from preterm births ...
After completing her habilitation on premature birth in 1999, Čigriejienė became a full professor at the newly named Kaunas ... "Priešlaikinis gimdymas: habilitacijai" [Premature Birth: For Habilitation]. Research Information Systems - CRIS (in Lithuanian ... ISBN 978-9986-811-70-1. Čigriejienė, V. M. (1998). Priešlaikinis gimdymas [Premature Birth] (in Lithuanian). Kaunas, Lithuania ... Although against terminations as a method of birth control or for non-medical reasons, she recognized that without legal safe ...
... affecting premature births.: 492 Weber-Christian disease, a symmetrical form of the disease of unknown origin occurring in ...
"Developing a new test to identify women at risk of premature birth". Borne - research to prevent premature birth. Retrieved 27 ... "EQUIPTT - testing an app to calculate risk of premature birth". Tommys. Retrieved 28 May 2021. Carlisle, N; Watson, H A; Seed, ... the vagina during pregnancy is an area of particular interest that may lead to tests to screen for the risk of premature birth ... The way in which the microbiome of the gut develops in infants after birth, and whether this can be related to health is ...
"Dixon speaks about premature child birth". Speedcafe. 30 September 2011. Archived from the original on 9 December 2011. ... 1980 births, 24 Hours of Daytona drivers, 24 Hours of Le Mans drivers, American Le Mans Series drivers, Champ Car drivers, ... All Gold Coast 600 as Shane van Gisbergen's co-driver at Stone Brothers Racing's was cancelled because his wife gave birth to ...
Low birth weight, part B, ch. 3. Premature birth, part B, ch. 3 (Evidence of the causal link is described only as "suggestive" ... by the US Surgeon General in his 2006 report.) Laws limiting smoking decrease premature births. Stillbirth and congenital ... Secondhand smoke causes premature death and disease in children and in adults who do not smoke IARC 2004 "There is sufficient ... In France, exposure to secondhand smoke has been estimated to cause between 3,000 and 5,000 premature deaths per year, with the ...
After knowing of this, a pregnant Mary divorced from Straker, but had ("Confetti Check A-OK!") a premature birth due to shock. ...
... authentic caul births are even more rare than indicated by the raw statistic. Most en-caul births are premature.[citation ... Birth with a caul is rare, occurring in fewer than 1 in 80,000 births. This statistic includes en-caul births, which occur more ... Birth with a caul is rare, occurring in less than 1 in 80,000 births. The caul is harmless and is immediately removed by the ... An en-caul birth is different from a caul birth in that the infant is born inside the entire amniotic sac (instead of just a ...
... the name refers to his premature birth. Eleutherios ("the liberator") was an epithet for both Dionysus and Eros. Other forms of ... Apollonian and Dionysian The Birth of Tragedy by Friedrich Nietzsche Cult (religious practice) Theatre of Dionysus Thiasus, or ...
Davis, Dána-Ain (2019). Reproductive Injustice: Racism, Pregnancy, and Premature Birth. New York: New York University Press. " ... The setting where a woman gives birth is another significant factor in determining the outcome of the birth. Specifically, non- ... As of 2021, the estimated national maternal mortality rate in the United States is about 32.9 per 100,000 live births--but it ... PRMR is the number of pregnancy-related deaths per 100,000 live births. Many states do not report maternal mortality data by ...
Davis, Dána-Ain (2019-06-25). Reproductive Injustice: Racism, Pregnancy, and Premature Birth. NYU Press. ISBN 978-1-4798-1660-6 ... The figures put the maternal mortality rate at 32.9 deaths per 100,000 live births - or about one death per 3,000 births. The ... Neonatal adverse outcomes from IPV include low birth weight and preterm birth, an infant who is small for gestational age and ... out-of-hospital births (such as home births and birthing centers with midwifery assistance) "generally provided a lower risk ...
"New discovery could help prevent preterm birth in at-risk pregnant women". "New blood test may predict premature births". 14 ... "Spontaneous preterm birth and small for gestational age infants in women who stop smoking early in pregnancy: prospective ... "Report finds too little has changed to combat still birth". 21 January 2016. " ... Year of birth missing (living people), University of Auckland alumni). ...
In the first six years of the marriage Harriet gave birth five times. Four of the five births were premature. Only one of their ... The Community's practice of birth control meant that for many years the birthrate was low. Any children born into the community ... 1811 births, 1886 deaths, Abolitionists from Vermont, People from Oneida, New York, People from Brattleboro, Vermont, Founders ...
Premature, or preterm birth (PTB), is defined as birth before a gestational age of 37 weeks, as opposed to full term birth at ... of these births being low birth weights, compared with 7.7% of births being low birth weights for non-smokers. Overall, babies ... "WHO , Preterm birth". Retrieved 2013-09-29. McNeil D (May 2, 2012). "U.S. Lags in Global Measure of Premature Births ... premature births, complications during delivery, perinatal asphyxia, and birth injuries. Many of these common causes are ...
Reproductive Injustice: Racism, Pregnancy, and Premature Birth. New York: NYU Press, 2019. ISBN 9781479812271. Feminist ... Year of birth missing (living people), Living people, CUNY Graduate Center alumni, City University of New York faculty, Hunter ...
It is identified after a premature birth has occurred at about 16-18 weeks into the pregnancy. During the second trimester, ... These conditions also may contribute to premature birth. Unlike first-trimester miscarriages, second-trimester miscarriages are ... Emanuela Q (2013). Becoming Parents and Overcoming Obstacles : Understanding the Experience of Miscarriage, Premature Births, ... If birth occurs after this, the infant is granted a certificate that allows women who have given birth to a stillborn child, to ...
The Preventing Preterm Birth initiative focuses on finding new interventions to prevent premature birth and stillbirth by ... "Seattle Children's Sets Up Rare Biobank to Study Premature Birth". Xconomy. 14 March 2012. "New biorepository to help uncover ... "Gates Foundation awards $20M for premature birth research". Puget Sound Business Journal. 7 November 2011. "Every Preemie-SCALE ... catalytic and scalable approaches for expanding uptake of preterm birth and low birth weight interventions in 24 priority ...
The shock causes her to give premature birth; Gen names his new sister Tomoko, so she will grow up to have lots of friends (' ...
Cerebral palsy Premature birth Periventricular leukomalacia Yoon, BH; Romero, R; Yang, SH; Jun, JK; Kim, IO; Choi, JH; Syn, HC ... However, many studies demonstrated a limited role for birth hypoxia in the etiology of cerebral palsy. From 1996, Yoon and his ... He researches in the area of preterm births, intra-amniotic infection or inflammation and fetal damage. For his theoretical and ... He invented MMP-8 bedside test which identifies intra-amniotic infection/inflammation in patients at risk for preterm birth. He ...
Premature birth is associated with a 1.2x to 1.6x increase in all-cause mortality rates during early to mid-adulthood. Those ... The more premature the birth, the smaller and weaker the heart. Preterm fetuses switch from fetal circulation to postnatal ... "Effects of premature birth can reach into adulthood". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 2023-05-03. Duke, Joseph W.; Lovering, Andrew T ... Preterm births Low birth weight Perez, Anna; Thiede, Luise; Lüdecke, Daniel; Ebenebe, Chinedu Ulrich; von dem Knesebeck, Olaf; ...
History of premature birth Currently can ambulate independently. No fixed orthopedic deformities that either prevent current ... crawling or walking with or without an assistive device History of premature birth; if born at full term, child must have ... congenital hydrocephalus unrelated to the person's premature birth, a person who has had head trauma, or a person with some ... These situations include those who have had severe meningitis, a congenital (birth-originating) brain infection, ...
"Baby incubators for Ukraine as premature birth rates rise". BBC News. 31 May 2022. Retrieved 31 May 2022. "Jersey continues to ...
"Skewed birth sex ratio and premature mortality in elephants". Animal Reproduction Science. 115 (1-4): 247-254. doi:10.1016/j. ... It may be preferable to relocate young males, who would naturally disperse away from their herds of birth in the wild, as ... The first successful captive birth in North America of an Asian elephant occurred at Oregon Zoo in 1962, while the first ... Without an increase in birth rates or an influx of wild elephants, practitioners fear that captive elephant populations could ...
Additionally, they are linked with premature birth and miscarriage. Aspirin, however, is used together with heparin in pregnant ... While NSAIDs as a class are not direct teratogens, use of NSAIDs in late pregnancy can cause premature closure of the fetal ... Thus, NSAIDs are not recommended during the third trimester of pregnancy because of the increased risk of premature ... "Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs during third trimester and the risk of premature closure of the ductus arteriosus: a meta- ...
... researchers determined that longterm exposure to such chemicals resulted in increased risk of premature births. ... A recent study found that microplastics, also known as phthalates, are linked to a rise in premature births in the U.S. ... Scientists noted that in 2018, exposure to these forever chemicals attributed to nearly 60,000 premature births that year. ... Study finds microplastics linked to thousands of premature births. By Austin Williams. ...
Cite this: 30% of Cancer Deaths Linked to Smoking; Over-the-Counter Birth Control; and HIV and Premature Aging - Medscape - Aug ... 30% of Cancer Deaths Linked to Smoking; Over-the-Counter Birth Control; and HIV and Premature Aging ... 30% of Cancer Deaths Linked to Smoking; Over-the-Counter Birth Control; and HIV and Premature Aging. ... Important drivers: "Premature aging identified by CVD and hypertension diagnoses implies that either underlying mechanisms of ...
In MAC, every year 6000 babies are born, about 6% of all countrys births. About 150 of newborns in MAC weight less than 1500 ... In MAC, every year 6000 babies are born, about 6% of all countrys births. About 150 of newborns in MAC weight less than 1500 ... In MAC, in Lisbon, Portugal, every year 6000 babies are born, about 6% of all countrys births. About 150 of newborns in MAC ... u2019s births. About 150 of newborns in MAC weight less than 1500 grams. Since 2007 this unit is part of UNICEF\u2019s \ ...
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... Rev. Psicol. Saúde [online]. 2014 ... when the pregnant can have complications and develop symptoms and diseases often leading to abortion or premature birth ...
... Why do our eyes tear up while yawning? Tips For Healthy Heart Image By ... Sleep Disorders In Pregnancy Linked To Premature Births Sam 6 years, 8 months ago Views: 3112 2 min read ... ... ...
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Regarding the week during which the birth occurred, about 27.27% (N=3) of the sample had premature births. The salivary pH ... Palavras-chave : oral health; Premature birth; Periodontal disease. · resumo em Português · texto em Português · pdf em ... Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate periodontal disease and its association with premature birth in pregnant women in ... Association between periodontal disease and premature birth: a pilot project. Rev. cir. traumatol. buco-maxilo-fac. [online]. ...
Premature birth (Hoang Tien Loc, Viet Nam). The People of the Western Pacific project aims to bring a human perspective to the ...
Chorioamnion Infection in Premature Birth and Disease in Newborns Models for Intervention Infectious Diseases and Cerebral ... Chorioamnion Infection in Premature Birth and Disease in Newborns. The association between infection in the lower genital tract ... Infants born very prematurely at ,30 weeks gestation or with a very low birth weight of ,1,500 g have the highest rates of ... Chorioamnion or amniotic fluid infection, or both, is especially common in infants of very low birth weight: 30%-50% of infants ...
Pregnant women with BV may deliver premature (early) or low birth-weight babies.. ...
Extremely premature birth. According to Karin Källén, the situation is different in the case of an extremely premature birth, ... No one knows how much is due to problems during the pregnancy and how much is attributable to premature birth, considers Karin ... "We have carried out follow-ups on extremely premature babies at 2.5 and 6 years, and we are now conducting a 12-year follow-up ... In order to study these connections, it is therefore important to know which babies are normally small at birth and which are ...
Celiac Linked to Higher Rate of Miscarriage and Premature Birth Celiac Linked to Higher Rate of Miscarriage and Premature Birth ...
Premature babies may have health problems and need special care. ... A premature birth is when a baby is born before 37 completed ... Almost 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States are premature, or preemies. A premature birth is when a baby is born ... Premature Babies (March of Dimes Foundation) Also in Spanish * Preterm Labor and Birth (Eunice Kennedy Shriver National ... Osteopenia - premature infants (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Premature infant (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish ...
... and one baby did not survive premature birth. ... and one baby did not survive premature birth.. Childrens ... One death was attributed to premature birth.. In the introduction to the separate reports for the Pfizer and the AstraZeneca ...
Rafahs Emirati Hospital sees rise in premature births and underweight neonates. 02:48 ...
This risk of giving birth to a small or preterm infant appears to be small and may be minimized by good control of asthma. ... Studies have indicated that low-birth-weight infants are more common in women with daily symptoms or low expiratory flow than ... low birth weight, preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and neonatal insufficiency. [9, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14] However, randomized ...
Premature birth,. *Structural (e.g., cardiac defect) or functional (e.g., learning disability) birth defects, and ...
Multiple births and infertility treatments can increase the likelihood of premature delivery and the possibility of developing ... Premature birth often results in low birth weight newborns. Both are risk factors for Cerebral Palsy, as evident in the table ... Why are multiple births and infertility a risk for developing Cerebral Palsy?. Multiple births, or multi-fetal births, is when ... Multiple births can result in infants with a higher chance of developing Cerebral Palsy than babies from single births. As the ...
Experience of mothers of premature babies from birth to discharge: notes of field journals. / Vivência de mães de bebês ... To describe the maternal care process mediated by nurses during the period of hospitalisation and discharge of premature babies ... with seven mothers of premature babies admitted to a hospital in southern Brazil, from October to December 2011. Data from the ... resulted in three categories portraying the path and the adaptation process of the mothers to the care of their premature ...
Baby (20 August 2014). "Fatherhood: Premature Birth". Baby Magazine. Retrieved 29 December 2020. Sports TV Guide, Listings, ... 1980 births, All stub articles, British television biography stubs). ...
A Personal Story of Premature Birth and Additional Resources. Pregnancy & Childbirth A Personal Story on the Dangers of ...
Birth, sometimes premature, of infected often dead fetuses bats peripheral Asymptomatic viremia ...
Bronchoscopy, Asthma, Asthma attack, Childhood asthma, Neuromuscular disorder, Cystic fibrosis, Premature birth, Heredi...tary ...
Premature births increase in Artsakh due to stress 23:12 14/01/2023 ...
... their two-months-premature newborn son instead of taking him to a hospital in 2011. Dale and Shannon Hickman are members of the ... He seemed to know about premature births more than she did, he said. "Shes one of the most dangerous people in Clackamas ... expressed surprise at how little one of the congregations midwives had known about premature births when she testified. ... two-months-premature into two-month-old; the baby was a premature newborn who died after only nine hours. Wonkette regrets ...
Premature birth. *Birth-related weight issues (macrosomia). *Increased risk of cesarean section ...
Premature birth is a significant risk factor for severe RSV disease; those born at less than 32 weeks of gestational age have ... Following birth, levels of neutralising antibody slowly diminish with a mean half-life of 26 days [107]. The quantity of ... Genetic relatedness of infecting and reinfecting respiratory syncytial virus strains identified in a birth cohort from rural ... the same mutations were significantly associated with hospitalisation in a group of primarily premature infants with ...
Those who do not gain enough weight may face some complications like lung and heart problems and even premature birth. Some ... Omega-3 fatty acids can help avoid premature births. These fatty acids are particularly found in the brain. ... Folate or folic acid helps to prevent neural tube defects (NTD) and other birth defects in the baby. It also helps in the ... According to a recent study, w [1]omen with poor diets before pregnancy are more likely to give birth prematurely than women ...
  • Premature babies are more likely than full-term infants to develop a number of serious health problems. (
  • There are two main causes of apnea in premature infants. (
  • Almost 1 of every 10 infants born in the United States are premature, or preemies. (
  • Having mom or dad hold their preemie baby against their own skin immediately after birth appears to help the infants in their development months later, new research shows. (
  • Studies have indicated that low-birth-weight infants are more common in women with daily symptoms or low expiratory flow than in women without asthma. (
  • Background: Iron supplementation may be associated with oxidative stress particularly in premature infants. (
  • At a population level, the proportion of infants with a low birth weight is an indicator of a multifaceted public health problem that includes long-term maternal malnutrition, ill-health and poor health care in pregnancy. (
  • Low birth weight infants are about 20 times more likely to die than heavier infants. (
  • However, data on low birth weight in developing countries is often limited because a significant portion of deliveries occur in homes or small health facilities, where cases of infants with low birth weight often go unreported. (
  • A new report from the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics finds that a higher rate of premature births in the United States is the main reason for this poor ranking on infant mortality. (
  • 4 In the United States, more than one-third of infant deaths are related to a premature birth. (
  • There is a racial gap in the percentage of premature births in the United States, linked to the persistent disparity in infant mortality among African Americans and whites. (
  • Preventing preterm births is crucial to lowering the U.S. infant mortality rate. (
  • Pregnant moms who are presented to used smokes are additionally more prone to have an infant with low birth weight and could experience the ill effects of different issues. (
  • This risk of giving birth to a small or preterm infant appears to be small and may be minimized by good control of asthma. (
  • The March of Dimes, "Preterm Labor and Birth: A Serious Complication," accessed online at, on Dec. 10, 2009. (
  • Consumption of even small amounts of garlic or raisins are associated with significantly lower risk of pregnant women going into premature labor or having their water break too soon. (
  • ONE in 10 premature births in the US has been linked to pregnant women being exposed to chemicals in extremely common plastic products, a large study said last week. (
  • Aim: The aim of this study is to evaluate periodontal disease and its association with premature birth in pregnant women in antenatal attendance at CISaM/uPE. (
  • Pregnant women with BV may deliver premature (early) or low birth-weight babies. (
  • Pregnant women exposed to flame-retardant chemicals could face an increased risk of premature birth, a new study warns. (
  • In pregnant women, iodine deficiency is associated with gestosis, premature birth, miscarriage, or birth of mentally retarded or borderline intellect babies. (
  • Recent studies on large groups of people in Asia have shown that iodine deficiency in pregnant women is a cause of low-weight babies at birth. (
  • The "WHO Global Action Report on Preterm Birth" estimates that more than 1 in 10 babies born in 2010 were born prematurely, that is, "before 37 weeks of pregnancy are completed. (
  • The percentage of U.S. births delivered prematurely rose more than 20 percent between 1990 and 2006. (
  • Although premature birth is recognised as a cause of cerebral visual impairment (CVI), which can include cerebral visual dysfunction (CVD), the incidence and nature of CVD in prematurely born children is not known. (
  • Many premature babies, however, develop patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), which occurs when the artery fails to close. (
  • Premature babies are often at risk of having patent ductus arteriosus (PDA), where there is a persistent opening between the two major blood vessels leading from the heart, and low blood pressure (hypotension). (
  • Other maternal factors are also associated with premature births, including behavioral and socioeconomic characteristics such as smoking, teenage pregnancy, obesity, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care. (
  • The Threat of Premature Birth (TPB) is the most important complication during pregnancy. (
  • A premature birth is a birth that occurs between 20 and 37 weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Read on to learn more about potential health problems associated with premature birth as well as just a few of our many educational resources that are ideal to teach about pregnancy and caution signs to report to a healthcare professional. (
  • This includes the number of weeks of pregnancy plus the number of weeks since the baby's birth. (
  • Premature or preterm birth is when a baby is born before the beginning of the 38 th week of pregnancy. (
  • A premature birth is when a baby is born before 37 completed weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Researchers found a strong association between exposure to extreme heat during the third trimester of pregnancy and the risk of premature delivery. (
  • In general, the more premature a baby is, the greater the baby's risk for health complications. (
  • This occurs when a premature baby's temperature dips too low, leading to an abnormally low core body temperature. (
  • This rise has been tied to several interrelated trends, including an increase in multiple births, greater reliance on Caesarean deliveries and induced labor to manage risky pregnancies, and an increase in births to older mothers. (
  • And the preterm rate has increased fastest for white mothers, who tend to be older and more likely to use infertility treatments than minority women-factors that raise the likelihood of multiple births. (
  • Hearing problems -Premature babies are at risk for hearing loss and deafness. (
  • Premature babies are at risk of anemia as they take longer to make red blood cells. (
  • Intestinal problems -Some premature babies develop a serious intestinal problem called necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), a condition that can cause abdominal tenderness, feeding problems, and other complications. (
  • Using data from over 5,000 mothers, researchers determined that longterm exposure to such chemicals resulted in increased risk of premature births. (
  • African American mothers tend to have many of the socioeconomic characteristics that have been linked to premature births. (
  • The 10 per cent of mothers with the highest levels of phthalates had a 50 per cent increased risk of giving birth before week 37 compared to the lowest 10 per cent, according to the study in The Lancet Planetary Health. (
  • Mothers with preterm births may have negative feelings about their babies in the early months after birth. (
  • There is usually no specific cause of premature birth, but a lot of factors are known to predispose mothers to premature delivery. (
  • Experience of mothers of premature babies from birth to discharge: notes of field journals. (
  • This is a descriptive, exploratory, and qualitative study, using the methodological framework of convergent care research , with seven mothers of premature babies admitted to a hospital in southern Brazil , from October to December 2011. (
  • Analysis resulted in three categories portraying the path and the adaptation process of the mothers to the care of their premature babies, from preparation for discharge to overcoming her fears and insecurities concerning home care . (
  • Have late preterm births increased among mothers of all ages? (
  • Late preterm birth rates have risen among mothers of all ages from 1990 to 2006, including teenage mothers (up 5 percent). (
  • Among mothers age 25 years and over, late preterm birth rates increased by more than 20 percent from 1990 to 2006. (
  • Scientists noted that in 2018, exposure to these forever chemicals attributed to nearly 60,000 premature births that year. (
  • Extrapolating their findings across the US, the researchers said that nearly 56,600 preterm births could have been linked to phthalate exposure in 2018 alone, or roughly 10 per cent of the country's premature births that year. (
  • Daily exposure to phthalates -- chemicals used to manufacture plastics -- might be tied to nearly 56,000 preterm births in the United States in 2018, researchers report. (
  • Such models are important to detect early proteins in infection, to understand the mechanisms by which infection causes preterm birth and the fetal consequences of intrauterine infection. (
  • 11 g/L). Perinatal outcomes included preterm delivery, low birth weight, intrauterine growth retardation, perinatal death, low Apgar scores and intrauterine fetal death. (
  • Preventing premature birth can lead to longer, and healthier lives. (
  • COVID vaccines saved the lives and health of countless babies by preventing their premature births, a new study shows. (
  • These chemicals have been linked to autism, ADHD, preterm birth and low birth weight. (
  • There is no significant link between premature birth and autism, new research out of Israel suggests. (
  • Breathing Problems -Many premature babies suffer from respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) because their lungs don't produce enough surfactant, a substance that helps their lungs expand. (
  • The most common lung problem in a premature baby is respiratory distress syndrome (RDS). (
  • Another common respiratory problem of premature babies is called apnea of prematurity. (
  • Premature babies have a poorly developed respiratory system. (
  • A recent study found that microplastics, also known as phthalates, are linked to a rise in premature births in the U.S. (
  • While the study was carried out in the US, Trasande said phthalates are so ubiquitous that five to 10 per cent of premature births in most other countries could probably be linked to the chemicals. (
  • Stephanie Eick, a reproductive health researcher at the University of California, San Francisco, who was not involved in the study, said the research could not prove definitively that the premature births were directly caused by phthalates. (
  • A selection of premature & tiny baby clothing for your newborn. (
  • It occurs between 23 and 36 amenorrhea weeks and is manifested by uterine contractions associated with modifications in the cervix with or without bleeding and/or premature rupture of the membranes. (
  • However, for women diagnosed with TPB, actual premature delivery occurs in 15% to 50% of the cases. (
  • As a result, a premature baby often has difficulty expanding her lungs, taking in oxygen, and getting rid of carbon dioxide. (
  • A premature baby typically has a small size, with a disproportionately large head. (
  • Hypothermia in a premature baby can lead to breathing problems and low blood sugar levels. (
  • The immune system of a premature baby is poorly developed. (
  • At the family level, having a preterm birth can mean additional costs because the baby may need special medical care. (
  • Shopping direct for Baby Girls Premature baby wear then click on the picture just below for a direct line to our tiny baby clothes shopping website. (
  • Every mother needs to stay at home for a while with her baby immediately after giving birth. (
  • Rebecca Shumard, a young mother of a premature baby, had to face this issue. (
  • Rebecca Shumard is a 26-year-old mother who, sadly, wasn't ready to go back to work after giving birth to a premature baby. (
  • Sometimes this experience is frightening, especially when the pregnant can have complications and develop symptoms and diseases often leading to abortion or premature birth situations. (
  • Now researchers admit - backhandedly - a link between abortion and preterm births. (
  • Authors of a new study hypothesize that modernizing abortion methods reduces the risk of premature births. (
  • The organism has a propensity to affect the placenta which can lead to premature birth or spontaneous abortion. (
  • These cases are not reflected in official figures and may lead to a significant underestimation of the prevalence of low birth weight. (
  • A portion of the wellbeing conditions related with being uncovered to second-hand smoke is low birth weight, early birth. (
  • They have low birth weight, lack subcutaneous fats, and may have lanugo hair covering most of the body. (
  • Using ultrasound to measure blood flow in the placenta and the fetus could help spot issues tied to low birth weight, researchers report. (
  • The risk of preterm delivery and low birth weight among the anaemic women was 4 and 1.9 times more respectively than the non-anaemic women. (
  • Low birth weight is included as a primary outcome indicator in the core set of indicators for the Global nutrition monitoring framework . (
  • Low birth weight is caused by intrauterine growth restriction, prematurity or both. (
  • Low birth weight is more common in developing than developed countries. (
  • Global nutrition targets 2025: low birth weight policy brief. (
  • Feto-maternal nutrition and low birth weight. (
  • To describe the maternal care process mediated by nurses during the period of hospitalisation and discharge of premature babies. (
  • They also say the additional birth control option should not replace doctor-patient interactions about contraception. (
  • Progestin-only birth control pills have few potential risks for women with specific health concerns like heart conditions compared with estrogen-containing birth controls. (
  • The World Health Organization (WHO) has just released an important new study looking at the growing and harmful medical phenomenon of "pre-term birth. (
  • The National Center for Health Statistics study found that the U.S. health care system does a good job of saving premature babies-better than in many European countries-but there are too many of them born. (
  • Even with medical advances, premature birth remains a serious threat to the health of babies around the globe. (
  • Because they affect hormones, these chemicals "can precipitate early labour and early birth", lead study author Leonardo Trasande of New York University's Langone health centre said. (
  • Preterm births linked to "hormone-disruptor" chemicals in plastics cost the U.S. health care system billions of dollars, a new study claims. (
  • The association between infection in the lower genital tract, in the chorioamnion of the placenta or in amniotic fluid, and preterm birth is both strong and consistent. (
  • Premature aging identified by CVD and hypertension diagnoses implies that either underlying mechanisms of HIV infection and/or exposure to ART [antiretroviral therapy] are important drivers," said the study authors. (
  • And babies don't even have to be born that premature to suffer long-term effects. (
  • Jaundice -Because their immature livers can't remove a waste product called bilirubin from the blood, premature babies are more likely to develop jaundice, a yellowish discoloration of the skin and eyes. (
  • Women diagnosed with insomnia had nearly twofold higher risk for an early preterm birth ( less than 34 weeks of gestation) compared with women without recorded sleep disorders diagnosis. (
  • Estimated medical costs resulting from those early births run from&nbs. (
  • Rebecca gave birth very early, at 27 weeks, and was forced to return to work just 12 days after giving birth - well before 12 weeks of maternity leave had been used up! (
  • Serious and potentially life-threatening infects that premature babies may develop include sepsis (blood infection), pneumonia (lung infection), and meningitis (infection of the fluid and linings of the brain and spinal cord). (
  • 2019 ( ). (
  • More than a year after his birth, a premature boy went home. (
  • DK or refused 36-39 Year of Birth 1800-1899. (
  • Surging temperatures caused by climate change could lead to more premature births worldwide, a new study reports. (
  • Infection -Because their immune systems are immature, premature babies are particularly vulnerable to infection. (
  • In the absence of medical intervention by tocolysis, the installation of regular uterine contractions may result in premature delivery. (
  • Ultrasound scans that pick up "microstructural" changes in a woman's cervix could point to her having a higher risk for preterm birth, researchers report. (
  • COVID-19 initially caused an alarming surge in premature birth rates, but those returned to pre-pandemic levels following the introduction of vaccines, researchers found. (
  • Some babies get pneumonia while they are still in the womb and must be treated at birth. (
  • The United States has one of the highest premature birth rates in the world, now ranking 131st worldwide. (
  • Unfortunately, rates of premature birth have been rising in the United States, where today almost 10 percent of births are premature. (
  • Connect with others and find premature birth support. (
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Medical Association, and the American Academy of Family Physicians have all voiced support for making birth control pills available without a prescription. (
  • Even so-called near-term births at 36 or 37 weeks are now thought to be related to subtle developmental problems. (
  • 3 In 2004, one in eight U.S. births (12.4 percent) were preterm-born before 37 weeks of gestation-much higher than recorded in most European countries, and double the proportion in Ireland, Finland, and Greece (see figure). (
  • Includes births of 22 to 36 weeks gestation. (
  • It's much less common in older premature babies, especially those born at 34 weeks or later. (
  • Worldwide, premature birth is the leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age. (

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