A 21-carbon steroid, derived from CHOLESTEROL and found in steroid hormone-producing tissues. Pregnenolone is the precursor to GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A catatoxic steroid and microsomal enzyme inducer having significant effects on the induction of cytochrome P450. It has also demonstrated the potential for protective capability against acetaminophen-induced liver damage.
A 21-carbon steroid that is converted from PREGNENOLONE by STEROID 17-ALPHA-HYDROXYLASE. It is an intermediate in the delta-5 pathway of biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and the adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
A mitochondrial cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the side-chain cleavage of C27 cholesterol to C21 pregnenolone in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP11A1 gene, catalyzes the breakage between C20 and C22 which is the initial and rate-limiting step in the biosynthesis of various gonadal and adrenal steroid hormones.
A major C19 steroid produced by the ADRENAL CORTEX. It is also produced in small quantities in the TESTIS and the OVARY. Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) can be converted to TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE. Most of DHEA is sulfated (DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE SULFATE) before secretion.
A pregnane found in the urine of pregnant women and sows. It has anesthetic, hypnotic, and sedative properties.
Saturated derivatives of the steroid pregnane. The 5-beta series includes PROGESTERONE and related hormones; the 5-alpha series includes forms generally excreted in the urine.
Unsaturated derivatives of PREGNANES.
A group of polycyclic compounds closely related biochemically to TERPENES. They include cholesterol, numerous hormones, precursors of certain vitamins, bile acids, alcohols (STEROLS), and certain natural drugs and poisons. Steroids have a common nucleus, a fused, reduced 17-carbon atom ring system, cyclopentanoperhydrophenanthrene. Most steroids also have two methyl groups and an aliphatic side-chain attached to the nucleus. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)
An enzyme that catalyzes the reduction of a 3 beta-hydroxy-delta(5)-steroid to 3-oxo-delta(4)-steroid in the presence of NAD. It converts pregnenolone to progesterone and dehydroepiandrosterone to androstenedione. EC 1.1.1.145.
Catalyze the oxidation of 3-hydroxysteroids to 3-ketosteroids.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
Steroids in which one or more hydroxy groups have been substituted for hydrogen atoms either within the ring skeleton or on any of the side chains.
The outer layer of the adrenal gland. It is derived from MESODERM and comprised of three zones (outer ZONA GLOMERULOSA, middle ZONA FASCICULATA, and inner ZONA RETICULARIS) with each producing various steroids preferentially, such as ALDOSTERONE; HYDROCORTISONE; DEHYDROEPIANDROSTERONE; and ANDROSTENEDIONE. Adrenal cortex function is regulated by pituitary ADRENOCORTICOTROPIN.
A microsomal cytochrome P450 enzyme that catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation of progesterone or pregnenolone and subsequent cleavage of the residual two carbons at C17 in the presence of molecular oxygen and NADPH-FERRIHEMOPROTEIN REDUCTASE. This enzyme, encoded by CYP17 gene, generates precursors for glucocorticoid, androgen, and estrogen synthesis. Defects in CYP17 gene cause congenital adrenal hyperplasia (ADRENAL HYPERPLASIA, CONGENITAL) and abnormal sexual differentiation.
An iron-sulfur protein which serves as an electron carrier in enzymatic steroid hydroxylation reactions in adrenal cortex mitochondria. The electron transport system which catalyzes this reaction consists of adrenodoxin reductase, NADP, adrenodoxin, and cytochrome P-450.
A biologically active 5-alpha-reduced metabolite of plasma PROGESTERONE. It is the immediate precursor of 5-alpha-pregnan-3-alpha-ol-20-one (ALLOPREGNANOLONE), a neuroactive steroid that binds with GABA(A) RECEPTOR.
A pair of glands located at the cranial pole of each of the two KIDNEYS. Each adrenal gland is composed of two distinct endocrine tissues with separate embryonic origins, the ADRENAL CORTEX producing STEROIDS and the ADRENAL MEDULLA producing NEUROTRANSMITTERS.
Metabolites or derivatives of PROGESTERONE with hydroxyl group substitution at various sites.
Cholesterol which is substituted by a hydroxy group in any position.
A biologically active 20-alpha-reduced metabolite of PROGESTERONE. It is converted from progesterone to 20-alpha-hydroxypregn-4-en-3-one by the 20-ALPHA-HYDROXYSTEROID DEHYDROGENASE in the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA.
The circulating form of a major C19 steroid produced primarily by the ADRENAL CORTEX. DHEA sulfate serves as a precursor for TESTOSTERONE; ANDROSTENEDIONE; ESTRADIOL; and ESTRONE.
A delta-4 C19 steroid that is produced not only in the TESTIS, but also in the OVARY and the ADRENAL CORTEX. Depending on the tissue type, androstenedione can serve as a precursor to TESTOSTERONE as well as ESTRONE and ESTRADIOL.
An 86-amino acid polypeptide, found in central and peripheral tissues, that displaces diazepam from the benzodiazepine recognition site on the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (RECEPTORS, GABA). It also binds medium- and long-chain acyl-CoA esters and serves as an acyl-CoA transporter. This peptide regulates lipid metabolism.
An aromatase inhibitor that is used in the treatment of advanced BREAST CANCER.
A metabolite of PROGESTERONE with a hydroxyl group at the 17-alpha position. It serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of HYDROCORTISONE and GONADAL STEROID HORMONES.
A superfamily of hundreds of closely related HEMEPROTEINS found throughout the phylogenetic spectrum, from animals, plants, fungi, to bacteria. They include numerous complex monooxygenases (MIXED FUNCTION OXYGENASES). In animals, these P-450 enzymes serve two major functions: (1) biosynthesis of steroids, fatty acids, and bile acids; (2) metabolism of endogenous and a wide variety of exogenous substrates, such as toxins and drugs (BIOTRANSFORMATION). They are classified, according to their sequence similarities rather than functions, into CYP gene families (>40% homology) and subfamilies (>59% homology). For example, enzymes from the CYP1, CYP2, and CYP3 gene families are responsible for most drug metabolism.
Pregnane derivatives in which two side-chain methyl groups or two methylene groups in the ring skeleton (or a combination thereof) have been oxidized to keto groups.
2 alpha-Cyano-17 beta-hydroxy-4,4',17 alpha-trimethylandrost-5-ene-3-one. An androstenolone-nitrile compound with steroidogenesis-blocking activity.
The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.
A metabolite of TESTOSTERONE or ANDROSTENEDIONE with a 3-alpha-hydroxyl group and without the double bond. The 3-beta hydroxyl isomer is epiandrosterone.
Steroid-producing cells in the interstitial tissue of the TESTIS. They are under the regulation of PITUITARY HORMONES; LUTEINIZING HORMONE; or interstitial cell-stimulating hormone. TESTOSTERONE is the major androgen (ANDROGENS) produced.
Enzymes that catalyze the transposition of double bond(s) in a steroid molecule. EC 5.3.3.
A class of cell surface receptors recognized by its pharmacological profile. Sigma receptors were originally considered to be opioid receptors because they bind certain synthetic opioids. However they also interact with a variety of other psychoactive drugs, and their endogenous ligand is not known (although they can react to certain endogenous steroids). Sigma receptors are found in the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, and in some peripheral tissues.
A potent androgenic steroid and major product secreted by the LEYDIG CELLS of the TESTIS. Its production is stimulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE from the PITUITARY GLAND. In turn, testosterone exerts feedback control of the pituitary LH and FSH secretion. Depending on the tissues, testosterone can be further converted to DIHYDROTESTOSTERONE or ESTRADIOL.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The family of steroids from which the androgens are derived.
A barbiturate that is effective as a hypnotic and sedative.
Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
Supporting cells for the developing female gamete in the OVARY. They are derived from the coelomic epithelial cells of the gonadal ridge. Granulosa cells form a single layer around the OOCYTE in the primordial ovarian follicle and advance to form a multilayered cumulus oophorus surrounding the OVUM in the Graafian follicle. The major functions of granulosa cells include the production of steroids and LH receptors (RECEPTORS, LH).
A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.
An anterior pituitary hormone that stimulates the ADRENAL CORTEX and its production of CORTICOSTEROIDS. ACTH is a 39-amino acid polypeptide of which the N-terminal 24-amino acid segment is identical in all species and contains the adrenocorticotrophic activity. Upon further tissue-specific processing, ACTH can yield ALPHA-MSH and corticotrophin-like intermediate lobe peptide (CLIP).
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
Cell surface proteins which bind GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and contain an integral membrane chloride channel. Each receptor is assembled as a pentamer from a pool of at least 19 different possible subunits. The receptors belong to a superfamily that share a common CYSTEINE loop.

Luteinizing hormone inhibits conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in luteal cells from rats on day 19 of pregnancy. (1/488)

We have previously reported that intrabursal ovarian administration of LH at the end of pregnancy in rats induces a decrease in luteal progesterone (P4) synthesis and an increase in P4 metabolism. However, whether this local luteolytic effect of LH is exerted directly on luteal cells or on other structures, such as follicular or stromal cells, to modify luteal function is unknown. The aim of the present study was to determine the effect of LH on isolated luteal cells obtained on Day 19 of pregnancy. Incubation of luteal cells with 1, 10, 100, or 1000 ng/ml of ovine LH (oLH) for 6 h did not modify basal P4 production. The addition to the culture medium of 22(R)-hydroxycholesterol (22R-HC, 10 microgram/ml), a membrane-permeable P4 precursor, or pregnenolone (10(-2) microM) induced a significant increase in P4 accumulation in the medium in relation to the control value. When luteal cells were preincubated for 2 h with oLH, a significant (p < 0.01) reduction in the 22R-HC- or pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation was observed. Incubation of luteal cells with dibutyryl cAMP (1 mM, a cAMP analogue) plus isobutylmethylxanthine (1 mM, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor) also inhibited pregnenolone-stimulated P4 accumulation. Incubation with an inositol triphosphate synthesis inhibitor, neomycin (1 mM), or an inhibitor of intracellular Ca2+ mobilization, (8,9-N, N-diethylamino)octyl-3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate (1 mM), did not prevent the decrease in pregnenolone-stimulated P4 secretion induced by oLH. It was concluded that the luteolytic action of LH in late pregnancy is due, at least in part, to a direct action on the luteal cells and that an increase in intracellular cAMP level might mediate this effect.  (+info)

Lack of zonal uptake of estrone sulfate in enriched periportal and perivenous isolated rat hepatocytes. (2/488)

The zonal uptake of estrone sulfate (E1S; 1 to 400 microM) was investigated in periportal and perivenous rat hepatocytes and cells isolated from whole liver (regular hepatocytes). Transport of E1S by periportal, perivenous, and regular hepatocytes was described by saturable (Kms of 24 to 26 microM and Vmaxs of 1.8 nmol/min/mg protein) and nonsaturable components (2.5 to 3.2 microl/min/mg protein) that were not different among the zonal regions (p >.05, ANOVA). These kinetic constants represented pooled values for the entire complement of transporters for E1S, including two known transporters of E1S: Ntcp, Na+-taurocholate cotransporting polypeptide, and oatp1, the organic anion transporting polypeptide cloned from rat liver. Uptake of E1S was significantly reduced by estradiol 17beta-glucuronide (50 microM) and bumetanide (200 microM), and was inhibited strongly and competitively by pregnenolone sulfate with an inhibition constant of 6.7 microM. Further segregation of the kinetic constants as the sodium-dependent and -independent systems was achieved through simultaneous fitting of data obtained in the presence and absence of sodium from parallel hepatocytic uptake studies. For the periportal, perivenous, and regular hepatocytes, two saturable systems: a sodium-dependent transport system, characterized by similar Vmaxs (1.1 to 1.4 nmol/min/mg protein) and Kms (49 to 55 microM), a sodium-independent transport system of comparable Vmaxs (0.70 to 0.84 nmol/min/mg protein) and Kms (16 to 22 microM), and a linear clearance of 1.7 to 2.7 microl/min/mg protein (ANOVA, p >.05) were obtained. The data suggest that hepatic uptake of E1S involved sodium-dependent and -independent transporter systems. No heterogeneity in transport was observed.  (+info)

Short-time effects of neuroactive steroids on rat cortical Ca2+-ATPase activity. (3/488)

Recent experimental evidence indicates that some steroid hormones, apart from their well-documented genomic actions, could produce non-genomic rapid effects, and are potent modulators of the plasma membrane proteins, including voltage- and ligand-operated ion channels or G protein-coupled receptors. Neuroactive steroids, 17beta-estradiol, testosterone, pregnenolone sulfate and dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, after a short-time incubation directly modulated the activity of plasma membrane Ca2+-ATPase purified from synaptosomal membranes of rat cortex. The sulfate derivatives of dehydroepiandrosterone and pregnenolone applied at concentrations of 10-11-10-6 M, showed an inverted U-shape potency in the regulation of Ca2+-ATPase activity. At physiologically relevant concentrations (10-8-10-9 M) a maximal enhancement of the basal activity reached 200%. Testosterone (10-11-10-6 M) and 17beta-estradiol (10-12-10-9 M) caused a dose-dependent increase in the hydrolytic ability of Ca2+-ATPase, and the activity with the highest concentration of steroids reached 470% and 200%, respectively. All examined steroids decreased the stimulatory effect of a naturally existing activator of the calcium pump, calmodulin. The present study strongly suggests that the plasma membrane calcium pump could be one of the possible membrane targets for a non-genomic neuroactive steroid action.  (+info)

Effect of DL111-IT on progesterone biosynthesis and viability of rat luteal cells in vitro. (4/488)

AIM: To study the influence of DL111-IT on progesterone biosynthesis of cultured luteal cells (LC). METHODS: LC viability was assessed with trypan blue dye exclusion and progesterone concentration was measured with radioimmunoassay. RESULTS: DL111-IT decreased the viability of LC after 24-h incubation, its ED50 being 7.7 (95% confidence limits: 7.1-8.5) mg.L-1. DL111-IT inhibited basal secretion of progesterone in a concentration-dependent manner, and 3 mg.L-1 decreased progesterone concentration by 25% vs control. DL111-IT 3 mg.L-1 also inhibited the stimulatory effect of forskolin (cAMP activator) 10 mumol.L-1 and pregnenolone [converted to progesterone by 3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-isomerase complex (3 beta-HSD)] 10 mumol.L-1 on progesterone production in cultured LC, and their inhibitory rates were 43% and 155%, respectively. At the same concentration, DL111-IT did not influence hCG-induced progesterone production. CONCLUSION: DL111-IT inhibited progesterone synthesis by suppressing the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone (inactivating 3 beta-HSD) and suppressed the activity of cAMP. DL111-IT 6-24 mg.L-1 decreased the viability of LC.  (+info)

Pregnenolone esterification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A potential detoxification mechanism. (5/488)

While studying the effect of steroids on the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that pregnenolone was converted into the acetate ester. This reaction was identified as a transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the 3beta-hydroxyl group of pregnenolone. The corresponding enzyme, acetyl-CoA:pregnenolone acetyltransferase (APAT) is specific for Delta5- or Delta4-3beta-hydroxysteroids and short-chain acyl-CoAs. The apparent Km for pregnenolone is approximately 0.5 microm. The protein associated with APAT activity was partially purified and finally isolated from an SDS/polyacrylamide gel. Tryptic peptides were generated and N-terminally sequenced. Two peptide sequences allowed the identification of an open reading frame (YGR177c, in the S. cerevisiae genome database) translating into a 62-kDa protein of hitherto unknown function. This protein encoded by a gene known as ATF2 displays 37% identity with an alcohol acetyltransferase encoded by the yeast gene ATF1. Disruption of ATF2 led to the complete elimination of APAT activity and consequently abolished the esterification of pregnenolone. In addition, a toxic effect of pregnenolone linked to the disruption of ATF2 was observed. Pregnenolone toxicity is more pronounced when the atf2-Delta mutation is introduced in a yeast strain devoid of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, PDR5 and SNQ2. Our results suggest that Atf2p (APAT) plays an active role in the detoxification of 3beta-hydroxysteroids in association with the efflux pumps Pdr5p and Snq2p.  (+info)

The concentration of adrenodoxin reductase limits cytochrome p450scc activity in the human placenta. (6/488)

We have previously reported that cytochrome P450scc activity in the human placenta is limited by the supply of electrons to the P450scc [Tuckey, R. C., Woods, S. T. & Tajbakhsh, M. (1997) Eur. J. Biochem. 244, 835-839]. The aim of the present study was to determine whether it is adrenodoxin reductase, adrenodoxin or both which limits cytochrome P450scc activity and hence progesterone synthesis in the placenta. We found that the concentrations of adrenodoxin reductase and adrenodoxin in placental mitochondria were both considerably lower than the concentrations of these proteins in the bovine adrenal cortex. When P450scc activity assays were carried out at high mitochondrial protein concentrations, we found that the addition of exogenous adrenodoxin reductase to sonicated mitochondria rescued pregnenolone synthesis to a level above that for intact mitochondria, showing that adrenodoxin is near-saturating in vivo. In contrast, pregnenolone synthesis by sonicated mitochondria was almost zero even after the addition of human adrenodoxin. This shows that the concentration of endogenous adrenodoxin reductase was insufficient to support appreciable rates of pregnenolone synthesis, even when concentrated mitochondrial samples were used. Comparative studies with human and bovine adrenodoxin reductase have revealed that a twofold higher concentration of human adrenodoxin reductase is required for maximal P450scc activity in the presence of saturating human adrenodoxin. Thus, not only is the adrenodoxin concentration low in placental mitochondria, but the amount required for maximal P450scc activity is higher than that for the bovine reductase. Overall, the data indicate that the adrenodoxin reductase concentration limits the activity of P450scc in placental mitochondria and hence determines the rate of progesterone synthesis.  (+info)

Identification by chimera formation and site-selected mutagenesis of a key amino acid residue involved in determining stereospecificity of guinea pig 3-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase isoforms. (7/488)

The 3-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferases that have been isolated and cloned from humans and rodents appear to have broad substrate specificities. In the guinea pig, however, two 3-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferases have been isolated that function according to an innate stereospecificity: the alpha-isoform acts on steroids with a 3-hydroxyl group oriented in the alpha position, whereas the beta-isoform acts on steroids where the 3-hydroxyl group is in a beta orientation. To examine the structural basis for this remarkable stereoselectivity, chimeras of the two enzymes, which are 87% identical, were constructed. A chimera consisting of the NH(2)-terminal 91 amino acids of the alpha-isoform and the COOH-terminal 196 amino acids of the beta-isoform displayed activity similar to that of the alpha-isoform. Site-selected mutagenesis of this 3alpha/beta-hydroxysteroid sulfotransferase chimera involving the 12 amino acid differences that exist between the two isoforms within the 91 amino acid NH(2)-terminal region revealed that the amino acid residue at position 51 plays a fundamental role in determining the stereospecificity exhibited by the alpha- and beta-isoforms, i.e. if residue 51 is an asparagine, alpha activity predominates, whereas if an isoleucine is in that position, beta activity prevails.  (+info)

Response-rate suppression in operant paradigm as predictor of soporific potency in rats and identification of three novel sedative-hypnotic neuroactive steroids. (8/488)

Novel neuroactive steroids were evaluated for their effects on operant responding, rotorod motor performance, and electroencephalogram recording in rats. Co 134444, Co 177843, and Co 127501 were compared with the prototypical gamma-aminobutyric acid(A)-positive allosteric modulators triazolam, zolpidem, pentobarbital, pregnanolone, and CCD 3693. Each of the compounds produced a dose-related decrease in response rates under a variable-interval 2-min schedule of positive reinforcement in an operant paradigm. In addition, all compounds produced a dose-related increase in ataxia and significant increases in nonrapid eye movement sleep in this experiment or have been previously reported to do so. Co 134444, Co 177843, and Co 127501 increased nonrapid eye movement sleep at doses that had no effect on rapid eye movement sleep. All of the compounds were more potent at decreasing operant responding than they were at increasing ataxia. Furthermore, the potency of compounds to produce response-rate suppression in an operant paradigm appeared to be a better predictor of soporific potency than did potency in the rotorod assay. The screening for sedative-hypnotic activity resulted in the identification of the novel orally active neuroactive steroids Co 134444, Co 177843, and Co 127501.  (+info)

Pregnenolone is defined as a steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. It's often referred to as the "mother hormone" since many other hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, progesterone, testosterone, and estrogen, are synthesized from it.

Pregnenolone is primarily produced in the adrenal glands but can also be produced in smaller amounts in the brain, skin, and sex organs (ovaries and testes). It plays a crucial role in various physiological processes such as maintaining membrane fluidity, acting as an antioxidant, and contributing to cognitive function.

However, it's important to note that while pregnenolone is a hormone, over-the-counter supplements containing this compound are not approved by the FDA for any medical use or condition. As always, consult with a healthcare provider before starting any new supplement regimen.

Pregnenolone carbonitrile is not a recognized or established medical term or substance. It's possible that there may be some confusion with the term "pregnenolone," which is a steroid hormone produced in the body. Pregnenolone is a precursor to other steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, and the sex hormones (estrogens, androgens).

Carbonitrile is an organic functional group consisting of a cyano group (-CN) attached to a carbon atom. It's not typically associated with pregnenolone or any other steroid hormones in medical or scientific contexts.

Therefore, I cannot provide a medical definition for 'Pregnenolone Carbonitrile,' as it is not a recognized term in the field of medicine or biology.

17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone is a steroid hormone that is produced in the adrenal glands and, to a lesser extent, in the gonads (ovaries and testes). It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone is formed from pregnenolone through the action of the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase. It can then be converted to 17-hydroxyprogesterone, which is a precursor to both cortisol and androgens such as testosterone.

While 17-alpha-Hydroxypregnenolone itself does not have significant physiological activity, its role in the biosynthesis of other steroid hormones makes it an important intermediate in the endocrine system. Dysregulation of its production or metabolism can contribute to various medical conditions, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia and certain forms of cancer.

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme, also known as Steroidogenic Acute Regulatory (StAR) protein or P450scc, is a complex enzymatic system that plays a crucial role in the production of steroid hormones. It is located in the inner mitochondrial membrane of steroid-producing cells, such as those found in the adrenal glands, gonads, and placenta.

The Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme is responsible for converting cholesterol into pregnenolone, which is the first step in the biosynthesis of all steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, sex hormones, and vitamin D. This enzymatic complex consists of two components: a flavoprotein called NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase, which provides electrons for the reaction, and a cytochrome P450 protein called CYP11A1, which catalyzes the actual cleavage of the cholesterol side chain.

Defects in the Cholesterol Side-Chain Cleavage Enzyme can lead to various genetic disorders, such as congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia (CLAH), a rare autosomal recessive disorder characterized by impaired steroidogenesis and accumulation of cholesteryl esters in the adrenal glands and gonads.

Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands. It serves as a precursor to other hormones, including androgens such as testosterone and estrogens such as estradiol. DHEA levels typically peak during early adulthood and then gradually decline with age.

DHEA has been studied for its potential effects on various health conditions, including aging, cognitive function, sexual dysfunction, and certain chronic diseases. However, the evidence supporting its use for these purposes is generally limited and inconclusive. As with any supplement or medication, it's important to consult with a healthcare provider before taking DHEA to ensure safety and effectiveness.

Pregnenolone is defined as a neurosteroid, which is a steroid hormone that is produced in the nervous system. It is synthesized from cholesterol and is the precursor to other steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, and the sex hormones (estrogens and androgens). Pregnenolone has been shown to have a number of important functions in the body, including modulation of neurotransmitter systems, regulation of ion channels, and protection of nerve cells from damage. It is thought to play a role in various physiological processes, such as memory, learning, and mood regulation. However, more research is needed to fully understand its mechanisms of action and therapeutic potential.

Pregnanes are a class of steroid hormones and steroids that contain a pregnane nucleus, which is a steroid core with a carbon skeleton consisting of 21 carbons. This structure includes four fused rings, labeled A through D, and is derived from cholesterol.

Pregnanes are important precursors for the synthesis of various steroid hormones in the body, including progesterone, which plays a crucial role in maintaining pregnancy and regulating the menstrual cycle. Other examples of pregnanes include cortisol, a stress hormone produced by the adrenal gland, and aldosterone, a hormone that helps regulate electrolyte balance and blood pressure.

It's worth noting that pregnanes can also refer to synthetic compounds that contain this steroid nucleus and are used in various medical and research contexts.

Pregnenes is not a term that is commonly used in medical terminology. However, in biochemistry, pregnenes are steroid compounds containing a carbon skeleton with nine or more rings. They are precursors to various steroid hormones such as progesterone and cortisol.

Pregnenes are derived from cholesterol through a series of enzymatic reactions that involve the removal of several carbons from the cholesterol molecule. The resulting pregnenolone is then further metabolized to produce other steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, androgens, and estrogens.

Therefore, while not a medical term per se, pregnenes are an essential class of compounds in the endocrine system that play a crucial role in various physiological processes, such as sexual development, stress response, and immune function.

Steroids, also known as corticosteroids, are a type of hormone that the adrenal gland produces in your body. They have many functions, such as controlling the balance of salt and water in your body and helping to reduce inflammation. Steroids can also be synthetically produced and used as medications to treat a variety of conditions, including allergies, asthma, skin conditions, and autoimmune disorders.

Steroid medications are available in various forms, such as oral pills, injections, creams, and inhalers. They work by mimicking the effects of natural hormones produced by your body, reducing inflammation and suppressing the immune system's response to prevent or reduce symptoms. However, long-term use of steroids can have significant side effects, including weight gain, high blood pressure, osteoporosis, and increased risk of infections.

It is important to note that anabolic steroids are a different class of drugs that are sometimes abused for their muscle-building properties. These steroids are synthetic versions of the male hormone testosterone and can have serious health consequences when taken in large doses or without medical supervision.

Progesterone reductase is not a widely recognized or used term in medical literature. However, based on the terms "progesterone" and "reductase," it can be inferred that progesterone reductase might refer to an enzyme responsible for reducing or converting progesterone into another form through a reduction reaction.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone involved in the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and embryogenesis. Reductases are enzymes that catalyze the transfer of electrons from a donor to an acceptor, often resulting in the reduction of a substrate. In this context, progesterone reductase could potentially refer to an enzyme responsible for reducing progesterone into a different steroid hormone or metabolite.

However, it is essential to note that there is no widely accepted or established definition of "progesterone reductase" in medical literature. If you are looking for information on a specific enzyme related to progesterone metabolism, I would recommend consulting primary scientific literature or seeking guidance from a medical professional.

3-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases (3-HSDs) are a group of enzymes that play a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. These enzymes catalyze the conversion of 3-beta-hydroxy steroids to 3-keto steroids, which is an essential step in the production of various steroid hormones, including progesterone, cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estradiol.

There are several isoforms of 3-HSDs that are expressed in different tissues and have distinct substrate specificities. For instance, 3-HSD type I is primarily found in the ovary and adrenal gland, where it catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-hydroxyprogesterone to 17-hydroxycortisol. On the other hand, 3-HSD type II is mainly expressed in the testes, adrenal gland, and placenta, where it catalyzes the conversion of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to androstenedione and androstenedione to testosterone.

Defects in 3-HSDs can lead to various genetic disorders that affect steroid hormone production and metabolism, resulting in a range of clinical manifestations such as adrenal insufficiency, ambiguous genitalia, and sexual development disorders.

Progesterone is a steroid hormone that is primarily produced in the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and in pregnancy. It plays an essential role in preparing the uterus for implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. Progesterone works to thicken the lining of the uterus, creating a nurturing environment for the developing embryo.

During the menstrual cycle, progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum, a temporary structure formed in the ovary after an egg has been released from a follicle during ovulation. If pregnancy does not occur, the levels of progesterone will decrease, leading to the shedding of the uterine lining and menstruation.

In addition to its reproductive functions, progesterone also has various other effects on the body, such as helping to regulate the immune system, supporting bone health, and potentially influencing mood and cognition. Progesterone can be administered medically in the form of oral pills, intramuscular injections, or vaginal suppositories for various purposes, including hormone replacement therapy, contraception, and managing certain gynecological conditions.

Hydroxysteroids are steroid hormones or steroid compounds that contain one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) as a functional group. These molecules have a steroid nucleus, which is a core structure composed of four fused carbon rings, and one or more hydroxyl groups attached to the rings.

The presence of hydroxyl groups makes hydroxysteroids polar and more soluble in water compared to other steroids. They are involved in various physiological processes, such as metabolism, bile acid synthesis, and steroid hormone regulation. Some examples of hydroxysteroids include certain forms of estrogens, androgens, corticosteroids, and bile acids.

It is important to note that the specific medical definition may vary depending on the context or source.

The adrenal cortex is the outer portion of the adrenal gland, which is located on top of the kidneys. It plays a crucial role in producing hormones that are essential for various bodily functions. The adrenal cortex is divided into three zones:

1. Zona glomerulosa: This outermost zone produces mineralocorticoids, primarily aldosterone. Aldosterone helps regulate sodium and potassium balance and thus influences blood pressure by controlling the amount of fluid in the body.
2. Zona fasciculata: The middle layer is responsible for producing glucocorticoids, with cortisol being the most important one. Cortisol regulates metabolism, helps manage stress responses, and has anti-inflammatory properties. It also plays a role in blood sugar regulation and maintaining the body's response to injury and illness.
3. Zona reticularis: The innermost zone produces androgens, primarily dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and its sulfate form (DHEAS). These androgens are weak compared to those produced by the gonads (ovaries or testes), but they can be converted into more potent androgens or estrogens in peripheral tissues.

Disorders related to the adrenal cortex can lead to hormonal imbalances, affecting various bodily functions. Examples include Addison's disease (insufficient adrenal cortical hormone production) and Cushing's syndrome (excessive glucocorticoid levels).

Steroid 17-alpha-hydroxylase, also known as CYP17A1, is a cytochrome P450 enzyme that plays a crucial role in steroid hormone biosynthesis. It is located in the endoplasmic reticulum of cells in the adrenal glands and gonads. This enzyme catalyzes the 17-alpha-hydroxylation and subsequent lyase cleavage of pregnenolone and progesterone, converting them into dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione, respectively. These steroid intermediates are essential for the biosynthesis of both glucocorticoids and sex steroids, including cortisol, aldosterone, estrogens, and testosterone.

Defects in the CYP17A1 gene can lead to several disorders, such as congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) due to 17-alpha-hydroxylase deficiency, which is characterized by decreased production of cortisol and sex steroids and increased mineralocorticoid levels. This condition results in sexual infantilism, electrolyte imbalances, and hypertension.

Adrenodoxin is a small iron-sulfur protein that plays a crucial role in the steroidogenesis process within the mitochondria of cells. It functions as an electron carrier in the final steps of steroid hormone biosynthesis, specifically during the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. This conversion is catalyzed by the cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), which requires adrenodoxin to donate electrons for its activity. Adrenodoxin itself receives electrons from another protein, adrenodoxin reductase, in a series of redox reactions. Proper adrenodoxin function is essential for the production of various steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones.

5-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone, also known as 5α-DHP, is a metabolite of progesterone. It is formed in the body by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone. 5-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone is a weak androgen and has been found to have some effects on the development and maintenance of male sexual characteristics. It may also play a role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle in women. However, its precise physiological functions are not fully understood.

The adrenal glands are a pair of endocrine glands that are located on top of the kidneys. Each gland has two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. The adrenal cortex produces hormones such as cortisol, aldosterone, and androgens, which regulate metabolism, blood pressure, and other vital functions. The adrenal medulla produces catecholamines, including epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline), which help the body respond to stress by increasing heart rate, blood pressure, and alertness.

Hydroxyprogesterone is a synthetic form of the natural hormone progesterone, which is produced by the body during pregnancy to support the growth and development of the fetus. Hydroxyprogesterone is used in medical treatments to help prevent preterm birth in certain high-risk pregnancies.

There are several different forms of hydroxyprogesterone that have been developed for use as medications, including:

1. Hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC): This is a synthetic form of progesterone that is given as an injection once a week to help prevent preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by helping to thicken the lining of the uterus and prevent contractions.
2. 17-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is a natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth, although it is not currently approved for this use by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).
3. 21-Hydroxyprogesterone: This is another natural hormone that is produced by the body during pregnancy, but it can also be synthesized in a laboratory for use as a medication. It has been studied for its potential to help prevent preterm birth and for its ability to reduce the risk of certain complications in women with a history of premature birth.

It's important to note that hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may not be appropriate for all women. If you are pregnant or planning to become pregnant and have concerns about preterm birth, it's important to discuss your options with your healthcare provider.

Hydroxycholesterols are a type of sterol that is formed in the body when cholesterol, a steroid alcohol, undergoes hydroxylation. This means that one or more hydroxyl groups (-OH) are added to the cholesterol molecule. There are several different types of hydroxycholesterols, including 24-hydroxycholesterol, 25-hydroxycholesterol, and 27-hydroxycholesterol, among others. These compounds play important roles in various physiological processes, such as regulating cholesterol metabolism and contributing to the formation of bile acids. They have also been studied for their potential involvement in atherosclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, and other health conditions.

20-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone is a weak endogenous progestin, a form of progesterone, naturally occurring in the body. It is a metabolite of progesterone and has only about 1% of the activity of its parent compound. It is formed by the action of the enzyme 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone.

Medical Definition:
20-Alpha-Dihydroprogesterone (20-α-DHP): An endogenous progestin, a weak metabolite of progesterone, formed by the action of 5-alpha-reductase on progesterone. It has only about 1% of the activity of its parent compound, progesterone.

Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-S) is a steroid hormone that is produced by the adrenal glands. It is a modified form of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), which is converted to DHEA-S in the body for storage and later conversion back to DHEA or other steroid hormones, such as testosterone and estrogen. DHEA-S is often measured in the blood as a marker of adrenal function. It is also available as a dietary supplement, although its effectiveness for any medical purpose is not well established.

Androstenedione is a steroid hormone produced by the adrenal glands, ovaries, and testes. It is a precursor to both male and female sex hormones, including testosterone and estrogen. In the adrenal glands, it is produced from cholesterol through a series of biochemical reactions involving several enzymes. Androstenedione can also be converted into other steroid hormones, such as dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and estrone.

In the body, androstenedione plays an important role in the development and maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair and a deep voice in men, and breast development and menstrual cycles in women. It also contributes to bone density, muscle mass, and overall physical strength.

Androstenedione is available as a dietary supplement and has been marketed as a way to boost athletic performance and increase muscle mass. However, its effectiveness for these purposes is not supported by scientific evidence, and it may have harmful side effects when taken in high doses or for extended periods of time. Additionally, the use of androstenedione as a dietary supplement is banned by many sports organizations, including the International Olympic Committee and the National Collegiate Athletic Association.

A Diazepam Binding Inhibitor (DBI) is a protein that inhibits the binding of benzodiazepines, such as diazepam, to their receptor site in the central nervous system. DBI is also known as the alpha-2-macroglobulin-like protein 1 or A2ML1. It is involved in regulating the activity of the GABA-A receptor complex, which plays a crucial role in inhibitory neurotransmission in the brain. When DBI binds to the benzodiazepine site on the GABA-A receptor, it prevents diazepam and other benzodiazepines from exerting their effects, which include sedation, anxiety reduction, muscle relaxation, and anticonvulsant activity.

Aminoglutethimide is a medication that is primarily used to treat hormone-sensitive cancers such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. It works by blocking the production of certain hormones in the body, including estrogen and cortisol. Aminoglutethimide is an inhibitor of steroid synthesis, specifically targeting the enzymes involved in the conversion of cholesterol to steroid hormones.

The medication is available in oral form and is typically taken 2-3 times a day. Common side effects include drowsiness, dizziness, dry mouth, skin rash, and changes in appetite or weight. More serious side effects may include liver damage, severe allergic reactions, and changes in heart rhythm.

It's important to note that aminoglutethimide can interact with other medications, so it's crucial to inform your healthcare provider about all the drugs you are currently taking before starting this medication. Additionally, regular monitoring of liver function and hormone levels may be necessary during treatment with aminoglutethimide.

17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone is a naturally occurring hormone produced by the adrenal glands and, in smaller amounts, by the ovaries and testes. It is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of steroid hormones, including cortisol, aldosterone, and sex hormones such as testosterone and estrogen.

In a medical context, 17-α-Hydroxyprogesterone may also refer to a synthetic form of this hormone that is used in the treatment of certain medical conditions. For example, a medication called 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone caproate (17-OHP) is used to reduce the risk of preterm birth in women who have previously given birth prematurely. It works by suppressing uterine contractions and promoting fetal lung maturity.

It's important to note that 17-alpha-Hydroxyprogesterone should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have side effects and may interact with other medications.

The Cytochrome P-450 (CYP450) enzyme system is a group of enzymes found primarily in the liver, but also in other organs such as the intestines, lungs, and skin. These enzymes play a crucial role in the metabolism and biotransformation of various substances, including drugs, environmental toxins, and endogenous compounds like hormones and fatty acids.

The name "Cytochrome P-450" refers to the unique property of these enzymes to bind to carbon monoxide (CO) and form a complex that absorbs light at a wavelength of 450 nm, which can be detected spectrophotometrically.

The CYP450 enzyme system is involved in Phase I metabolism of xenobiotics, where it catalyzes oxidation reactions such as hydroxylation, dealkylation, and epoxidation. These reactions introduce functional groups into the substrate molecule, which can then undergo further modifications by other enzymes during Phase II metabolism.

There are several families and subfamilies of CYP450 enzymes, each with distinct substrate specificities and functions. Some of the most important CYP450 enzymes include:

1. CYP3A4: This is the most abundant CYP450 enzyme in the human liver and is involved in the metabolism of approximately 50% of all drugs. It also metabolizes various endogenous compounds like steroids, bile acids, and vitamin D.
2. CYP2D6: This enzyme is responsible for the metabolism of many psychotropic drugs, including antidepressants, antipsychotics, and beta-blockers. It also metabolizes some endogenous compounds like dopamine and serotonin.
3. CYP2C9: This enzyme plays a significant role in the metabolism of warfarin, phenytoin, and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs).
4. CYP2C19: This enzyme is involved in the metabolism of proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants, and clopidogrel.
5. CYP2E1: This enzyme metabolizes various xenobiotics like alcohol, acetaminophen, and carbon tetrachloride, as well as some endogenous compounds like fatty acids and prostaglandins.

Genetic polymorphisms in CYP450 enzymes can significantly affect drug metabolism and response, leading to interindividual variability in drug efficacy and toxicity. Understanding the role of CYP450 enzymes in drug metabolism is crucial for optimizing pharmacotherapy and minimizing adverse effects.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Pregnanediones" is not a recognized term in medical terminology or pharmacology. It seems that the term may be a combination of "pregnan" (a root word related to steroid hormones produced by the ovaries and testes) and "dione" (a suffix used in chemistry to denote a ketone with two carbonyl groups). However, without a clear context or a specific chemical structure, it's not possible to provide an accurate definition or description.

If you have any more information about the term or if you meant something different, please let me know and I will do my best to help you.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "cyanoketone" is not a recognized medical term or a compound with a specific medical relevance. The term "cyanoketone" does not appear in standard biochemical or medical databases such as PubChem, ChemSpider, or Medline.

The prefix "cyano-" refers to the cyano group (CN), which is a functional group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to a nitrogen atom by a triple bond (:C::N:-). Ketones are compounds containing a carbonyl group (>C=O). However, without more specific information about the structure and context, it's challenging to provide a medical definition or relevance for "cyanoketone."

If you have more context or details regarding this term, I would be happy to help further.

Cholesterol is a type of lipid (fat) molecule that is an essential component of cell membranes and is also used to make certain hormones and vitamins in the body. It is produced by the liver and is also obtained from animal-derived foods such as meat, dairy products, and eggs.

Cholesterol does not mix with blood, so it is transported through the bloodstream by lipoproteins, which are particles made up of both lipids and proteins. There are two main types of lipoproteins that carry cholesterol: low-density lipoproteins (LDL), also known as "bad" cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins (HDL), also known as "good" cholesterol.

High levels of LDL cholesterol in the blood can lead to a buildup of cholesterol in the walls of the arteries, increasing the risk of heart disease and stroke. On the other hand, high levels of HDL cholesterol are associated with a lower risk of these conditions because HDL helps remove LDL cholesterol from the bloodstream and transport it back to the liver for disposal.

It is important to maintain healthy levels of cholesterol through a balanced diet, regular exercise, and sometimes medication if necessary. Regular screening is also recommended to monitor cholesterol levels and prevent health complications.

Androsterone is a weak androgen and an endogenous steroid hormone. It's produced in the liver from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and is converted into androstenedione, another weak androgen. Androsterone is excreted in urine as a major metabolite of testosterone. It plays a role in male sexual development and function, although its effects are much weaker than those of testosterone. In clinical contexts, androsterone levels may be measured to help diagnose certain hormonal disorders or to monitor hormone therapy.

Leydig cells, also known as interstitial cells of Leydig or interstitial cell-stroma, are cells in the testes that produce and release testosterone and other androgens into the bloodstream. They are located in the seminiferous tubules of the testis, near the blood vessels, and are named after Franz Leydig, the German physiologist who discovered them in 1850.

Leydig cells contain cholesterol esters, which serve as precursors for the synthesis of testosterone. They respond to luteinizing hormone (LH) released by the anterior pituitary gland, which stimulates the production and release of testosterone. Testosterone is essential for the development and maintenance of male secondary sexual characteristics, such as facial hair, deep voice, and muscle mass. It also plays a role in sperm production and bone density.

In addition to their endocrine function, Leydig cells have been shown to have non-hormonal functions, including phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and immune regulation. However, these functions are not as well understood as their hormonal roles.

Steroid isomerases are a class of enzymes that catalyze the interconversion of steroids by rearranging various chemical bonds within their structures, leading to the formation of isomers. These enzymes play crucial roles in steroid biosynthesis and metabolism, enabling the production of a diverse array of steroid hormones with distinct biological activities.

There are several types of steroid isomerases, including:

1. 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase/delta(5)-delta(4) isomerase (3-beta-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of delta(5) steroids to delta(4) steroids, accompanied by the oxidation of a 3-beta-hydroxyl group to a keto group. It is essential for the biosynthesis of progesterone, cortisol, and aldosterone.
2. Aromatase: This enzyme converts androgens (such as testosterone) into estrogens (such as estradiol) by introducing a phenolic ring, which results in the formation of an aromatic A-ring. It is critical for the development and maintenance of female secondary sexual characteristics.
3. 17-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17-beta-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the interconversion between 17-keto and 17-beta-hydroxy steroids, playing a key role in the biosynthesis of estrogens, androgens, and glucocorticoids.
4. 5-alpha-reductase: This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) by reducing the double bond between carbons 4 and 5 in the A-ring. DHT is a more potent androgen than testosterone, playing essential roles in male sexual development and prostate growth.
5. 20-alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (20-alpha-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of corticosterone to aldosterone, a critical mineralocorticoid involved in regulating electrolyte and fluid balance.
6. 3-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3-beta-HSD): This enzyme catalyzes the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17-alpha-hydroxypregnenolone to 17-alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, which are essential intermediates in steroid hormone biosynthesis.

These enzymes play crucial roles in the biosynthesis, metabolism, and elimination of various steroid hormones, ensuring proper endocrine function and homeostasis. Dysregulation or mutations in these enzymes can lead to various endocrine disorders, including congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS), and others.

Sigma receptors are a type of cell surface receptor that were initially thought to be opioid receptors but later found to have a distinct pharmacology. They are a heterogeneous group of proteins that are widely distributed in the brain and other tissues, where they play a role in various physiological functions such as neurotransmission, signal transduction, and modulation of ion channels.

Sigma receptors can be divided into two subtypes: sigma-1 and sigma-2. Sigma-1 receptors are ligand-regulated chaperone proteins that are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria-associated ER membranes, where they modulate calcium signaling, protein folding, and stress responses. Sigma-2 receptors, on the other hand, are still poorly characterized and their endogenous ligands and physiological functions remain elusive.

Sigma receptors can be activated by a variety of drugs, including certain antidepressants, neuroleptics, psychostimulants, and hallucinogens, as well as some natural compounds such as steroids and phenolamines. The activation of sigma receptors has been implicated in various neurological and psychiatric disorders, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety, addiction, pain, and neurodegeneration, although their exact role and therapeutic potential are still under investigation.

Testosterone is a steroid hormone that belongs to androsten class of hormones. It is primarily secreted by the Leydig cells in the testes of males and, to a lesser extent, by the ovaries and adrenal glands in females. Testosterone is the main male sex hormone and anabolic steroid. It plays a key role in the development of masculine characteristics, such as body hair and muscle mass, and contributes to bone density, fat distribution, red cell production, and sex drive. In females, testosterone contributes to sexual desire and bone health. Testosterone is synthesized from cholesterol and its production is regulated by luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH).

The corpus luteum is a temporary endocrine structure that forms in the ovary after an oocyte (egg) has been released from a follicle during ovulation. It's formed by the remaining cells of the ruptured follicle, which transform into large, hormone-secreting cells.

The primary function of the corpus luteum is to produce progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogen during the menstrual cycle or pregnancy. Progesterone plays a crucial role in preparing the uterus for potential implantation of a fertilized egg and maintaining the early stages of pregnancy. If pregnancy does not occur, the corpus luteum will typically degenerate and stop producing hormones after approximately 10-14 days, leading to menstruation.

However, if pregnancy occurs, the developing embryo starts to produce human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), which signals the corpus luteum to continue secreting progesterone and estrogen until the placenta takes over hormonal production, usually around the end of the first trimester.

Androstanes are a class of steroidal compounds that have a basic structure consisting of a four-ring core derived from cholesterol. Specifically, androstanes contain a 19-carbon skeleton with a chemical formula of C19H28O or C19H28O2, depending on whether they are alcohols (androgens) or ketones (androstanes), respectively.

The term "androstane" is often used to refer to the parent compound, which has a hydroxyl group (-OH) attached at the C3 position of the steroid nucleus. When this hydroxyl group is replaced by a keto group (-C=O), the resulting compound is called androstane-3,17-dione or simply "androstane."

Androstanes are important precursors in the biosynthesis of various steroid hormones, including testosterone, estrogen, and cortisol. They are also used as intermediates in the synthesis of certain drugs and pharmaceuticals.

Hexobarbital is a medication that belongs to the class of drugs called barbiturates. It is primarily used as a short-acting sedative and hypnotic agent, which means it can help induce sleep and reduce anxiety. Hexobarbital works by depressing the central nervous system, slowing down brain activity and causing relaxation and drowsiness.

It's important to note that hexobarbital is not commonly used in modern medical practice due to the availability of safer and more effective alternatives. Additionally, barbiturates like hexobarbital have a high potential for abuse and dependence, and their use is associated with several risks, including respiratory depression, overdose, and death, particularly when taken in combination with other central nervous system depressants such as alcohol or opioids.

Mitochondria are specialized structures located inside cells that convert the energy from food into ATP (adenosine triphosphate), which is the primary form of energy used by cells. They are often referred to as the "powerhouses" of the cell because they generate most of the cell's supply of chemical energy. Mitochondria are also involved in various other cellular processes, such as signaling, differentiation, and apoptosis (programmed cell death).

Mitochondria have their own DNA, known as mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), which is inherited maternally. This means that mtDNA is passed down from the mother to her offspring through the egg cells. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to a variety of diseases and conditions, including neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and aging.

Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin (TRPM) cation channels are a subfamily of the transient receptor potential (TRP) channel superfamily, which are non-selective cation channels that play important roles in various cellular processes such as sensory perception, cell proliferation, and migration.

The TRPM subfamily consists of eight members (TRPM1-8), each with distinct functional properties and expression patterns. These channels are permeable to both monovalent and divalent cations, including calcium (Ca^2+^) and magnesium (Mg^2+^).

TRPM channels can be activated by a variety of stimuli, such as changes in temperature, voltage, osmolarity, and chemical ligands. For example, TRPM8 is known to be activated by cold temperatures and menthol, while TRPV1 is activated by heat and capsaicin.

Dysregulation of TRPM channels has been implicated in various pathological conditions, including pain, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer. Therefore, understanding the structure and function of these channels may provide insights into potential therapeutic targets for these conditions.

Granulosa cells are specialized cells that surround and enclose the developing egg cells (oocytes) in the ovaries. They play a crucial role in the growth, development, and maturation of the follicles (the fluid-filled sacs containing the oocytes) by providing essential nutrients and hormones.

Granulosa cells are responsible for producing estrogen, which supports the development of the endometrium during the menstrual cycle in preparation for a potential pregnancy. They also produce inhibin and activin, two hormones that regulate the function of the pituitary gland and its secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).

These cells are critical for female reproductive health and fertility. Abnormalities in granulosa cell function can lead to various reproductive disorders, such as polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), premature ovarian failure, and infertility.

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) is a powerful analytical technique that combines the separating power of gas chromatography with the identification capabilities of mass spectrometry. This method is used to separate, identify, and quantify different components in complex mixtures.

In GC-MS, the mixture is first vaporized and carried through a long, narrow column by an inert gas (carrier gas). The various components in the mixture interact differently with the stationary phase inside the column, leading to their separation based on their partition coefficients between the mobile and stationary phases. As each component elutes from the column, it is then introduced into the mass spectrometer for analysis.

The mass spectrometer ionizes the sample, breaks it down into smaller fragments, and measures the mass-to-charge ratio of these fragments. This information is used to generate a mass spectrum, which serves as a unique "fingerprint" for each compound. By comparing the generated mass spectra with reference libraries or known standards, analysts can identify and quantify the components present in the original mixture.

GC-MS has wide applications in various fields such as forensics, environmental analysis, drug testing, and research laboratories due to its high sensitivity, specificity, and ability to analyze volatile and semi-volatile compounds.

Adrenocorticotropic Hormone (ACTH) is a hormone produced and released by the anterior pituitary gland, a small endocrine gland located at the base of the brain. ACTH plays a crucial role in the regulation of the body's stress response and has significant effects on various physiological processes.

The primary function of ACTH is to stimulate the adrenal glands, which are triangular-shaped glands situated on top of the kidneys. The adrenal glands consist of two parts: the outer cortex and the inner medulla. ACTH specifically targets the adrenal cortex, where it binds to specific receptors and initiates a series of biochemical reactions leading to the production and release of steroid hormones, primarily cortisol (a glucocorticoid) and aldosterone (a mineralocorticoid).

Cortisol is involved in various metabolic processes, such as regulating blood sugar levels, modulating the immune response, and helping the body respond to stress. Aldosterone plays a vital role in maintaining electrolyte and fluid balance by promoting sodium reabsorption and potassium excretion in the kidneys.

ACTH release is controlled by the hypothalamus, another part of the brain, which produces corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH). CRH stimulates the anterior pituitary gland to secrete ACTH, which in turn triggers cortisol production in the adrenal glands. This complex feedback system helps maintain homeostasis and ensures that appropriate amounts of cortisol are released in response to various physiological and psychological stressors.

Disorders related to ACTH can lead to hormonal imbalances, resulting in conditions such as Cushing's syndrome (excessive cortisol production) or Addison's disease (insufficient cortisol production). Proper diagnosis and management of these disorders typically involve assessing the function of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and addressing any underlying issues affecting ACTH secretion.

Progestins are a class of steroid hormones that are similar to progesterone, a natural hormone produced by the ovaries during the menstrual cycle and pregnancy. They are often used in hormonal contraceptives, such as birth control pills, shots, and implants, to prevent ovulation and thicken the cervical mucus, making it more difficult for sperm to reach the egg. Progestins are also used in menopausal hormone therapy to alleviate symptoms of menopause, such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Additionally, progestins may be used to treat endometriosis, uterine fibroids, and breast cancer. Different types of progestins have varying properties and may be more suitable for certain indications or have different side effect profiles.

GABA-A receptors are ligand-gated ion channels in the membrane of neuronal cells. They are the primary mediators of fast inhibitory synaptic transmission in the central nervous system. When the neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) binds to these receptors, it opens an ion channel that allows chloride ions to flow into the neuron, resulting in hyperpolarization of the membrane and decreased excitability of the neuron. This inhibitory effect helps to regulate neural activity and maintain a balance between excitation and inhibition in the nervous system. GABA-A receptors are composed of multiple subunits, and the specific combination of subunits can determine the receptor's properties, such as its sensitivity to different drugs or neurotransmitters.

... can be converted to androstadienol by 16-ene synthase (CYP17A1). Pregnenolone can be converted to pregnenolone ... for information on pregnenolone as a medication or supplement, see the pregnenolone (medication) article. Pregnenolone and its ... Pregnenolone is produced mainly in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and the brain. Although pregnenolone is also produced in the ... Pregnenolone has been found to act as an agonist of the pregnane X receptor. Pregnenolone has no progestogenic, corticosteroid ...
... has been marketed in France in a topical cream containing 1% pregnenolone acetate and 10% "sex hormone" ... Pregnenolone acetate (brand names Antofin, Previsone, Pregno-Pan), also known as pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one 3β-acetate, is a ... 325-. ISBN 978-92-871-6298-4. Lamb JH, Kelly FC, Shackelford PO, Rebell G, Koons RC (1953). "Pregnenolone acetate in treatment ... Pregnenolone succinate Prebediolone acetate National Center for Biotechnology Information. PubChem Compound Database; CID= ...
However, pregnenolone sulfate does not cross the blood-brain barrier. Pregnenolone, also known as 5-pregnenolone or as pregn-5- ... Pregnenolone can be taken by mouth, as a topical medication, or by injection into muscle. Pregnenolone is promoted online with ... Pregnenolone has low bioavailability and is subject to high metabolism. Oral administration of 50 or 100 mg pregnenolone has ... Pregnenolone is no longer marketed as a medication, but remains available as a supplement. Pregnenolone has been promoted ...
... is synthesized from pregnenolone via sulfation. Pregnenolone itself is produced from cholesterol via ... Pregnenolone sulfate (PS, PREGS) is an endogenous excitatory neurosteroid that is synthesized from pregnenolone. It is known to ... Pregnenolone sulfate, also known as pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one 3β-sulfate, is a naturally occurring pregnane steroid and a ... Pregnenolone sulfate is a neurosteroid with excitatory effects in the brain, acting as a potent negative allosteric modulator ...
Pregnenolone may refer to: Pregnenolone (pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one) Pregnenolone (medication) 3β-Dihydroprogesterone (pregn-4-en- ... Pregneninolone or ethisterone Progesterone This disambiguation page lists articles associated with the title Pregnenolone. If ...
... (USANTooltip United States Adopted Name; brand names Panzalone, Formula 405; also known as pregnenolone ... Pregnenolone acetate Prebediolone acetate J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, ... Pregnenolone succinate. U: Glucocorticoid (anti-inflammatory, anti-allergic). Maison G. De Navarre (1988). The chemistry and ... Pregnenolone hemisuccinate has been patented for topical use in alleviating allergic, pruritic and inflammatory dermatitis (29 ...
... (PCN) is a synthetic, steroidal antiglucocorticoid and pregnane X receptor agonist. Pregnenolone ...
Pregnenolone - a steroid which has been promoted online with claims it can treat a variety of diseases including multiple ... 2009). "Pregnenolone". American Cancer Society Complete Guide to Complementary and Alternative Cancer Therapies (2nd ed.). ...
... pregnenolone. In theory, if all or some of these hormones are replaced, the body will respond to them as it did when it was ...
"Pregnenolone methyl ether". adisinsight.springer.com. Retrieved 7 May 2017. "PH 10 nasal spray". adisinsight.springer.com. ...
3β-Methoxypregnenolone (MAP-4343), or pregnenolone 3β-methyl ether, is a synthetic neuroactive steroid and pregnenolone ... "Pregnenolone methyl ether - Mapreg". AdisInsight. Springer Nature Switzerland AG. Duchossoy Y, David S, Baulieu EE, Robel P ( ... Marx CE, Bradford DW, Hamer RM, Naylor JC, Allen TB, Lieberman JA, Strauss JL, Kilts JD (September 2011). "Pregnenolone as a ... Neurosteroids are synthesized from cholesterol, which is converted into pregnenolone and then into all other endogenous ...
... converts cholesterol to pregnenolone. 17,20-Desmolase, also called CYP17A1 or 17α-hydroxylase; converts pregnenolone to 17α- ...
... and finally the bond between carbons 20 and 22 is cleaved by P450scc to form pregnenolone ((3β)-3-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one), ... "Biosynthesis of pregnenolone from 22-hydroxycholesterol". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 237 (3): 703-4. doi:10.1016/ ... "The catalytic cycle of cytochrome P-450scc and intermediates in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone". European ...
... and finally the bond between carbons 20 and 22 is cleaved by P450scc to form pregnenolone ((3β)-3-hydroxypregn-5-en-20-one), ... "Biosynthesis of pregnenolone from 22-hydroxycholesterol". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 237 (3): 703-4. doi:10.1016/ ... "The catalytic cycle of cytochrome P-450scc and intermediates in the conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone". European ...
It is made from pregnenolone, and is a positive allosteric modulator of the action of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at GABAA ... In addition to oral progesterone, oral pregnenolone has also been found to act as a prodrug of allopregnanolone, though also of ... Sripada RK, Marx CE, King AP, Rampton JC, Ho SS, Liberzon I (June 2013). "Allopregnanolone elevations following pregnenolone ... It has been suggested that allopregnanolone and its precursor pregnenolone may have therapeutic potential for treatment of ...
Within the mitochondria, cholesterol is converted to pregnenolone by CYP11A1. Pregnenolone is then converted to ...
With a rat testicular enzyme preparation, Medrogestone (lxlO'^M) inhibited the conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone (92 ... preventing conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone and 17α-hydroxypregnenolone to 17α-hydroxyprogesterone in rat testis ... and 17- hydroxyprogesterone (59%); and 17-hydroxy- pregnenolone to 17- hydroxyprogesterone (83%). With a ... Influences of ...
ACTH stimulates uptake of cholesterol and synthesis of pregnenolone. Steroid precursors up to and including progesterone, 17α- ... which starts from pregnenolone and finishes with cortisol. It also catalyzes hydroxylation of progesterone to 11- ... deoxycorticosterone (DOC) in the mineralocorticoid pathway on its way from pregnenolone to aldosterone. Deficient activity of ...
Pregnenolone acetate Pregnenolone succinate J. Elks (14 November 2014). The Dictionary of Drugs: Chemical Data: Chemical Data, ... It is 5-pregnene 3 beta, 21-dial-20-one 21 acetate.4 It is also known as 21-acetoxy-pregnenolone, acetoxanon, prebediolone ... 665-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. BRUGSCH HG, MANNING RA (1951). "A comparative study of pregnenolone, 21-acetoxypregnenolone and ... It is the C21 acetate ester of prebediolone (21-hydroxypregnenolone), the C21 hydroxylated derivative of pregnenolone. ...
The placenta produces pregnenolone and progesterone from circulating cholesterol. Pregnenolone is taken up by the fetal adrenal ...
E.h.) Androsterone Conjugated estriol Epiandrosterone Pregnenolone Szöllösi-Janze, Margit (2001). Science in the Third Reich ( ...
The conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone takes place in two steps. First, the 3β-hydroxyl group is oxidized to a keto ... Pregnenolone and progesterone can also be synthesized by yeast. Approximately 25 mg of progesterone is secreted from the ... This vicinal diol is then further oxidized with loss of the side chain starting at position C22 to produce pregnenolone. This ... Progesterone, like pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), belongs to an important group of endogenous steroids called ...
It is formed from pregnenolone in the adrenal glands. The 21-acetate ester of 21-hydroxypregnenolone, prebediolone acetate, is ... 665-. ISBN 978-1-4757-2085-3. BRUGSCH HG, MANNING RA (1951). "A comparative study of pregnenolone, 21-acetoxypregnenolone and ...
Progesterone is prepared by the Oppenauer oxidation of pregnenolone. A slight variation of the Oppenauer oxidation is also used ...
Hanukoglu I, Jefcoate CR (1980). "Pregnenolone separation from cholesterol using Sephadex LH-20 mini-columns". Journal of ...
Certain substances act as agonist or inhibitor of CatSper (e. g. Pregnenolone sulfate is an agonist, pristimerin and lupeol are ...
Henson MC, Pepe GJ, Albrecht ED (1987). "Transuterofetoplacental conversion of pregnenolone to progesterone in antiestrogen- ...
Hanukoglu I, Jefcoate CR (1980). "Pregnenolone separation from cholesterol using Sephadex LH-20 mini-columns". Journal of ...
Cholesterol Pregnenolone Cytochrome+P450scc at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Portal: ... P450scc is a mitochondrial enzyme that catalyzes conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone. This is the first reaction in the ... The final step cleaves the bond between carbons 20 and 22, resulting in the production of pregnenolone and isocaproic aldehyde ... Strushkevich N, MacKenzie F, Cherkesova T, Grabovec I, Usanov S, Park HW (June 2011). "Structural basis for pregnenolone ...
Wong P, Chang CC, Marx CE, Caron MG, Wetsel WC, Zhang X (2012). Hashimoto K (ed.). "Pregnenolone rescues schizophrenia-like ... October 2010). "Pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone as an adjunctive treatment in schizophrenia and schizoaffective ... July 2009). "Proof-of-concept trial with the neurosteroid pregnenolone targeting cognitive and negative symptoms in ...
Pregnenolone can be converted to androstadienol by 16-ene synthase (CYP17A1). Pregnenolone can be converted to pregnenolone ... for information on pregnenolone as a medication or supplement, see the pregnenolone (medication) article. Pregnenolone and its ... Pregnenolone is produced mainly in the adrenal glands, the gonads, and the brain. Although pregnenolone is also produced in the ... Pregnenolone has been found to act as an agonist of the pregnane X receptor. Pregnenolone has no progestogenic, corticosteroid ...
Shop for MRM Pregnenolone 50mg Vegan Capsules (60 ct) at Ralphs. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping List or ... Pregnenolone is naturally produced in the body. Its main role is as a progenitor hormone for the biosynthesis of other hormones ... such as Progesterone, DHEA, cortisol, and other sex hormones). Pregnenolone itself, also has substantial neurocognitive (brain ...
Shop for Country Life Pregnenolone Capsules 30 mg (60 ct) at Fred Meyer. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping ... Pregnenolone is a hormone precursor produced by the adrenal glands. It is important for nerve health as well as for the ... Pregnenolone , Cellulose , Cellulose ( Capsule Shell ) , Magnesium Stearate , Stearic Acid , Silica .. Allergen Info. Free from ...
If Pregnenolone is the precursor to testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, estrogen, etc.... why not take that instead of ... Why not Pregnenolone by: Joy Hi to. I see no point in pregnenolone, as it has to be converted into progesterone, but it is ... Why not Pregnenolone. by to (SoCal) If Pregnenolone is the precursor to testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, estrogen, etc ... Pregnenolone steal by: Anonymous Hey I have the same issue right now lol I have low progesterone and I been taking 100mg for 3 ...
Shop for Vitacost Pregnenolone Targeted Wellness Capsules 50mg (180 ct) at Kroger. Find quality health products to add to your ... Pregnenolone is found in larger quantities in the brain and cranial nerves than any of the sex compounds. Animal studies ... Pregnenolone is a naturally occurring metabolite produced primarily in the adrenal glands and central nervous system. Its ... With age, the amount of pregnenolone synthesized in the body decreases. Around age 75, its believed to be reduced by as much ...
pregnenolone sulfate from Neuroscience News features breaking science news from research labs, scientists and colleges around ...
Shop for NutriCology Pregnenolone 50 (60 Tablets) at Frys Food Stores. Find quality health products to add to your Shopping ... Time-release pregnenolone (plant source) for superior utilization. Pregnenolone is the precursor to all adrenal cortical ...
... and clozapine enhances pregnenolone in the CNS in rats, suggesting that pregnenolone could be used to treat certain symptoms of ... Following acute treatment, pregnenolone was found to reduce the hyperlocomotion, stereotypic bouts and pre-pulse inhibition ( ... Following chronic treatment with pregnenolone at 60 mg/kg, the cognitive deficits of DAT KO mice were rescued in the paradigms ... Here, we evaluate the actions of pregnenolone on a mouse model for schizophrenia, the dopamine transporter knockout mouse (DAT ...
... untrue warning labels on natural bioidentical hormones DHEA and pregnenolone ... DHEA and pregnenolone are natural, safe, and patent free, which is why they are being targeted. Both pregnenolone and DHEA are ... Pregnenolone, which is also known as the "master" or "mother" hormone, is produced in various bodily organs and tissues within ... The body converts pregnenolone into a number of other vital hormones like DHEA, which are then converted into androgens, ...
p,Pregnenolone is a natural steroid hormone that the body produces from cholesterol. Because all steroid hormones are ... ultimately derived from pregnenolone, it has been called the “Grandmother of all Steroid Hormones.& ... Premier Pregnenolone supplies pregnenolone in a natural base of organic rice protein. This product provides premier hormone ... Premier Pregnenolone supplies pregnenolone in a natural base of organic rice protein. This product provides premier hormone ...
Pregnenolone‚ the multitasking hormone‚ is often referred to as the commander-in-chief of the hormonal system. This hormone can ... Emerald Pregnenolone 50 mg+ 25 mg DHEA - 60 Capsules Shop all Emerald products ... Pregnenolone 50mg / †. DHEA (Dehydroepiandrosterone) 25mg / †. Tocotriene Complex 500mg / †. †Percentage Daily Value not ... Reproductive System Support » Pregnenolone 50 mg+ 25 mg DHEA - 60 Capsules Share ...
Pregnenolone 50 mg 60 Scored Tablets Pregnenolone 50 mg is micronized, plant-sourced pregnenolone formulated in a lipid matrix ... Pregnenolone 20 mg 60 Scored Tablets Pregnenolone 20 mg is micronized, plant-sourced pregnenolone formulated in a lipid matrix ... Pregnenolone 50 mg 60 Scored Tablets Pregnenolone 50 mg is micronized, plant-sourced pregnenolone formulated in a lipid matrix ... Pregnenolone 20 mg 60 Scored Tablets Pregnenolone 20 mg is micronized, plant-sourced pregnenolone formulated in a lipid matrix ...
PREGNENOLONE (UNII: 73R90F7MQ8) (PREGNENOLONE - UNII:73R90F7MQ8) PREGNENOLONE. 12 [hp_X] in 30 mL. ... damiana, lecithinum,phosphoricum acidum,sabal serrata, chosesterinum,dna,hypothalamus,adrenal cortex, dhea,pregnenolone, ... pregnenolone,progesterone,testosterone liquid. If this SPL contains inactivated NDCs listed by the FDA initiated compliance ... pregnenolone,progesterone,testosterone liquid. Number of versions: 3. ...
Additionally, pregnenolone alone has neuroprotective effects and enhances cognition.Suggested Usage ... Pregnenolone 50mg 100 Capsule DescriptionPregnenolone is a natural prohormone produced by the body. Prohormones are ... Pregnenolone 50mg 100 Capsule. Description. Pregnenolone is a natural prohormone produced by the body. Prohormones are ... Additionally, pregnenolone alone has neuroprotective effects and enhances cognition.. Suggested Usage 1 to 2 capsules in the ...
Uses For Pregnenolone. Memory Support: Animal studies have reported that pregnenolone may help to enhance memory by modulating ... pregnenolone (3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta- pregnen-20-one). 10 mg.. -. Other Ingredients: Cellulose capsule (hypo-allergenic plant ... Pregnenolone is best utilized by individuals above 40 years of age, and should not be used to enhance athletic ability or ... Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a precursor to over 150 steroid hormones and is produced naturally in ...
Pregnenolone hormone replacement therapy is available in Wheaton, IL. ... Low pregnenolone levels can be caused by adrenal stress, which can lead to symptoms of adrenal fatigue like irritability and ... What is Pregnenolone?. Pregnenolone is one of the most important precursor hormones in your system. Without pregnenolone, your ... Adrenal Fatigue & Pregnenolone. Low levels of pregnenolone can be caused by adrenal stress, which can be the result of illness ...
Nutricology Pregnenolone 20 is micronized, plant-sourced pregnenolone formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver, with a ... Nutricology Pregnenolone 20 is micronized, plant-sourced pregnenolone formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver, with a ... Pregnenolone may affect levels of other hormones, such as progesterone, estrogen, testosterone, and/or DHEA. Keep out of the ... Pregnenolone 20mg. Other Ingredients: Micosolle Blend (potassium hydroxide, silicon dioxide, magnesium sulfate heptahydrate, ...
My bloodwork results have improved greatly since I started taking Proviva supplements. I highly recommend! Take control of your health with supplements rather than just relying on medicines that sometimes... read more help one issue but cause another with side effects. ...
As a -Ïparent hormone-�, pregnenolone can be converted to other hormones, including the sex hormones. For example, pregnenolone ... Pregnenolone is also a neurosteroid having anxiolytic properties. It is found in high concentrations in the brain, where along ... Pregnenolone is an endogenous steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol. ... Pregnenolone is an endogenous steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol. As a -parent hormone, pregnenolone can be converted ...
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Physiologically active pregnenolone, derived from natural diosgenin sterols, is micronized to a very small particle size to ... Physiologically active pregnenolone, derived from natural diosgenin sterols, is micronized to a very small particle size to ...
Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a natural steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. It has ... are derived from pregnenolone. Pregnenolone has been linked with positive support of the immune system, mood and memory. In the ... Be the first to review "Pregnenolone 10mg" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked * ... Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a natural steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. It has ...
Youre reviewing:Pregnenolone Cream Compounded. Your Rating. Quality. 1 star 2 stars 3 stars 4 stars 5 stars ... Pregnenolone is a precursor to other hormones like DHEA, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. ... Pregnenolone is a precursor to other hormones like DHEA, estrogen, progesterone, and testosterone. ...
Super-Strength Pregnenolone is our most potent pregnenolone supplement so far. As a prohormone, Pregnenolone plays an important ... Swanson 3 PACK Super-Strength Pregnenolone, 50 mg, 60 tabs (180 tabs). 3 PACK Super-Strength Pregnenolone • Potent hormonal ... Pregnenolone is a neuroactive substance found in big quantities in certain areas of healthy young brains. Therefore, as a ... Home 3 PACK Super-Strength Pregnenolone, 50 mg, 60 tabs (180 tabs) ...
... he or she may not be able to make enough pregnenolone to reach effective pregnenolone levels. The production of pregnenlone, as ... Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone made from cholesterol. Our human body uses it to make estrogen, progesterone, and ... By age 75, most people have had a 65% decline in circulating pregnenolone as compared to when they were age 35. ... Having a severe illness as pregnenolone increases cortisol production and lessens the production of the other hormones that can ...
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Pregnenolone is also made from cholesterol, and is the starting material in the production of testosterone, progesterone, ... Liposomal Pregnenolone Pregnenolone is a hormone naturally produced in the body by the adrenal gland. ... Liposomal Pregnenolone. Pregnenolone is a hormone naturally produced in the body by the adrenal gland. Pregnenolone is also ... Liposomal Pregnenolone provides naturally-derived pregnenolone in a liposomal delivery system for increased absorption. ...
As a parent hormone, pregnenolone can be converted to other hormones, including the sex hormones. For example, pregnenolone ... Pregnenolone is an endogenous steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol. As a "parent hormone," pregnenolone can be ... Pregnenolone is also a neurosteroid. It is found in high concentrations in the brain, where along with other neurosteroids, it ... Pregnenolone may affect other hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, testosterone and/or DHEA. Do not take this product if ...
A persons level of pregnenolone generally declines with age, and by the time we are 75, we have only 40% of the pregnenolone ... Pregnenolone 30 mg (plant source) is micronized and sustained released. It is formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver ... Pregnenolone is a steroid precursor whose primary function is to help the body produce other hormones such as progesterone, ... Made in the adrenal glands from cholesterol, Pregnenolone helps maintain levels of key hormones while promoting mood and memory ...
  • Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the biosynthesis of most of the steroid hormones, including the progestogens, androgens, estrogens, glucocorticoids, and mineralocorticoids. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnenolone is a hormone precursor produced by the adrenal glands. (fredmeyer.com)
  • If Pregnenolone is the precursor to testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, estrogen, etc.... why not take that instead of Progesterone? (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • Pregnenolone is the precursor to all adrenal cortical hormones. (frysfood.com)
  • Pregnenolone - Pregnenalone is the sometimes referred to the " hormone" as it serves as the precursor to steroid hormones. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a precursor to over 150 steroid hormones and is produced naturally in the body from cholesterol. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • One of the most important of these precursor hormones is pregnenolone . (anti-aging-bhrt.com)
  • Pregnenolone is a steroidal precursor hormone created primarily in your adrenal glands. (anti-aging-bhrt.com)
  • For example, pregnenolone can be converted to progesterone, which can then be converted to DHEA, the precursor of androstenedion, the precursor to testosterone and estrone. (biohelp.me)
  • Pregnenolone, a natural precursor to over 150 steroid hormones, helps support the immune system, mood and memory. (myproviva.com)
  • Pregnenolone is a steroid precursor whose primary function is to help the body produce other hormones such as progesterone, estrogen, DHEA and testosterone. (endfatigue.com)
  • Produced by the body's adrenal glands, pregnenolone is a direct precursor of both DHEA and progesterone. (professionalsupplementcenter.com)
  • However, as is the case with the natural hormone precursor DHEA, pregnenolone levels decline with age. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • A key precursor to cortisol, DHEA and progesterone, pregnenolone promotes normal adrenal function and supports the stress response system by acting as a hormone precursor. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • As a biochemical precursor to dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and progesterone, pregnenolone helps to keep a normal balance between these hormones in the body and as a result, helps to modulate the cortisol-driven stress response system, support nerve cell growth and modulate mood. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • Pregnenolone plays a key role in hormonal balance as a key precursor to cortisol, DHEA and progesterone, and helps to maintain balance in the body's stress response system. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • Pregnenolone is the first steroid to be derived from cholesterol in the pathway of steroidogenesis, and it is the common precursor for all adrenal and gonadal steroids. (athenslab.gr)
  • This clear, information-rich session shows that pregnenolone is a precursor to all other adrenal cortex and sex hormones. (hertoghemedicalschool.eu)
  • Pregnenolone and its 3β-sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, like DHEA, DHEA sulfate, and progesterone, belong to the group of neurosteroids that are found in high concentrations in certain areas of the brain, and are synthesized there. (wikipedia.org)
  • However, progesterone did and with similar affinity to pregnenolone, although unlike pregnenolone, it did not increase binding of MAP2 to tubulin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnenolone undergoes further steroid metabolism in one of several ways: Pregnenolone can be converted into progesterone. (wikipedia.org)
  • Hi to I see no point in pregnenolone, as it has to be converted into progesterone, but it is converted into DHEA too, which no woman needs more of. (progesteronetherapy.com)
  • Pregnenolone is also made from cholesterol, and is the starting material in the production of testosterone, progesterone, cortisol, estrogen and other hormones. (lifeshealthiest.com)
  • All of the steroid hormones that are present in the body 9such as estrogen, testosterone, progesterone, cortisone and even DHEA) are produced from the parent compound Pregnenolone. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • Pregnenolone may either be converted to 17-OH pregnenolone via the enzymatic action of 17α-hydroxylase or to progesterone via the enzymatic action of 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase. (athenslab.gr)
  • Without 17α-hydroxylase activity, pregnenolone and progesterone are not converted to 17-hydroxypregnenolone or 17-hydroxyprogesterone, impairing production of glucocorticoids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Instead pregnenolone and progesterone are processed to form mineralocorticoids. (medlineplus.gov)
  • NaturalNews) Both pregnenolone and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) are naturally-occurring hormones produced by the human body to regulate cell production, maintain cognitive function, and promote proper bodily growth and sexual function. (naturalnews.com)
  • According to a recent announcement made by the Alliance for Natural Health USA (ANH-USA) California legislators have altered the state's Health and Safety Code, Section 110423(b) to mandate that all pregnenolone and DHEA supplements sold within the state contain a label that warns of "serious adverse health effects. (naturalnews.com)
  • The body converts pregnenolone into a number of other vital hormones like DHEA, which are then converted into androgens, melatonin, estrogens, and testosterone. (naturalnews.com)
  • Since DHEA is an offshoot of pregnenolone, its functions are similar. (naturalnews.com)
  • Both pregnenolone and DHEA are abundantly safe -- the body produces them naturally, after all -- and extensive scientific studies have proven their safety. (naturalnews.com)
  • This latest scheme to force manufacturers of pregnenolone and DHEA to affix false warning labels to their products is nothing but an underhanded attempt to scare the public away from these safe and effective supplements. (naturalnews.com)
  • Like DHEA , pregnenolone is created primarily in the adrenal glands . (anti-aging-bhrt.com)
  • Pregnenolone is a steroid compound that is associated with DHEA, another parent steroid that helps manage various important bodily functions including blood circulation, muscle healing, alertness, insulin production, and more. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • However, the level of Pregnenolone in the body decreases naturally with age, along with the levels of other compounds such as DHEA. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • Pregnenolone, like DHEA, is a completely natural hormone manufactured in the body. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Below is a paper I've written after much research and study on why men need HCG, Pregnenolone and DHEA while on a Testosterone Replacement Protocol. (excelmale.com)
  • The diagnosis of pregnenolone deficiency relies on the presence of complaints (such as memory loss, lack of attention, …) and physical signs (which are mainly due to the lack of other hormones derived from pregnenolone, such as low blood pressure due to a lack of cortisol and dry skin and weak muscles due to a lack of DHEA and testosterone). (hertoghemedicalschool.eu)
  • And up until the 1940s when the drug industry's cortisol took its place in the limelight, pregnenolone had been extensively studied and determined to to be safe and effective as well. (naturalnews.com)
  • The compound diosgenin is extracted from wild yam and undergoes a proprietary synthetic process to develop the pregnenolone compound. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • The human body cannot metabolize wild yam into pregnenolone. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • Because Pregnenolone impacts hormones in the body, it's important to avoid taking any type of Pregnenolone supplements if you are currently taking medications that involve altering the levels of hormones in your body such as testosterone or estrogen, as this can cause complications which may increase your risk for serious side effects. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • For example, in men, pregnenolone tends to bring testosterone levels into proper homeostasis (balance) with the body, while in women pregnenolone tends to bring estrogen levels into proper homeostasis with the body! (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Pregnenolone is synthesized from cholesterol. (wikipedia.org)
  • citation needed] There are two intermediates in the transformation of cholesterol into pregnenolone, 22R-hydroxycholesterol and 20α,22R-dihydroxycholesterol, and all three steps in the transformation are catalyzed by P450scc. (wikipedia.org)
  • To assay conversion of cholesterol to pregnenolone, radiolabeled cholesterol has been used. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnenolone product can be separated from cholesterol substrate using Sephadex LH-20 minicolumns. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnenolone is an endogenous steroid hormone synthesized from cholesterol. (biohelp.me)
  • Pregnenolone, 3-alpha-hydroxy-5-beta-pregnen-20-one, is a natural steroid hormone produced in the body from cholesterol. (myproviva.com)
  • Pregnenolone is a steroid hormone made from cholesterol. (advancedwellnessmedical.com)
  • If an individual's cholesterol is below 140, he or she may not be able to make enough pregnenolone to reach effective pregnenolone levels. (advancedwellnessmedical.com)
  • Made in the adrenal glands from cholesterol, Pregnenolone helps maintain levels of key hormones while promoting mood and memory enhancement, as well as improved energy levels and enzyme activity. (endfatigue.com)
  • Made from cholesterol, pregnenolone is a completely natural steroid hormone produced primarily in the adrenal glands, but in smaller amounts by many other organs and tissues of the human body, including liver, brain, skin, gonads, and even the retina of the eye. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Supplies 50 mg of pregnenolone per single-capsule serving. (kroger.com)
  • Practitioners are advised to test pregnenolone levels before making the decision to commence supplementation, and to monitor levels if supplementation is initiated, ensuring that proper levels are maintained. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • For example, a group of industrial psychologists conducted studies in the 1940s to test pregnenolone on both students and workers for the ability to enhance job performance. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Pregnenolone and its sulfate ester may improve cognitive and memory function. (wikipedia.org)
  • In contrast to pregnenolone, pregnenolone sulfate did not bind to microtubules. (wikipedia.org)
  • Although pregnenolone itself does not possess these activities, its metabolite pregnenolone sulfate is a negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor as well as a positive allosteric modulator of the NMDA receptor. (wikipedia.org)
  • In addition, pregnenolone sulfate has been shown to activate the transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) ion channel in hepatocytes and pancreatic islets causing calcium entry and subsequent insulin release. (wikipedia.org)
  • This is in contrast to pregnenolone sulfate, which does not cross the blood-brain barrier. (wikipedia.org)
  • Pregnenolone can be converted to pregnenolone sulfate by steroid sulfotransferase, and this conversion can be reversed by steroid sulfatase. (wikipedia.org)
  • Animal studies provide information showing the correlation between cognitive performance and the cerebral concentration of pregnenolone sulfate. (kroger.com)
  • It has been described as the "Grandmother of all Steroid Hormones," since all steroid hormones, over 150 of them, are derived from pregnenolone. (myproviva.com)
  • Pregnenolone from SFI Health (formerly called Klaire Labs) may have a positive effect on memory, mood and energy and is the building block for all other steroid hormones. (professionalsupplementcenter.com)
  • As the body's supply of pregnenolone diminishes, so does the availability of its other related hormones. (targetednutrients.com)
  • Pregnenolone helps prevent premature aging by working directly with the body's natural hormonal system to help balance and restore homeostasis, which is to say, the body's natural hormonal balance. (targetednutrients.com)
  • Additionally, pregnenolone alone has neuroprotective effects and enhances cognition. (vitaminlife.com)
  • Pregnenolone 100 mg is micronized, plant-sourced pregnenolone formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver,* with a particle size of less than 50 microns for optimal absorption. (nutricology.com)
  • It is formulated in a lipid matrix to bypass the liver so that the pregnenolone is presented directly to the systemic circulation, and it is micronized to a particle size of less than 50 microns for optimal absorption. (endfatigue.com)
  • Did you know a simple, benign, natural hormone called pregnenolone is trusted by physicians and scientists alike to successfully fight off the ravages of premature aging? (targetednutrients.com)
  • Pregnenolone supplements are used for a variety of different conditions and problems. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • However, as it is with any medication, Pregnenolone supplements or other Pregnenolone treatments should be used only after a consultation with a physician. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • If you are interested in taking Pregnenolone supplements to improve any of the conditions listed above, talk with your physician about integrating Pregnenolone into your medical treatment plan. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • Many physicians and scientists believe that replacement of pregnenolone to youthful levels is an important step in the treatment of pre-mature aging. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • What's more, many in-the-know physicians and scientists concerned with aging have now come to believe your pregnenolone levels directly affect the rate at which you age , and that increasing pregnenolone to more youthful levels after the age of 40 is an important first step in the prevention of premature aging. (targetednutrients.com)
  • Pregnenolone is a natural prohormone produced by the body. (vitaminlife.com)
  • As a prohormone, Pregnenolone plays an important role for a host of activities in the healthy human organism. (stopacne.nl)
  • In other words, unlike synthetic prescription hormones that can skew and disrupt you hormonal balance over time, pregnenolone doesn't appear to throw other hormones out of balance. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Pregnenolone can be converted to 17α-hydroxypregnenolone by the enzyme 17α-hydroxylase (CYP17A1). (wikipedia.org)
  • Various studies have found that pregnenolone significantly enhances motivation, the ability to acquire knowledge, and long-term memory. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • In fact, pregnenolone may be one of the most important hormones because it seems to have a balancing effect. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Due to its effects on the GABA receptor in the central nervous system, supplementation with pregnenolone could cause problems in people with a history of seizures. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • Pregnenolone supplementation can improve memory loss by various mechanisms, including increased levels of acetylcholine, but they are several other mechanisms of importance. (hertoghemedicalschool.eu)
  • Why does 100mg oral pregnenolone spike my libido beyond belief? (excelmale.com)
  • Immune Health: One study indicated that the 7-hydroxy metabolites from pregnenolone may help promote healthy immune system response. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • In support of a direct pregnenolone effect, LC/MS-MS analyses revealed that striatal pregnenolone levels strikingly increased after the exogenous administration, with no significant alterations in downstream metabolites. (lu.se)
  • Measurement of serum pregnenolone is used as an ancillary test mainly for the diagnosis of congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). (athenslab.gr)
  • If you're suffering from pregnenolone deficiency , treatment may be necessary. (anti-aging-bhrt.com)
  • The safest, most effective way to deal with pregnenolone deficiency is with hormone replacement therapy (HRT). (anti-aging-bhrt.com)
  • Elevated pregnenolone levels occur in different forms of congenital adrenal hyperplasia, due to 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency or 17α-hydroxylase deficiencies. (athenslab.gr)
  • Pregnenolone can be supplemented to correct pregnenolone deficiency. (hertoghemedicalschool.eu)
  • What's more, supplementing with small amounts of pregnenolone - anywhere from 5 mg. to 20 mg. per day - is widely reported to help the body increase production of other needed neurosteroids, which many experts believe helps improve your quality of life by rejuvenating the mind and body to more youthful functioning. (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Among the 5AR-related neurosteroids, striatal pregnenolone has been shown to be increased in response to 5AR blockade and decreased after 6-OHDA lesions in the rat PD model. (lu.se)
  • for information on pregnenolone as a medication or supplement, see the pregnenolone (medication) article. (wikipedia.org)
  • Super-Strength Pregnenolone is our most potent pregnenolone supplement so far. (stopacne.nl)
  • Therefore, as a supplement, Pregnenolone has been studied for its potential to improve the quality of sleep and memory as well as for its potential anti-ageing qualities. (stopacne.nl)
  • Typically, this compound is taken orally as a supplement, though some treatments may involve injecting a specified amount of Pregnenolone instead. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • Physicians and scientists alike attest that Pregnenolone is the perfect supplement for those feeling a bit "older than their days" and want a natural solution to fighting off signs of premature aging. (targetednutrients.com)
  • Pregnenolone has also been indicated in studies that suggest it may even be able to help with depression, certain multiple sclerosis symptoms, and even seizures. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • Other widely reported benefits of pregnenolone include increased resistance to effects of stress, dramatic improvement of mood and energy, reduced symptoms of PMS and menopause, improved immunity, enhanced libido in both men and women, and repair of myelin sheaths (the protective covering around our nerves that slowly gets stripped away as we age, leading to ticks, tremors and peripheral neuropathies/nerve pain). (targetednutrientsoffer.com)
  • Pregnenolone is naturally produced in the body. (ralphs.com)
  • With age, the amount of pregnenolone synthesized in the body decreases. (kroger.com)
  • Pregnenolone, which is also known as the "master" or "mother" hormone, is produced in various bodily organs and tissues within the body. (naturalnews.com)
  • It is likely that the body will convert pregnenolone appropriately, according to its needs. (myproviva.com)
  • Pregnenolone is a hormone naturally produced in the body by the adrenal gland. (lifeshealthiest.com)
  • Most research estimates that the body has about 10% of the amount of pregnenolone in the body at 80 that it did at the age of 20. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • Like many compounds naturally found in the body, there are various medical treatments that use synthesized Pregnenolone to treat different conditions. (hemorrhoids-remedies.info)
  • By its very nature, pregnenolone works with your body to achieve optimal health and longevity. (targetednutrients.com)
  • By age 75, the body produces about 60% less pregnenolone than it did at age 35. (targetednutrients.com)
  • Pregnenolone from SFI Health (formerly called Klaire Labs) contains physiologically active pregnenolone, derived from natural diosgenin sterols, and is micronized to a very small particle size to facilitate absorption. (professionalsupplementcenter.com)
  • Once produced, pregnenolone may be utilized by two pathways of steroidogenesis. (athenslab.gr)
  • Physicians and scientists alike attest to the ability of Pregnenolone to help stop premature aging in its tracks, on a number of levels. (targetednutrients.com)
  • We tested 3 escalating doses of pregnenolone (6, 18, 36 mg/kg) in 6-OHDA-lesioned male rats and compared the behavioral, neurochemical, and molecular outcomes with those induced by the 5AR inhibitor dutasteride, as positive control. (lu.se)
  • The best doses, routes, and times of administration for pregnenolone are here provided. (hertoghemedicalschool.eu)
  • Memory Support: Animal studies have reported that pregnenolone may help to enhance memory by modulating N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and gamma aminobutyrate (GABA) receptor activity in the brain. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • Mood Support: Pregnenolone has been reported to help promote feelings of emotional well-being. (pureprescriptions.com)
  • Pregnenolone has been linked with positive support of the immune system, mood and memory. (myproviva.com)
  • In addition, pregnenolone has been shown to support a balanced mood and promote cognitive health by modulating the transmission of messages between neurons, influencing learning and memory processes. (mybigcommerce.com)
  • Since there is strong evidence that pregnenolone levels diminish with advancing age, restoring these levels may also help support overall brain function and sense of well-being. (mybigcommerce.com)