Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.United StatesObstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.BrazilPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.IndiaEthiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Spiramycin: A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).NorwayPeripartum Period: The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Poland
If a pregnant woman is sentenced to capital punishment, she may request to have the execution stayed (delayed) until after the ... pregnant women; and mentally ill persons. If a person under the age of 18 commits a criminal offence that is punishable by ... On 2 December 1995, the three appellants were among a group of nine who abducted and brutally killed a woman. The trial judge ... This is provided that it is sufficiently proven that she is in fact pregnant. A person with the incapacity to understand or ...
PapScreen Victoria > Pregnant women from Cancer Council Victoria 2014 [1] Michael CW (1999). "The Papanicolaou Smear and the ... "Pregnant women". Cancer Council Victoria. Retrieved 2015-01-16. "Excerpts from Changing Bodies, Changing Lives ... HPV can be transmitted in sex between females, so those who have only had sex with other females should be screened, although ... Normal squamous epithelial cells in premenopausal women Atrophic squamous cells in postmenopausal women Normal endocervical ...
"Woman, 61, pregnant". The Sydney Morning Herald. 27 September 2011. "Antônia Letícia Asti, 61 Year-Old Brazilian Woman, Gives ... 2012). "Characteristics Of Women Who Are Pregnant With Their First Baby At An Advanced Age". Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica ... A 61-year-old Brazilian woman with implantation of a donor egg expected gave birth to twins in October 2011.. As women age, ... of women trying to get pregnant, without using fertility drugs or in vitro fertilization: At age 30 75% will have a conception ...
All pregnant women. People who live with someone whose immune system is compromised (for example, people with cancer or HIV/ ... A 2009 review of the use of influenza vaccines in pregnant women stated that influenza infections posed a major risk during ... Pregnant women, because they are at higher risk of complications and can potentially provide protection to infants who cannot ... "Doctors Back Woman's Claim Of Adverse Reaction To Seasonal Flu Vaccine". Surae Chinn. 9NEWS NOW. 15 October 2009. "The Flu, & a ...
Bruno, M. K.; C. L. Harden (January 2002). "Epilepsy in Pregnant Women". Current Treatment Options in Neurology. 4 (1): 31-40. ... this included the routine supplements given to pregnant women to prevent megaloblastic anemia. By 1970, the doctor had ... a 31-year-old woman, her 15-year-old nephew, and his 16-year-old sister. The woman still had ventricular fibrillation, syncope ... The woman had previously been tried on a combination of phenobarbital and phenytoin when she was thought to have only seizures ...
Research involving children, research involving women, and research involving pregnant women - her research in these three ... women, and pregnant women; and, (ii) to make sure that this research proceeds on an ethical basis; Research surrounding ... "Research with pregnant women". NTE Impact Ethics. Dalhousie University. August 2015. Retrieved 6 July 2016. "About Impact ... Kaposy, Chris; Baylis, Francoise (2011-05-01). "The common rule, pregnant women, and research: no need to "rescue" that which ...
Women who are pregnant. Women who are nursing. Women who are menstruating (instead they must perform an ablution and recite the ... Fasting is obligatory for men and women once they attain the age of 15. If one eats unconsciously during the fasting hours, ...
Pregnant woman and deer (?), from Laugerie-Basse, France was made. It is now at Musée des Antiquités Nationales, St.-Germain-en ...
Lose appetite pregnant women. Moon, E.; et al. (11 December 2009). "The multi-herbal medicine Gongjin-dan enhances memory and ...
"Local Zika cases in Singapore jump to 115; first pregnant woman diagnosed". Channel News Asia. Retrieved 2 September 2016. " ...
"To A Pregnant Woman". Others: A Magazine of the New Verse. Ed. Alfred Kreymborg. New York, 1916. 73. The Modernist Journals ... Her bold articulation of female fantasies and female performance of sexuality completely reject the Victorian denial of female ... In Hoyt's poem called "To a Pregnant Woman" she writes "So absolutely to command, / To serve, to keep. /Knowing you hold the ... By representing herself as a sexual woman skeptical to the conventions of romance, she inverts the gender norms of women ...
Both women were pregnant. Marianne had a miscarriage, and was hardly fit to travel, but nonetheless boarded the liner Quanza on ... Both women were seasick. On 19 August 1940, the ship reached New York City, where they stayed with his brother Paolo. While ... He formed a relationship with Helene Marianne Nordblom, a Swedish woman working in Paris as a nanny. Whether because of his ... after the actor of that name following an adventure in which he made a trip to Boston with two women, which culminated in ...
Pregnant women were bayoneted. Children were cut in two. Men were ambushed in the field and led away. The perpetrators could ... The civilians, mostly women and children, were rounded up at a church, divided and locked in barns which were set on fire. ... Despite this, most of the victims were women and children. In mid-1943, after a wave of killings of Polish civilians, the Poles ... Some 2,000 persons, the majority of them women and children, were living there when the monastery was attacked in mid-March ...
... in pregnant women, as well as an increased risk of Q fever, toxoplasmosis, and listeriosis in pregnant or the otherwise ... Toxoplasmosis is a common infection of cats; in humans it is a mild disease although it can be dangerous to pregnant women. ... "Toxoplasmosis - General Information - Pregnant Women". Retrieved 2017-04-01. Centers for Disease Control and ...
These Horrors consume pregnant women. Slain by Tokiwaka. Sword (ソード, Sōdo) Voiced by: Tomokazu Seki (Japanese); T. Axelrod ( ... The Horror is responsible for the disappearance of 17 women in Russell City and has a preference for red-haired women, keeping ... It is able to sprout a fleshy bud that can mimic the face and voice of a woman in a man's heart, for example, Seimei to Raikou ... Te No Me (手ノ目) A Horror that appeared as a women with very long arms and legs covered in tiny demonic eyes who attacked ...
She is on the Board of Directors for the National Advocates for Pregnant Women (NAPW) as well as on the Academic Advisory ... "Staff". National Advocates for Pregnant Women. Hsu, Richard. "Khiara Bridges (Boston Univ Law School) and Classical Ballet". ... During her time at Spelman College, Bridges worked in Atlanta as a counselor at the Feminist Women's Health Center. At Columbia ... In Reproducing Race, Bridges argues that race affects the ways that women receive prenatal care and alters their experiences of ...
"Pregnant woman's body identified", Akron Beacon Journal, June 24, 2007. "Slain woman's mom says 'nothing' in alleged killer's ... "Police: Pregnant woman's body found; cop arrested", CNN, June 24, 2007 "Bobby Cutts Jr.", The Plain Dealer (Cleveland, Ohio, ... Jessie Marie Davis (May 27, 1981 - June 14, 2007) was a murdered, near-term pregnant, 26-year-old American woman first reported ... "Defense Wants To Keep Evidence Quiet In Pregnant Woman Slaying", WBNS-TV, July 2, 2007 Jeffrey Zupanic, "Mourners say fond ...
TBAs may not have any formal training on how to attend pregnant women. Many are highly experienced in well woman care including ... "Truck drivers help pregnant women". Centre de Formation et de Recherche en Santé de la Reproduction (CEFOREP). "Preventing ... which allows TBAs to use their close ties with the community to link pregnant women to skilled birth attendants (SBA). The ... Communities have employed bicycle ambulances and oxcarts to transport pregnant women to health facilities. There were issues ...
Some people are so into the women and their rights to get pregnant that they seem to forget about the rights of the kids. They ... "National Advocates for Pregnant Women Condemns C.R.A.C.K. Campaign Targeting Methadone Clinics". National Advocates for ... "C.R.A.C.K. Program - Personal Empowerment or Control of Certain Populations?". National Advocates for Pregnant Women. 3 May ... "C.R.A.C.K. Program - Personal Empowerment or Control of Certain Populations?"". (130 KB). National Advocates for Pregnant Women ...
No pregnant females were allowed. They were trained in home economics as well as traditional school curricula. In 1995, it was ... The Florida Industrial School for Girls was a reclamation school for delinquent females in Ocala, Florida. The state ...
"Pregnant Women, Infants, and Children , Gender , HIV by Group , HIV/AIDS , CDC". Archived from the original on 15 ... Pregnant women should therefore be given stavudine only if the potential benefits outweigh the potential harm to the fetus. ... Additionally, there have been case reports of fatal lactic acidosis in pregnant women receiving combination therapy of ...
Duffy, P. E.; M. Fried (2005). "Malaria in the Pregnant Woman". Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. 295: 169-200. ... Globally, an estimated 125 million or more pregnant women per year risk contracting PAM. Pregnancy-related malaria causes ... Women experiencing PAM may exhibit normal symptoms of malaria, but may also be asymptomatic or present with more mild symptoms ... During pregnancy, a woman faces a much higher risk of contracting malaria and of associated complications. Prevention and ...
"What Do Pregnant Women Want". The New York Times. Jeremy Ginsberg; Matthew H. Mohebbi; Rajan S. Patel; Lynnette Brammer; Mark S ...
A patroness of pregnant women. Little biographical information about her exists. Her native place is sometimes given as Sicily ... She is invoked by pregnant women for a safe delivery. Two of her relatives, sisters-in-law Trasilla and Emiliana, are also ...
... against a pregnant woman; h) with cruelty; - shall be punished by life imprisonment or no less than 15 and no more than 25 ...
... follows a system of behavior determined by local beliefs, traditions and attitudes, and is also affected by economic conditions and limitations of available health care facilities. In Haiti, infertility carries a negative social stigma; women are expected to bear children. The period of pregnancy and birth is viewed as a happy, celebratory time for a family, not a medical health problem. Pregnant women are expected to fulfill their work obligations up until their delivery. It is normal for pregnant women to experience an increase in salivation and to spit frequently, since they do not believe in swallowing their excess saliva. Women may sometimes carry a spit cup with them and feel no embarrassment in using it in public. Pregnant women are restricted from eating spices, which they believe may irritate the fetus. ...
... s (FASDs) are a group of conditions that can occur in a person whose mother drank alcohol during pregnancy. Problems may include an abnormal appearance, short height, low body weight, small head size, poor coordination, low intelligence, behavior problems, and problems with hearing or seeing. Those affected are more likely to have trouble in school, legal problems, participate in high-risk behaviors, and have trouble with alcohol or other drugs. The most severe form of the condition is known as fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). Other types include partial fetal alcohol syndrome (pFAS), alcohol-related neurodevelopmental disorder (ARND) and alcohol-related birth defects (ARBD). Some accept only FAS as a diagnosis, seeing the evidence as inconclusive with respect to other types. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders are caused by drinking alcohol during pregnancy. Surveys from the United States have found about 10% of pregnant women have drunk alcohol in the last ...
... are health problems that are related to pregnancy. Complications that occur primarily during childbirth are termed obstetric labor complications, and problems that occur primarily after childbirth are termed puerperal disorders. Severe complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US[1] and in 1.5% of mothers in Canada.[2] In the immediate postpartum period (puerperium), 87% to 94% of pregnant individuals report at least one health problem.[3][4] Long-term health problems (persisting after six months postpartum) are reported by 31% of pregnant individuals.[5] In 2016, complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium resulted globally in 230,600 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. The most common causes of maternal mortality are maternal bleeding, maternal sepsis and other infections, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, obstructed labor, and pregnancy with abortive ...
... (HG) is a pregnancy complication that is characterized by severe nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and possibly dehydration. Signs and symptoms may also include vomiting several times a day and feeling faint. Hyperemesis gravidarum is considered more severe than morning sickness. Often symptoms get better after the 20th week of pregnancy but may last the entire pregnancy duration. The exact causes of hyperemesis gravidarum are unknown. Risk factors include the first pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, obesity, prior or family history of HG, trophoblastic disorder, and a history of eating disorders. Diagnosis is usually made based on the observed signs and symptoms. HG has been technically defined as more than three episodes of vomiting per day such that weight loss of 5% or three kilograms has occurred and ketones are present in the urine. Other potential causes of the symptoms should be excluded including urinary tract infection and high thyroid levels. Treatment includes ...
... , also known as tubal pregnancy, is a complication of pregnancy in which the embryo attaches outside the uterus.[4] Signs and symptoms classically include abdominal pain and vaginal bleeding.[1] Less than 50 percent of affected women have both of these symptoms.[1] The pain may be described as sharp, dull, or crampy.[1] Pain may also spread to the shoulder if bleeding into the abdomen has occurred.[1] Severe bleeding may result in a fast heart rate, fainting, or shock.[4][1] With very rare exceptions the fetus is unable to survive.[5]. Risk factors for ectopic pregnancy include: pelvic inflammatory disease, often due to Chlamydia infection, tobacco smoking, prior tubal surgery, a history of infertility, and the use of assisted reproductive technology.[2] Those who have previously had an ectopic pregnancy are at much higher risk of having another one.[2] Most ectopic pregnancies (90%) occur in the Fallopian tube which are known as tubal pregnancies.[2] Implantation can also occur ...
... is a form of counseling that provides information and support regarding a women's pregnancy. Woman seeking pregnancy options counseling are typically doing so in the case of an unintended pregnancy. Limited access to birth control and family planning resources, as well as misuse of birth control are some of the major contributing factors to unintended pregnancies around the world. In 2012, the global rate of unintended pregnancies was estimated to be 40 percent, or eighty-five million pregnancies. Pregnancy options counselors educate women about the different options that are available and help guide them to a decision on how to proceed with their pregnancy. The options include abortion, adoption, or parenting. The job of a pregnancy options counselor is to neither encourage nor discourage a woman's particular decision, nor do they profit from the woman's choice. Rather, they present unbiased information about each of the options non-judgmentally, then help the woman ...
Most pregnant women can engage in sexual activity during pregnancy throughout gravidity. Most research suggests that, during pregnancy, sexual desire and frequency of sexual relations decrease. In context of this overall decrease in desire, some studies indicate a second-trimester increase, preceding a decrease. However, these decreases are not universal: a significant number of women report greater sexual satisfaction throughout their pregnancies. Sex during pregnancy is a low-risk behaviour except when the physician advises that sexual intercourse be avoided, because it may, in some pregnancies, lead to serious pregnancy complications or health issues such as a high-risk for premature labour or a ruptured uterus.[citation needed] Such a decision may be based upon a history of difficulties in a previous childbirth. However, it has been observed that evidence in this area is lacking and physicians' advice is more likely to be based on ...
... , that is the administration of a vaccine to a pregnant woman, is not a routine event as it is generally preferred to administer vaccines either prior to conception or in the postpartum period. When widespread vaccination is used, the risk for an unvaccinated pregnant patient to be exposed to a related infection is low, allowing for postponement, in general, of routine vaccinations to the postpartum period. Nevertheless, immunization during pregnancy may occur either inadvertently, or be indicated in a special situation, when it appears prudent to reduce the risk of a specific disease for a potentially exposed pregnant woman or her fetus. As a rule of thumb the vaccination with live virus or bacteria is contraindicated in pregnancy. BCG vaccine is used against tuberculosis and is contraindicated in pregnancy. Inactivated bacterial vaccine is used during pregnancy for women who have a ...
Drug use during pregnancy can have temporary or permanent effects on the fetus. Any drug that acts during embryonic or fetal development to produce a permanent alteration of form or function is known as a teratogen. Drugs may refer to both pharmaceutical drug and recreational drugs. The apprehension is not necessarily data driven and is a cautionary response to the lack of clinical studies in pregnant women. The indication is a trade-off between the adverse effects of the drug, the risks associated with intercurrent diseases and pregnancy complications, and the efficiency of the drug to prevent or ameliorate such risks. In some cases, the use of drugs in pregnancy carries benefits that outweigh the risks. For example, high fever is harmful for the fetus in the early months, thus the use of paracetamol (acetaminophen) is generally associated with lower risk than the fever itself. Similarly, diabetes mellitus during pregnancy may need intensive therapy with ...
Tobacco smoking and pregnancy is related to many effects on health and reproduction, in addition to the general health effects of tobacco. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor in miscarriages among pregnant smokers, and that it contributes to a number of other threats to the health of the fetus. Ideally, women should not smoke before, during or after pregnancy. If this is not the case, however, the daily number of cigarettes can be reduced to minimize the risks for both the mother and child. This is particularly important for women in developing countries where breastfeeding is essential for the child's overall nutritional status. It is recommended for women planning pregnancy to stop smoking. It is important to examine these effects because smoking before, during and after pregnancy is not an unusual behavior among the general population and can have detrimental health impacts, especially ...
... follows a system of behavior determined by local beliefs, traditions and attitudes, and is also affected by economic conditions and limitations of available health care facilities. In Haiti, infertility carries a negative social stigma; women are expected to bear children. The period of pregnancy and birth is viewed as a happy, celebratory time for a family, not a medical health problem. Pregnant women are expected to fulfill their work obligations up until their delivery. It is normal for pregnant women to experience an increase in salivation and to spit frequently, since they do not believe in swallowing their excess saliva. Women may sometimes carry a spit cup with them and feel no embarrassment in using it in public. Pregnant women are restricted from eating spices, which they believe may irritate the fetus. ...
... is a Latin term literally meaning "in the womb" or "in the uterus". In biology, the phrase describes the state of an embryo or fetus. In legal contexts, the phrase is used to referred to an unborn child, i.e., gestational age until birth. Under common law, unborn children are still considered to exist for property transfer purposes. ...
目前科學界尚未就同性戀、雙性戀、異性戀的形成原因達成共識[42]。不過他們相信性傾向是由生物因子(包括基因)[43][44]和環境因子(包括出生順序、接觸特定的產前激素[45][46]、母親的產前壓力(英语:prenatal stress))的共同作用所促成[47][48][49]。 ...
... +. ... In all, 300 pregnant women on their first consultation to antenatal care services were enrolled into the study. Screening could ... Thus, the study has shown that one in five pregnant women (20.67%) in the district had at least one helminth infection and that ... This study has found a prevalence of Plasmodium in pregnant women in the district of 58.3%. Data collection for Fuseini et al. ...
Resources on maternal vaccines for pregnant women, friends, family, caregivers, ob-gyns, midwives, and other healthcare ...
... and emphasizes the importance of flu vaccination for pregnant women and their unborn babies - CDC ... Fact sheet provides an overview about the impact of flu on pregnant women, ... Influenza (flu) is more likely to cause severe illness in pregnant women than in women of reproductive age who are not pregnant ... A Long Record of Safety for Flu Shots in Pregnant Women. Vaccinating Pregnant Women Protects Moms and Babies ...
In a perfect world, women would begin prenatal care before they become pregnant. When that is not possible, women should begin ... The signs of labor vary from woman to woman. Signs that a woman may be going into labor include:. *The woman feels relief or ... However, missing a period does not always mean a woman is pregnant, and women often experience other symptoms of pregnancy ... Most women should gain 25-35 pounds during pregnancy, but overweight women should only gain 15-25 pounds and underweight women ...
Why do pregnant and breastfeeding women need more iodine?. The thyroid, the gland which stores iodine, is more active during ... Pregnant women need more iodine to maintain enough stores.. Iodine deficiency can lead to a range of disorders that affect ... Pregnant women and breastfeeding mothers with higher needs need to pay special attention to this nutrient. All bread (except ... however change to the food supply may still not be enough to meet the needs of pregnant and breastfeeding women. This situation ...
CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women to protect themselves from Zika virus infection. ... Zika Testing for Pregnant Women with Possible Exposure to an Area with risk of Zika. If you…. When to be tested. ... Pregnant Women Should Not Travel To Areas with Zika Outbreaks (red areas on the Zika map) and Carefully Consider Risks and ... Pregnant women should not travel to areas with Zika outbreaks (as indicated by red areas on the Zika map). ...
Not only is getting a flu shot safe for pregnant women, but it will also help to protect both you… ... Diethylstilbestrol, or DES, is a synthetic form of estrogen given to millions of pregnant women from 1938-1971 to prevent ... If you have lupus and are pregnant or planning to become pregnant, plan ahead for adequate medical care before, during… ... Women who have epilepsy are at higher risk for complications during pregnancy, making medical care before, during, and after ...
As a pregnant woman, it is especially important that you - or those preparing your food - are always careful with food handling ... As a pregnant woman, it is especially important that you - or those preparing your food - are always careful with food handling ... Pregnant women and their unborn children have a higher risk of developing certain foodborne illnesses. Others who also have a ... Pregnant women and their unborn children have a higher risk of developing Listeriosis. "About one-third of listeriosis cases ...
"With women who actually want to steal a womans baby, they are usually psychopaths. They claim to be pregnant when they are not ... Unlike men, women who attack pregnant women usually do not know their victims well, if at all. They are usually obsessed with ... Brown said that one myth about women who attack or kill pregnant women is that they are failed mothers or are grieving because ... To an extent, no matter the sex of the alleged assailant, men and women accused of attacking or killing pregnant women all feel ...
GOPs decision to defund Planned Parenthood helps Iowa women get pregnant. The Registers editorial Published 2:58 p.m. CT Feb ... GOPs decision to defund Planned Parenthood helps Iowa women get pregnant. After Republicans insisted on giving up federal ... GOPs decision to defund Planned Parenthood helps Iowa women get pregnant After Republicans insisted on giving up federal money ... They have made it more difficult for Iowa women to obtain birth control and more likely women will seek abortions and give ...
An analysis of urine samples from roughly 300,000 California women finds that more than 7 percent used marijuana while pregnant ... "Use among [pregnant] females younger than 18 to age 24 years increased the most," added the team led by Kelly Young-Wolff, a ... so pot use might have occurred before many of the women realized they were pregnant. Pot can linger in the system for up to 30 ... An analysis of urine samples from roughly 300,000 California women finds that more than 7 percent used marijuana while pregnant ...
My husband is an alcoholic and I recently caught him with another woman. I filed for divorce and obviously no longer want... ... I am 10 weeks pregnant and undecided about terminating the pregnancy. ... Pregnant unlucky68 Hello. I am 10 weeks pregnant and undecided about terminating the pregnancy. My husband is an alcoholic and ... Pregnant. Hello. I am 10 weeks pregnant and undecided about terminating the pregnancy. My husband is an alcoholic and I ...
Emotions tend to go haywire and make women more vulnerable to anxiety during pregnancy - hormonal changes may also be to blame ... Emotions tend to go haywire and make women more vulnerable to anxiety during pregnancy - hormonal changes may also be to blame ... found that around 52 percent of pregnant women experienced anxiety or depression.5 Factors that pregnant women should watch out ... Some of the best exercises for pregnant women include brisk walking, low-impact aerobics, yoga,15 stretching16 and even weight ...
Tdap vaccination coverage among women who had a recent live birth by state, Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System (PRAMS ...
New recommendations that restrict women who have previously been pregnant from donating platelets and plasma will have a major ... "Blood Donations From Previously Pregnant Women Restricted." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 3 Oct. 2007. Web.. 22 Aug. ... Katz, M. (2007, October 3). "Blood Donations From Previously Pregnant Women Restricted." Medical News Today. Retrieved from. ... New recommendations that restrict women who have previously been pregnant from donating platelets and plasma will have a major ...
Since 2004, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and the Food and Drug Administration have warned pregnant women to avoid ... only 4 out of every 10 doctors said they discuss the contamination with pregnant women. ... Darragh Flynn sits down with her pregnant patients, she preaches healthy habits: eat nutritious foods, take vitamins, and dont ... Monitoring of pregnant women found about 100 chemicals, with 43 of them in all women tested. Lead, mercury, toluene, ...
How pregnant women should treat a Zika virus infection. There are no specific treatments for the Zika symptoms. Patients are ... The severity of these symptoms are no different for a pregnant woman compared to other patients. ... World Health Organization on the effects of the Zika virus on pregnant women ... Royal College of Physicians and Obstetricians on Zika virus risk to pregnant women: ...
... Cathleen Harris, MD, Contributor Published 6:00 a.m. ET Dec. 10, 2018 ... Pregnant women should be mindful of avoiding foods and drinks that could be harmful to a fetus.. (Photo: DrGrounds, Getty ... Pregnant women should avoid these seven foods and drinks. Pregnancy affects your immune system so you and your baby are more ... Pregnant women should avoid these seven foods and drinks Pregnancy affects your immune system so you and your baby are more ...
Should Pregnant Women Avoid Zantac?. The F.D.A. has found low levels of a cancer-causing chemical in samples of the drug, and ... Heartburn is one of the most common types of pain that pregnant women face; and if you have had it in the past, you are more ... Heartburn affects up to half of pregnant women, and for decades, doctors have advised expectant mothers to seek relief with ... If these measures are not enough, doctors typically advise pregnant women to take histamine blockers like ranitidine to reduce ...
Pregnant women who developed 2009 H1N1 influenza were sicker and their infants had worse outcomes, an analysis of data from the ... "Many women are not aware of how dangerous influenza can be when theyre pregnant; its dangerous for both the mother and her ... Pregnant women who developed 2009 H1N1 influenza were sicker and their infants had worse outcomes, according to data from the ... Before 2009, pregnant women with influenza were only treated if they had other high-risk medical conditions or severe illness. ...
"In order to help the community 23andME needs more samples, to do so they are turning to pregnant women" ... Finally, 23andMe is potentially creating an army of women who will go nuts at any attempt by regulatory agencies to legislate ... the point is that 23andMe is a successful business venture run by women in science. Female role models are scarce among ... I dont think its a stretch for the blogger you quoted to point out that these women would not have been so successful in ...
And since most spinal birth defects occur before a woman knows shes pregnant, even women contemplating pregnancy may want to ... and have adverse affects on women suffering from diabetes, high blood pressure and toxemia. A pregnant woman shouldnt take a ... Some health food megavitamins have too much vitamin A for pregnant women, up to 20,000 IU. Most reports recommend 5,000 IU. As ... Q: These days, almost any over-the-counter medication urges pregnant women to consult with a doctor before using. Why such ...
... you need to discuss all your medications with your doctor when you are pregnant. in general, medication for crohns disease ... Can pregnant women take medication for Crohns disease?. ANSWER With or without Crohns disease, you need to discuss all your ... If youre pregnant and have Crohns disease, which tests are safe to have, and which should you skip? ... What drugs dont damage the fetus or make pregnancy complications more likely in women with Crohns disease? ...
Women who are pregnant are susceptible to deep vein thrombosis, and many times they will ignore the early symptoms. Heres what ... "I had chalked it up to being pregnant," Dillhoff told Healthline. "I think a lot of pregnant women will discount the symptoms." ... She advised pregnant women to look for any sudden changes in their health, especially in the later stages of their pregnancies. ... He advised pregnant women to stay active as long as possible during their pregnancies. He also urged them to employ compression ...
When it comes to vaccines in pregnant women, government regulatory agencies dont follow their own rules regarding the ... When it comes to vaccines in pregnant women, government regulatory agencies dont follow their own rules regarding the ... Government Guidelines Have Double Standards for Pregnant Women. One place that women go when theyre looking for information on ... suggest that the immune response of pregnant women to these vaccines is similar to that of nonpregnant women." ...
  • Changes in the immune system, heart, and lungs during pregnancy make pregnant women (and women up to two weeks postpartum) more prone to severe illness from flu, including illness resulting in hospitalization. (
  • CDC and ACIP recommend that pregnant women get vaccinated during any trimester of their pregnancy. (
  • During pregnancy, women can experience overwhelming empowerment and joy as a new life grows inside their body. (
  • Thankfully, there is a wealth of information available for women to make the best decisions to ensure a healthy pregnancy. (
  • Today, women have access to more information and resources about pregnancy than ever before. (
  • Women should maintain an open relationship and regular contact with their healthcare provider throughout their pregnancy. (
  • Pregnancy is the time period in which a woman carries a fetus inside of her uterus. (
  • However, missing a period does not always mean a woman is pregnant, and women often experience other symptoms of pregnancy before missing a period. (
  • Many women use a home pregnancy test before calling their doctor. (
  • Because Zika during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects, pregnant women should not travel to areas with Zika outbreaks (as indicated by red areas on the Zika map ). (
  • A 2001 study published by the Journal of the American Medical Association said 20 percent of Maryland women who died during pregnancy were murdered. (
  • Men who kill pregnant women are most likely romantically involved with their victims and see the pregnancy and unborn child as obstacles and burdens in their lives. (
  • During the last false pregnancy, she allegedly zeroed in on Bobbi Jo Stinnett, a Missouri woman who was eight months pregnant, strangled her and cut Stinnett's baby from her womb. (
  • What's more, rates of pot use in pregnancy have steadily risen over the years -- from 4.2 percent of women in 2009 to 7.1 percent just seven years later. (
  • I am 10 weeks pregnant and undecided about terminating the pregnancy. (
  • Although I realize many, many women go through pregnancy alone (some by choice), but I am not sure if this decision is right for me. (
  • Pregnant women should avoid these seven foods and drinks Pregnancy affects your immune system so you and your baby are more susceptible to the bacteria, viruses and parasites that cause foodborne illness. (
  • Women struggling with gastric reflux and nausea during pregnancy should know that they have options during this recall," Dr. Zahn said. (
  • And since most spinal birth defects occur before a woman knows she's pregnant, even women contemplating pregnancy may want to take folic acid and not take extra multivitamins. (
  • What drugs don't damage the fetus or make pregnancy complications more likely in women with Crohn's disease? (
  • Haurani said pregnant women should not assume that symptoms like leg swelling and shortness of breath are due to pregnancy. (
  • One place that women go when they're looking for information on how to have a healthy pregnancy and baby is the CDC's own website. (
  • There, under "Birth Defects: Having a Healthy Pregnancy," they list the ABC's of pregnancy tips for making sure nothing bad happens to your baby while you're pregnant. (
  • Yoga may help women cope with depression during pregnancy, as well as boost maternal bonding, according to new research from the University of Michigan. (
  • Roughly 7.3 percent of women ages 15 to 44 are "at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy," according to the report. (
  • So a woman of childbearing age who toasted with Champagne on New Year's Eve and had sex with her husband 30 days later would be putting a pregnancy at risk, according to the CDC. (
  • According to the infographic that accompanies the report, a woman who drinks any amount during pregnancy could produce a baby with brain damage, organ failure, who could turn into a child with low IQ or learning disabilities, who could turn into an adult who can't keep a job and has "trouble with the law. (
  • Furthermore, recommendations on essential nutrient supplementation in pregnancy and lactation in women after bariatric surgery are scarce. (
  • Data from the US suggest poor screening for any deficiency in less than half of the women, but higher rates in pregnancy [ 4 ]. (
  • Observational studies may also be carried out on pregnant women who do decide to take medicines during pregnancy, but these types of studies generally involve fairly small numbers of women and, again, can only provide limited insight into the relative safety or dangers of particular drugs. (
  • There is at least one case report of a women who miscarried three weeks after using azithromycin early in her pregnancy. (
  • The place where most pregnant women seem to be on the same page is when it comes to their pregnancy symptoms -and what's worrying them. (
  • But, now imagine if all of those soldiers were female, and instead of being tested for drugs, they were being tested for pregnancy. (
  • Brigadier Nicky Moffat, who was the most senior woman in the army until she resigned in 2012, does not think compulsory pregnancy tests are an appropriate solution. (
  • She talks about the compulsory drug testing, and adds: "To expect women, the vast majority of whom probably will know they're not pregnant or have no reason to think they are, to undergo what would have to be the same procedure for something like pregnancy, it sort of beggars belief. (
  • About 60 women in their third trimester of pregnancy take turns on the treadmill. (
  • Doctors and groups such as the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists and the American Pregnancy Association now give blanket advice to pregnant women to get 30 minutes of exercise a day. (
  • Practicing social distancing during the COVID-19 pandemic may be more difficult for pregnant women, most of whom require weekly to monthly prenatal visits during pregnancy. (
  • That said, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists ( ACOG ) issued a statement that "pregnant women may be at higher risk of severe illness, morbidity, or mortality compared with the general population," likely due to physiologic changes that happen during pregnancy, and because pregnancy constitutes a state of relative immunosuppression as compared to non-pregnancy. (
  • Data are also lacking about whether pregnant women infected by the novel coronavirus can pass it to their fetuses across the placenta during pregnancy, called "vertical transmission. (
  • For decades, doctors have worried that too much vitamin D during pregnancy could cause birth defects, and under current guidelines anything over 2,000 IU per day is still considered potentially unsafe for anyone, not just pregnant women. (
  • The study looked only at women in their second trimester and beyond, and it's not yet clear whether high doses of vitamin D are safe earlier in pregnancy, when organs are formed and the fetus is especially vulnerable to birth defects. (
  • For instance, Kazlauskaite says, vitamin D intake during pregnancy should perhaps be pegged to a woman's blood levels of vitamin D. The American Academy of Pediatrics, which recommends that pregnant women take a prenatal vitamin containing at least 400 IU of the vitamin, also recommends that obstetricians measure the vitamin D in pregnant women's blood to ensure that the fetus is receiving enough to develop properly. (
  • If a woman tests positive during pregnancy, she will receive ART while pregnant. (
  • Women exercising 3 or more times a week during pregnancy are less likely to report pelvic girdle pain and low back pain, although the result for low back pain was not found to be significant. (
  • Despite these benefits, few women follow current exercise prescriptions for exercise in mid-pregnancy, the authors add. (
  • Women who exercised at least once a week at mid-pregnancy were more often primiparous, higher-educated, and less likely to have a prepregnacy body mass index of greater than 30 kg/m 2 than women exercising less than once a week. (
  • I've committed my life to talking about Black women having a 'fabulous' and powerful pregnancy, but to be honest, there was nothing fabulous about how my pregnancy journey began. (
  • In my researching to save my sanity and help my baby, I stumbled upon the sobering statistics about black women and our high rates of low birth weight and pre term pregnancies that inspired me to write my first book, The Mocha Manual to a Fabulous Pregnancy years later. (
  • Since 2004, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) have recommended influenza vaccination for all women who are or will be pregnant during the influenza season, regardless of trimester of pregnancy ( 1 , 2 ). (
  • Among 1,702 survey respondents who were pregnant at any time during October 2014-January 2015, 50.3% reported receiving influenza vaccination before or during pregnancy, similar to the reported coverage in the preceding season ( 3 ). (
  • A woman was considered to be vaccinated if 1) vaccination was received during July 1, 2014-April 6, 2015 and 2) vaccination was received before or during the most recent pregnancy. (
  • This study improves our understanding of factors associated with pregnancy and live births" among women on dialysis, says lead author Silvi Shah, MD, assistant professor of nephrology, University of Cincinnati, Ohio. (
  • What it] tells us is that for every 1000 women on dialysis each year, pregnancies occurred in 18 women, so pregnancy is not uncommon in women who are on dialysis," she told Medscape Medical News in an email. (
  • But since pregnancy in these women is high risk and associated with adverse maternal and fetal outcomes, pre-pregnancy counseling is important and should be done by all kidney healthcare providers," she stressed. (
  • Because data are so scarce for pregnancy in women undergoing dialysis, Shah and colleagues examined the rates, racial differences, and factors associated with pregnancy in this high-risk population. (
  • There were significant racial differences in pregnancy rates, the highest rates being in Native American women followed by Hispanics and blacks compared with white women. (
  • For example, women between age 20 to 24 years had the highest pregnancy rate, at 40.9 per 1000 person-years, whereas women between age 40 and 44 years had the lowest pregnancy rate, at 6.9 per 1000 person-years, Shah and colleagues report. (
  • But it could be that hypertonic dextrose solutions and the presence of fluid in the peritoneal cavity interfere with ovum transit to the uterus, so "it may be reasonable to switch women on peritoneal dialysis to hemodialysis if a pregnancy is desired," they suggest. (
  • PREGNANCY AND PILLS Pregnant women haven't escaped the opioid crisis, the CDC reports. (
  • In this first look at opioid use during pregnancy by state, Washington, D.C. had the lowest rate in 2014, at 0.7 per 1,000 women, and Vermont had the highest, at 48.6 per 1,000. (
  • Investigators say the rates of smoking, use of smokeless tobacco and exposure to secondhand smoke during pregnancy are higher than expected in developing and middle income countries, and pose an emerging threat to the health of women and their children. (
  • An international team of researchers, wanting to get a first glimpse at the magnitude of the problem of tobacco use and exposure in pregnancy, surveyed 8,000 pregnant women in five countries in Latin America, two countries in Africa and three countries in Asia. (
  • Women who smoke during pregnancy are more likely to go into labor prematurely and give birth to low weight babies. (
  • Women are very concerned about their fetuses and children, so that if you intervene early in pregnancy with a short counseling period - it can be as short as five to 15 minutes and then follow up with print material if they are literate or more advanced counseling - then women will stop,' she said. (
  • Filled with expert testimony, it paints a devastating picture of the women facing pregnancy and labour while behind bars as well as the impact on their children in the community. (
  • In the UK, women are given a pregnancy test when they are first jailed, with many finding out they are expecting for the first time. (
  • Women are supposed to have access to a pregnancy pack which will contain … a carton of milk, some biscuits, maybe a bit of fruit, but often they don't get it or they have to fight quite hard to get it or when they do get it the milk's off or the fruit's mouldy," she said. (
  • WEDNESDAY, Jan. 25, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Many women may be affected by an underactive thyroid gland, but new research suggests that treating it in pregnancy comes with benefits and potential harm. (
  • A recent analysis of 18 studies showed that pregnant women with untreated subclinical hypothyroidism are at higher risk for pregnancy loss, placental abruption, premature rupture of membranes, and neonatal death," said Dr. Spyridoula Maraka. (
  • And, as expected, women who received treatment had a lower risk of pregnancy loss. (
  • However, these women also had higher rates of preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, and preeclampsia (a dangerous spike in blood pressure during pregnancy), the findings showed. (
  • But the link between thyroid hormone treatment and lower risk of pregnancy loss was seen only among women with higher levels of TSH before treatment, and not in those with somewhat lower levels, the investigators found. (
  • On the basis of our findings, continuing to offer thyroid hormone treatment to decrease the risk of pregnancy loss in pregnant women with [higher levels] is reasonable," the study authors wrote. (
  • There is no known safe limit for marijuana use during pregnancy or by women who are breastfeeding their children. (
  • For the study, researchers retroactively looked at blood test results taken from 625 women who gave birth at various U.K pregnancy centers. (
  • If a woman is diagnosed with preeclampsia later in the pregnancy, she may have to have her labor induced. (
  • The test can help determine whether a woman became infected before or during the pregnancy, the statement said. (
  • Millions of women, many of whom are in a multi-year, cyclical pattern of pregnancy and breast-feeding, are denied praziquantel,' said Friedman. (
  • African American women are 3.7 times more likely to die during pregnancy than their non-Hispanic white counterparts, according to a report last September by a commission of the Joint Center for Political and Economic Studies' Health Policy Institute, a Washington group launched in 2002 to ignite a 'fair health' movement for people of color. (
  • The spokesperson says: 'The majority of women who did become severely ill were in their third trimester of pregnancy [more than 28 weeks pregnant], emphasising the importance of social distancing for this group. (
  • What we do know is that pregnancy in a small proportion of women can alter how your body handles severe viral infections. (
  • If you are planning a pregnancy you should either follow the advice relating to pregnant women, or delay the pregnancy for an appropriate time. (
  • While pregnant, you should avoid unprotected sex with a male partner who has been to a Zika affected country for the duration of the pregnancy or 6 months, whichever is longer. (
  • In fact, the latest guidelines issued by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologist (ACOG) in 2015 states that, "Women who begin their pregnancy with a healthy lifestyle (e.g., exercise, good nutrition, non-smoking) should be encouraged to maintain those healthy habits. (
  • Of course, while exercise during pregnancy is unquestionably beneficial, it also requires certain precautions, particularly as a woman progresses through her trimesters. (
  • A woman in the latter half of her pregnancy will generally require adjustments to her training program based on the unique changes she is experiencing. (
  • However, there are many situations in which we talk with women about the risks to their health and the health of the pregnancy based on their underlying medical conditions or the complications they have experienced in past pregnancies," she says. (
  • She had one patient who had a stroke during her first pregnancy and was advised not to get pregnant again because she was at risk of having another one. (
  • While some pregnant women can continue to do more challenging exercises during pregnancy, other's may not. (
  • If a woman wants to drink coffee, alcohol or laudnum during her pregnancy, that is her decision. (
  • Select variables related to pregnancy and hysterectomy were excluded from the public-use data file and documentation for women aged 12-19 years and for women over 44 years due to disclosure risks. (
  • Depression is common in women during pregnancy and postpartum, posing risks to both mother and child. (
  • Pregnancy is not from the neck down," she says, pointing to studies that show that more women suffer from mental illness during pregnancy and after pregnancy than develop gestational diabetes or pre-eclampsia, or go into preterm labor. (
  • Q: Does a pregnant woman have to be noticeably ill in order for damage to occur to her pregnancy? (
  • To adapt the culturally specific, manualized woman-focused intervention to specifically address issues of pregnancy and substance abuse, relationships with men, social support, parenting, HIV status, living with HIV, antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, and HIV risk-reduction methods for pregnant and postpartum women. (
  • Sydney, Jan 13 (IANS) A pregnant woman who smokes increases the child's risk of developing cancers, according to the latest evidence.New research by the Cancer Institute of New South Wales has provided the strongest indication that smoking during pregnancy also causes lower birth weight, premature birth and the baby's potential hospitalisation in a neonatal intensive care unit. (
  • Most women who reported seeing a dentist during pregnancy - 37 percent - said it was a routine checkup, while 13 percent said they wanted to address a particular oral health issue and six percent said they wanted to discuss what to expect when it came to oral health while pregnant. (
  • The researchers compared the pregnancy outcomes between a group of women exposed to dental treatment with anesthetics and a control group that did not have treatment. (
  • Flu vaccination is crucial for all pregnant women because the immune system changes during pregnancy, which puts women at increased risk of serious illness and complications if they get the flu. (
  • A new survey, called the Jaccha-Baccha Survey (JABS), conducted in June in six states (Chhattisgarh, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Uttar Pradesh) to map the state of pregnant and nursing women has found that a high proportion of women do not eat enough during pregnancy. (
  • Only in South Carolina has the state supreme court, in the 1997 case Whitner v. South Carolina, upheld the conviction of a woman charged with criminal child abuse for using cocaine during pregnancy. (
  • While researchers Evie Stergiakouli and George Davey Smith at the University of Bristol in the U.K. studied about 7,800 women and children over seven years, and half of those women admitted to taking acetaminophen at some point during their pregnancy, only 5 percent of those children displayed behavior problems by age 7. (
  • While we know air pollution is deadly , causing more than 3 million deaths a year, I can't help but wonder just how feasible it is to expect a pregnant woman to move to a new home (or a new city or state) during her pregnancy. (
  • Women who eat healthily before and during pregnancy may cut the risk of their baby developing a heart problem, researchers believe. (
  • The link is suggested by a study of 19,000 women in the US who were asked about their diet in the year leading up to pregnancy. (
  • Eating well isn't a guaranteed way to avoid congenital heart defects, but this will be another factor that will motivate women planning a pregnancy to make healthy choices. (
  • Ideally, a woman and her partner should consult their general practitioner when planning pregnancy. (
  • Women in close contact with toddlers (eg, childcare workers) may be at increased risk of cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection during pregnancy. (
  • Some thoughtful gifts for pregnant women include practical accessories that ease pregnancy-related discomfort, educational parenting materials, and tools t. (
  • Also, women with pregnancy-related acute kidney injury were much more likely to die while in the hospital than those without kidney injury. (
  • Women with pregnancy-related acute kidney injury were older than those who did not develop acute kidney injury. (
  • Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury occurred at a higher rate in black women than white women, and in women with diabetes than in those without diabetes. (
  • The rate of pregnancy-related hospitalisation involving acute kidney injury in diabetic women increased from 0.36 per cent in 2006 to 1.10 per cent in 2015. (
  • The findings of our study may necessitate a change in national policies regarding obstetric care of women and emphasize the need for kidney health monitoring for women hospitalised during pregnancy and during their outpatient prenatal visits," said Dr Shah. (
  • While prenatal vitamins do raise Vitamin D levels during pregnancy, the study shows that higher doses may be needed for many women. (
  • The day, held on September 9 each year, is meant to raise awareness about birth defects that can arise when women drink during pregnancy, according to CBC News. (
  • Last year, professor of economics Emily Oster wrote in the Wall Street Journal about the lack of studies surrounding women who drink lightly-to-moderately during pregnancy (as opposed to heavy or binge drinking). (
  • Health Canada, whose lead the LCBO follows as a government organization, says " There is no safe amount or safe time to drink alcohol during pregnancy or when planning to be pregnant. (
  • The proportion of women who realise their plans to stop smoking during pregnancy has dropped by 12 per cent in a year, according to figures released today. (
  • Obesity hinders pregnancy, the more obese you are, the harder it is to get pregnant, states study published in Human Reproduction. (
  • Infertility is a condition wherein couples fail to achieve pregnancy or if the woman has been unable to carry a pregnancy that results in a live birth. (
  • Research has shown that abuse while pregnant is a red flag for pregnancy-associated homicide. (
  • ABC News have reported that studies in Maryland, New York, and Chicago found that approximately 20 percent of women who die during pregnancy are victims of murder. (
  • In a 2001 editorial in the Journal of the American Medical Association, Victoria Frye writes, "Homicide by intimate partners may offer a focal point for effective pregnancy-associated mortality prevention efforts because many of these women come into contact with the health care system before their deaths. (
  • Ban Pregnancy as a "Pre-Existing Condition" in the Health Care Industry End the discriminatory practices against pregnant women in the health insurance industry by removing pregnancy from all "pre-existing condition" lists in health care. (
  • Pregnant women should be mindful of avoiding foods and drinks that could be harmful to a fetus. (
  • The risk of flu complications is highest for women infected during the third trimester, when lung capacity is most reduced because of pressure from the fetus. (
  • One study looked at such use in eleven women, with no apparent effects on the fetus (the eleven women had ten normal and healthy births, and the 11th women had an elective abortion). (
  • The high rate of female fetus abortions can be traced partly to the proliferation of clinics offering ultrasounds. (
  • He recommended the fetus be aborted and offered the woman an illegal injection to induce a miscarriage for 60,000 to 70,000 rupees -- between $1,100 and $1,300. (
  • Pregnant women should tell their doctors if they are taking opioids, so complications can be addressed, says Alison Holmes, a pediatrician at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center in Lebanon, N.H. Mothers may be prescribed methadone, a synthetic opioid which is safer for the fetus and protects it from going through withdrawal in the womb. (
  • The only two ways to override the statute are for the pregnant patient to explicitly write in her will that she does not wish to be resuscitated while pregnant, or for the fetus to be under 20 weeks old. (
  • instead, it raises the question of how society can best deal with the agonizing problem of prenatal substance abuse-a problem that poses serious risks to both a pregnant woman and her fetus. (
  • For advocates of women's reproductive rights, it raises the question of whether the state can ever be justified in regulating a pregnant woman's behavior in the interest of protecting her fetus and whether such policies potentially undermine the legality of abortion ( "Concerns Mount over Punitive Approaches to Substance Abuse Among Pregnant Women," TGR , October 1998, page 3). (
  • Typically, courts have overturned these convictions on the grounds that a fetus could not be considered a child or person under criminal child abuse statutes, or that the legislature did not intend for an existing criminal statute to apply to a pregnant woman and her fetus. (
  • Some infections are more serious in pregnant than non-pregnant women because of the potential for vertical transmission to the fetus or infant (eg, varicella, rubella, cytomegalovirus infection, toxoplasmosis and listeriosis). (
  • Police have not disclosed the condition of the pregnant woman and fetus. (
  • A pregnant woman was shot in the stomach, killing her 6-month-old fetus, in what Los Angeles police termed a drug-related dispute with a 15-year-old alleged gang member early Saturday. (
  • Jones and coauthors wrote: "Practical recommendations will help providers treat pregnant women with OUD and reduce potentially negative health consequences for mother, fetus, and child. (
  • A: There's a big push today to make sure you're taking enough folic acid to minimize spinal defects, but it's very important that pregnant women don't achieve that level by taking extra multivitamins, because then they could get too much Vitamin A, and that can cause birth defects of the brain, heart and face. (
  • Misoprostol administration to women who are pregnant can cause birth defects, abortion, or premature birth," the drug's warning states. (
  • Despite the medical community's long-standing fears, few women in the study were concerned about vitamin D--related birth defects, according to Hollis. (
  • With the World Health Organization sounding a global alarm about a Zika virus pandemic and U.S. health officials expanding travel warnings to pregnant women nearly amidst reports of a surge of birth defects in Brazil, the mosquito-borne Zika virus has people worried. (
  • The specter of a new rash of birth defects even prompted officials in El Salvador to urge women there to avoid getting pregnant for two years. (
  • APTA's consumer e-book, Women's Health Across the Lifespan, and an APTA video explain how PTs can help pregnant women with low back pain. (
  • As a private, voluntary, nonprofit membership organization of approximately 58,000 members, The College strongly advocates for quality health care for women, maintains the highest standards of clinical practice and continuing education of its members, promotes patient education, and increases awareness among its members and the public of the changing issues facing women's health care. (
  • 6 But in healthy third trimester women with normal size babies, there is only limited evidence that supine positioning in antenatal women, 7 or in women undergoing caesarean section, 8 is associated with any significant change in fetal indices. (
  • A pregnant friend in her first trimester is facing this dilemma: whether to take daily 4 doses of 250mg each (every 6 hours) of erythromycin for a period of 14 days a total of 56 pills or just to take 2 500mg arithromycin (Zithromax) pills in one dosage. (
  • Women at high risk should be screened a second time during the third trimester. (
  • In Cincinnati, all pregnant women are tested at delivery, but it would be even better to test women in the first trimester, says pediatrician Scott Wexelblatt at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital. (
  • A study by Rhode Island Hospital researchers confirmed that a drug used to treat a disease afflicting millions of people in developing countries is safe to give pregnant women following their first trimester. (
  • What follows is a discussion of some of the specific concerns you may encounter when training a pregnant client, including postural deviations and alterations in mindset, as well as exercise recommendations that will best support your client's needs during her final trimester. (
  • You'll learn the various exercise-related considerations for each trimester, how to progress and regress exercises based on musculoskeletal shifts, and how to create programming based on your pregnant client's specific needs. (
  • However, the presence of relaxin can also lead to exaggerated shifts as a woman moves through her third trimester. (
  • Women in their third trimester without other identified risk factors for influenza morbidity had an event rate of 21.7 per 10,000 women-months during influenza season. (
  • The data suggest that, out of every 10,000 women in their third trimester without other identified risk factors who experience an average influenza season of 2.5 months, 25 will be hospitalized with influenza-related morbidity. (
  • Washington, DC - New data show the continued critical need for all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, to receive the influenza vaccination, according to an updated Committee Opinion released by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College). (
  • In the third trimester, pregnant women often start producing colostrum, a thick, milky, yellow liquid that is the precursor to breast milk, explains La Lec. (
  • Pregnant women who get a flu vaccine also are helping to protect their babies from flu illness for the first several months after their birth, when they are too young to get vaccinated. (
  • In the 5 years that have passed since then, influenza experts have learned much about how the virus affects pregnant women and their unborn babies. (
  • Meanwhile, women who believe that this vaccine caused them to lose their babies are forming support groups and blogs to record their experiences, with the intent of warning others not to get the vaccine. (
  • Some of those reports are of miscarriages, which have been tallied by a group of women who have formed a support group for women who believe the vaccine caused them to lose their babies. (
  • For the research study, women who were 12 to 26 weeks pregnant and showed signs of depression participated in 90-minute mindfulness yoga sessions that focused on poses for the pregnant body, as well as support in the awareness of how their bodies were changing to help their babies grow. (
  • Minority women expecting babies also seemed to be especially susceptible to contracting COVID-19. (
  • In the UK, two pregnant women are thought to have died after contracting swine flu, one in Scotland and one in London, both of whom gave birth to healthy babies before their death. (
  • At this very moment, some 3.3 million not-yet-pregnant women are taking the lives and health of their not-yet-conceived babies into their booze-soaked hands. (
  • It's not known, for example, why a majority of pregnant women who binge-drink give birth to babies without FAS. (
  • Even if you find 10 women who drink a quart of vodka a day, maybe only five of those babies will have full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome, because there are other factors that influence the risk," one study author noted. (
  • Millions of pregnant women over many years have gotten the vaccine- the flu shot hasn't been shown to cause harm to pregnant women or their babies. (
  • Outdated information and myths perpetuated by the Internet still mean many women who had been exercising - up to a quarter by some accounts - stop because they fear they will harm their babies, the doctors said. (
  • But because group B strep infection is so dangerous for babies, it's important to find out if you're colonized while you're pregnant. (
  • A large UK study on the outcomes of 427 pregnant women and their babies during the coronavirus pandemic in the UK published on 11 May 2020 showed that between 1 March and 14 April 2020, 4.9 pregnant women per 1000 were admitted to UK hospitals with coronavirus and of these, around one in 10 received intensive care. (
  • Pregnant women are advised against traveling to the Rio Olympics and other parts of the world ( including Miami ) due to the Zika virus and the risk of microcephaly in unborn babies. (
  • In the study, published in Archives of Diseases in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition, half of the women had babies with heart problems while the other half did not. (
  • Before travel to other areas with risk of Zika (as indicated by purple areas on the Zika map), pregnant women should talk to a healthcare provider and carefully consider the potential risks of Zika and other infectious diseases. (
  • Many doctors say their priority is to protect pregnant women from more immediate dangers, and that warning them about environmental risks may create undue anxiety. (
  • We usually say pregnant women should only take medications for which the benefits outweigh the risks," Bryant said. (
  • The women were fully informed of any potential risks, Munne says. (
  • In Colorado and California, where marijuana is legal for both adult use and medical purposes, warning labels are required to include information about risks to pregnant women. (
  • If you are pregnant and thinking of travelling to a country where there is the potential for Zika transmission, you should have a discussion with your doctor about the possible risks for your particular trip to help you make a decision about whether travelling to this area is right for you at this time. (
  • The study did find that some women have enough Vitamin D. Study co-author Carlos Camargo, MD, DrPH, from Massachusetts General Hospital cautioned that there may be risks from excessive Vitamin D intake. (
  • Women should always talk to a doctor about potential risks before using any fertility medication. (
  • Evidence suggests women are more comfortable with non-traditional treatments, including herbal medicine, relaxation techniques and mind-body work, including mindfulness yoga, which combines meditative focus with physical poses, the researcher notes. (
  • For years, medical associations such as the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have said that the shackling of pregnant women is degrading, unnecessary and poses a risk to the health of the mother and baby. (
  • A review of the literature shows a number of studies that found that light and occasional drinking poses little risk to pregnant women or their fetuses. (
  • In addition to taking antiviral drugs, pregnant women who get a fever should treat their fever with Tylenol® (or store brand equivalent) and contact their health care provider immediately. (
  • Postpartum depression is a mental health condition that affects women after giving birth. (
  • A study published in the March 2005 edition of the American Journal of Public Health found that homicide was a leading cause of death among pregnant women in the United States between 1991 and 1999. (
  • Imagine a group of women hungry for information about the best way to ensure the future health and wellbeing of their unborn children. (
  • on the other hand you have a grassroots movement of thousands of outraged woman voters yelling that restricting their access to genetic information violates their rights and endangers the health of their future children. (
  • Some health food megavitamins have too much vitamin A for pregnant women, up to 20,000 IU. (
  • Dr Denise Jamieson, of the Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Atlanta, and colleagues documented 34 cases of confirmed or probable swine flu in pregnant women in America and found 32 per cent were admitted to hospital meaning the rate per 100,000 population was four times higher than the general population. (
  • In Britain pregnant women are also likely to be included in the priority group for vaccine, with the first batches due to arrive here next month, however they are expected to be behind front line health and social care workers in the queue. (
  • All pregnant people deserve the freedom to make their own health care decisions, regardless of age, race, income, and immigration or incarcerated status. (
  • We may have to hospitalize more pregnant women than we ever have before," said Dr. Allison Bryant, an assistant professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive health at UC San Francisco, who has studied the current pandemic's effects on pregnant patients. (
  • These otherwise healthy pregnant women can deteriorate rapidly," said Dr. Denise Jamieson, a medical officer in the CDC's division of reproductive health. (
  • The Palm Beach County Health Department gave little information Friday about the pregnant woman, citing privacy. (
  • Health officials have known since the 1918 flu pandemic that pregnant women were more vulnerable. (
  • It was a big change in 2008 when physical guidelines were published for Americans, including pregnant women, said James Pivarnik, who works with the sports medicine college and is professor kinesiology and epidemiology and director of the Center for Physical Activity and Health at Michigan State University . (
  • According to the CDC , there is insufficient data at this time to know whether pregnant women are at increased risk for adverse health outcomes if infected by the novel coronavirus as compared to non-pregnant people. (
  • ( ) -- Pregnant women could -- and probably should -- consume 10 times more vitamin D than experts currently recommend, according to a new study. (
  • Including pregnant women on a case-by-case basis (for example, pregnant women with cancer), on an emergent basis, or in the face of a public health emergency (e.g., for a vaccine) seems reasonable. (
  • That is why being well-rested is important for a pregnant woman - It keeps health and energy in prime condition. (
  • Researchers, led by investigators at the U.S. National Institutes of Health, found that the highest levels of smoking were in Latin America, with 18 percent of pregnant women in Uruguay and 10 percent of women in Argentina lighting up. (
  • Pregnant women with the parasite can pass it on to the unborn child, leading to adverse health effects such as mental disability or vision loss. (
  • The finding could prove critical to the care of pregnant women and lactating women with schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a parasitic worm, who were denied the drug out of concern for their health and the health of their fetuses. (
  • Despite World Health Organization recommendations to offer pregnant women treatment with praziquantel, many nations continue to withhold treatment, awaiting safety and efficacy data from controlled drug trials such as this one. (
  • The reproductive health section (variable name prefix RHQ) contains questions for females only. (
  • With this bill, Jindal joins other politicians whose dangerous anti-woman agenda is out of step with the majority of Americans who agree that women should have the right to choose what's best for their reproductive health," said Ilyse Hogue. (
  • Moreover, physicians, healthcare organizations, and public health officials should improve their efforts to increase immunization rates among pregnant women, according to the Committee Opinion. (
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (The College), a 501(c)(3) organization, is the nation's leading group of physicians providing health care for women. (
  • On access to basic healthcare facilities, the survey found that 36% women in UP did not get a single check-up at a primary health centre across different schemes. (
  • The poor health of pregnant and nursing women, as well as inadequate healthcare infrastructure, lie at the heart of India's child nutrition crisis. (
  • While HIV testing is an important public health intervention it must be done in a manner that respects the rights of women and girls. (
  • It is deeply worrying that privacy of pregnant women and girls is not respected in health facilities. (
  • Although research is ongoing, I think it's best for women to start a few months before becoming pregnant to maximize the likely health benefits," said Ginde. (
  • Women may feel safe speaking to their health care providers about the abuse, especially after discovering they are pregnant. (
  • Conduct a National Study & Update Abortion Data National Institutes of Health will collect "accurate" data on why women choose abortions. (
  • Women should schedule their first doctor visit sometime during weeks 6-8 or after their menstrual period is two to four weeks late. (
  • There was one important caveat to the survey: Urine samples were taken at eight weeks of gestation, so pot use might have occurred before many of the women realized they were pregnant. (
  • The report said three women were admitted to intensive care and one, a 33-year-old who was 35 weeks pregnant was admitted in severe respiratory distress, underwent and emergency caesarean delivery and died after two weeks. (
  • A 42-year-old women went into premature labour at 34 weeks gestation, had a caesarean and delivered healthy twins. (
  • A 34-year-old woman who was nine weeks pregnant suffered a miscarriage. (
  • A study of 22 women after 36 weeks' gestation showed that placental intervillous blood flow was about 25% lower in the supine compared with the left position. (
  • I should be 10 weeks pregnant but now I am not pregnant at all. (
  • In the study, 500 women who were at least 12 weeks pregnant took either 400, 2,000, or 4,000 IU of vitamin D per day. (
  • I miscarried about 12 weeks ago and have had several friends tell me they are pregnant now! (
  • This test usually is done when you are 35 to 37 weeks pregnant. (
  • Giving birth in a cell to a breech baby at 36 weeks, miscarrying in handcuffs - this is the heartbreaking reality of what it's like to be pregnant in prison. (
  • Polly was 16 weeks pregnant when she was jailed for six months for tampering with her electricity metre after her welfare payments were frozen due to a simple mistake. (
  • Experts told of a woman being forced to give birth in her cell to a baby in breech position at 36 weeks after repeatedly telling a guard she was in labour. (
  • Women who are between 28 and 38 weeks pregnant will be offered the vaccine during routine antenatal appointments. (
  • While pregnant, you should avoid unprotected sex with a female partner for at least 8 weeks following their return from travel. (
  • While pregnant with North, she developed preeclampsia, a potentially life-threatening complication that causes high blood pressure-North was delivered six weeks early as a result. (
  • Final edits to HB 1274 specified that the law will apply to women who have been pregnant for 20 weeks or more, which is the legal cutoff for abortion in Louisiana. (
  • The family successfully won their case and the patient was taken off life support when she was 22 weeks pregnant. (
  • The lawsuit filed in state district court asks a judge to order John Peter Smith Hospital in Fort Worth to remove life support for Marlise Munoz, a North Texas woman who was 14 weeks pregnant when her husband found her unconscious on Nov. 26. (
  • Even so, on the couple sixth IVF attempt she did get pregnant - "and then I miscarried after six weeks. (
  • A new UCSF survey of 2,600 obstetricians and gynecologists nationwide found that most do not warn their pregnant patients about chemicals in food, consumer products or the environment that could endanger their fetuses. (
  • Nearly 50,000 female fetuses are aborted every month and untold numbers of baby girls are abandoned or murdered. (
  • The fetuses of giant pandas are extremely small, making it hard for zoos to know whether females are pregnant. (
  • Some of the best exercises for pregnant women include brisk walking, low-impact aerobics, yoga, 15 stretching 16 and even weight training. (
  • WEDNESDAY, Dec. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An analysis of urine samples from roughly 300,000 California women finds that more than 7 percent used marijuana while pregnant . (
  • The good news, according to Wright, is other studies have shown that women in developing countries are receptive to programs to help them quit tobacco products. (
  • The good news is that there is a food you should have more of while pregnant and while breastfeeding: fish and shellfish. (
  • News : Should Pregnant Women Always Be Treated for Underactive Thyroid? (
  • Aside from the prenatal vitamin, pregnant women should drink milk that is vitamin D-fortified and low fat as well as eat calcium-rich foods that are rich in vitamin D. If a pregnant woman does not drink milk or eat foods that contain calcium, she should talk to her doctor about vitamin D and calcium supplements, according to the Mayo Clinic. (
  • Towers, who practices at Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, wrote the 1999 book "I'm Pregnant & I Have a Cold, Are Over-the-Counter Drugs Safe to Use? (
  • It is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 201 pregnant women, compared with nonpregnant women, who underwent procedures from 1999 to 2005 in a 20 percent sample of nonfederal U.S. hospitals. (
  • In 28 U.S. states, the rate of women using opioids such as oxycodone, shown in the background of this composite image, close to childbirth has risen sharply since 1999. (
  • Data on hospital deliveries in 28 U.S. states shows the rate of opioid use among pregnant women has quadrupled , from 1.5 per 1,000 women in 1999 to 6.5 per 1,000 women in 2014, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports. (
  • Homicide was the second-leading cause of death among women ages 20 to 24 and fifth among women ages 25-34 in 1999. (
  • Researchers note that one in five pregnant women experience major depression. (
  • Pregnant women were five times more likely to be hospitalized, researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed on Thursday. (
  • Researchers also found that expectant minority women, particularly black and Hispanic, were disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (
  • For the report , the researchers looked at more than 8,200 pregnant women who tested positive for the virus to more than 83,000 infected non-pregnant women. (
  • The researchers say the report comes with limitations such as unclear data about how many women were hospitalized due to being in labor. (
  • Pregnant woman in rural areas are more likely to have their deliveries induced or by Cesarean section that, while potentially life-saving, are more expensive and risky than a normal vaginal birth, according to patients, medical professionals and researchers. (
  • The reasons for the lower rates of conception in women on peritoneal dialysis remain unclear," the researchers say, "especially because patients with peritoneal dialysis are generally healthier and have higher residual renal function than women on hemodialysis. (
  • Researchers have released the results of the first-ever international study of the tobacco use habits of pregnant women. (
  • Researchers have conducted a controversial study that involved paying dozens of young women at a hospital near Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, to get artificially inseminated so their embryos could be flushed out of their bodies and analyzed for research purposes. (
  • Researchers at Kings College London say they've developed a new test that can predict which women will have the condition. (
  • The researchers didn't ask women how much of the drug they took, and they didn't ask why they took it. (
  • Researchers at the University of Oulu in Finland found that women living in areas where air pollution is high are at greater risk of stillbirth . (
  • Mr Boon Lim, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Pandemic Flu Planning lead said: "Pregnant women are regarded as a high-risk group and these latest findings from the CDC show that they have enhanced susceptibility to developing pneumonia and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome, once they contract the H1N1v flu. (
  • While both men and women are affected by COVID-19, this brief outlines considerations for how the pandemic may specifically impact pregnant women. (
  • Whenever possible, pregnant women undergoing thyroid and parathyroid procedures should be directed to high-volume surgeons, and disparities in outcomes based on race and insurance must be overcome. (
  • A bill that requires physicians and hospitals to keep brain-dead pregnant women on life support has landed on Republican Gov. Bobby Jindal's desk. (
  • A 2010 article in the journal BMC Medicine found 30 cases of brain-dead pregnant women over about 30 years. (
  • The judge ruled that the Texas law prohibiting medical officials from cutting life support to a pregnant patient did not apply in that case, as the pregnant patient, Marlise Munoz, was legally dead. (
  • A woman usually knows she is pregnant when she misses a period, or multiple periods. (
  • Alcohol can permanently harm a developing baby before a woman knows she is pregnant," said CDC Principal Deputy Director Anne Schuchat, M.D., in a press release. (