Pregnant Women: Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Women's Health: The concept covering the physical and mental conditions of women.Women: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Prenatal Care: Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.Pregnancy Complications, Parasitic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Pregnancy Trimester, Third: The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.Pregnancy Trimesters: The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.Pregnancy Complications, Hematologic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pregnancy Complications, Cardiovascular: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.Pre-Eclampsia: A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Battered Women: Women who are physically and mentally abused over an extended period, usually by a husband or other dominant male figure. Characteristics of the battered woman syndrome are helplessness, constant fear, and a perceived inability to escape. (From American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 3d ed)Postpartum Period: In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Parity: The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Pregnancy Trimester, First: The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Prenatal Diagnosis: Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.Diabetes, Gestational: Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Women's Rights: The rights of women to equal status pertaining to social, economic, and educational opportunities afforded by society.Abortion, Spontaneous: Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Toxoplasmosis: The acquired form of infection by Toxoplasma gondii in animals and man.Gravidity: The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Cesarean Section: Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Women, Working: Women who are engaged in gainful activities usually outside the home.Women's Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to women. It excludes maternal care services for which MATERNAL HEALTH SERVICES is available.Maternal Health Services: Organized services to provide health care to expectant and nursing mothers.Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Maternal-Fetal Exchange: Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.Maternal Exposure: Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.United StatesObstetric Labor, Premature: Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).Placenta: A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Postmenopause: The physiological period following the MENOPAUSE, the permanent cessation of the menstrual life.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Seroepidemiologic Studies: EPIDEMIOLOGIC STUDIES based on the detection through serological testing of characteristic change in the serum level of specific ANTIBODIES. Latent subclinical infections and carrier states can thus be detected in addition to clinically overt cases.Fetal Blood: Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.Pregnancy, High-Risk: Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.Body Mass Index: An indicator of body density as determined by the relationship of BODY WEIGHT to BODY HEIGHT. BMI=weight (kg)/height squared (m2). BMI correlates with body fat (ADIPOSE TISSUE). Their relationship varies with age and gender. For adults, BMI falls into these categories: below 18.5 (underweight); 18.5-24.9 (normal); 25.0-29.9 (overweight); 30.0 and above (obese). (National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention)Midwifery: The practice of assisting women in childbirth.Labor, Obstetric: The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Pregnancy in Diabetics: The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.Dietary Supplements: Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.Pica: The persistent eating of nonnutritive substances for a period of at least one month. (DSM-IV)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Puerperal Disorders: Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.Streptococcus agalactiae: A bacterium which causes mastitis in cattle and occasionally in man.Physicians, Women: Women licensed to practice medicine.Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Maternal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Malaria: A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.Nigeria: A republic in western Africa, south of NIGER between BENIN and CAMEROON. Its capital is Abuja.Smoking: Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.Anemia, Iron-Deficiency: Anemia characterized by decreased or absent iron stores, low serum iron concentration, low transferrin saturation, and low hemoglobin concentration or hematocrit value. The erythrocytes are hypochromic and microcytic and the iron binding capacity is increased.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Vaginosis, Bacterial: Polymicrobial, nonspecific vaginitis associated with positive cultures of Gardnerella vaginalis and other anaerobic organisms and a decrease in lactobacilli. It remains unclear whether the initial pathogenic event is caused by the growth of anaerobes or a primary decrease in lactobacilli.Parturition: The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.Toxoplasmosis, Congenital: Prenatal protozoal infection with TOXOPLASMA gondii which is associated with injury to the developing fetal nervous system. The severity of this condition is related to the stage of pregnancy during which the infection occurs; first trimester infections are associated with a greater degree of neurologic dysfunction. Clinical features include HYDROCEPHALUS; MICROCEPHALY; deafness; cerebral calcifications; SEIZURES; and psychomotor retardation. Signs of a systemic infection may also be present at birth, including fever, rash, and hepatosplenomegaly. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p735)Spouse Abuse: Deliberate severe and repeated injury to one domestic partner by the other.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Abortion, Induced: Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)Hospitals, Maternity: Special hospitals which provide care to women during pregnancy and parturition.Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Estriol: A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.Tanzania: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA and north of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Dar es Salaam. It was formed in 1964 by a merger of the countries of TANGANYIKA and ZANZIBAR.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.BrazilPrenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.Sulfadoxine: A long acting sulfonamide that is used, usually in combination with other drugs, for respiratory, urinary tract, and malarial infections.Pyrimethamine: One of the FOLIC ACID ANTAGONISTS that is used as an antimalarial or with a sulfonamide to treat toxoplasmosis.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Amniocentesis: Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.Syphilis: A contagious venereal disease caused by the spirochete TREPONEMA PALLIDUM.Prenatal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.Menopause: The last menstrual period. Permanent cessation of menses (MENSTRUATION) is usually defined after 6 to 12 months of AMENORRHEA in a woman over 45 years of age. In the United States, menopause generally occurs in women between 48 and 55 years of age.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Antimalarials: Agents used in the treatment of malaria. They are usually classified on the basis of their action against plasmodia at different stages in their life cycle in the human. (From AMA, Drug Evaluations Annual, 1992, p1585)Fetal Growth Retardation: The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.Anemia: A reduction in the number of circulating ERYTHROCYTES or in the quantity of HEMOGLOBIN.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Amniotic Fluid: A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).Malaria, Falciparum: Malaria caused by PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM. This is the severest form of malaria and is associated with the highest levels of parasites in the blood. This disease is characterized by irregularly recurring febrile paroxysms that in extreme cases occur with acute cerebral, renal, or gastrointestinal manifestations.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Toxoplasma: A genus of protozoa parasitic to birds and mammals. T. gondii is one of the most common infectious pathogenic animal parasites of man.Premenopause: The period before MENOPAUSE. In premenopausal women, the climacteric transition from full sexual maturity to cessation of ovarian cycle takes place between the age of late thirty and early fifty.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Infertility, Female: Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.AIDS Serodiagnosis: Immunologic tests for identification of HIV (HTLV-III/LAV) antibodies. They include assays for HIV SEROPOSITIVITY and HIV SERONEGATIVITY that have been developed for screening persons carrying the viral antibody from patients with overt symptoms of AIDS or AIDS-RELATED COMPLEX.Fetal Death: Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.Fetus: The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Folic Acid: A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.Fetal Development: Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.Iodine: A nonmetallic element of the halogen group that is represented by the atomic symbol I, atomic number 53, and atomic weight of 126.90. It is a nutritionally essential element, especially important in thyroid hormone synthesis. In solution, it has anti-infective properties and is used topically.Mozambique: A republic in southern Africa, south of TANZANIA, east of ZAMBIA and ZIMBABWE, bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Maputo. It was formerly called Portuguese East Africa.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Streptococcal Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus STREPTOCOCCUS.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Syphilis, Congenital: Syphilis acquired in utero and manifested by any of several characteristic tooth (Hutchinson's teeth) or bone malformations and by active mucocutaneous syphilis at birth or shortly thereafter. Ocular and neurologic changes may also occur.Fetal Diseases: Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.Antibodies, Protozoan: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to PROTOZOAN ANTIGENS.Stillbirth: The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.Rubella: An acute infectious disease caused by the RUBELLA VIRUS. The virus enters the respiratory tract via airborne droplet and spreads to the LYMPHATIC SYSTEM.Maternal Mortality: Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.Linear Models: Statistical models in which the value of a parameter for a given value of a factor is assumed to be equal to a + bx, where a and b are constants. The models predict a linear regression.Marital Status: A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.Poverty: A situation in which the level of living of an individual, family, or group is below the standard of the community. It is often related to a specific income level.Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Bedding and Linens: Articles of cloth, usually cotton or rayon and other synthetic or cotton-blend fabrics, used in households, hospitals, physicians' examining rooms, nursing homes, etc., for sheets, pillow cases, toweling, gowns, drapes, and the like.Alcohol Drinking: Behaviors associated with the ingesting of alcoholic beverages, including social drinking.IndiaEthiopia: An independent state in eastern Africa. Ethiopia is located in the Horn of Africa and is bordered on the north and northeast by Eritrea, on the east by Djibouti and Somalia, on the south by Kenya, and on the west and southwest by Sudan. Its capital is Addis Ababa.Spiramycin: A macrolide antibiotic produced by Streptomyces ambofaciens. The drug is effective against gram-positive aerobic pathogens, N. gonorrhoeae, and staphylococci. It is used to treat infections caused by bacteria and Toxoplasma gondii.Malawi: A republic in southern Africa east of ZAMBIA and MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Lilongwe. It was formerly called Nyasaland.Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced: A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.Abnormalities, Drug-Induced: Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.Sex Characteristics: Those characteristics that distinguish one SEX from the other. The primary sex characteristics are the OVARIES and TESTES and their related hormones. Secondary sex characteristics are those which are masculine or feminine but not directly related to reproduction.Menstruation: The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Vaginal Diseases: Pathological processes of the VAGINA.Contraceptives, Oral: Compounds, usually hormonal, taken orally in order to block ovulation and prevent the occurrence of pregnancy. The hormones are generally estrogen or progesterone or both.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Placenta Diseases: Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.Gabon: A republic in west equatorial Africa, south of CAMEROON and west of the CONGO. Its capital is Libreville.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Preconception Care: An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Weight Gain: Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.Anti-HIV Agents: Agents used to treat AIDS and/or stop the spread of the HIV infection. These do not include drugs used to treat symptoms or opportunistic infections associated with AIDS.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Kenya: A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.China: A country spanning from central Asia to the Pacific Ocean.Population Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Maternal-Child Health Centers: Facilities which administer the delivery of health care services to mothers and children.Polycystic Ovary Syndrome: A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Hemoglobins: The oxygen-carrying proteins of ERYTHROCYTES. They are found in all vertebrates and some invertebrates. The number of globin subunits in the hemoglobin quaternary structure differs between species. Structures range from monomeric to a variety of multimeric arrangements.Iron, Dietary: Iron or iron compounds used in foods or as food. Dietary iron is important in oxygen transport and the synthesis of the iron-porphyrin proteins hemoglobin, myoglobin, cytochromes, and cytochrome oxidase. Insufficient amounts of dietary iron can lead to iron-deficiency anemia.Uganda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.Immunoglobulin M: A class of immunoglobulin bearing mu chains (IMMUNOGLOBULIN MU-CHAINS). IgM can fix COMPLEMENT. The name comes from its high molecular weight and originally being called a macroglobulin.Rwanda: A republic in eastern Africa, south of UGANDA, east of DEMOCRATIC REPUBLIC OF THE CONGO, west of TANZANIA. Its capital is Kigali. It was formerly part of the Belgian trust territory of Ruanda-Urund.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Burkina Faso: A republic in western Africa, south and east of MALI and west of NIGER. Its capital is Ouagadougou. It was formerly called Upper Volta until 1984.HIV Seropositivity: Development of neutralizing antibodies in individuals who have been exposed to the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV/HTLV-III/LAV).NorwayPeripartum Period: The period shortly before, during, and immediately after giving birth.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Thailand: Formerly known as Siam, this is a Southeast Asian nation at the center of the Indochina peninsula. Bangkok is the capital city.Poland

Selecting subjects for participation in clinical research: one sphere of justice. (1/395)

Recent guidelines from the US National Institutes of Health (NIH) mandate the inclusion of adequate numbers of women in clinical trials. Ought such standards to apply internationally? Walzer's theory of justice is brought to bear on the problem, the first use of the theory in research ethics, and it argues for broad application of the principle of adequate representation. A number of practical conclusions for research ethics committees (RECs) are outlined. Eligibility criteria in clinical trials ought to be justified by trial designers. Research ethics committees ought to question criteria that seem to exclude unnecessarily women from research participation. The issue of adequate representation should be construed broadly, so as to include consideration of the representation of the elderly, persons with HIV, mental illness and substance abuse disorders in clinical research.  (+info)

International developments in abortion law from 1988 to 1998. (2/395)

OBJECTIVES: In 2 successive decades since 1967, legal accommodation of abortion has grown in many countries. The objective of this study was to assess whether liberalizing trends have been maintained in the last decade and whether increased protection of women's human rights has influenced legal reform. METHODS: A worldwide review was conducted of legislation and judicial rulings affecting abortion, and legal reforms were measured against governmental commitments made under international human rights treaties and at United Nations conferences. RESULTS: Since 1987, 26 jurisdictions have extended grounds for lawful abortion, and 4 countries have restricted grounds. Additional limits on access to legal abortion services include restrictions on funding of services, mandatory counseling and reflection delay requirements, third-party authorizations, and blockades of abortion clinics. CONCLUSIONS: Progressive liberalization has moved abortion laws from a focus on punishment toward concern with women's health and welfare and with their human rights. However, widespread maternal mortality and morbidity show that reform must be accompanied by accessible abortion services and improved contraceptive care and information.  (+info)

Beware! Preimplantation genetic diagnosis may solve some old problems but it also raises new ones. (3/395)

Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PIGD) goes some way to meeting the clinical, psychological and ethical problems of antenatal testing. We should guard, however, against the assumption that PIGD is the answer to all our problems. It also presents some new problems and leaves some old problems untouched. This paper will provide an overview of how PIGD meets some of the old problems but will concentrate on two new challenges for ethics (and, indeed, law). First we look at whether we should always suppose that it is wrong for a clinician to implant a genetically abnormal zygote. The second concern is particularly important in the UK. The Human Fertilisation and Embryology Act (1990) gives clinicians a statutory obligation to consider the interests of the future children they help to create using in vitro fertilisation (IVF) techniques. Does this mean that because PIGD is based on IVF techniques the balance of power for determining the best interests of the future child shifts from the mother to the clinician?  (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis and discrimination against the disabled. (4/395)

Two versions of the argument that prenatal diagnosis discriminates against the disabled are distinguished and analysed. Both are shown to be inadequate, but some valid concerns about the social effects of prenatal diagnosis are highlighted.  (+info)

Most deaths related to abortion occur in the developing world.(5/395)

 (+info)

Prenatal diagnosis and selective abortion: a challenge to practice and policy. (6/395)

Professionals should reexamine negative assumptions about the quality of life with prenatally detectable impairments and should reform clinical practice and public policy to improve informed decision making and genuine reproductive choice. Current data on children and families affected by disabilities indicate that disability does not preclude a satisfying life. Many problems attributed to the existence of a disability actually stem from inadequate social arrangements that public health professionals should work to change. This article assumes a pro-choice perspective but suggests that unreflective uses of prenatal testing could diminish, rather than expand, women's choices. This critique challenges the view of disability that lies behind the social endorsement of such testing and the conviction that women will or should end their pregnancies if they discover that the fetus has a disabling trait.  (+info)

Ethnicity, bioethics, and prenatal diagnosis: the amniocentesis decisions of Mexican-origin women and their partners. (7/395)

Bioethical standards and counseling techniques that regulate prenatal diagnosis in the United States were developed at a time when the principal constituency for fetal testing was a self-selected group of White, well-informed, middle-class women. The routine use of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) testing, which has become widespread since the mid-1980s, introduced new constituencies to prenatal diagnosis. These new constituencies include ethnic minority women, who, with the exception of women from certain Asian groups, refuse amniocentesis at significantly higher rates than others. This study examines the considerations taken into account by a group of Mexican-origin women who had screened positive for AFP and were deciding whether to undergo amniocentesis. We reviewed 379 charts and interviewed 147 women and 120 partners to test a number of factors that might explain why some women accept amniocentesis and some refuse. A woman's attitudes toward doctors, medicine, and prenatal care and her assessment of the risk and uncertainty associated with the procedure were found to be most significant. Case summaries demonstrate the indeterminacy of the decision-making process. We concluded that established bioethical principles and counseling techniques need to be more sensitive to the way ethnic minority clients make their amniocentesis choices.  (+info)

Re-examining death: against a higher brain criterion. (8/395)

While there is increasing pressure on scarce health care resources, advances in medical science have blurred the boundary between life and death. Individuals can survive for decades without consciousness and individuals whose whole brains are dead can be supported for extended periods. One suggested response is to redefine death, justifying a higher brain criterion for death. This argument fails because it conflates two distinct notions about the demise of human beings--the one, biological and the other, ontological. Death is a biological phenomenon. This view entails the rejection of a higher brain criterion of death. Moreover, I claim that the justification of the whole brain (or brain stem) criterion of death is also cast into doubt by these advances in medical science. I proceed to argue that there is no need to redefine death in order to identify which treatments ought to be provided for the permanently and irreversibly unconscious. There are already clear treatment guidelines.  (+info)

  • "Judgments and stereotypes about how pregnant individuals should behave, their physical capabilities, and what is or is not healthy for a fetus are pervasive in our society and cannot be used as a pretext for unlawful discriminatory decisions in employment, housing, and public accommodations," say the new guidelines. (palmpartners.com)
  • Some argue that denying pregnant women the right to drink undermines the right she has to choose what she does with her body. (palmpartners.com)
  • The patient can also consult with a physician to get help with their addiction problems, attend individual and group counseling, and join a rehab program dedicated to care coordination for pregnant women. (addictionresource.net)
  • Pregnant woman and her baby inside, shader has a transparency effect that allows you toggle betwen seen the baby or not.Low renderin times, can be animated thru ik or direct joints. (highend3d.com)
  • Estimated due dates are just that - estimates - but that doesn't stop pregnant women secretly hoping that their baby will be one of the very few to actually arrive on the guess date (a mere 3-5% babies are born on their calculated date). (bellybelly.com.au)
  • The goal is not just for the woman to recover from her addiction, but for a healthy outcome for her baby as well. (addictionresource.net)
  • Forty weeks feels like a long time to be pregnant - and every day after that 40 week mark feels like an extra week. (bellybelly.com.au)
  • a PREGNANT woman was given a blood-stained bed at the Capital's flagship hospital - just weeks after a watchdog criticised health bosses after making similar discoveries during a major inspection. (scotsman.com)
  • We checked in with Jennifer MacGregor, M.D., at Union Square Laser Dermatology in New York City (and a new mother herself) for five simple things you can do for your skin while you're pregnant. (purewow.com)
  • "Accommodation of Pregnant women cannot be a favor," said Azadeh Khalili, executive director of the Commission on Gender Equity. (palmpartners.com)
  • Pregnant women need to fill out an intake form, which is downloadable from the rehab center's website. (addictionresource.net)
  • A: There's a big push today to make sure you're taking enough folic acid to minimize spinal defects, but it's very important that pregnant women don't achieve that level by taking extra multivitamins, because then they could get too much Vitamin A, and that can cause birth defects of the brain, heart and face. (latimes.com)
  • Misoprostol administration to women who are pregnant can cause birth defects, abortion, or premature birth," the drug's warning states. (latimes.com)
  • Despite the medical community's long-standing fears, few women in the study were concerned about vitamin D--related birth defects, according to Hollis. (cnn.com)
  • This helps explain why Zika causes no symptoms at all in four out of five infected people, but can cause horrible neurological birth defects such as microcephaly when pregnant women become infected, Jung said. (upi.com)
  • With the World Health Organization sounding a global alarm about a Zika virus pandemic and U.S. health officials expanding travel warnings to pregnant women nearly amidst reports of a surge of birth defects in Brazil, the mosquito-borne Zika virus has people worried. (nj.com)
  • The specter of a new rash of birth defects even prompted officials in El Salvador to urge women there to avoid getting pregnant for two years. (nj.com)
  • Pregnant women who developed 2009 H1N1 influenza were sicker and their infants had worse outcomes, according to data from the 2009 H1N1 influenza pandemic and the 2013-2014 influenza season. (medscape.com)
  • During the 2013 to 2014 influenza season, when 2009 H1N1 was again the primary circulating influenza virus in the United States, cases of serious illness, hospitalizations, and deaths were reported among young and middle-aged adults and pregnant women. (medscape.com)
  • Pregnant women with 2009 H1N1 influenza were at substantially higher risk for hospitalization than the general population, and they accounted for approximately 5% of deaths from 2009 H1N1 influenza that were reported to the [CDC], even though pregnant women make up only about 1% of the population. (medscape.com)
  • In 2009, in a significant change in antiviral treatment guidance, the CDC recommended that pregnant women suspected of having 2009 H1N1 influenza "receive prompt antiviral therapy regardless of risk factors, severity of illness, history, or the results of diagnostic testing," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • A recent systematic review and meta-analysis that studied the effects of antiviral medications on mortality from 2009 H1N1 influenza among hospitalized pregnant women found that those who were given a neuraminidase inhibitor within the first 2 days after becoming ill were about one fifth as likely to die as those who received treatment later or not at all. (medscape.com)
  • It's been many months since the CDC and ACIP put children and pregnant women at the top of their priority list for getting the H1N1 vaccine in the U.S. (mercola.com)
  • Then, in a shoot first, ask questions later move, the National Institutes of Health and vaccine manufacturers began seeking pregnant volunteers for several H1N1 vaccine safety trials. (mercola.com)
  • If you go to the government's website on clinical trials, you will see that at least one vaccine manufacturer is still recruiting pregnant volunteers for testing the safety and efficacy of the H1N1 vaccine. (mercola.com)
  • But the sad thing about this testing is that it didn't start until months after the CDC ordered women and their unborn babies to the head of the H1N1 vaccine line! (mercola.com)
  • Guidelines in America have put pregnant women in the priority group to receive the H1N1 vaccine once it is available, but Dr Jamieson noted that pregnant women are also advised to have the seasonal flu vaccine yet uptake is poor. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • As the H1N1 influenza vaccine trickles into clinics and pharmacies over the next few weeks, public health officials and doctors desperately hope that pregnant women will be at the front of the line for the shot. (latimes.com)
  • On Thursday, a consortium of major medical groups, including the American Medical Assn., the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, released a statement pleading with pregnant women to get both the H1N1 and seasonal flu vaccines. (latimes.com)
  • Two H1N1-related deaths in pregnant women have been reported in Los Angeles County, according to the county Department of Public Health. (latimes.com)
  • Unlike in previous pandemics, however, pregnant women have two options for protection this year: the H1N1 vaccine -- for which they and young children have been given priority -- and the antiviral medication Tamiflu. (latimes.com)
  • Pneumonia poses a particular threat to pregnant women because they have limited lung capacity, and the H1N1 strain appears to settle deeper in the lungs of young people. (latimes.com)
  • The swine flu death of a healthy mother-to-be in Palm Beach County shines a spotlight on the high risk that the new H1N1 virus poses to pregnant women, health officials said Friday. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Pregnant women will be high on the priority list for an H1N1 vaccine that manufacturers hope to have ready in October, and health experts are urging them to contact their doctors if they get sick or think they have been exposed. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • As a result, health officials said the first in line for H1N1 vaccine will be children, as well as pregnant women, the chronically ill and health-care workers. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • In the wake of the H1N1 epidemic, in which pregnant women had a disproportionately higher risk of death , the question of including pregnant women in clinical trials has begun to be tentatively breached. (metafilter.com)
  • AMedford infectious disease specialist Friday encouraged all pregnant women to get immunized against the H1N1 influenza virus and warned that this flu may be much more deadly than its seasonal cousins. (mailtribune.com)
  • To decrease the chances of complications, women should practice proper prenatal care, avoid dangerous drugs and choose the best method of delivery for them. (drugwatch.com)
  • Studies in recent years have found that outside of medical complications, homicide is the leading cause of death among pregnant women. (go.com)
  • B]y implementing the current antiviral treatment recommendations, clinicians can prevent complications in women with influenza," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • Although data were available before the 2009 pandemic suggesting that pregnant women were at increased risk for influenza-associated complications, the pandemic provided solid data on this vulnerability," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • Complications and deaths from flu were much higher among pregnant women and newborns in the pandemics of 1918, 1957 and 1968 than among the general population. (latimes.com)
  • Pregnant women with asthma or other chronic health conditions are at especially high risk for complications -- as are those who are obese or poor, who are current or former smokers, or who have underlying heart disease. (latimes.com)
  • What complications can happen if you're pregnant? (blogcatalog.com)
  • Pregnant women and infants are at increased risk for influenza-related complications and hospitalization. (cdc.gov)
  • Family members must be involved in keeping a pregnant woman healthy and comfortable to prevent complications and miscarriages. (infobarrel.com)
  • Gemma Barrett, a preeclampsia patient in the U.K. told Van Marsh she found out she had the condition when she was 33 weeks pregnant, and experienced complications during delivery. (cbsnews.com)
  • Also, on the whole, pregnant women don't appear to be more likely to be severely unwell or more at risk of serious complications than other healthy adults if they develop it. (which.co.uk)
  • However, the RCOG says this situation is something midwives and obstetricians are used to dealing with and as of yet there's no evidence that pregnant women with coronavirus are more at risk of serious complications than other healthy individuals. (which.co.uk)
  • The flu virus is highly infectious and can be particularly dangerous to pregnant women, as it can cause pneumonia, premature labor, and other complications, " said Laura Riley, MD, chair of the College's Immunization Expert Work Group, which developed the Committee Opinion in conjunction with the College's Committee on Obstetric Practice. (acog.org)
  • APTA's consumer e-book, Women's Health Across the Lifespan, and an APTA video explain how PTs can help pregnant women with low back pain. (apta.org)
  • As a private, voluntary, nonprofit membership organization of approximately 58,000 members, The College strongly advocates for quality health care for women, maintains the highest standards of clinical practice and continuing education of its members, promotes patient education, and increases awareness among its members and the public of the changing issues facing women's health care. (acog.org)
  • However, women should receive antiviral treatment if they develop influenza symptoms, regardless of vaccination status because the vaccine is only about 60% effective. (medscape.com)
  • Receiving an influenza vaccine reduces the risk of influenza not only for the pregnant woman but also for her infant during the first 6 months of life," the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • The vaccine was released with very little clinical testing done on it, and absolutely none on pregnant women. (mercola.com)
  • Meanwhile, women who believe that this vaccine caused them to lose their babies are forming support groups and blogs to record their experiences, with the intent of warning others not to get the vaccine. (mercola.com)
  • Safety, as in when it comes to children, we should be especially vigilant in making sure that extensive clinical trials have proven a particular vaccine is unequivocally safe before it's given to a child - including a child in the womb of a pregnant woman. (mercola.com)
  • Some of those reports are of miscarriages, which have been tallied by a group of women who have formed a support group for women who believe the vaccine caused them to lose their babies. (mercola.com)
  • As I've reported in previous articles, this vaccine has NEVER been tested in pregnant women - until now. (mercola.com)
  • In Britain pregnant women are also likely to be included in the priority group for vaccine, with the first batches due to arrive here next month, however they are expected to be behind front line health and social care workers in the queue. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • But pregnant women have a well-established antipathy toward vaccinations, with only 15% getting the flu vaccine in any given year, compared with 30% of the general population, according to CDC reports. (latimes.com)
  • They are at higher risk than almost everybody else,' said Dr. Regan Theiler, an obstetrics expert and vaccine researcher at the University of Texas who has extensively researched flu in pregnant women. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • If we have to ration vaccine, I think pregnant women should be high on the priority list. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • A recent study analyzed data for more than 5,300 women and found during the 2013 to 2014 flu season, only 41 percent got the influenza vaccine. (blogcatalog.com)
  • Millions of pregnant women over many years have gotten the vaccine- the flu shot hasn't been shown to cause harm to pregnant women or their babies. (blogcatalog.com)
  • Due to safety concerns, pregnant and breastfeeding women have historically been excluded from treatment and vaccine trials, until after the FDA approves use in the general population. (kff.org)
  • Once a vaccine for the novel coronavirus is developed, ensuring the vaccine is available without cost-sharing will likely increase vaccination rates among pregnant women. (kff.org)
  • Including pregnant women on a case-by-case basis (for example, pregnant women with cancer), on an emergent basis, or in the face of a public health emergency (e.g., for a vaccine) seems reasonable. (metafilter.com)
  • However, this study shows that future Zika vaccine trials need to take into account this increased risk to pregnant women, Jung said. (upi.com)
  • None of the current clinical trials for a Zika vaccine include pregnant women, due to concern for fetal health. (upi.com)
  • It's feasible the recommended vaccine dose -- though effective for non-pregnant women -- may not be potent enough for pregnant women because their bodies are more tolerant of viruses," Jung said. (upi.com)
  • Women who are between 28 and 38 weeks pregnant will be offered the vaccine during routine antenatal appointments. (bbc.com)
  • The College advises that all women who are or who become pregnant during the annual flu season get the inactivated flu vaccine. (acog.org)
  • The live attenuated version of the flu vaccine (the nasal mist) should not be given to pregnant women. (acog.org)
  • Every pregnant woman should get the vaccine," she said. (mailtribune.com)
  • Women negative for rubella or varicella IgG should be offered measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) or varicella vaccine, respectively. (mja.com.au)
  • It is linked to antibodies found in the blood of some women who have had one or more pregnancies or some donors who have been previously transfused. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • He advised pregnant women to stay active as long as possible during their pregnancies. (healthline.com)
  • She advised pregnant women to look for any sudden changes in their health, especially in the later stages of their pregnancies. (healthline.com)
  • Five of the women who died had viable pregnancies and underwent caesarean deliveries, none of the five babies showed signs of having flu. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • And yet, despite the warnings, 10 percent of women have continued to drink alcohol during their pregnancies , mostly in modest amounts (one in 33 pregnant women reported binge drinking). (thedailybeast.com)
  • About half of all pregnancies in the United States are unplanned, and even if planned, most women won't know they are pregnant for the first month or so, when they might still be drinking. (thedailybeast.com)
  • With over 6 million pregnancies per year in the U.S., pregnant and breastfeeding women constitute a significant portion of the population that could be impacted by COVID-19. (kff.org)
  • In 10 focus group meetings, the women listed ways in which others could help make their pregnancies better. (womensenews.org)
  • Kim Kardashian announced this week she wants to get pregnant for a third time, despite having issues with previous pregnancies. (yahoo.com)
  • I had great pregnancies and loved being pregnant, but didn't like people touching my belly uninvited. (rabble.ca)
  • And when women suffer unimaginable tragedies in our pregnancies that render us incapable of making our own decisions, those are best left to those who know and love us and to the medical professionals who are charged with our care. (msnbc.com)
  • For many lawmakers, the issue comes down to the difficult task of balancing a woman's right to bodily integrity with society's interest in ensuring healthy pregnancies, and the question of whether punitive approaches will foster-or hinder-healthy outcomes for women and children. (guttmacher.org)
  • Hundreds of pregnant South African women and girls are dying unnecessarily every year because they are not accessing antenatal care in the early stages of their pregnancies, a new study has revealed. (news24.com)
  • The women who took acetaminophen were somewhat more likely to report that they smoked during their pregnancies, that they drank alcohol and that they suffered from psychiatric illness. (mnn.com)
  • Increase Funding for Domestic Violence Programs Offer additional federal funding for programs that have received grants by the Department of Justice for providing counseling and shelter for women and children in crisis pregnancies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Virtually all pregnant women have chemicals in their bodies that might harm fetal development. (sfgate.com)
  • Even if you find 10 women who drink a quart of vodka a day, maybe only five of those babies will have full-blown fetal alcohol syndrome, because there are other factors that influence the risk," one study author noted. (thedailybeast.com)
  • 6 But in healthy third trimester women with normal size babies, there is only limited evidence that supine positioning in antenatal women, 7 or in women undergoing caesarean section, 8 is associated with any significant change in fetal indices. (bmj.com)
  • Not too long ago doctors used to tell all women not to exercise when they became pregnant, but that advice has changed, said Satin and Dr. Linda Szymanski, a fellow in maternal fetal medicine helping conduct the research. (baltimoresun.com)
  • Pregnant women had maternal and fetal complication rates of 4.5 percent and 5.5 percent, respectively. (rwjf.org)
  • In the study, published in Archives of Diseases in Childhood Fetal & Neonatal Edition, half of the women had babies with heart problems while the other half did not. (bbc.com)
  • However, in clinical situations involving pregnant women, it is standard practice to favour left lateral tilt over other positions, and it is plausible that this position may be better for the baby in other contexts. (bmj.com)
  • This review summarizes current evidence, proposes clinical recommendations in pregnant women after bariatric surgery, and highlights areas of lack of evidence and the resulting urgent need for more clinical investigations. (hindawi.com)
  • In a small study of pregnant women in Wuhan, China, the clinical characteristics and severity of COVID-19 also appeared similar between pregnant and non-pregnant women. (kff.org)
  • This study showed pregnant women have worse clinical and economic outcomes following thyroid and parathyroid surgery than nonpregnant women, with disparities in outcomes based on race, insurance and access to high-volume surgeons. (rwjf.org)
  • This is the first population-based study to examine predictors of clinical and economic outcomes following thyroid and parathyroid procedures in pregnant women. (rwjf.org)
  • Ever since the thalidomide catastrophe , pregnant women have been virtually excluded from clinical research. (metafilter.com)
  • The test is designed to differentiate women with preeclampsia from those with high blood pressure alone," study author Dr. Lucy Chappell, a clinical senior lecturer in obstetrics at King's College, said in a press release . (cbsnews.com)
  • Authored by Jennifer F. Friedman, M.D., Ph.D., MPH, director of clinical studies for the Center for International Health Research at Rhode Island Hospital, the study found that praziquantel does not lead to adverse events for the pregnant woman or her newborn. (news-medical.net)
  • This supports the RCOG and RCM (Royal College of Midwives) clinical guidance that pregnant women are at no greater risk of severe illness than the non-pregnant population. (which.co.uk)
  • Participants were healthy pregnant and non-pregnant women recruited from existing volunteer populations and from the communities at large around the clinical sites. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • We need more data from clinical trials of Vitamin D supplementation in pregnant women. (innovations-report.com)
  • In the 5 years that have passed since then, influenza experts have learned much about how the virus affects pregnant women and their unborn babies. (medscape.com)
  • For the research study, women who were 12 to 26 weeks pregnant and showed signs of depression participated in 90-minute mindfulness yoga sessions that focused on poses for the pregnant body, as well as support in the awareness of how their bodies were changing to help their babies grow. (psychcentral.com)
  • Minority women expecting babies also seemed to be especially susceptible to contracting COVID-19. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • In the UK, two pregnant women are thought to have died after contracting swine flu, one in Scotland and one in London, both of whom gave birth to healthy babies before their death. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • At this very moment, some 3.3 million not-yet-pregnant women are taking the lives and health of their not-yet-conceived babies into their booze-soaked hands. (thedailybeast.com)
  • It's not known, for example, why a majority of pregnant women who binge-drink give birth to babies without FAS. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Outdated information and myths perpetuated by the Internet still mean many women who had been exercising - up to a quarter by some accounts - stop because they fear they will harm their babies, the doctors said. (baltimoresun.com)
  • But the virus subsequently traveled to Asia, where it mutated and became more dangerous to pregnant women and their unborn babies, Jung said. (upi.com)
  • But because group B strep infection is so dangerous for babies, it's important to find out if you're colonized while you're pregnant. (familydoctor.org)
  • A large UK study on the outcomes of 427 pregnant women and their babies during the coronavirus pandemic in the UK published on 11 May 2020 showed that between 1 March and 14 April 2020, 4.9 pregnant women per 1000 were admitted to UK hospitals with coronavirus and of these, around one in 10 received intensive care. (which.co.uk)
  • Pregnant women are advised against traveling to the Rio Olympics and other parts of the world ( including Miami ) due to the Zika virus and the risk of microcephaly in unborn babies. (mnn.com)
  • A pregnant friend in her first trimester is facing this dilemma: whether to take daily 4 doses of 250mg each (every 6 hours) of erythromycin for a period of 14 days a total of 56 pills or just to take 2 500mg arithromycin (Zithromax) pills in one dosage. (google.com)
  • This is in part because antenatal clinic services are often unavailable in the rural tropics and if they are, women rarely attend the clinics before their second trimester. (medindia.net)
  • Women at high risk should be screened a second time during the third trimester. (medlineplus.gov)
  • During the third trimester, the blood of infected pregnant women was about the same as that of non-pregnant women. (upi.com)
  • In Cincinnati, all pregnant women are tested at delivery, but it would be even better to test women in the first trimester, says pediatrician Scott Wexelblatt at the Cincinnati Children's Hospital. (sciencenews.org)
  • A study by Rhode Island Hospital researchers confirmed that a drug used to treat a disease afflicting millions of people in developing countries is safe to give pregnant women following their first trimester. (news-medical.net)
  • During the first trimester , several significant developments are happening, so it's crucial to abstain as soon as you know you're pregnant. (healthline.com)
  • What follows is a discussion of some of the specific concerns you may encounter when training a pregnant client, including postural deviations and alterations in mindset, as well as exercise recommendations that will best support your client's needs during her final trimester. (acefitness.org)
  • You'll learn the various exercise-related considerations for each trimester, how to progress and regress exercises based on musculoskeletal shifts, and how to create programming based on your pregnant client's specific needs. (acefitness.org)
  • However, the presence of relaxin can also lead to exaggerated shifts as a woman moves through her third trimester. (acefitness.org)
  • Women in their third trimester without other identified risk factors for influenza morbidity had an event rate of 21.7 per 10,000 women-months during influenza season. (nih.gov)
  • The data suggest that, out of every 10,000 women in their third trimester without other identified risk factors who experience an average influenza season of 2.5 months, 25 will be hospitalized with influenza-related morbidity. (nih.gov)
  • Washington, DC - New data show the continued critical need for all pregnant women, regardless of trimester, to receive the influenza vaccination, according to an updated Committee Opinion released by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (the College). (acog.org)
  • In the third trimester, pregnant women often start producing colostrum, a thick, milky, yellow liquid that is the precursor to breast milk, explains La Lec. (reference.com)
  • Women of different ethnic backgrounds often take different tests because they may be at a higher risk for certain diseases. (drugwatch.com)
  • Before travel to other areas with risk of Zika (as indicated by purple areas on the Zika map), pregnant women should talk to a healthcare provider and carefully consider the potential risks of Zika and other infectious diseases. (cdc.gov)
  • Pregnant women and their unborn children have a higher risk of developing certain foodborne illnesses. (fda.gov)
  • Many women may not understand the potential risk, however. (webmd.com)
  • Exercising - Apart from enhancing mood and potentially lessening anxiety risk, 14 getting a good but safe workout while you're pregnant may also improve sleep and lower possibility of back pains. (mercola.com)
  • In a perspective piece published in the October 9 issue of the New England Journal of Medicine , Sonja A. Rasmussen, MD, and Denise J. Jamieson, MD, MPH, both from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, present current recommendations for vaccinating and treating pregnant women at risk for influenza. (medscape.com)
  • Before 2009, pregnant women with influenza were only treated if they had other high-risk medical conditions or severe illness. (medscape.com)
  • A: Decongestants can increase blood pressure, affect blood sugar, cause the uterus to contract (affecting women at risk for premature labor) and have adverse affects on women suffering from diabetes, high blood pressure and toxemia. (latimes.com)
  • 2008 study , the risk of DVT is four to five times higher in pregnant women than the general population. (healthline.com)
  • The emerging data on the increased risk of more severe illness among people who are pregnant is something that has become more visible as we have increasing numbers of cases occurring,' Dr Jay Butler, the CDC's Deputy Director for Infectious Diseases, told reporters during a media call on Thursday. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • This means pregnant women are at a five times greater risk of needing to be admitted to the hospital. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Additionally, 0.5 percent of pregnant women were placed on ventilators - a 1.6 times greater risk than 0.3 percent of non-pregnant women also placed on the machines. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Pregnant women might be at increased risk for severe COVID-19 illness. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • To reduce severe COVID-19-associated illness, pregnant women should be aware of their potential risk for severe COVID-19 illness,' the authors wrote. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • It is thought that pregnant women are at greater risk because their immune system is slightly weakened while they carry a baby. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Mr Boon Lim, Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists Pandemic Flu Planning lead said: "Pregnant women are regarded as a high-risk group and these latest findings from the CDC show that they have enhanced susceptibility to developing pneumonia and/or acute respiratory distress syndrome, once they contract the H1N1v flu. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • For years, medical associations such as the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists have said that the shackling of pregnant women is degrading, unnecessary and poses a risk to the health of the mother and baby. (tennessean.com)
  • Three in four sexually active women who report wanting to get pregnant as soon as possible are also considered at risk. (thedailybeast.com)
  • A review of the literature shows a number of studies that found that light and occasional drinking poses little risk to pregnant women or their fetuses. (thedailybeast.com)
  • 10.1136/bmj.d3403 ), in which Stacey and colleagues found an association between maternal sleep position and risk of stillbirth, 5 constitute the basis for a "not back to sleep" campaign for pregnant women? (bmj.com)
  • In women who develop gestational diabetes, regular exercise can make an important difference: One major study found that when women with gestational diabetes exercised moderately three times a week, their risk of having a macrosomic (very large) newborn was reduced by 58 percent, which led to a 34 percent lower risk of a cesarean delivery. (babycenter.com)
  • In Canada, their biggest concern is whether or not they can eat dairy products, especially cream cheese (pregnant women are at a higher risk of getting listeria from unpasteurized cheeses). (parents.com)
  • In any other sort of job, until the woman comes to her employer and says 'I'm pregnant', they wouldn't be doing any sort of risk assessment about their safety. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • The risk for adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes associated with COVID-19 is largely unknown, but medical experts suspect symptoms of COVID-19 may be more severe in pregnant woman compared to non-pregnant women. (kff.org)
  • Does risk for COVID-19 differ between men and women? (kff.org)
  • Does risk for COVID-19 differ between pregnant and non-pregnant women? (kff.org)
  • According to the CDC , there is insufficient data at this time to know whether pregnant women are at increased risk for adverse health outcomes if infected by the novel coronavirus as compared to non-pregnant people. (kff.org)
  • The FDA provides limits on shellfish and fish consumption for pregnant women due to the risk of mercury exposure. (reference.com)
  • Influenza vaccination can reduce the risk for influenza-related illness among pregnant women and their infants ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
  • There are some factors that increase a pregnant woman's risk of having a baby who develops group B strep disease. (familydoctor.org)
  • And pregnant women are at a higher risk of getting listeriosis. (healthline.com)
  • Additional 'shielding' measures have been announced for people defined on medical backgrounds to be at very high risk of severe illness for coronavirus, including pregnant women with significant heart disease (congenital or acquired). (which.co.uk)
  • A retrospective cohort analysis, which controlled for risk factors identified in the case-control study, identified 22,824 study events during 1,393,166 women-years of follow-up. (nih.gov)
  • We will iteratively adapt and modify the NC woman-focused intervention (Women's CoOp), including the field manual and instrumentation, to focus on pregnant African-American women who abuse crack, are currently in substance abuse treatment, and are at risk for HIV or are HIV positive. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To compare the relative efficacy of the woman-focused intervention for pregnant women relative to standard substance abuse treatment to sustain reductions in substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors, maintain retention in drug treatment, reduce violence, and improve prenatal care and ARV treatment adherence (as needed) at 3- and 6-month follow-up. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • To compare the relative efficacy of the woman-focused intervention in reductions in substance abuse and sexual risk behaviors, maintain retention in drug treatment, reduce violence, and improve prenatal care and ARV treatment adherence (as needed). (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Researchers at the University of Oulu in Finland found that women living in areas where air pollution is high are at greater risk of stillbirth . (mnn.com)
  • Pregnant women in the top 25% (quartile) of diet quality, had a lower risk of having a baby with certain heart defects - atrial septal defects and Tetralogy of Fallot - than those in the bottom 25%, even after accounting for other factors such as whether the mother took folic acid or was a smoker. (bbc.com)
  • 5 Selective screening based on risk factors is unreliable - eliciting risk factors for all relevant infections is time-consuming and unlikely to identify all those at risk - and women are generally more willing to accept routinely offered tests than to acknowledge, if they are aware of it, being at high risk. (mja.com.au)
  • Women with darker skin, those who cover their skin for religious or cultural reasons and those living further north during winter months are at particularly high risk for lower Vitamin D levels. (innovations-report.com)
  • CDC recommends special precautions for pregnant women to protect themselves from Zika virus infection. (cdc.gov)
  • Zika hijacks this process, turning off most of a pregnant woman's immune defense so the virus can spread unhindered, Jung said. (upi.com)
  • For their study, Jung and his colleagues tested both the African and Asian strains of Zika in the blood samples of healthy men and women, as well as samples taken from pregnant women. (upi.com)
  • The Zika virus vaccines in development seem to be highly effective, but they're being tested among non-pregnant women with different body chemistry compared to pregnant women," Jung said in a news release. (upi.com)
  • Zika virus can be passed from a pregnant woman to her unborn baby. (health.gov.au)
  • If you are pregnant you should consider deferring travel to a Zika affected country. (health.gov.au)
  • If you are pregnant and thinking of travelling to a country where there is the potential for Zika transmission, you should have a discussion with your doctor about the possible risks for your particular trip to help you make a decision about whether travelling to this area is right for you at this time. (health.gov.au)
  • Testing will be offered to pregnant women who have travelled to a Zika virus affected country. (health.gov.au)
  • Pregnant women were five times more likely to be hospitalized, researchers from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) revealed on Thursday. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Dr Denise Jamieson, of the Division of Reproductive Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, in Atlanta, and colleagues documented 34 cases of confirmed or probable swine flu in pregnant women in America and found 32 per cent were admitted to hospital meaning the rate per 100,000 population was four times higher than the general population. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • So the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is saying with a new "Vital Signs" report in which it urges all women who "could" get pregnant-meaning not on some form of birth control and sexually active at least once in the last month-to abstain from alcohol completely. (thedailybeast.com)
  • In one study of hospitalized flu victims, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention found that 6 percent were pregnant women, who make up just 1 percent of the population. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Data on hospital deliveries in 28 U.S. states shows the rate of opioid use among pregnant women has quadrupled , from 1.5 per 1,000 women in 1999 to 6.5 per 1,000 women in 2014, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports. (sciencenews.org)
  • Due to limited and at times conflicting research, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists advise against marijuana use for women who are pregnant or breastfeeding. (mlive.com)
  • The staff at Healthy African American Families II in 2004 decided to try to bolster pregnant black women's social support with a media campaign that drew funding from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC Foundation, Kellogg Foundation and Charles R. Drew University. (womensenews.org)
  • The study team from University of Colorado School of Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital and Children's Hospital Boston analyzed nationally representative data from 928 pregnant and 5,173 non-pregnant women of childbearing age collected by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (innovations-report.com)
  • Federal Funding for Toll-Free Number/National Public Awareness Program Enact an advertising campaign in each state to provide a toll free number that will direct a woman to organizations that provide support services for pregnant women who want to carry their children to term and/or direct women to adoption centers. (wikipedia.org)
  • But while some women experience multiple symptoms, others don't experience any. (drugwatch.com)
  • Women should talk to their doctor if they notice any of these signs, because they may be symptoms of other medical conditions. (drugwatch.com)
  • Routine testing is not recommended for pregnant women exposed to these areas who do not have symptoms. (cdc.gov)
  • These actually are the first signs of an anxiety disorder in a pregnant woman, along with other symptoms like sleeping difficulties, panic attacks and muscle tension. (mercola.com)
  • The severity of these symptoms are no different for a pregnant woman compared to other patients. (news-medical.net)
  • It's very important for physicians' offices to effectively communicate with their patients about what the woman should do if the woman feels that she has influenza-like symptoms. (medscape.com)
  • Despite these findings, not all pregnant women with influenza signs and symptoms receive treatment with antiviral drugs, the authors write. (medscape.com)
  • A: A woman should write down her symptoms--such as itchy, watery eyes, sinus pressure, a runny nose--and talk to her health care provider or pharmacist to find out what kind of active ingredient is needed for those symptoms. (latimes.com)
  • Dillhoff's case not only points out the importance of recognizing the symptoms of DVT but also how common the ailment is in pregnant women. (healthline.com)
  • I think a lot of pregnant women will discount the symptoms. (healthline.com)
  • When you're pregnant, it's easy to ignore the symptoms," she said. (healthline.com)
  • She added: "CDC recommendations for pregnant patients are that antiviral drugs be started as soon as possible after the onset of influenza symptoms. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • Of the women treated (irrespective of symptoms), 26% miscarried following chloroquine, 27% following quinine and 31% following artesunate. (medindia.net)
  • There is currently no evidence to suggest that pregnant women are more likely to catch coronavirus than the non-pregnant population, and in most cases pregnant women are expected to experience only mild or moderate cold or flu-like symptoms, or possibly a cough, fever and shortness of breath. (which.co.uk)
  • For these women, these include not attending gatherings at all, not leaving the house, not greeting anyone at the front door even for deliveries and strictly avoiding contact with those displaying symptoms of coronavirus. (which.co.uk)
  • Some experts suggest waiting for 6 months after a recent infection to become pregnant. (cdc.gov)
  • But, they add that physicians and other healthcare providers need to make sure pregnant women know how dangerous the virus is and measures on how to prevent infection. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • Moreover, pregnant women distrust medications in general -- even though flu vaccines could prevent or mitigate infection should they be exposed. (latimes.com)
  • The disease is caused by infection with the malaria parasite, with two major species Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax commonly infecting pregnant women in the South East Asia region The parasites are transmitted into the blood stream through the bite of infected mosquitos. (medindia.net)
  • Infants born to women infected with HIV should be tested for HIV infection. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Pregnant women should avoid infection. (health.gov.au)
  • Evidence suggests women are more comfortable with non-traditional treatments, including herbal medicine, relaxation techniques and mind-body work, including mindfulness yoga, which combines meditative focus with physical poses, the researcher notes. (psychcentral.com)
  • Food safety should be important to everyone, but as a pregnant women it is especially important for you to learn how to protect yourself and your unborn baby from foodborne illness. (fda.gov)
  • When you become pregnant, your body naturally undergoes hormonal changes, some of which also change your immune system, making you more susceptible to contracting a foodborne illness. (fda.gov)
  • Unfortunately, few women suffering from perinatal health disorders receive treatment, exposing them and their child to the negative impact of psychiatric illness during one of the most vulnerable times. (psychcentral.com)
  • However, many pregnant women in our series were not treated with either of these drugs at the time of their presentation with influenza-like illness. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • If you catch the flu while pregnant, it's more likely to cause severe illness. (blogcatalog.com)
  • Last time I checked, when pregnant women become ill (e.g., infections, hyperemesis gravidarum, mental illness, etc.) they're hardly turned away with a pat on the back and a lillipop. (metafilter.com)
  • Preeclampsia is a potentially dangerous complication facing pregnant women, but new research suggests an experimental test may be able to get ahead of the illness. (cbsnews.com)
  • A woman died of flu-like illness Wednesday at Three Rivers Community Hospital, according to reports in the Grants Pass Daily Courier. (mailtribune.com)
  • A study published in the March 2005 edition of the American Journal of Public Health found that homicide was a leading cause of death among pregnant women in the United States between 1991 and 1999. (go.com)
  • Imagine a group of women hungry for information about the best way to ensure the future health and wellbeing of their unborn children. (scienceblogs.com)
  • on the other hand you have a grassroots movement of thousands of outraged woman voters yelling that restricting their access to genetic information violates their rights and endangers the health of their future children. (scienceblogs.com)
  • Some health food megavitamins have too much vitamin A for pregnant women, up to 20,000 IU. (latimes.com)
  • All pregnant people deserve the freedom to make their own health care decisions, regardless of age, race, income, and immigration or incarcerated status. (tennessean.com)
  • We may have to hospitalize more pregnant women than we ever have before," said Dr. Allison Bryant, an assistant professor of obstetrics, gynecology and reproductive health at UC San Francisco, who has studied the current pandemic's effects on pregnant patients. (latimes.com)
  • These otherwise healthy pregnant women can deteriorate rapidly," said Dr. Denise Jamieson, a medical officer in the CDC's division of reproductive health. (latimes.com)
  • The Palm Beach County Health Department gave little information Friday about the pregnant woman, citing privacy. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • Health officials have known since the 1918 flu pandemic that pregnant women were more vulnerable. (sun-sentinel.com)
  • It was a big change in 2008 when physical guidelines were published for Americans, including pregnant women, said James Pivarnik, who works with the sports medicine college and is professor kinesiology and epidemiology and director of the Center for Physical Activity and Health at Michigan State University . (baltimoresun.com)
  • ( Health.com ) -- Pregnant women could -- and probably should -- consume 10 times more vitamin D than experts currently recommend, according to a new study. (cnn.com)
  • Reminder systems and standing orders that allow health care personnel other than the attending provider to assess vaccination status and administer vaccination, can help to ensure that influenza vaccination is recommended and offered to a pregnant woman at each provider visit to increase pregnant women's vaccination coverage ( 4 , 5 ). (cdc.gov)
  • That is why being well-rested is important for a pregnant woman - It keeps health and energy in prime condition. (infobarrel.com)
  • Researchers, led by investigators at the U.S. National Institutes of Health, found that the highest levels of smoking were in Latin America, with 18 percent of pregnant women in Uruguay and 10 percent of women in Argentina lighting up. (voanews.com)
  • Pregnant women with the parasite can pass it on to the unborn child, leading to adverse health effects such as mental disability or vision loss. (medpagetoday.com)
  • The finding could prove critical to the care of pregnant women and lactating women with schistosomiasis, a disease caused by a parasitic worm, who were denied the drug out of concern for their health and the health of their fetuses. (news-medical.net)
  • Despite World Health Organization recommendations to offer pregnant women treatment with praziquantel, many nations continue to withhold treatment, awaiting safety and efficacy data from controlled drug trials such as this one. (news-medical.net)
  • We welcome the urgent measure from the Department of Health to minimise the harm from whooping cough, particularly in young infants, and we encourage all pregnant women to ensure they receive the vaccination to give their baby the best protection against whooping cough. (bbc.com)
  • When a pregnant woman is exposed to high levels of mercury, which is a metal, the health of the baby and mom are threatened. (healthline.com)
  • The reproductive health section (variable name prefix RHQ) contains questions for females only. (cdc.gov)
  • With this bill, Jindal joins other politicians whose dangerous anti-woman agenda is out of step with the majority of Americans who agree that women should have the right to choose what's best for their reproductive health," said Ilyse Hogue. (msnbc.com)
  • Moreover, physicians, healthcare organizations, and public health officials should improve their efforts to increase immunization rates among pregnant women, according to the Committee Opinion. (acog.org)
  • The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (The College), a 501(c)(3) organization, is the nation's leading group of physicians providing health care for women. (acog.org)
  • On access to basic healthcare facilities, the survey found that 36% women in UP did not get a single check-up at a primary health centre across different schemes. (yahoo.com)
  • The poor health of pregnant and nursing women, as well as inadequate healthcare infrastructure, lie at the heart of India's child nutrition crisis. (yahoo.com)
  • While HIV testing is an important public health intervention it must be done in a manner that respects the rights of women and girls. (news24.com)
  • It is deeply worrying that privacy of pregnant women and girls is not respected in health facilities. (news24.com)
  • However, according to the University of Virginia's Claude Moore Health Sciences Library page on body modification, maternal corsets were not designed to support the growing bump: "Instead, the corsets were designed to mask, even minimize, the size of the pregnant body. (mentalfloss.com)
  • Although research is ongoing, I think it's best for women to start a few months before becoming pregnant to maximize the likely health benefits," said Ginde. (innovations-report.com)
  • Women may feel safe speaking to their health care providers about the abuse, especially after discovering they are pregnant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Conduct a National Study & Update Abortion Data National Institutes of Health will collect "accurate" data on why women choose abortions. (wikipedia.org)
  • A new UCSF survey of 2,600 obstetricians and gynecologists nationwide found that most do not warn their pregnant patients about chemicals in food, consumer products or the environment that could endanger their fetuses. (sfgate.com)
  • Nearly 50,000 female fetuses are aborted every month and untold numbers of baby girls are abandoned or murdered. (go.com)
  • The fetuses of giant pandas are extremely small, making it hard for zoos to know whether females are pregnant. (reuters.com)
  • 10 per cent) of influenza-related deaths in the USA have been in pregnant women is concerning. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • This study sought to quantify influenza-related serious morbidity in pregnant women, as measured by hospitalizations for or death from selected acute cardiopulmonary conditions during predefined influenza seasons. (nih.gov)
  • Editor's note: This story was updated August 9, 2018, to clarify opioid testing of pregnant women in Ohio. (sciencenews.org)
  • A warning from Oregon regulators about the harm marijuana products could cause if you are pregnant or breastfeeding as seen at Stoney Girl in Portland, Oregon, Sept. 17, 2018. (mlive.com)
  • Further, many pregnant women are teenagers or young adults -- among the groups most likely to develop severe cases of influenza. (latimes.com)
  • A WHO-China Joint Mission investigation of 147 pregnant women in China with suspected or confirmed COVID-19 found that 8% had severe disease and 1% were in critical condition (14% severe, 6% critical for the overall population). (kff.org)
  • Researchers also found that expectant minority women, particularly black and Hispanic, were disproportionately affected by the pandemic. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • While both men and women are affected by COVID-19, this brief outlines considerations for how the pandemic may specifically impact pregnant women. (kff.org)
  • Researchers note that one in five pregnant women experience major depression. (psychcentral.com)
  • For the report , the researchers looked at more than 8,200 pregnant women who tested positive for the virus to more than 83,000 infected non-pregnant women. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • The researchers say the report comes with limitations such as unclear data about how many women were hospitalized due to being in labor. (dailymail.co.uk)
  • In the study, carried out at the Shoklo Malaria Research Unit (SMRU), in Thailand and funded by the Wellcome Trust, researchers examined medical records of women attending the unit's antenatal clinic over the 25 years since it was founded. (medindia.net)
  • In a study published today in the journal Lancet Infectious Diseases , researchers at the SMRU, part of the Wellcome Trust-Mahidol University-Oxford University Tropical Medicine Research Programme, examined the records of all women attending antenatal clinics at the unit. (medindia.net)
  • Pregnant woman in rural areas are more likely to have their deliveries induced or by Cesarean section that, while potentially life-saving, are more expensive and risky than a normal vaginal birth, according to patients, medical professionals and researchers. (reuters.com)
  • The reasons for the lower rates of conception in women on peritoneal dialysis remain unclear," the researchers say, "especially because patients with peritoneal dialysis are generally healthier and have higher residual renal function than women on hemodialysis. (medscape.com)
  • Researchers have released the results of the first-ever international study of the tobacco use habits of pregnant women. (voanews.com)
  • Researchers have conducted a controversial study that involved paying dozens of young women at a hospital near Puerto Vallarta, Mexico, to get artificially inseminated so their embryos could be flushed out of their bodies and analyzed for research purposes. (nationalreview.com)
  • Researchers at Kings College London say they've developed a new test that can predict which women will have the condition. (cbsnews.com)
  • The researchers didn't ask women how much of the drug they took, and they didn't ask why they took it. (mnn.com)
  • A 2009 poll conducted by the Anxiety and Depression Association of America (ADAA) found that around 52 percent of pregnant women experienced anxiety or depression . (mercola.com)
  • The protein, antibodies to human leukocyte antigen (HLA antibody), is found in the blood of about one in five women donors. (medicalnewstoday.com)
  • Monitoring of pregnant women found about 100 chemicals, with 43 of them in all women tested. (sfgate.com)
  • Pregnant women are four times more likely to be admitted to hospital if they contract swine flu than the general population, American scientists have found. (telegraph.co.uk)
  • HIV may be found in a woman when she goes into labor, particularly if she has not previously received prenatal care. (medlineplus.gov)
  • pregnant mammal studies were done with thalidomide and found no problems, for example. (metafilter.com)
  • Lots of lists can be found all over the internet and in medical books, but most importantly, consult your doctor before using anything on your body while you are pregnant. (infobarrel.com)
  • Investigators found smokeless tobacco was popular among up to one-third of pregnant women in some parts of India. (voanews.com)
  • The highest levels of secondhand smoke exposure were found in Pakistan, where nearly half of all pregnant women reported that both they and their children were regularly exposed to someone else's smoke. (voanews.com)
  • Doctors in South Korea examined the woman and found 12 squid spermatophores attached to her tongue, cheek and gums. (thesun.co.uk)
  • Special needs of pregnant women were widely ignored, the survey found. (yahoo.com)
  • Other courts have found such convictions to be unconstitutional violations of women's rights to due process (because the state applied the law in a way that could not be foreseen by the pregnant woman) and privacy. (guttmacher.org)
  • A 2010 article in the journal BMC Medicine found 30 cases of brain-dead pregnant women over about 30 years. (aol.com)
  • HIV-positive patients were given different files to other patients - this was known to the general public - and HIV-positive women were told to come for antenatal care on certain days. (news24.com)
  • 6 Informed consent should be obtained for routine antenatal screening, which implies that women have the option of refusing. (mja.com.au)
  • In the past the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists recommended pregnant women not raise their heart rate above 140 beats per minute during exercise, but this is no longer a guideline. (medicinenet.com)
  • To help prevent listeriosis, the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) recommends that pregnant women avoid eating sushi made with raw fish, among other foods like hot dogs, lunch meats, and unpasteurized milk. (healthline.com)
  • Aside from the prenatal vitamin, pregnant women should drink milk that is vitamin D-fortified and low fat as well as eat calcium-rich foods that are rich in vitamin D. If a pregnant woman does not drink milk or eat foods that contain calcium, she should talk to her doctor about vitamin D and calcium supplements, according to the Mayo Clinic. (reference.com)
  • WEDNESDAY, Dec. 27, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- An analysis of urine samples from roughly 300,000 California women finds that more than 7 percent used marijuana while pregnant . (webmd.com)
  • The good news, according to Wright, is other studies have shown that women in developing countries are receptive to programs to help them quit tobacco products. (voanews.com)
  • The good news is that there is a food you should have more of while pregnant and while breastfeeding: fish and shellfish. (fda.gov)
  • News : Should Pregnant Women Always Be Treated for Underactive Thyroid? (hon.ch)
  • Towers, who practices at Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, wrote the 1999 book "I'm Pregnant & I Have a Cold, Are Over-the-Counter Drugs Safe to Use? (latimes.com)
  • It is a retrospective cross-sectional study of 201 pregnant women, compared with nonpregnant women, who underwent procedures from 1999 to 2005 in a 20 percent sample of nonfederal U.S. hospitals. (rwjf.org)
  • In 28 U.S. states, the rate of women using opioids such as oxycodone, shown in the background of this composite image, close to childbirth has risen sharply since 1999. (sciencenews.org)
  • This study answers the question, 'Is vitamin D safe and beneficial for the average pregnant women? (cnn.com)
  • Women who exercise 1-2 times a week are less likely to report low back pain and depression, say authors of a study that followed 3,482 pregnant women in Norway. (apta.org)
  • The live birth rate for women on dialysis in our study was low at about 30%," Shah acknowledged. (medscape.com)
  • She says the results of the study are also disturbing because they suggest conditions could become ripe for women who are casual users to become addicted to tobacco products. (voanews.com)
  • What the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS) study did find was that pregnant women from black or other minority ethnic (BAME) backgrounds were more likely to be admitted to hospital with COVID-19, as were older pregnant women (those over the age of 35), those who are overweight or obese, and those with pre-existing conditions such as high blood pressure and diabetes. (which.co.uk)
  • A new Cleveland Clinic study has shown there are links between Melanoma to pregnant women. (fox2now.com)
  • The study population included women aged 15-44 years who were enrolled in the Tennessee Medicaid program for at least 180 days between 1974 and 1993. (nih.gov)
  • In a nested case-control study, 4,369 women with a first study event during influenza season were compared with 21,845 population controls. (nih.gov)
  • Nonrandomized, open-label, parallel-group, multicenter phase-IV prospective study of antiretroviral pharmacokinetics in HIV-infected pregnant women and their children in the United States. (nih.gov)
  • Thirty pregnant women taking elvitegravir and cobicistat once-daily enrolled in the study. (nih.gov)
  • A new study says pregnant women should think twice about taking acetaminophen, but if you read closely, the story changes. (mnn.com)
  • The study, published in the journal JAMA Pediatrics , says taking acetaminophen while pregnant may cause behavioral issues in children as they grow. (mnn.com)
  • Washington D.C. [USA], Nov 10 (ANI): More and more pregnant women are reportedly facing kidney injury after being hospitalised, especially those with diabetes, says a recent study. (yahoo.com)
  • Seven out of every ten pregnant women in the United States are not getting enough Vitamin D according to a study published in the May issue of the American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. (innovations-report.com)
  • The latest study shows that many pregnant women in the United States have insufficient vitamin D levels. (innovations-report.com)
  • The study did find that some women have enough Vitamin D. Study co-author Carlos Camargo, MD, DrPH, from Massachusetts General Hospital cautioned that there may be risks from excessive Vitamin D intake. (innovations-report.com)
  • That's why we're supporting a bill sponsored by Memphis Democrats Sen. Raumesh Akbari and House Minority Leader Karen Camper that stops the practice of shackling incarcerated pregnant women. (tennessean.com)
  • The Court is considering whether the practice of testing pregnant women for drug use without either a warrant or consent and reporting them to law enforcement authorities violates their Fourth Amendment right to be free from unreasonable searches. (guttmacher.org)
  • Pregnant women in the West Midlands are to be offered whooping cough vaccinations following a huge jump in cases and deaths amongst infants. (bbc.com)
  • LOS ANGELES (WOMENSENEWS)-When April Beamon had her first child at age 18 in 1985, she did not have a clue about prenatal care, child development or even that the government-funded Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children existed. (womensenews.org)
  • Whenever possible, pregnant women undergoing thyroid and parathyroid procedures should be directed to high-volume surgeons, and disparities in outcomes based on race and insurance must be overcome. (rwjf.org)
  • A bill that requires physicians and hospitals to keep brain-dead pregnant women on life support has landed on Republican Gov. Bobby Jindal's desk. (msnbc.com)
  • Cat owners and women who are exposed to cats should follow these tips to reduce exposure to Toxoplasma . (cdc.gov)
  • Pregnant women should avoid exposure to paint fumes. (mercola.com)
  • Use of telemedicine for prenatal care may be a novel way to limit exposure to COVID-19 for pregnant women, but logistical challenges and lack of uniform coverage policy across insurers and states pose barriers to telemedicine implementation. (kff.org)
  • The judge ruled that the Texas law prohibiting medical officials from cutting life support to a pregnant patient did not apply in that case, as the pregnant patient, Marlise Munoz, was legally dead. (msnbc.com)
  • A woman usually knows she is pregnant when she misses a period, or multiple periods. (drugwatch.com)
  • Alcohol can permanently harm a developing baby before a woman knows she is pregnant," said CDC Principal Deputy Director Anne Schuchat, M.D., in a press release. (thedailybeast.com)
  • Underwood was seven months pregnant, and Barbee was the father of the unborn child. (go.com)
  • DVT first formed in her leg while she was eight months pregnant. (healthline.com)
  • Last July, in a effort to expose doctors breaking the laws, two activists with a hidden camera, posing as a husband and his five-months-pregnant wife, walked into an ultrasound clinic to hear their test results. (go.com)
  • Dobrosielski is about 8 months pregnant. (baltimoresun.com)
  • In Colorado and California, where marijuana is legal for both adult use and medical purposes, warning labels are required to include information about risks to pregnant women. (mlive.com)

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