The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Occurrence or induction of ESTRUS in all of the females in a group at the same time, applies only to non-primate mammals with ESTROUS CYCLE.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
Extracts of urine from menopausal women that contain high concentrations of pituitary gonadotropins, FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE and LUTEINIZING HORMONE. Menotropins are used to treat infertility. The FSH:LH ratio and degree of purity vary in different preparations.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
A decapeptide that stimulates the synthesis and secretion of both pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE. GnRH is produced by neurons in the septum PREOPTIC AREA of the HYPOTHALAMUS and released into the pituitary portal blood, leading to stimulation of GONADOTROPHS in the ANTERIOR PITUITARY GLAND.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
Procedures to obtain viable OOCYTES from the host. Oocytes most often are collected by needle aspiration from OVARIAN FOLLICLES before OVULATION.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the human adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and the LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. The alpha subunit is common in the three human pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Methods for recognizing the state of ESTRUS.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Follicle-stimulating hormone stimulates GAMETOGENESIS and the supporting cells such as the ovarian GRANULOSA CELLS, the testicular SERTOLI CELLS, and LEYDIG CELLS. FSH consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Diseases involving the FALLOPIAN TUBES including neoplasms (FALLOPIAN TUBE NEOPLASMS); SALPINGITIS; tubo-ovarian abscess; and blockage.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
A complication of OVULATION INDUCTION in infertility treatment. It is graded by the severity of symptoms which include OVARY enlargement, multiple OVARIAN FOLLICLES; OVARIAN CYSTS; ASCITES; and generalized EDEMA. The full-blown syndrome may lead to RENAL FAILURE, respiratory distress, and even DEATH. Increased capillary permeability is caused by the vasoactive substances, such as VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTORS, secreted by the overly-stimulated OVARIES.
A technique that came into use in the mid-1980's for assisted conception in infertile women with normal fallopian tubes. The protocol consists of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, followed by laparoscopic follicular aspiration of oocytes, and then the transfer of sperm and oocytes by catheterization into the fallopian tubes.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The earliest developmental stage of a fertilized ovum (ZYGOTE) during which there are several mitotic divisions within the ZONA PELLUCIDA. Each cleavage or segmentation yields two BLASTOMERES of about half size of the parent cell. This cleavage stage generally covers the period up to 16-cell MORULA.
The techniques used to select and/or place only one embryo from FERTILIZATION IN VITRO into the uterine cavity to establish a singleton pregnancy.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
Steroidal compounds related to PROGESTERONE, the major mammalian progestational hormone. Progesterone congeners include important progesterone precursors in the biosynthetic pathways, metabolites, derivatives, and synthetic steroids with progestational activities.
A 6-methyl PROGESTERONE acetate with reported glucocorticoid activity and effect on ESTRUS.
Movement characteristics of SPERMATOZOA in a fresh specimen. It is measured as the percentage of sperms that are moving, and as the percentage of sperms with productive flagellar motion such as rapid, linear, and forward progression.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Mature male germ cells derived from SPERMATIDS. As spermatids move toward the lumen of the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, they undergo extensive structural changes including the loss of cytoplasm, condensation of CHROMATIN into the SPERM HEAD, formation of the ACROSOME cap, the SPERM MIDPIECE and the SPERM TAIL that provides motility.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
An OOCYTE-containing structure in the cortex of the OVARY. The oocyte is enclosed by a layer of GRANULOSA CELLS providing a nourishing microenvironment (FOLLICULAR FLUID). The number and size of follicles vary depending on the age and reproductive state of the female. The growing follicles are divided into five stages: primary, secondary, tertiary, Graafian, and atretic. Follicular growth and steroidogenesis depend on the presence of GONADOTROPINS.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Unsaturated pregnane derivatives containing two keto groups on side chains or ring structures.
Procedures to reverse the effect of REPRODUCTIVE STERILIZATION and to regain fertility. Reversal procedures include those used to restore the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE or the VAS DEFERENS.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
Human artificial insemination in which the semen used is that of a man other than the woman's husband.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
A count of SPERM in the ejaculum, expressed as number per milliliter.
A naturally occurring prostaglandin that has oxytocic, luteolytic, and abortifacient activities. Due to its vasocontractile properties, the compound has a variety of other biological actions.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
The discharge of an OVUM from a rupturing follicle in the OVARY.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
A condition of suboptimal concentration of SPERMATOZOA in the ejaculated SEMEN to ensure successful FERTILIZATION of an OVUM. In humans, oligospermia is defined as a sperm count below 20 million per milliliter semen.
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.
Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.
The technique of maintaining or growing mammalian EMBRYOS in vitro. This method offers an opportunity to observe EMBRYONIC DEVELOPMENT; METABOLISM; and susceptibility to TERATOGENS.
Hormones that stimulate gonadal functions such as GAMETOGENESIS and sex steroid hormone production in the OVARY and the TESTIS. Major gonadotropins are glycoproteins produced primarily by the adenohypophysis (GONADOTROPINS, PITUITARY) and the placenta (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN). In some species, pituitary PROLACTIN and PLACENTAL LACTOGEN exert some luteotropic activities.
The thick, yellowish-white, viscid fluid secretion of male reproductive organs discharged upon ejaculation. In addition to reproductive organ secretions, it contains SPERMATOZOA and their nutrient plasma.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
A technique in assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED) consisting of hormonal stimulation of the ovaries, follicular aspiration of preovulatory oocytes, in-vitro fertilization, and intrafallopian transfer of zygotes at the pronuclear stage (before cleavage).
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
Anti-inflammatory analgesic.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
The period in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE that follows OVULATION, characterized by the development of CORPUS LUTEUM, increase in PROGESTERONE production by the OVARY and secretion by the glandular epithelium of the ENDOMETRIUM. The luteal phase begins with ovulation and ends with the onset of MENSTRUATION.
The transformation of a liquid to a glassy solid i.e., without the formation of crystals during the cooling process.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Suspension or cessation of OVULATION in animals or humans with follicle-containing ovaries (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). Depending on the etiology, OVULATION may be induced with appropriate therapy.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the OVUM; ZYGOTE; or BLASTOCYST prior to implantation. CYTOGENETIC ANALYSIS is performed to determine the presence or absence of genetic disease.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
A complex disorder characterized by infertility, HIRSUTISM; OBESITY; and various menstrual disturbances such as OLIGOMENORRHEA; AMENORRHEA; ANOVULATION. Polycystic ovary syndrome is usually associated with bilateral enlarged ovaries studded with atretic follicles, not with cysts. The term, polycystic ovary, is misleading.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Method to determine the occurrence of OVULATION by direct or indirect means. Indirect methods examine the effects of PROGESTERONE on cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), or basal body temperature. Direct ovulation detection, generally used in fertility treatment, involves analyses of circulating hormones in blood and ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
A major gonadotropin secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). Luteinizing hormone regulates steroid production by the interstitial cells of the TESTIS and the OVARY. The preovulatory LUTEINIZING HORMONE surge in females induces OVULATION, and subsequent LUTEINIZATION of the follicle. LUTEINIZING HORMONE consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is common in the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-tryptophan substitution at residue 6.
Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
A condition in which functional endometrial tissue is present outside the UTERUS. It is often confined to the PELVIS involving the OVARY, the ligaments, cul-de-sac, and the uterovesical peritoneum.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
Chemical substances which inhibit the function of the endocrine glands, the biosynthesis of their secreted hormones, or the action of hormones upon their specific sites.
The science of breeding, feeding and care of domestic animals; includes housing and nutrition.
A process involving chance used in therapeutic trials or other research endeavor for allocating experimental subjects, human or animal, between treatment and control groups, or among treatment groups. It may also apply to experiments on inanimate objects.
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
A potent synthetic analog of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with D-serine substitution at residue 6, glycine10 deletion, and other modifications.
The injection of very small amounts of fluid, often with the aid of a microscope and microsyringes.
Surgical anastomosis or fistulization of the spermatic ducts to restore fertility in a previously vasectomized male.
Pathological processes involving any part of the UTERUS.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
Radiography of the uterus and fallopian tubes after the injection of a contrast medium.
Small containers or pellets of a solid drug implanted in the body to achieve sustained release of the drug.
A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.
In females, the period that is shortly after giving birth (PARTURITION).
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A condition characterized by the dilated tortuous veins of the SPERMATIC CORD with a marked left-sided predominance. Adverse effect on male fertility occurs when varicocele leads to an increased scrotal (and testicular) temperature and reduced testicular volume.
Compounds that interact with PROGESTERONE RECEPTORS in target tissues to bring about the effects similar to those of PROGESTERONE. Primary actions of progestins, including natural and synthetic steroids, are on the UTERUS and the MAMMARY GLAND in preparation for and in maintenance of PREGNANCY.
The process by which semen is kept viable outside of the organism from which it was derived (i.e., kept from decay by means of a chemical agent, cooling, or a fluid substitute that mimics the natural state within the organism).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS.
The production of offspring by selective mating or HYBRIDIZATION, GENETIC in animals or plants.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The quality of SEMEN, an indicator of male fertility, can be determined by semen volume, pH, sperm concentration (SPERM COUNT), total sperm number, sperm viability, sperm vigor (SPERM MOTILITY), normal sperm morphology, ACROSOME integrity, and the concentration of WHITE BLOOD CELLS.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
The removal of secretions, gas or fluid from hollow or tubular organs or cavities by means of a tube and a device that acts on negative pressure.
Occurrence or induction of release of more ova than are normally released at the same time in a given species. The term applies to both animals and humans.
A tough transparent membrane surrounding the OVUM. It is penetrated by the sperm during FERTILIZATION.
The division of a ZYGOTE into two parts, each of which is capable of further development.
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
The performance of surgical procedures with the aid of a microscope.
A condition of having no sperm present in the ejaculate (SEMEN).
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
Substances used either in the prevention or facilitation of pregnancy.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
Permanent deprivation of breast milk and commencement of nourishment with other food. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
The performance of dissections, injections, surgery, etc., by the use of micromanipulators (attachments to a microscope) that manipulate tiny instruments.
Undifferentiated cells resulting from cleavage of a fertilized egg (ZYGOTE). Inside the intact ZONA PELLUCIDA, each cleavage yields two blastomeres of about half size of the parent cell. Up to the 8-cell stage, all of the blastomeres are totipotent. The 16-cell MORULA contains outer cells and inner cells.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
The emission of SEMEN to the exterior, resulting from the contraction of muscles surrounding the male internal urogenital ducts.
A glycoprotein that causes regression of MULLERIAN DUCTS. It is produced by SERTOLI CELLS of the TESTES. In the absence of this hormone, the Mullerian ducts develop into structures of the female reproductive tract. In males, defects of this hormone result in persistent Mullerian duct, a form of MALE PSEUDOHERMAPHRODITISM.
Premature expulsion of the FETUS in animals.
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
The procedure of removing TISSUES, organs, or specimens from DONORS for reuse, such as TRANSPLANTATION.
A class of natural contraceptive methods in which SEXUAL ABSTINENCE is practiced a few days before and after the estimated day of ovulation, during the fertile phase. Methods for determining the fertile period or OVULATION DETECTION are based on various physiological indicators, such as circulating hormones, changes in cervical mucus (CERVIX MUCUS), and the basal body temperature.
A procedure in which a laparoscope (LAPAROSCOPES) is inserted through a small incision near the navel to examine the abdominal and pelvic organs in the PERITONEAL CAVITY. If appropriate, biopsy or surgery can be performed during laparoscopy.
Procedures that render the female sterile by interrupting the flow in the FALLOPIAN TUBE. These procedures generally are surgical, and may also use chemicals or physical means.
A condition in which the percentage of progressively motile sperm is abnormally low. In men, it is defined as
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Chemical substances or agents with contraceptive activity in females. Use for female contraceptive agents in general or for which there is no specific heading.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
The fluid surrounding the OVUM and GRANULOSA CELLS in the Graafian follicle (OVARIAN FOLLICLE). The follicular fluid contains sex steroids, glycoprotein hormones, plasma proteins, mucopolysaccharides, and enzymes.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
Process of maintaining the functions of CORPORA LUTEA, specifically PROGESTERONE production which is regulated primarily by pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in cycling females, and by PLACENTAL HORMONES in pregnant females. The ability to maintain luteal functions is important in PREGNANCY MAINTENANCE.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Women who allow themselves to be impregnated with the understanding that the offspring are to be given over to the parents who have commissioned the surrogate.
A potent synthetic agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE with 3-(2-naphthyl)-D-alanine substitution at residue 6. Nafarelin has been used in the treatments of central PRECOCIOUS PUBERTY and ENDOMETRIOSIS.
Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
The unmarried man or woman.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
The deposit of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
A demographic parameter indicating a person's status with respect to marriage, divorce, widowhood, singleness, etc.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
A potent synthetic long-acting agonist of GONADOTROPIN-RELEASING HORMONE that regulates the synthesis and release of pituitary gonadotropins, LUTEINIZING HORMONE and FOLLICLE STIMULATING HORMONE.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The sexual union of a male and a female, a term used for human only.
The male gonad containing two functional parts: the SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES for the production and transport of male germ cells (SPERMATOGENESIS) and the interstitial compartment containing LEYDIG CELLS that produce ANDROGENS.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
Formation of CORPUS LUTEUM. This process includes capillary invasion of the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE, hypertrophy of the GRANULOSA CELLS and the THECA CELLS, and the production of PROGESTERONE. Luteinization is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Formation of an artificial opening in a fallopian tube.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.

Reproductive factors and fatal hip fractures. A Norwegian prospective study of 63,000 women. (1/1639)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of reproductive variables (age at menarche, menopause, first and last birth as well as parity, lactation, and abortions) on hip fracture mortality. DESIGN AND SETTING: A prospective study in Norway with more than 60,000 women followed up for 29 years. A total of 465 deaths as a result of hip fracture were recorded. MAIN RESULTS: Statistically significant linear relations (p < or = 0.02) were found between both age at menarche and length of reproductive period (defined as age at menopause to age at menarche) and the mortality of hip fractures in women aged less than 80. The death rate for women with a late menarche (> or = 17 years) was twice that of the women with relatively early menarche (< or = 13 years). Compared with women with less than 30 years between menopause and menarche, the mortality rate ratio in women with more than 38 reproductive years was 0.5. We also found an inverse relation with age at first birth. CONCLUSIONS: This study supports by hypothesis that an early menarche and a long reproductive period protect against hip fracture mortality. High age at first birth may also be protective.  (+info)

Intracytoplasmic sperm injection after follicle stimulation with highly purified human follicle-stimulating hormone compared with human menopausal gonadotropin. (2/1639)

PURPOSE: Our purpose was to compare oocyte nuclear maturation and embryo quality after pituitary down-regulation and ovarian stimulation with highly purified follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) or human menopausal gonadotropin (HMG). METHODS: Fifty-five patients 37 years of age or younger who were undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF)-intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were evaluated retrospectively. In all cases, male factor was the only indication for treatment, with no female-related factors identified. Following pituitary down-regulation, patients were stimulated with hMG (n = 20) or highly purified FSH (n = 35). Main outcome measures included ovarian response to stimulation, oocyte maturity, and ICSI fertilization results. Secondary outcome measures included pregnancy rates and outcome. RESULTS: The ovarian response to stimulation was similar for the two groups, as were the percentage of metaphase II oocytes, fertilization and cleavage rates, and number and quality of transferred and cryopreserved embryos. Cycle outcome was comparable. CONCLUSIONS: In normogonadotropic subjects, monocomponent therapy with highly purified FSH is as effective as hMG in stimulating ovarian follicular development, synchronization of oocyte maturation, and IVF-ICSI outcome. Our findings support the conclusion that the luteinizing hormone component in the stimulation protocol is unnecessary.  (+info)

A comparison of three gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues in an in-vitro fertilization programme: a prospective randomized study. (3/1639)

The use of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone analogues (GnRHa) has resulted in improved pregnancy rates in in-vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment cycles. Traditionally, short-acting analogues have been employed because of concerns over long-acting depot preparations causing profound suppression and luteal phase defects adversely affecting pregnancy and miscarriage rates. We randomized 60 IVF patients to receive a short-acting GnRHa, nafarelin or buserelin, or to receive a depot formulation, leuprorelin, all commenced in the early follicular phase and compared their effects on hormonal suppression and clinical outcome. We found that on day 15 of administration there was a significant difference in the suppression of oestradiol from initial concentrations, when patients on buserelin were compared with patients on nafarelin or leuprorelin (54 versus 72 and 65%; P < 0.05) and also in the number of patients satisfactorily suppressed, (80 versus 90 and 90%; P < 0.05), though there were no differences between the analogues by day 21. Similarly there was no difference in hormonal suppression during the stimulation phase or in implantation, pregnancy or miscarriage rates in comparing the three agonists. We conclude that with nafarelin and leuprorelin, stimulation with gonadotrophins may begin after 2 weeks of suppression and that long-acting GnRHa are as effective as short-acting analogues with no detrimental effects on the luteal phase.  (+info)

High pregnancy rates and successful prevention of severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome by 'prolonged coasting' of very hyperstimulated patients: a multicentre study. (4/1639)

In a multicentre trial, 65 in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer cycles were severely hyperstimulated. Instead of cancelling the cycle, gonadotrophins were withheld for a 'coasting period' until serum oestradiol concentrations had dropped below 10,000 pmol/l (mean 4.3 days), and then human chorionic gonadotrophin was administered. Four cycles were cancelled and there were 61 oocyte aspirations. A total of 103 fresh embryos was transferred to 53 patients, resulting in a pregnancy rate of 42% per started cycle (51% per embryo transfer), with an implantation rate of 31%. Only one patient developed severe ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS). Four patients developed moderate OHSS. In all, two patients were hospitalized for OHSS. In order to optimize the coasting procedure, it seems important that each IVF centre identifies its appropriate cut-off limits for serum oestradiol concentrations and follicle size for initiating and ending of the coasting period. Correctly handled, it seems to be a major advance in the search for improved stimulation policies for high-responders.  (+info)

Subfertile men with constitutive chromosome abnormalities do not necessarily refrain from intracytoplasmic sperm injection treatment: a follow-up study on 75 Dutch patients. (5/1639)

A follow-up study was performed to investigate the impact of the detection of a chromosome abnormality in infertile men who are candidates for intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment. In this collaborative study between clinical genetics centres and fertility clinics in the Netherlands, 75 ICSI couples of which the male partners had a chromosome abnormality were included. All couples were extensively counselled on the risk of having a chromosomally unbalanced child. Forty-two out of 75 couples chose to proceed with the ICSI treatment. So far, treatment has resulted in a pregnancy in 11 cases. Four of them opted to have invasive prenatal diagnosis. Despite the genetic risks related to a chromosome abnormality in infertile men, a small majority (56%) of the couples did not refrain from the ICSI treatment.  (+info)

Fertility after laparoscopic management of deep endometriosis infiltrating the uterosacral ligaments. (6/1639)

The aim of this study was to evaluate fertility outcome after laparoscopic management of deep endometriosis infiltrating the uterosacral ligaments (USL). From January 1993 to December 1996, 30 patients who presented with no other infertility factors were treated using laparoscopic surgery. The overall rate of intrauterine pregnancy (IUP) was 50.0% (15 patients). Only one of these 15 pregnancies was obtained using in-vitro fertilization techniques (IVF). The cumulative IUP rate for the 14 pregnancies which occurred spontaneously was 48.5% at 12 months (95% confidence interval 28.3-68.7). The rate of spontaneous pregnancies was not significantly correlated with the revised American Fertility Society (rAFS) classification. The rate of IUP was 47.0% (eight cases) for patients with stage I or II endometriosis and 46.1% (six cases) for the patients presenting stage III or IV endometriosis (not significant). These encouraging preliminary results show that in a context of infertility it is reasonable to associate classic treatment for endometriosis (e.g. lysis, i.p. cystectomy, biopolar coagulation of superficial peritoneal endometriotic lesions) with resection of deep endometriotic lesions infiltrating the USL. Apart from the benefit with respect to the pain symptoms from which these patients suffer, it is possible to use laparoscopic surgery with substantial retroperitoneal dissection and enable half of the patients to become pregnant. These results also raise the question of the influence of deep endometriotic lesions on infertility.  (+info)

Relaxin secretion by human granulosa cell culture is predictive of in-vitro fertilization-embryo transfer success. (7/1639)

We have developed a cell culture system for human luteinizing granulosa cells which supports the timely and dynamic secretion of oestrogen, progesterone and relaxin in patterns that mimic serum concentrations of these hormones during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. There was a wide variation in the amount of relaxin secreted by the cultured cells for the 69 patients studied. As relaxin production was generally maximal by day 10 of culture, comparisons were made at this time point. It was observed that most of the conceptions occurred in patients with higher relaxin secretion in vitro. All cycles with relaxin > 800 pg/ml on day 10 had a term pregnancy while only 13% of cycles with relaxin < 200 pg/ml had term pregnancies. A limited number of cycles from donor/recipient cycles did not show similar results. Steroid concentrations were not predictive of conception. These results demonstrated that in-vitro production of relaxin is predictive of implantation success in in-vitro fertilization (IVF)-embryo transfer cycles. This supports the hypothesis that relaxin may be involved in implantation and that lowered relaxin concentrations may be a partial cause of poor pregnancy rates after IVF.  (+info)

The clinical efficacy of low-dose step-up follicle stimulating hormone administration for treatment of unexplained infertility. (8/1639)

The present study was designed to compare the clinical efficacy of low-dose step-up follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) administration with conventional FSH protocol (FSH was injected daily starting with a dose of 150 IU), both combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), for the treatment of unexplained infertility. A total of 97 unexplained infertility couples was randomly assigned to one or other of the two treatment groups, either conventional FSH with IUI (48 patients) or low-dose step-up FSH with IUI (49 patients), and only the first treatment cycle was evaluated in each protocol. The difference in pregnancy rates per cycle was not statistically significant between the low-dose FSH group and the conventional group [seven of 49 (14.3%) and seven of 48 (14.6%) respectively]. A significant reduction in the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was observed in the low-dose group (8.3% versus 27.1%, P < 0.05). The incidence of moderate OHSS requiring hospitalization was reduced significantly in the low-dose group (low-dose 0% versus conventional 16.7%, P < 0.01). However, the low-dose protocol did not completely prevent multiple pregnancies. Our results suggest that the low-dose step-up FSH treatment appeared to be useful for the treatment of unexplained infertility because of the high pregnancy rates and the significant decrease in the incidence of OHSS.  (+info)

Committing to a consistent, clinical program in elective single embryo transfer (eSET), physicians and embryologists at Pacific Fertility Center (PFC) have achieved high pregnancy rates without the risks commonly linked to multiple births. PFC reported the results of its retrospective study on Tuesday, October 21, at the 2014 Annual Meeting of the American Society of Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) in Honolulu, HI.. The report was entitled, Toward a Program of Single Embryo Transfer: Reducing Multiple Gestation Risk Using CCS. This ASRM meeting marks a paradigm shift away from multiple gestation and toward safer singleton pregnancies, said lead author, Philip E. Chenette, MD, who described PFC s innovative program. It involved a consistent message, educational materials, a lecture series, and clinical and laboratory protocols encouraging eSET after comprehensive chromosome screening (CCS). The number of embryos transferred was at the discretion of patient and physician.. A way to identify embryos ...
Ovulation monitors are widely used by women wishing to achieve pregnancy. However, there are few data substantiating claims that these devices enhance the probability of becoming pregnant. In one report it is concluded from the cumulative pregnancy rate that the use of the Clearblue Easy Fertility Monitor increased the pregnancy rate. In a second report, it is argued that the use of the Clearblue Digital Ovulation Test reduces the time taken to conceive. We reconsider these previously published data by analysing each cycle and show that use of such devices might have a small effect (ϕ ≈ 0.12, odds ratio = 2.1-2.2, relative risk = 1.9) in the first month of use, but has no significant effect (ϕ ≈ 0.01, odds ratio = 1.2, relative risk = 1.1-1.2) in the second month. However, the subjects recruited for these two trials had single cycle pregnancy rates (7-11%) that were more similar to those of women avoiding pregnancy (about 6%) than women trying to conceive (about 25%). Given this, there is ...
Note: The table refers to women whose embryo reached blastocyst stage. Frozen embryo cycles are excluded.. To be more specific, 88% of women ,35 years old had a positive test , clinical pregnancy rate was 80%, ongoing pregnancies were 73% and live births were 70% per embryo transfer.. Women 35-39 years old had positive test rate of 72%, clinical pregnancy rate of 56%, ongoing pregnancy rate of 46% and live birth rate of 43% per embryo transfer.. Women ,40 years old had positive test rate of 56%, clinical pregnancy rate of 50%, ongoing pregnancy rate of 39% and live birth rate of 33% per embryo transfer.. Age is clearly a determining factor which affects the result of the treatment. As the age increases, the success rates are reduced.. ...
Background: Luteal phase support with GnRH agonist administration has been shown to be effective in improving the outcome of assisted reproductive technology. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effect of single dose Triptrolin (a GnRH agonist) on the probability of the clinical pregnancy rate following embryo transfer (ET) in assisted reproductive techniques (ART). Methods: In this double blinded randomized clinical trial, 340 infertile women who were candidates for intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were randomly assigned to receive GnRH agonist (Triptrolin) in the luteal phase or placebo. In the intervention group, 0.1 mg Triptrolin was injected subcutaneously, while the control group received normal saline. The clinical pregnancy and implantation rate were compared between the two groups using chi-2 and t-test. P-values less than 0.05 were considered significant. The registration number of this clinical trial is IRCT 2014030916912N1. Results: Administration of 0.1 mg Triptrolin on day 6
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study is to comprehensively evaluate whether FSH administration to the male partner of infertile couples improves pregnancy rate, spontaneously and/or after assisted reproductive techniques (ART). METHODS: Meta-analysis of controlled clinical trials in which FSH was administered for male idiopathic infertility, compared with placebo or no treatment. Randomization was not considered as an inclusion criterion. RESULTS: We found 15 controlled clinical studies (614 men treated with FSH and 661 treated with placebo or untreated). Concerning the type of FSH, eight studies used recombinant FSH, whereas seven studies used purified FSH. Nine studies evaluated spontaneous pregnancy rate, resulting in an overall odds ratio (OR) of about 4.5 (CI: 2.17-9.33). Eight studies evaluated pregnancy rate after ART, showing a significant OR of 1.60 (CI: 1.08-2.37). Sub-dividing studies according to the FSH preparations (purified/recombinant), pregnancy rate improvement remained ...
BRAZIL - Researchers at Inprenha Biotecnologia, a company based in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, working in partnership with colleagues at the University of São Paulos Ribeirão Preto School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCFRP-USP), have discovered a molecule that can increase bovine pregnancy rates and reduce early embryo loss.
The total number of cycles was 162, and the median number of cycles per patient was 1 (1 to 5). Fifty-eight women (56.3%) became pregnant. The total number of endometriomas and size of the largest endometrioma and bilateral endometriomas had no impact on the CPR per patient. Using multivariable analysis, the associated DIE and antimüllerian hormone serum level (≤1 ng/mL) were independent factors associated with a decrease in the pregnancy rate per patient. Overall, the CPR per patient was 73.7%, and it increased until the third cycle with no benefit for additional cycles. The CPR per patient for women with isolated endometriomas and women with endometriomas and associated DIE was 82.5% and 69.4%, respectively.. Conclusion(s): ...
To investigate the relationship between air bubble position after blastocyst transfer (BT) and pregnancy rates (PRs). Retrospective cohort study. University-based infertility center. Three hundred fifteen consecutive nondonor BTs by
A: The World Egg Bank reports pregnancy rates based on each egg thawing cycle. For example, if Patient A has one thawing cycle and becomes pregnant, and Patient B has one thawing cycle and fails to become pregnant, The World Egg Bank would report the results of these two cycles as a 50% pregnancy rate. If Patient B obtained a second set of eggs from The World Egg Bank and became pregnant with that set of eggs, The World Egg Bank would report the results of these three egg thawing cycles as a 67% pregnancy rate (two of three).. However, other egg banks often report the pregnancy rates on a per-patient basis (and not a per-cycle basis). Under such a calculation using the example above, the other egg banks may report a 100% pregnancy rate (two of two patients became pregnant when three cycles took place). This type of calculation is often categorized as a cumulative pregnancy rate. When comparing statistics from different egg banks, one should be sure that the calculations are performed in the same ...
Using the latest technologies, and innovations in the laboratory enable us to select the best embryo possible for transfer, giving our patients the best chance of having a baby.
Pregnancy rates do not prove that the pill does not prevent implantation. Pregnancy rates could be affected by missed pills, by interacting medications, by poor absorption, or by the chance event that a woman had break-through ovulation and conceived and then the baby implanted in the uterus successfully. What we do know is that the pill affects implantation in many cases and usually thins the endometrium. So we know that in some cases implantation is impeded.. ...
Since 2008, there have been different results in a limited number of studies on single-dose CFA administration. In 2008, Devroey et al.(10) wrote the first study about CFA. The authors suggested that a single injection of corifollitropin alfa induced a dose-related increase in multifollicular development and in the number of retrieved oocytes(11). Devroey et al.(10) postulated that CFA was a novel and effective treatment option for potential normal-responder patients undergoing ovarian stimulation with GnRH antagonist co-treatment for IVF resulting in ongoing pregnancy rates equal to that achieved with daily rFSH. Mahmoud Youssef et al.(12) published a meta-analysis in 2012. They included four randomized trials involving 2326 women. There was no evidence of a statistically significant difference in ongoing pregnancy rates for CFA versus rFSH(12). Boostanfar et al.(13) designed a large comparative randomized double-blind trial that confirmed the non-inferiority of pregnancy rates for CFA compared ...
Our Pregnancy Rates, outcomes and individual approach to IVF treatment has made us one of the nations leaders in in vitro fertilization.
In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) Success Rates. Success to Coastal Fertility Specialists means high quality patient care measured by patient satisfaction and high pregnancy rates. ... At Coastal Fertility Specialists our pregnancy rates are among the top in the country.
Austin TX (PRWEB) October 11 2017 A new study published in Fertility and Sterility in August compared the implantation and pregnancy rates in frozen and fresh a hre,New,Study,Confirms,Texas,Fertility,Center,Research,About,Increasing,Pregnancy,Rates,with,Frozen,Embryo,Transfer,biological,advanced biology technology,biology laboratory technology,biology device technology,latest biology technology
Pregnancy rates were assessed in suckled beef cows (n=145) and virgin beef heifers (n=606) of mixed breeding following an injection of either 100 or 200 μg of a GnRH agonist given once on d 11-14 after estrus and insemination ...
Around 10% of couple will not achieve pregnancy after 12 months of exposure, and will undergo assisted reproductive technology. In this systematic review we seek to determine whether the treatment of trombophilia, both exogenous and endogenous, increase or not the clinical pregnancy rate. We found 29 articles, 6 were included in the analysis. We found evidence that there is an association of thrombophilia and infertility, but not that the treatment improve the clinical pregnancy rate in women undergoing in vitro fertilization ...
The research is part of an extensive project submitted to the 1st National Congress of the Spanish Infertility and Sterility Society
Vancouver, Canada (PRWEB) November 29, 2011 -- Dr Al Yuzpe, co-director of Genesis Fertility Centre, concurs with a recent study published in the Journal of
CCRMs IVF Egg Retrieval process can help patients achieve high pregnancy rates. Were the nations leading fertility clinic. Learn how we can help you! From in vitro fertilization (IVF) to egg donation, CCRMs science across the full spectrum of fertility helps families achieve their dreams of having a baby.
The high pregnancy rate in KwaZulu-Natal schools is putting pressure on the provinces public health institutions, the provincial health department says.
Even with top-notch doctors and top-notch laboratory conditions, pregnancy success through IVF is not a sure thing. So news that a new way of processing embryos during in vitro fertilization (IVF) has enhanced conception rates by more than a quarter would seem to be a welcome development.
Anyone whos considered or undergone IVF to conceive a baby, knows it is a tremendous undertaking, both mentally, physically and financially. One big part of the expense and potential for nasty side effects is the drugs needed to stimulate the ovaries to produce many mature eggs. There is now a new procedure called IVM (InVitro Maturation), which is having tremendous success without the need for expensive stimulation drugs. More.... ...
Tutti i diritti riservati - Editore del portale, New Business Promotion S.r.l., Via Formentini 4/6, 20121 Milano P. Iva e Cod. fisc.: 11654240156 Tel. 02- ...
I realize that this is a very difficult issue to respond to but I thought I would give this forum a shot. My wife and I just completed an ivf cycle which was very successful. She is young, 34, and produced tons of eggs to the point we we have 11 embryos frozen. Our major prbolem was my low motility. They implanted two embryos which all of the staff told us were gorgeous. All indications are that things could not have gone any better up to this point. My question is, simply, once we have gotten to this stage and past several hurdles, are our chances still 50/50 or better than that? We were at a very good clinic and got a lot of winks and nods from staff and nurses about our chances but I did not feel comfortable in asking about the odds. We have just started our 2 week waiting period which is of course hard. Thanks very much for any insights ...
Vitrolife is committed to improving pregnancy rates. This is why we provide an unbroken chain of quality products, securing the results in every step during the whole IVF-treatment. Only Vitrolife can guarantee every link in this chain. With equally devoted clinics we reach success. Together. All the way.
Vitrolife is committed to improving pregnancy rates. This is why we provide an unbroken chain of quality products, securing the results in every step during the whole IVF-treatment. Only Vitrolife can guarantee every link in this chain. With equally devoted clinics we reach success. Together. All the way.
Impact of luteal phase support with vaginal progesterone on the clinical pregnancy rate in intrauterine insemination cycles stimulated with gonadotropins : a randomized multicenter study ...
Looking for online definition of pregnancy rate (overall) in the Medical Dictionary? pregnancy rate (overall) explanation free. What is pregnancy rate (overall)? Meaning of pregnancy rate (overall) medical term. What does pregnancy rate (overall) mean?
RESULTS: During the 426 cycles, clinical pregnancy rate was 49.77% and embryo implantation rate was 27.20%. Differences in estradiol and progesterone levels on the day of endometrial transformation and before transplantation between pregnant and non-pregnant groups were not statistically significant. Furthermore, embryo implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate among different levels of estradiol patients was not statistical different. On the day before transplantation, serum estradiol level decreased in 98.36% of patients. Differences in implantation rate and clinical pregnancy rate among patients with different extents of decrease in estradiol and different progesterone levels on the day before transplantation were statistically significant ( ...
Through studies conducted at the LSU AgCenters Reproductive Biology Center (RBC) we have shown that beef bull semen processed and frozen from the 1960s is still as viable and produces similar pregnancy rates in beef females as semen processed in 2003. We also found that differences in animal temperament prior to artificial insemination (AI) is not associated with AI pregnancy rates.. We are evaluating a procedure where lasers are used on lower quality cattle embryos that have been frozen, then thawed. This procedure helps the embryos hatch from their thick outer membrane so further development can take place in hopes of improving pregnancy rates after embryo transfer.. Studies on White-tail deer have shown that pregnancy rates following synchronization of estrus and AI average 55%. Also, this laboratory has shown that semen can be harvested from the testicles of hunter-killed bucks, frozen, stored and thawed at a later date to produce viable offspring. Using this approach will allow us to ...
Introduction: Frozen-thawed embryo transfers (FET) have become a standard practice to increase cumulative pregnancy rates, however, the choice of the best preparation protocol remains a matter of debate.Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical pregnancy (CPR) and live birth rate (LBR) of FET in natural cycles (NC-FET), modified natural cycles with hCG-triggered ovulation (mNC-FET), and hormonal artificial replacement (AR-FET).Materials and Methods: For natural cycles, patients were monitored by ultrasound to evaluate the dominant follicle and by urinary LH kits (NC-FET). When the endometrial thickness reached at least 7 mm and the dominant follicle 16-20 mm, hCG was administered in absence of urinary LH surge (mNC-FET). Embryo thawing and transfer was planned 7 days after LH surge or hCG administration. For the AR-FET, oral estradiol valerate was administered from day 2 of menstrual cycle until endometrial thickness reached at least 7 mm and transfer was planned after 5 days of vaginal progesterone
The change pregjancy a assessment process that included enter from insurers and the National Pregnanxy Legislation Middle. The heart functioned only 5 of its capability, with a minimal fifty five-65 for survival. I am sure you will have tested once more since you posted this. It is a group of muscle tissues and tender tissues supporting the area from pubic bone to base of the spine, and connecting the sitz bones that maintain the organs in place. The stages of pregnancy are sometimes described in three-month intervals often called trimesters. Im nonetheless not sure. Implantation bleeding, which happens about eates weeks into your pregnancy as the fertilized egg attaches to your uterine wall. Meals cravings and meals aversions are additionally widespread indicators of being pregnant. There is a potential danger to the developing fetus if your body temperature rises above 102 degrees. Endometriosis pregnancy rates after surgery. I endometriosis pregnancy rates after surgery fndometriosis for a ...
So, what happens in the body and mind of a woman going through an embryo transfer cycle? It seems simple… Give woman hormones Insert embryo Wait 9 months Have baby For the more than 4 step process, read on to see what happened physically, mentally and emotionally on my recent embryo transfer cycle… Pre-cycle: I…
Looking for biochemical pregnancy? Find out information about biochemical pregnancy. period of time between fertilization of the ovum ovum , in biology, specialized plant or animal sex cell, also called the egg, or egg cell. It is the female... Explanation of biochemical pregnancy
Lipids are an important source for energy production during oocyte maturation. The accumulation of intracellular lipids binds to proteins to form lipid droplets. This may lead to cellular lipotoxicity. The impact of lipotoxicity on cumulus and granulosa cells has been reported. This pilot study evaluated their correlation to oocyte and embryo quality. Prospective case-control study. Setting: Referral IVF unit. Patients: Women younger than age 40, undergoing IVF with intracytoplasmic sperm injection. Interventions: 15 women with BMI | 30 (high BMI) and 26 women with BMI | 25 (low BMI) were enrolled. IVF outcomes were compared between groups based on BMI. Lipid content in cumulus and granulosa cells was evaluated using quantitative and descriptive methods. Lipid profile, hormonal profile and C-reactive protein were evaluated in blood and follicular fluid samples. Demographic and treatment data, as well as pregnancy rates were collected from electronic medical records. Higher levels of LDL and CRP, slower
Malpani Infertility Clinic is one of the best IVF Clinic in India for Infertility Treatment. This ivf clinic in mumbai has highest pregnancy rate.
In young healthy women with low AMH levels, the chances of conception are similar to those with normal AMH levels. Patients with high AMH levels have a 40% reduced chance of conceiving even when their periods are regular.
Teen pregnancy rates have fallen nearly 50 percent among Hispanic and black teens, and overall teen birth rate has dropped more than 40 percent in the past 10 years
MIDDLESBROUGH has the highest teen pregnancy rates in the North-east yet today we reveal that a service dedicated to sexual health advice for youngsters in Stockton, where figures have fallen, is facing the axe.
IVF success rates/IVF pregnancy rates. All about IVF success rates by age and infertility diagnoses. Learn how to interpret IVF success rates to choose the right IVF center.
To investigate the effects of short-term low-dose aspirin and/or steroid make use of about implantation and pregnancy rates in non-selected intracytoplasmic sperm shot (ICSI) cycles. only or concomitant as a typical treatment havent any results on implantation and/or being pregnant prices. reported that administration of aspirin an anti-aggregant agent in cryopreserved cycles of individuals with impaired uterine perfusion (high pulsatility index) improved the IVF results by raising the being pregnant rates (2). They claimed that improved outcomes were a result of increased uterine perfusion (2). Likewise Sher reported that concomitant use of aspirin and heparin in IVF patients with positive anti-phospholipid antibodies increased pregnancy rates (3). In addition concomitant administration of aspirin and prednisolone a steroid in IVF patients with positive auto-antibodies resulted in favorable outcomes (4). However the administration of corticosteroids in nonselective IVF patients is ...
Every couple of years I check in with the website of my old IVF clinic, Sims IVF, Dublin, to see if their success rates page has become any less meaningless over the years. Alas, no: in 2018, they are still only publishing biochemical and clinical pregnancy rates. I would find this laughable if it werent…
When the blastocyst has settled (implanted) in the uterus, the developing placenta (trophoblast) produces a hormone called b-human chorionic gonadotrophin (b-hCG). This hormone is detectable in the blood 10 days after the embryo transfer and in the urine of the pregnant woman some days later (pharmacy pregnancy test kit).The test requires a blood sample and the result is obtained three hours later. If the test is positive it is repeated after 2 days.The multiplication of the initial value indicates normal progression of pregnancy, which is termed biochemical at this stage (as it is only demonstrated by the biochemical detection of hCG).. See more: Pregnancy rates at Eugonia. Pregnancy rates in Europe. ...
Question - Unprotected sex, had consumed postinor 2 after intercourse. Pregnancy chances? . Ask a Doctor about uses, dosages and side-effects of Levonorgestrel, Ask an OBGYN, Gynecologic Oncology
Question - Irregular periods. Negative HCG test. Abdominal scan shows no fetal pole. Pregnancy chances? , Ask an OBGYN, Maternal and Fetal Medicine
Service of Reproductive MedicineWe seek to offer a responsive and reliable approach to fertility problems, which is essential before any treatment. We work to increase the possibility of pregnancy in our patients based on an individualised approach to assisted reproduction techniques and treatments, including low- and high-complexity procedures.We conduct research that focuses on reducing the complications associated with these techniques, such as ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome or multiple pregnancy rates.
How fast does clomid typically work - How fast does Clomid (clomiphene) typically work? 3-to-6 cycles. Many factors besides fertility medication go into achieving a succesful pregnancy. In appropriately selected couples, meaning normal semen parameters and healthy fallopian tubes at a minimum, cumulative pregnancy rates with Clomiphene are 85% in 3 cycles and around 95% in 6 cycles.
van der Steeg JW, Steures P, Eijkemans MJ, Habbema JD, Hompes PG, Michgelsen HW, et al. Predictive value of pregnancy history in subfertile couples: results from a nationwide cohort study in the Netherlands. Fertil Steril 2008;90(3):521-7. (PMID 17980877). [Please contact the library and we will be happy to request a copy of this article for you.]. Alvarez C, Marti-Bonmati L, Novella-Maestre E, Sanz R, Gomez R, Fernandez-Sanchez M, et al. Dopamine agonist cabergoline reduces hemoconcentration and ascites in hyperstimulated women undergoing assisted reproduction. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2007;92(8):2931-7. (PMID 17456571). Hardarson T, Hanson C, Lundin K, Hillensjo T, Nilsson L, Stevic J, et al. Preimplantation genetic screening in women of advanced maternal age caused a decrease in clinical pregnancy rate: a randomized controlled trial. Hum Reprod 2008;23(12):2806-12. (PMID 18583331). [Please contact the library and we will be happy to request a copy of this article for you.]. Kim HG, Bhagavath ...
CANTON, Ohio - High school senior Monica Selby thought she would be busy this year planning for college, not preparing for the birth of her first child.
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IVF Success Rate Definition - An IVF success rate is the percentage chance a woman will become pregnant through in vitro fertilization (IVF). IVF...
My clinic actually makes baby aspirin part of my medicinal protocol. I am too using a donor, and am awaiting my testing day on the 16th from my FET w/ assisted hatching from the 3rd. This is my second attempt, as my fresh embryo transfer on June 26th failed. Baby aspirin is supposed to increase blood flow. Hope this helps ...
From 1 May 1984 to 30 April 1985, 177 laparoscopies were performed; 684 oocytes were obtained and a fertilization rate of 85% per oocyte achieved. There was a pregnancy rate of 24,3% per embryo transfer (ET) and 20,9% per ...
Hello all has anyone had success on there 4th ivf attempt after 3 failures.. im having my 4th fresh attempt in july/aug... and would like some happy stories to make me feel more positive..
Zygula A, Szymusik I, Grzechocinska B, Marianowski P, Wielgos M. Endometrial injury for women with previous in vitro fertilization failure - does it improve pregnancy rate? Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2016 Nov; 37(6): 419-426 ...
Pregnancy rates were assessed in suckled beef cows (n=145) and virgin beef heifers (n=606) of mixed breeding following an injection of either 100 or 200 μg of a GnRH agonist given once on d 11-14 after estrus and insemination ...
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a PGF2α-analogue (PGF) on ovulation and pregnancy rates after timed artificial insemination (TAI) in ...
Our IVF programs and Gender selectation- We believe in delivering the quality options and level of service we would expect ourselves. All our packages are comprehensive
Good evening friends! The time has come. 6 months of talking and planning has all come down to this moment. Yesterday, marked the start of our first IVF cycle. I had lab work done and everything came back normal which is great. Hubby had to have genetic testing done today. I am a carrier for…
We encourage patients to examine our IVF success rates. Once potential patients have looked at the statistics that are relevant to their type.
Between putting it off longer and being more hip to contraception, these groups predictably would have lower pregnancy rates. ... Regional differences in teen pregnancy rates can be chalked up to a number of variables, and the official school curriculum is ... overall rise in teen pregnancy , but I think youre right to look at the exceptions to the overall trends, Jessica . ...
The statistic at the school in the heart of this old steel city contrasts with a decade of declining teen pregnancy rates ... The number of student pregnancies "has gotten to horrible proportions," Principal Kim Redmond told the citys daily newspaper, ... But those who study teen pregnancy say the problem is not exclusive to Timken High. ...
I went to an ultrasound today and I am a bit worried about the heart rate of the baby. The baby measured 6 weeks and 6 days, ... Very early in pregnancy it is quite common to see low heart rates. From the reading that Ive done, anything above 100 is ... In my practice, we frequently see heart rates as low as the 90s in pregnancies of 5-6 weeks. If you were my patient, I would ... The baby measured 6 weeks and 6 days, but the heart rate is only 124. With my other babies, around this time in the pregnancy ...
... teen pregnancy rate rose in 2006 for the first time in more than a decade, reversing a long slide, a U.S. think tank reported ... The overall teen pregnancy rate was up 3 percent in 2006, with a 4 percent rise in the rate of births and a 1 percent rise in ... WASHINGTON (Reuters) - The U.S. teen pregnancy rate rose in 2006 for the first time in more than a decade, reversing a long ... New Mexico led the states with the highest teenage pregnancy rate with nine percent, followed by Nevada, Arizona, Texas and ...
... investigates the effects of low-dose aspirin on pregnancy rate, pregnancy loss, births, and inflammation during pregnancy. ... Pregnancy rates higher for women who have had tonsils, appendix removed A new study suggests women who underwent surgical ... However, in the high CRP group, women who received placebo had the lowest live birth rate (44 percent) while women who took a ... Analyzing the effect of low-dose aspirin on pregnancy chances. Sjaarda and team examined the data available from the Effects of ...
... when Englands teenage pregnancy rate was at its peak, and 2003, the conception rate among the under-18s fell by an average of ... WESTMINSTER The Governments attempts to cut the teenage pregnancy rate, which is one of the highest in Europe, appears to be ... and not enough to meet the Governments target of halving the teenage pregnancy rate… ... that the teenage pregnancy strategy introduced in 1999 was effective. But the fall had been "steady, rather than precipitous", ...
There has been insufficient progress in reducing high teenage pregnancy rates in Latin America and the Caribbean, three United ... Although overall teenage pregnancy rates "dropped slightly" over the past three decades, the region has the second-highest rate ... About 15 percent of all pregnancies were in girls younger than 20, with the highest teen pregnancy rates found in Central ... BOGOTA (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - There has been insufficient progress in reducing high teenage pregnancy rates in Latin ...
... and overall teen birth rate has dropped more than 40 percent in the past 10 years ... Teen pregnancy rates have fallen nearly 50 percent among Hispanic and black teens, ... U.S. teen pregnancy rates have fallen nearly 50 percent among Hispanic and black teens, and the overall teen birth rate has ... Ultimately, Albert and the CDC said the key to keeping the rates of teen pregnancy down is giving teens good quality ...
I went to the OB this morning to have an ultrasound to confirm pregnancy. They did see an embryo and detected a heart beat. ... The heart rate was fine if I am 5 weeks and 5 days but if I am 6.5 weeks pregnant then it is too low and there is a high risk ... Pregnancy with Twins, Triplets and Other Multiples Get the facts on how twins and multiples are formed and your chance of ... In my practice we even see lots of babies with slow heart rates that do fine. If the ultrasound probe is twisted a tiny bit, ...
... pregnancy rates remain highest for women in their twenties.. The report, "Trends in Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1976 ... The teen pregnancy rate fell 19 percent from its all-time high in 1991 to reach a record low of 94.3 pregnancies per 1,000 ... The teen pregnancy rate had risen from the mid-1980s and reached a peak in 1991; the 1997 rate is actually 10 percent lower ... The pregnancy rate in 1997 was 103.7 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, 10 percent lower than in 1990 and the lowest ...
Information for clinicians about how to improve maternal vaccination rates in your practice. ...
Teenage pregnancy rates are down and birth rates among 15-19 year old females have reached an all-time low in the US, and ... In fact, as Saludmovil explained, Canadas teen pregnancy rate in 2011 was just 13 per 1,000 teens, while France (7 per 1,000 ... Perhaps, but as the reported emphasized, the teenage pregnancy rate is still higher than in other developed countries. ... told Reuters that teen pregnancy rates peaked in 1990 and have fallen by more than 50% since then. Meanwhile, Abma said, sexual ...
... and more family time are among possible reasons for the UKs teen pregnancy rates falling to their lowest level ever, according ... High Rates and Abortions Not everywhere saw a decline in teenage pregnancies. According to bpas 60% of all local authorities ... Those young people who rated their SRE as good were less likely to have had sex than those who rated it as poor (26% vs 42%). ... despite good use of highly-effective contraception playing a crucial role in reducing unplanned teenage pregnancy rates. ...
... without raising abortion rates, will divvy up $100 million extra from the federal government. No one has talked much about ... Can Welfare Reform Reduce Pregnancy Rates?. Ramon G. McLeod, Chronicle Staff Writer ... ... The five states that are most successful in reducing the number of out-of-wedlock births, without raising abortion rates, will ...
Teen pregnancies in the developing world are declining, however 7 million girls under the age of 18 still give birth each year ... Teen pregnancy rate in developing world high despite decline Teen pregnancies in the developing world are declining, however 7 ... The report said that high rates of adolescent pregnancies correspond with other social problems: "Early pregnancies reflect ... Modern Parenthood Teenage pregnancy: High US rates due to poverty, not promiscuity By Stephanie Hanes Correspondent ...
Whereas the unintended pregnancy rate among all teens aged 15-17 (40 per 1,000 women aged 15-17) is lower than that of all ... rates for all adults are similar to rates for sexually active adults. Among teens, however, when rates include only those who ... U.S. Teen Unintended Pregnancy Rate Has Been Understated. Earlier Estimates Based on Entire Teen Population, Not Just Those Who ... "Accounting for sexual activity is an important consideration when calculating teens rate of unintended pregnancy," says Dr. ...
... reduces the rate of preterm birth in women that have a short cervix, which is a risk factor in these... ... "Vaginal Progesterone Gel Extends Pregnancy, Lowers Preemie Rates." Medical News Today. MediLexicon, Intl., 6 Apr. 2011. Web. ... Kraft, S. (2011, April 6). "Vaginal Progesterone Gel Extends Pregnancy, Lowers Preemie Rates." Medical News Today. Retrieved ... It occurs when the pregnancy ends spontaneously before the 23rd week of pregnancy, for one of a range of reasons. Read now ...
Sex education alone cannot account for the drop in teen birth and pregnancy rates, however, said Yates and others familiar with ... National pregnancy, birth and abortion rate per 1,000 women ... role in the declining teen birth and pregnancy rates, Frederick ... a Los Angeles health care organization that is launching a major teen-pregnancy prevention campaign in May. A survey by the ... Teenage pregnancy rates in California and the rest of the country dropped in 1996, and it appears that sex education, economics ...
More about The Pregnancy Of The Fetal Heart Rate. *. Doppler Ultrasound in Obstetrics Essay. 958 Words , 4 Pages ... Electronic Fetal Heart Rate Monitoring. 1071 Words , 5 Pages. Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) is the most common ... parents during pregnancy. Doppler ultrasound is utilized during pregnancy to reassure mothers of fetal well-being. External ... Pregnancy Induced Hypertension. 1243 Words , 5 Pages. METHYLDOPA IN THE MANAGEMENT OF PREGNANCY INDUCED HYPERTENSION Contents ...
Theres been a difference of opinion about why the teen pregnancy rate has fallen [Annual rise in birthrate a reason for ... Letter: Teen pregnancy rates down on Long Island. Many pregnant and breast-feeding women are deficient in iodine and should ... Theres been a difference of opinion about why the teen pregnancy rate has fallen ["Annual rise in birthrate a reason for ... teen pregnancy rates have dropped dramatically: 58 percent, 22 percent and 21 percent, respectively. ...
The rates of teenage pregnancy, birth and abortion have plummeted in every state and among all racial and ethnic groups, a new ... However, pregnancy rates for black and Hispanic teens remain twice as high as the rate for white teens. In 2010, the rate among ... Among the states, New Mexico had the highest teen pregnancy rate, in 2010, with 80 pregnancies per 1,000 women in the age group ... Drop in pregnancies. Pregnancy remains more common among older teens than younger ones, with 69 percent of teen pregnancies ...
Alternatives Pregnancy Center receives 86.21 out of 100 for their Charity Navigator rating. Alternatives Pregnancy Center is a ... Alternatives Pregnancy Center is rated 3 out of 4 stars by Charity Navigator. ... Highly Rated. Charity Name & State. Overall Score. Overall Rating. Alternatives Pregnancy Center (CO). 86.21. ... Highly Rated. Charity Name & State. Overall Score. Overall Rating. Alternatives Pregnancy Center (CO). 86.21. ...
The rate of pregnancy-associated cancer is rising steadily and it is not fully explained by the rise in older mothers says new ... detection and increased interaction with health services during pregnancy may contribute to higher incidence rates of pregnancy ... The rate of pregnancy-associated cancer is rising steadily and it is not fully explained by the rise in older mothers says new ... The research found that between 1994 and 2008 the incidence rate of pregnancy-associated cancer increased from 112.3 to 191.5 ...
Included in those changes may be your pulse rate, which increases during pregnancy. According to... ... Pregnancy brings about many changes in a womans body. ... Heart Rate The Normal Pulse Rate During Pregnancy by LISA WEBER ... "pregnancy pulse rate,pregnancy heart rate,exercise and pregnancy,pulse during pregnancy]"} ... the overall change in heart rate increases by 20 to 25 percent from baseline, or from the womans heart rate before pregnancy. ...
... is typically reported as the pregnancy rate. However, the pregnancy rate can be defined broadly to include all positive ... pregnancy tests, or more narrowly, to include only clinical pregnancies - those pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound ... We offer treatment to all patients, including those who might have a lower chance of achieving a pregnancy, providing treatment ... Pregnancy Rates Success related to Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) is typically reported as the pregnancy rate. ...
... have discovered a molecule that can increase bovine pregnancy rates and reduce early embryo loss. The discovery gave rise to a ... molecule_increases_pregnancy_rate_and_number_of_offspring_in_cattle/. 25726/. More in Biology. * Removing cancers protective ... Molecule increases pregnancy rate and number of offspring in cattle. Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo ... Molecule increases pregnancy rate and number of offspring in cattle Discovery by startup from Brazil results in product that ...
The rate of Texas women dying of pregnancy-related causes nearly doubled from 2010-2014, with the state seeing a total of more ... Texas rate of pregnancy-related deaths nearly doubles, and no one knows why. The national rate is rising, but not as fast as ... AUSTIN - The rate of Texas women dying of pregnancy-related causes nearly doubled from 2010 to 2014, with the state seeing more ... the rate of Texas women who died while pregnant or within 42 days of being pregnant due to causes related to their pregnancies ...
... Feras Sendy,1 Eman AlShehri,2 Amani AlAjmi,2 Elham ... S. K. van den Eeden, J. Shan, C. Bruce, and M. Glasser, "Ectopic pregnancy rate and treatment utilization in a large managed ... A. K. Majhi, N. Roy, K. S. Karmakar, and P. K. Banerjee, "Ectopic pregnancy-an analysis of 180 cases," Journal of the Indian ... U. Mahboob and S. B. Mazhar, "Management of ectopic pregnancy: a two-year study," Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad, ...
... the teen birth rate and abortion rate dropped sharply. ... the teen birth rate and abortion rate dropped sharply. Lopez ... Increasing the use of these methods is a recommended strategy to reduce rates of unintended pregnancy.[3] Among all users of ... LARC methods-implants and IUDs-have been shown to be effective in reducing rates of unintended pregnancy among adolescents, and ... the birth rate for teens ages 15-19 dropped 26%. Researchers also examined abortion rates for this age group in 37 counties ...
... here are the sorted live birth rates for women under 35-37 years old using their own eggs. This does not account for [...] ... about patient selection and other ways that clinics can make their numbers look better or accept lower pregnancy rates to treat ... IVF By The Numbers Part 5: Pregnancy Rates For Women 35-37. ... make their numbers look better or accept lower pregnancy rates ... This does not account for number of embryos transferred, and is not a perfect metric for "rating" a clinic (this topic, as well ...
  • The overall teen pregnancy rate was up 3 percent in 2006, with a 4 percent rise in the rate of births and a 1 percent rise in the rate of abortions, according to the report by the Guttmacher Institute. (
  • The overall decline is attributable to both reduced rates of live births (down 13 percent) and abortions (down 32 percent). (
  • The 6 million-plus pregnancies in 1997 in the U.S. resulted in 3.9 million births, 1.3 million induced abortions, and almost a million fetal deaths. (
  • Among married women 74 percent of pregnancies ended as live births and only 7 percent in abortions. (
  • Pregnancy rates include births, abortions and miscarriages. (
  • The teen abortion rate fell 66 percent, from 43.5 abortions per 1,000 in 1988 to 14.7 per 1,000 in 2010, according to the report. (
  • Last week, Vox's German Lopez highlighted a recent study that demonstrates how improving access to the most effective contraceptives can slash the rates of unintended pregnancies and abortions among teens. (
  • 8] Between 2008 and 2010, the researchers observed declines in the abortion rate, the proportion of abortions that were repeat procedures and the teenage birthrate in the St. Louis area. (
  • Poor women's high rate of unintended pregnancy results in their also having high-and increasing-rates of both abortions (52 per 1,000) and unplanned births (66 per 1,000). (
  • These data suggest that women who lead stable lives-women who are older, more affluent and better-educated-tend to have better reproductive health outcomes, while women whose lives are less stable, such as younger, poorer or less educated women, have higher rates of unplanned pregnancies, unwanted births and abortions," said Finer . (
  • In other words, if the same results were replicated across the United States, free birth control could prevent 1,060,370 unplanned pregnancies and 873,250 abortions a year, AFP said. (
  • Reporting Period Covered: This report summarizes and reviews surveillance data for pregnancies, abortions, and births among women ages 15-19, 15-17, and 18-19 years reported by CDC for 1980 and 1990. (
  • Actions Taken: CDC will continue to conduct surveillance of and analyze data for pregnancies, abortions, and births among teenagers to monitor progress toward national goals and to assist in targeting program efforts for reducing teenage pregnancy. (
  • These rates do not include estimates of spontaneous abortions or stillbirths, primarily because fetal losses are substantially underreported to state health departments. (
  • Abortion rates were defined as the number of legal induced abortions per 1,000 women in those age and racial/ethnic groups. (
  • The pro-abortion Guttmacher Institute, a former research arm of Planned Parenthood, released the new report showing that abortions among teenagers are at the lowest point since 1973 when Roe v. Wade allowed abortion on demand through all nine months of pregnancy. (
  • There remains a marked difference in pregnancy outcomes based on marital status. (
  • In addition the study looked at pregnancy outcomes and found that cancer during pregnancy was associated with a significantly increased risk of caesarean section, planned preterm birth and large-for-gestational-age infants. (
  • To study the effects of the Mind/Body Program on IVF pregnancy outcomes, Domar's team approached women who were about to begin treatment at Boston IVF and who met the study criteria: 40 years or under with normal hormonal levels. (
  • GH may improve pregnancy outcomes of patients with thin endometrium who undergo frozen embryo transfer by acting on human endometrial cells to promote proliferation and vascularization and to up-regulate receptivity-related molecular expression. (
  • In an analysis of pregnancy rates and outcomes of TODAY study participants, the researchers also noted that, despite a universal recommendation for contraception or abstinence, one in 10 participating girls became pregnant and 4.8% of participants who became pregnant reported using contraception during the mean 3.8 years of follow-up. (
  • These concerning pregnancy outcomes, coupled with the rising rates of type 2 diabetes in adolescents globally, are very worrisome. (
  • study outcomes were not tracked during pregnancy or lactation, but resumed after. (
  • Conclusions- Abnormal chronotropic response correlates with adverse pregnancy outcomes in women with congenital heart disease and should be considered in refining risk stratification schemes. (
  • In women with early pregnancy loss, does pretreatment with mifepristone (Mifeprex) before misoprostol (Cytotec) improve outcomes over treatment with misoprostol alone? (
  • In addition, the proportion of full‐term pregnancies has increased significantly over that time period, and most women had favorable pregnancy outcomes. (
  • The goal of our study was to assess the trends of pregnancy outcomes over the last three decades. (
  • This will help us towards identifying the predictors of successful outcomes in pregnancy and to improve pregnancy counseling in these women. (
  • Pregnancy and live birth were the main outcomes measured. (
  • Including both surgery and embolization in the analysis further confused the outcomes as they related to treatment of fertility issues, according to Marmar: "These techniques may have different success and failure rates. (
  • Objective To describe the outcomes of pregnancies complicated by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and to estimate potential associations between disease characteristics and pregnancy outcomes.Study Design We reviewed all pregnancies complicated by RA delivered at our institution from June 2001 through June 2009. (
  • Sexual health charity FPA's chief executive, Natika H Halil, said: "While not all teenage pregnancies are unwanted or unplanned, teenagers who become parents are more likely to have poorer health, education, social and economic outcomes, so it is vital we support young people to make decisions about their lives which are best for them. (
  • BOGOTA (Thomson Reuters Foundation) - There has been insufficient progress in reducing high teenage pregnancy rates in Latin America and the Caribbean, three United Nations agencies said on Wednesday, as they warned that rising numbers of girls under 15 were falling pregnant. (
  • The heart rate was fine if I am 5 weeks and 5 days but if I am 6.5 weeks pregnant then it is too low and there is a high risk of miscarriage. (
  • America's teenagers were less likely to become pregnant in 1997 than at any time since 1976, when national data on pregnancy rates first became available, according to a new report from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), which updates trends in pregnancy and births in the United States. (
  • Here are a few self-care tips for pregnant mothers that will help them during their pregnancy. (
  • So when a pregnant woman exercises, her heart rate increases too. (
  • Other situations or conditions influence a person's heart rate, and these factors can affect pregnant women too. (
  • From 2006 to 2010, the rate of Texas women who died while pregnant or within 42 days of being pregnant due to causes related to their pregnancies fluctuated between 18.1 and 18.6 deaths per 100,000 live births, according to the study. (
  • In 2010, approximately 6 percent of teens became pregnant, the lowest rate in more than 30 years. (
  • If heart rate always increases after pregnancy, can I use it to predict if I'm pregnant? (
  • The lower end of these ranges (60-70% of maximal heart rate or 50-60% of maximal oxygen uptake) appears to be appropriate for most pregnant women who did not engage in regular exercise before pregnancy, and the upper part of these ranges should be considered for those who wish to continue to maintain fitness during pregnancy. (
  • For an unconditioned pregnant woman, a 12 on the RPE scale could correspond to a heart rate of 140 BPM, while for a fit pregnant woman, it might correspond to a heart rate of 155 BPM. (
  • Evidence of the efficacy of this approach is that, when exercise is self paced, most pregnant women will voluntarily reduce their exercise intensity as pregnancy progresses. (
  • We developed three methods to estimate how many pregnant women in Colorado ate the implicated cantaloupes, and we calculated attack rates. (
  • Approximately 6,500-12,000 pregnant women in Colorado might have eaten the contaminated cantaloupes, an attack rate of ~1 per 10,000 exposed pregnant women. (
  • In the United States, about 17% of listeriosis cases that occur annually are associated with pregnancy and the incidence is ~3.4 reported cases per 100,000 pregnant women [ 4 ]. (
  • OK, so men can't really get pregnant, but they can experience real symptoms of pregnancy, like nausea and vomiting and mood swings. (
  • Given the prevalence of prenatal acetaminophen use and the importance of language development, our findings, if replicated, suggest that pregnant women should limit their use of this analgesic during pregnancy," said the study's senior author, Shanna Swan, PhD, Professor of Environmental and Public Health at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai. (
  • Shows like 'Teen Mom' and '16 and Pregnant' have helped make teen pregnancy a topic of national conversation. (
  • Rates of smoking are increasing among adolescents and young adults, but trends in smoking among pregnant women have not been studied. (
  • prevalence rate ratio for current smoking comparing pregnant with nonpregnant women. (
  • In this analysis, the decline in smoking over time among pregnant women was primarily due to the overall decline in smoking initiation rates among women of childbearing age, not to an increased rate of smoking cessation related to pregnancy. (
  • can provide women with an excellent chance of getting pregnant without the higher risk of miscarriage or health problems associated with multiple pregnancy. (
  • At Genesis we have achieved a 65%-per-cent pregnancy rate for women under 35, and we are confident that we can provide women with an excellent chance of getting pregnant without the higher risk of miscarriage or health problems associated with multiple pregnancy," says Dr. Yuzpe, who sits on the Healthy Singleton Births committee of Assisted Human Reproduction Canada. (
  • The chance of pregnancy after Essure reversal at our center was 28% but this number included patients who had recently had surgery and did not have enough time to become pregnant. (
  • Adolescent girls with type 2 diabetes who became pregnant while participating in the TODAY study experienced a high rate of pregnancy loss and complications, with one-quarter of pregnancies ending in miscarriage or stillbirth and one-fifth of live-born infants diagnosed with a major congenital anomaly, according to study findings presented at the World Diabetes Congress. (
  • This is why patients need to think of IVF success in terms of a cumulative pregnancy rate â Â what are your chances of getting pregnant after doing two or three or maybe even four treatment cycles. (
  • Data regarding this important topic remain limited, without clear data regarding iron control including serial assessment of hepatic iron concentration, the need for assistance in becoming pregnant, and use of iron chelating agents during pregnancy. (
  • Miscarriage-the loss of a fetus (developing baby) that is unable to survive independently-is the commonest complication of early pregnancy, affecting about one in five women who know they are pregnant. (
  • The health board has more than halved its rate since a spike in 2007, when 71 out of 1,000 under-20s became pregnant. (
  • But Middlesbrough's average has increased, and a rate of 60.4 girls in every 1,000 are becoming pregnant - well above the average for England and Wales of 38.3. (
  • Around one in every 16 girls in the town fell pregnant - the eighth highest rate of among the areas recorded. (
  • Normal heart rate at 6 weeks pregnant? (
  • A survey of women seeking an abortion by the British Pregnancy Advisory Service revealed that almost two-fifths of parents of single, pregnant, teenage girls were unaware of their daughters' pregnancy, the majority of these being to teenagers who were not living at home. (
  • G. O. Udigwe, O. S. Umeonihu, and I. I. Mbachu, "Ectopic pregnancy: a 5 year review of cases at nnamdi azikiwe university teaching hospital (NAUTH) Nnewi," Nigerian Medical Journal , vol. 51, no. 4, pp. 160-163, 2010. (
  • The medical treatment of unruptured ectopic pregnancy with methotrexate and citrovorum rescue: preliminary experience," Fertility and Sterility , vol. 46, no. 5, pp. 811-813, 1986. (
  • D. T. Westaby, O. Wu, W. C. Duncan, H. O. D. Critchley, S. Tong, and A. W. Horne, "Has increased clinical experience with methotrexate reduced the direct costs of medical management of ectopic pregnancy compared to surgery? (
  • 21 births, 8 miscarriages, and 1 ectopic pregnancy. (
  • During the study period no patient an ectopic pregnancy and no patient reported a uterine rupture. (
  • Ectopic pregnancy. (
  • Ectopic pregnancy is always a risk after any tubal or ovarian surgery. (
  • We are uncertain of what the exact chance of ectopic pregnancy is after Essure reversal. (
  • The risk of ectopic pregnancy after Essure reversal seems lower than the risk of ectopic pregnancy after tubal ligation reversal. (
  • They excluded women with an open cervical os or no visible gestational sac, anemia, a viable or ectopic pregnancy, or any contraindication to the study medications. (
  • This study aimed to investigate the rate of subsequent stillbirth, miscarriage, and ectopic pregnancy following primary cesarean section, controlling for confounding by indication. (
  • This study found that cesarean section is associated with a small increased rate of subsequent stillbirth and ectopic pregnancy. (
  • With so many cesarean sections being undertaken, it is important to be sure that the procedure does not increase the rates of subsequent miscarriage, stillbirth, or ectopic pregnancy. (
  • Ectopic pregnancy-development of the fetus outside the womb-occurs in 1%-2% of all pregnancies. (
  • Can a fetus' heart beat be detected during the early stages of ectopic pregnancy? (
  • He told VOA the historic declines in teen pregnancy are 'extraordinary. (
  • Teenage pregnancy rates declined for all teenagers with the steepest declines among non-Hispanic black (down 23 percent) and white (down 26 percent) teenagers. (
  • The British Pregnancy Advisory Service, bpas, said Scotland and Northern Ireland have also seen significant declines in teenage pregnancies. (
  • The pregnancy declines are across the board, and that means kids are getting the message that having a baby too young is something they want to avoid. (
  • Kost and her colleagues also found declines in teen pregnancy rates across all racial and ethnic groups and all 50 states. (
  • A recent separate analysi s of state-specific teenage birth rates found that the national declines in the teen pregnancy rate from 2007 to 2010 were reflected in all but three states. (
  • Since 1980, Minnesota's teen pregnancy rate has dropped by 69 percent, and its teen birth rate has decreased by 63 percent - declines that mirror what is happening nationally. (
  • Complications in pregnancy and childbirth were one of the main causes of death in girls and women aged 15 to 24 in the Americas, it said, adding that the risks of maternal death were highest in girls who give birth before age 15. (
  • The Texas Legislature created a task force in 2013 to study pregnancy-related deaths and severe complications in the state. (
  • The task force has been reviewing cases involving women who died or suffered severe complications related to their pregnancies. (
  • These long-acting methods eliminate the problem of inconsistent use common with other contraceptives that can lead to unintended pregnancy," the college said, noting that complications from IUDs and implants are rare. (
  • Studies have shown that for multiples, including twins, there is a higher risk of many obstetrical complications including premature labor and delivery as well as newborn complications such as cerebral palsy, respiratory diseases, blindness, deafness and death as compared to singleton pregnancies. (
  • Apart from generating symptoms, such as heavy vaginal bleeding, severe pelvic and back pain, constipation, and bloating, fibroids are known to cause infertility and complications during pregnancy. (
  • As the life expectancy increases and overall health improves in thalassemia, clear data on fertility, pregnancy complications, and the effect of pregnancy on maternal health in thalassemia patients are necessary since these will have a direct impact on patient care, quality of life, and patient expectations. (
  • New York - January 10, 2018) -- In the first study of its kind, researchers from the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai found an elevated rate of language delay in girls at 30 months old born to mothers who used acetaminophen during pregnancy, but not in boys. (
  • Despite recent economic growth and social progress on a number of fronts in Latin America and the Caribbean, adolescent fertility rates remain unacceptably high," the agencies said. (
  • The Fertility Clinic reports only clinical pregnancies. (
  • They also concluded that, in many cases, the success rates of tubal reversal are far superior to IVF (another treatment of choice for women with tubal sterilization who are now interested in fertility), suggesting that it may be a preferable approach for many patients, especially in view of the fact that tubal reversal does not carry the elevated risk of multiple pregnancy that IVF does. (
  • They also show that marriage is not, in and of itself, a solution to the problems women have in controlling their fertility: In fact, poor women who are married have unintended pregnancy rates more than twice as high as those of higher-income women who are unmarried or cohabiting. (
  • Most troubling is the fertility rate of 13 to 14-year-old Latina adolescents is double that of any other race/ethnicity group and significantly higher in all other age groups. (
  • A new technology currently available through Park Avenue Fertility is used to improve pregnancy and live birth rates when combined with IVF (In Vitro Fertilization) . (
  • Vibe Natural Health Your natural health care team for fertility, pregnancy, post natal and family health care. (
  • While many women undergoing fertility treatment feel that twins is desirable and cost effective as they can complete their family in one go, they don't realize all the risks to families, mother and baby associated with a multiples pregnancy," explains Yuzpe. (
  • According to a new study, distribution in schools can actually increase fertility rates. (
  • The study was published in the May 2005 issue of the medical journal Fertility and Sterility details the team's findings on the genetic marker, known as soluble Human Leukocyte Antigen-G (sHLA-G) (Volume 83, Issue 5, Pages 1410-1413: Soluble human leukocyte antigen G expression in phase I culture media at 46 hours after fertilization predicts pregnancy and implantation from day 3 embryo transfer). (
  • Pacific Fertility Center does not restrict IVF to only those patients most likely to succeed, (a practice which often leads to higher pregnancy rates). (
  • For updated information about our fertility clinic, infertility treatment options, IVF success rates and more, read our infertility doctor blog or subscribe to Pacific Fertility Center's Fertility Flash newsletter . (
  • Acupuncture is useful throughout infertility treatment and pregnancy to treat other fertility conditions as well, including hormone-related emotional imbalances, pelvic pain, menopausal symptoms, heavy bleeding, irregular periods, and postpartum disorders. (
  • Although we recommend women participate in a longer-term fertility acupuncture program, this one-time option is a stand-alone treatment that offers a higher success rate than no acupuncture at all. (
  • There were an estimated 6,192,000 pregnancies among women of all ages in the U.S. that resulted in a live birth, induced abortion, or fetal loss (miscarriages or stillbirths) in 1997, nearly 600,000 fewer than in 1990 when the number of pregnancies reached its peak. (
  • The pregnancy rate in 1997 was 103.7 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-44 years, 10 percent lower than in 1990 and the lowest rate since 1976. (
  • The rate remains 10 percent lower than in 1990. (
  • The pregnancy rate for unmarried women continues to decline, now 9 percent below the 1990 level. (
  • National Center for Health Statistics researcher Joyce Abma, co-author of one of the new CDC studies, told Reuters that teen pregnancy rates peaked in 1990 and have fallen by more than 50% since then. (
  • Teen pregnancy rates have dropped 17 percent since peaking in 1990. (
  • That's a 51 percent decline from the peak rate in 1990, and a 15 percent decline from the 2008 rate, when there were about 68 pregnancies per 1,000 women in that age group. (
  • The teen pregnancy rate declined between 1990 and 2010 by more than 50 percent among white, black and Hispanic teens. (
  • That's nearly 58 pregnancies per 1,000 teenage women, a 51 percent drop from the peak rate in 1990. (
  • The study found that the pregnancy rate of 15- to 19-year-olds dropped by more than 70 percent from 1990 to 2016, while births decreased during that same time period. (
  • Problem/Condition: In the United States in 1990, there were an estimated 1 million pregnancies and 521,826 births among women ages 15-19 years. (
  • Rates of teenage pregnancy and birth rates by state in 1990 exceeded those in most developed countries. (
  • An estimated 1 million pregnancies and 521,826 live births among U.S. women ages 15-19 years were reported for 1990 (1,2). (
  • Whereas the unintended pregnancy rate among all teens aged 15-17 (40 per 1,000 women aged 15-17) is lower than that of all women (51 per 1,000 women aged 15-44), the rate among teens who are sexually active (147 per 1,000) is more than twice the national figure for sexually active women aged 15-44 (69 per 1,000). (
  • He recommends that more work be done to reduce unintended pregnancies among teens, in part by ensuring that they are equipped with the information and tools they need to protect themselves if and when they choose to become sexually active, as virtually all eventually will. (
  • As a society, we want to reduce unintended pregnancies and abortion rates," explained Alina Salganicoff, director of women's health policy at the Kaiser Family Foundation, according to Fox Latino news. (
  • It's interesting to note that this flattening out of the rate and the increase in the rate is happening at the same time that we've seen substantial increases in funding for abstinence-only programs," Finer said. (
  • Among the factors believed to be driving this downturn in teen pregnancies are increases in condom use, the adoption of the effective injectable and implant contraceptives, and the leveling off of teen sexual activity. (
  • Though the greatest increases in pregnancy rates were among women aged 35-39 (up 9 percent) and 40-44 years (up 21 percent), pregnancy rates remain highest for women in their twenties. (
  • With the economy being sound, hope for the future increases, and when that happens pregnancies tend to decline," Yates said. (
  • Pregnancy increases women's interaction with health services and the possibility for diagnosis is therefore increased. (
  • The heart rate at rest, which in nonpregnant adults usually ranges between 60 to 100 beats per minute, increases by 10 to 20 points during pregnancy, according to a September 2014 review published in "Circulation. (
  • According to this review, by the third trimester, the overall change in heart rate increases by 20 to 25 percent from baseline, or from the woman's heart rate before pregnancy. (
  • Heart rate increases when exercising, as the active body needs the heart to pump more oxygen-rich blood throughout the body. (
  • During labor, heart rate also increases as the amount of blood pumped by the heart increases by as much as 30 percent, according to the Merck Manual. (
  • The partnership between FCFRP-USP and the company resulted in confirmation of the hypothesis that the molecule increases the bovine embryo implantation rate. (
  • This increases the likelihood of pregnancy establishment and maintenance. (
  • While this increases somewhat during the first trimester , the heart rate tends to change most during the second trimester. (
  • Heart conditions can become a worry during pregnancy, especially because the heart rate during pregnancy normally increases and there is extra stress on the heart. (
  • At the same time, if the increased heart rate causes or brings out a heart condition, then it increases the chance that the child also will have a heart condition. (
  • Most studies show that maternal stroke volume (volume of blood pumped from one ventricle of the heart with each beat) increases by 10% by the end of the first trimester and is followed by a 20% increase in heart rate during the second and third trimesters. (
  • Mean arterial pressure decreases 5-10 mm Hg by the middle of the second trimester and then gradually increases back to pre-pregnancy levels. (
  • Pregnancy is associated with profound respiratory changes: minute ventilation increases by almost 50%, largely as a result of increased tidal volume. (
  • Moreover, many states have reported increases in birth rates that are probably related to concurrent decreases in abortion rates. (
  • In women with early pregnancy loss between five and 12 weeks' gestation, pretreatment with 200 mcg of oral mifepristone before 800 mcg of vaginal misoprostol increases the likelihood of successful expulsion of the gestational sac (number needed to treat [NNT] = 6). (
  • Teen birth rates are available through 1999 and show a continued decline, totaling 20 percent since 1991. (
  • Furthermore, the research uncovered what Saludmovil calls a "significant" decline in the rate of 15-19-year-old teenagers having sex. (
  • The research was commissioned because there is no clear consensus about the reason or reasons for the decline in teenage pregnancies. (
  • Not everywhere saw a decline in teenage pregnancies. (
  • The decline in the teen pregnancy rate is great news,' study leader Kathryn Kost of the Guttmacher Institute said in a statement. (
  • Experts attributed the decline in teen pregnancy to an increase in contraceptive use and overall access to health services, The Boston Globe reports. (
  • The decline in the teen pregnancy rate is great news," said lead author Kathryn Kost said in a statement with the report's release. (
  • A new analysis from the Guttmacher Institute shows that following a considerable decline between 1981 and 1994, the overall U.S. unintended pregnancy rate has remained essentially flat-about 5% of U.S. women have an unintended pregnancy every year. (
  • The birth rate for Hispanic teenagers fell 11 percent from 2010 to 2011 and dropped 34 percent from 2007 to 2011, the largest decline of any population group, the CDC said. (
  • Worldwide decline of IVF birth rates and its probable causes. (
  • Although Minnesota's adolescents of color have experienced the greatest decline in pregnancy and birth rates in recent years (birth rates fell 20 percent among black youth and 17 percent among for Hispanic/Latina youth in 2015 alone), they still have higher rates than white teens. (
  • Fetal echocardiography is indicated in high risk pregnancies where the chances of fetus having a congenital heart disease (CHD) are likely to be high - for exapmle, in a fetus with extracardiac anomalies picked up on obstetric ultrasound, those with a history of CHD in family, maternal diabetes and maternal connective tissue disorder (Srinivasan,2000). (
  • Folic acid is also known as folate or a form of vitamin B. this vitamin if taken before a pregnancy is said to increase the chances of having a twin baby or to avoid neural tube defect. (
  • One way to improve the chances for a successful pregnancy is to test the embryo for all of its possible 24 chromosomes prior to transfer. (
  • This review fails to offer evidence that treatment of varicoceles in men from couples with otherwise unexplained subfertility improves the couple's chances of pregnancy," Evers said. (
  • Because of the limitations of embryo assessment methods, there has been a tendency among many IVF practitioners to transfer more, rather than fewer embryos to the patient's uterus in the hope of improving the chances of pregnancy. (
  • Age is not the only factor in infertility, and outcome data based on age alone is not always the best way to estimate an individual patient's pregnancy chances. (
  • For women with very low ovarian reserve, the risk of "zero" outcome, which is to say no pregnancy chances, is significant. (
  • Chances of pregnancy loss after fetal heart beat? (
  • A study published by the Guttmacher Institute found that teen pregnancy and birthrates are at historic lows. (
  • Pregnancies and birth rates dipped to historic lows among Minnesota teens, while sexually transmitted diseases continue climbing, according to a report by the University of Minnesota. (
  • At a time when teen pregnancy rates across the state are at historic lows, the numbers for gay teens are surprisingly high. (
  • The research looked at independent risk factors for pregnancy-associated cancer including older maternal age, Australian-born, socio-economic status, multiparity, multiple pregnancy and prior diagnosis of cancer. (
  • One of their lines of investigation has aimed at reducing early embryo loss in bovine gestation based on hypotheses arising from studies of maternal recognition of pregnancy and maternal-fetal immune tolerance for pregnancy maintenance. (
  • and, above all, endowed cells in the trophoblast (the specialized cells of the placenta, which play a major role in the maternal-fetal interface) with immune privilege by modulating a number of regulatory mechanisms for pregnancy establishment and maintenance. (
  • Hollier said that the national researchers' methods may have "slightly inflated" the maternal mortality rate but that the sharp increase in pregnancy-related deaths from 2010 to 2011 is undeniable. (
  • In developed countries, the maternal death rate is 12 per 100,000 live births. (
  • Pregnancy induces profound alterations in maternal haemodynamics. (
  • Maternal glomerular filtration rate in pregnancy and fetal size. (
  • BACKGROUND: The relationship of maternal glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in pregnancy to fetal size needs to be better characterized as it impacts an ongoing debate about confounding effect of maternal GFR in investigations of important environmental contaminants. (
  • A study has revealed that Texas has the highest maternal mortality rate, not only within the United States, but also among industrialized nations. (
  • According to the World Health Organization, the United States is the only developed country to experience such a rise in maternal mortality rates since 1987. (
  • A study published in the journal Obstetrics & Gynecology in 2016 showed that between 2000 and 2014, under the Bush and Obama administrations, the US maternal death rate rose by a staggering 27 percent. (
  • researchers did not observe a significant difference in pregnancy outcome when stratified by maternal BMI. (
  • Researchers noted that small sample size and a high prevalence of other maternal comorbidities make it difficult to explain the high rate of congenital anomalies. (
  • According to the study, the association between maternal anxiety during pregnancy and infant negative emotionality at eight months was strong in infants with high heart rate variability. (
  • The biological characteristics of infants may have an effect on how sensitive they are to maternal stress and anxiety during pregnancy," says postdoctoral researcher Mikko Peltola . (
  • Kidney injury during pregnancy is associated with significant maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. (
  • This coupled with the large flow of blood from maternal circulation to the placenta causes a compensatory rise in heart rate to generate the necessary cardiac output and deliver enough oxygen to the tissues. (
  • New Mexico led the states with the highest teenage pregnancy rate with nine percent, followed by Nevada, Arizona, Texas and Mississippi. (
  • WESTMINSTER The Government's attempts to cut the teenage pregnancy rate, which is one of the highest in Europe, appears to be working, a study says. (
  • The study, published in The Lancet , found that between 1998, when England's teenage pregnancy rate was at its peak, and 2003, the conception rate among the under-18s fell by an average of 2 per cent a year. (
  • Perhaps, but as the reported emphasized, the teenage pregnancy rate is still higher than in other developed countries. (
  • Councillor Sue McDonald, Cabinet Member for Children, Young People and Public Health for Plymouth City Council, said: "It is really positive to see a continuing drop in the teenage pregnancy rate. (
  • A SEXUAL health service which has helped dramatically reduce Stockton's teenage pregnancy rate is under threat from Government cuts. (
  • According to the latest available data, New Mexico was the state with the highest teenage pregnancy rate in the U.S., followed by Arkansas and Mississippi. (
  • This in turn has led to a high rate of high-order multiple pregnancies (triplets or more) with inherent long-term or even life-endangering risks to both mother and children. (
  • According to the latest statistics (from 2016) the under-18 conception rate was down to 18.9 conceptions per thousand women aged 15 to 17. (
  • As teenage pregnancies have fallen the number of under 18s having an abortion has increased in England and Wales from 31.6% in 1995 to 51.4% in 2016, and in Scotland from 33.6% in 1995 to 45.8% in 2015. (
  • According to the research directed by the University of Maryland in 2016, pregnancy-related deaths in Texas nearly doubled within two years, rising from 72 in 2010 to 142 in 2012. (
  • The United States has higher rates of teen pregnancy, birth and abortion than in other Western industrialized countries. (
  • But rates among both groups were still significantly higher than for white teens, the report said, and rates went up for all ethnic groups. (
  • Teens who are sexually active are at higher risk of unintended pregnancy than their adult counterparts, according to " Unintended Pregnancy Among U.S. Adolescents: Accounting for Sexual Activity ," by Lawrence B. Finer , director of domestic research at the Guttmacher Institute. (
  • The authors state that improved diagnostic techniques, detection and increased interaction with health services during pregnancy may contribute to higher incidence rates of pregnancy-associated cancer. (
  • This is a lower rate than in Canada, New Zealand or the US but higher by far than in Germany, France, Italy and the other EU countries. (
  • In Amsterdam, the teenage birth rate is much higher than in the rest of country and is related strongly to ethnicity. (
  • However, the rate has increased dramatically among poor women, while among higher-income women it has continued to decrease substantially, according to " Unintended Pregnancy in the United States: Incidence and Disparities, 2006 ," by Lawrence B. Finer and Mia R. Zolna . (
  • At the same time, the rate among higher-income women (those with incomes at or above 200% of the poverty line) fell from 34 in 1994 to 28 in 2001 and 24 in 2006-a 29% decrease. (
  • In 2006, poor women had an unintended pregnancy rate five times that of higher-income women, and an unintended birth rate six times as high. (
  • In commenting on the study, Guttmacher Institute President and CEO Sharon Camp said: "The growing disparity in unplanned pregnancy rates between poor and higher-income women-which reflects persistent, similar disparities across a range of health and social indicators-is deeply troubling. (
  • Teens of color have higher rates of STDs and births, Farris said. (
  • The newest numbers from the state's department of public health show teen pregnancy rates creeping higher. (
  • There were significantly higher rates of pregnancy during 1997 through 2001. (
  • Mothers may have a higher risk of pregnancy-induced high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, haemorrhage following birth, and postpartum depression and heightened symptoms of anxiety and parenting stress. (
  • Council and health chiefs tasked with reducing the city's teenage pregnancy rates put the continued reduction down to better sex education for young people, more convenient and tailored services in the community and higher aspirations of young girls. (
  • However, girls born to mothers with higher exposure--those who took acetaminophen more than six times in early pregnancy--were nearly six times more likely to have language delay than girls born to mothers who did not take acetaminophen. (
  • Mind/body therapies designed to help women reduce stress earlier in the treatment process result in higher pregnancy rates, but little is known specifically about the impact of these therapies on women undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF). (
  • Yet according to the United Nations, the rate of teen pregnancy in the United States is nearly nine times higher than in the majority of other developed nations. (
  • The reproductive justice frame also means that we work to address the root causes of Latina teen pregnancy, including lack of access to preventative health care services, lack of access to higher education and employment opportunities, punitive immigration policies, and attitudes that devalue young women and their leadership," says Montoya. (
  • Since many young Latinas do not have access to higher education or gainful employment options, they see pregnancy and marriage as the only life path available to them. (
  • Nearly half of the nation's 6 million-plus pregnancies are unintended each year, far higher than in other developed countries. (
  • There is a reason to believe that aCGH gives hope for a higher success rate in IVF pregnancies. (
  • However, it is important to clarify that the Texas foster care system itself is not causing higher pregnancy rates. (
  • Expectant mothers who take antidepressants might be putting their child at substantially higher risk of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), especially if the drugs are used in the second and third trimesters, according to a review of 145,456 pregnancies. (
  • And this rate was significantly higher when students could get condoms without any counseling. (
  • While condoms are still the most common kind of contraception used by teens, they have higher failure rates for preventing pregnancy than hormonal birth control. (
  • 0.05) greater endometrium thickness on day 3 (7.87±0.72 vs 6.34±0.86), higher implantation rates (24.4% vs 10.5%) and greater clinical pregnancy rates (42.5% vs 18.9%) compared with the control group. (
  • Research has also shown that the stress and anxiety experienced by the mother during pregnancy are associated with higher temperamental negative emotionality in infants. (
  • Pregnancy-related acute kidney injury occurred at a higher rate in black women than white women, and in women with diabetes than in those without diabetes. (
  • Higher rates were observed in southern and midwest geographical regions than in the northeast region, and in urban teaching hospitals than in urban non-teaching hospitals and rural hospitals. (
  • The pregnancy rate in experimental group was significantly higher than that of control group. (
  • To determine if women who were randomized to a mind/body program before starting their first IVF cycle would have higher pregnancy rates than control subjects. (
  • In univariate analysis, discontinuation of medication because of pregnancy was associated with a significantly earlier gestational age at delivery (362/7 versus 383/7 weeks, p = 0.022).Conclusion Women with RA may be at higher risk for preterm delivery. (
  • The explosion in the rate of higher order pregnancies as a result of IVF has created an enormous burden on the health care system," explains Dr. Mory Nouriani, co-author of the study and Associate Medical Director at SIRM-Los Angeles. (
  • Vitrification of human embryos has been a paradigm-shifting procedure for higher survival rate compared with the slow freezing protocol. (
  • However, data obtained from the procedure of assisted shrinkage of blastocysts before vitrification show a higher survival rate, suggesting that fluid accumulation insides the blastocyst can be a barrier for cryoprotectant to reach the cells. (
  • Racial disparities were also found among the STI rates, with youths of color having higher rates of gonorrhea and chlamydia than white teens. (
  • Teen pregnancy rates are higher in Greater Minnesota, she pointed out. (
  • Rates for STIs, however, were higher in 2015 among teens in the metro area. (
  • To address the high rate of multiple births resulting from in-vitro-fertilization (IVF), researchers at Yale School of Medicine and McGill University have developed a procedure that estimates the reproductive potential of individual embryos, possibly leading to a decrease in multiple-infant births and a higher success rate in women undergoing IVF. (
  • Labour inequalities spokesperson Monica Lennon said: "Teenage mothers are more likely to suffer from post-natal depression and higher rates of teenage pregnancy can be linked to child poverty rates. (
  • However, six of the studies - of 650 women undergoing IVF - revealed a slightly higher pregnancy rate among women who took the hormones. (
  • the only other Western countries with higher teenage pregnancy rates are the United States and New Zealand. (
  • The rate of teenage pregnancy is higher in more economically deprived areas. (
  • Analyzing U.S. government data from the National Survey of Family Growth and other sources, Finer and Zolna found that of the 6.7 million pregnancies in 2006, nearly half (49%) were unintended. (
  • The only things I can find on the internet talk about low fetal heart rate seem like there is a 100% chance of miscarriage. (
  • This means that 63 percent of pregnancies ended in a live birth, 21 percent in abortion, and 16 percent with a miscarriage or stillbirth. (
  • Bahceci, M. and Ulug, U. (2005) Does underlying infertility aetiology impact on first trimester miscarriage rate following ICSI? (
  • No increased rate of miscarriage was found among women with primary cesarean, with maternally requested cesarean section associated with a decreased rate of miscarriage (HR 0.72, 95% CI 0.60, 0.85). (
  • pregnancy rate includes estimated number of pregnancies ending in miscarriage or stillbirth. (
  • By stipulating single embryo transfer for appropriate women, these countries have lowered their multiple birth rates to 11% or less and at the same time reducing health costs. (
  • All the pregnancy rates below are reported with embryo transfer as the reference point, meaning that only the IVF cycles that reached embryo transfer are included. (
  • Research demonstrates that acupuncture treatments before and after IUI and embryo transfer may significantly improve pregnancy rates by increasing blood flow to the uterus, regulating hormone levels, reducing stress, and improving male sperm counts. (
  • National pregnancy, birth and abortion rate per 1,000 women ages 15-19. (
  • Birth rates among teenagers were defined as the number of live births per 1,000 women ages 15-19, 15-17, and 18-19 years in their respective racial/ethnic group. (
  • The fetal death rate did not increase significantly compared to preoutbreak periods. (
  • Of the women who were randomized, LARC users were significantly more likely to continue with it, and showed a significantly lower rate of unintended pregnancy, compared with women randomized to short-acting methods, reported David Hubacher, PhD, of FHI 360, a non-profit organization in Durham, N.C., and colleagues. (
  • Prematurity rates, or gestation of less than 37 weeks, reduced significantly over time: 67 percent from 1983 to 1997, 31 percent from 1997 to 2006, and 26 percent from 2007 to the present. (
  • The study's authors, from University College London and the London School of Hygiene, said that the figures gave "grounds for confidence" that the teenage pregnancy strategy introduced in 1999 was effective. (
  • Education - The Teenage Pregnancy Strategy, which ran from 1999 until 2010, emphasised improved sex and relationships education (SRE) and access to effective contraception. (
  • Treatment of tubal pregnancy in the Netherlands: an economic comparison of systemic methotrexate administration and laparoscopic salpingostomy," The American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology , vol. 181, no. 4, pp. 945-951, 1999. (
  • The rate fell in 1999 but not by much since. (
  • In the U.S., the prevalence of antidepressant drug use during pregnancy increased from 5.7% in 1999 to 13.3% in 2003. (
  • There were 71 pregnancies per 1,000 U.S. girls aged 15-19. (
  • Despite much-publicised initiatives by the Blair government the birth rate per 1,000 girls aged 15-19 in England and Wales is still around 40, while that for Dutch girls of the same age is just over four. (
  • But the CDC's Dr. Lee Warner told VOA that teen birth rates remain the highest in areas where 'unemployment and lower income and education are more common. (
  • Teenage pregnancy rates are down and birth rates among 15-19 year old females have reached an all-time low in the US, and increased contraceptive use appears to be the reason why, two studies published last month by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) have revealed. (
  • It will be five years before we know who the winners are, but the "contest" itself speaks volumes about one of the key -- although little discussed -- goals of the 1996 welfare law: reducing the birth rates of the poor, unmarried mothers who are the heaviest users of public assistance. (
  • With the usual disclaimers about patient selection and other ways that clinics can make their numbers look better or accept lower pregnancy rates to treat more difficult cases, here are the sorted live birth rates for women under 35-37 years old using their own eggs. (
  • The majority are Hispanic or African-American, with respective birth rates nearly double that of white teenagers. (
  • The Latino community is deeply concerned about teen birth rates, the root causes of teen pregnancy, and the challenges that face teen parents," Montoya explains. (
  • In that group, free birth control dropped abortion rates by more than 62 percent and teen birth rates were about one sixth the national average, according to lead researcher Dr. Jeffrey Peipert, CBS St.Louis reported. (
  • Birth rates for teenagers ages 15 to 17 years was 15.4 per 1,000, 29 percent lower than in 2007, while the rate for teenagers 18 and 19 years old fell to 54.1 per 1,000, which is 25 percent lower than in 2007. (
  • An initial study of one such program-Colorado's Family Planning Initiative, founded in 2009-suggests it has reduced teen birth rates in the state by about 5 percent. (
  • these programs may serve as models for other states where birth rates have remained high or have increased since 1980. (
  • Corresponding live birth rates were 73 percent, 70 percent and 87 percent, respectively. (
  • Ahead of the CDC and SART statistics that report on live birth rates, here are CHR's cumulative 2017 IVF success rates (IVF pregnancy rates), along with notable characteristics of our patients who underwent IVF cycles. (
  • Furthermore, some women inevitably experience miscarriages, and live birth rates are expected to be somewhat lower than the clinical pregnancy rates below. (
  • Minnesota's teen pregnancy and birth rates have reached a historic low, but the rate of sexually transmitted diseases among the state's teens have taken a troubling upward turn, according to a report released Wednesday by University of Minnesota researchers. (
  • Indeed, all 10 of the counties with the highest birth rates in 2015 were outside the Twin Cities metropolitan area, with the highest rates in north central and south central areas of the state. (
  • Only three of the studies in the review continued long enough to report actual birth rates rather than simply pregnancy rates. (
  • According to Mark Regnerus' research into the sex lives and religion of American teenagers , mainline Protestants like Lutherans are only just behind atheists and Jews in terms of delaying intercourse, probably by substituting oral sex and "outercourse" to avoid STDs and pregnancy. (
  • But poor women who have begun a family react differently to economic realities from teenagers going through their first pregnancy, said Laura Argys , a University of Colorado economist . (
  • Teenage pregnancy rates in California and the rest of the country dropped in 1996, and it appears that sex education , economics and more realistic attitudes by teenagers played a large role in the downward trend. (
  • The United States has topped a table of teenage pregnancy rates put together by Unicef's Innocenti Research Centre in Italy, which looked at births among teenagers in 28 of the world's wealthiest nations. (
  • Preventing teen pregnancy can protect the health and quality of life of teenagers, their children, and their families throughout the United States. (
  • Pregnancy rates for teenagers ages 15 to 19 are at the lowest rates ever recorded in the United States, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention said today. (
  • The pregnancy rate among sexually experienced American teenagers decreased during the last 2 decades, a tribute to the success of sex education and family planning programs in this country. (
  • 1 However, the teen pregnancy rate in the United States remains one of the highest in the Western world, evidence that many sexually active American teenagers are still ineffective contraceptive users. (
  • Results: Data in this report indicate that pregnancy rates by state among U.S. teenagers ages 15-19 years have changed little since 1980. (
  • Because of the adverse health, social, and economic consequences of teenage childbearing, CDC analyzed data for pregnancies and births among teenagers (3). (
  • Although national estimates indicate that approximately 12% of pregnancies among U.S. teenagers end in fetal loss (2), no comparable data are available at the state level. (
  • The report also discovered major differences in birth and abortion rates between racial groups: "The birthrate in 2011 for non-Hispanic white teenagers (21.7) was less than half that among non-Hispanic black teenagers (47.2) and Hispanic teenagers (49.6). (
  • The abortion rate for non-Hispanic black teenagers (32.6) was almost four times that for non-Hispanic whites (8.5) and more than two and half times that for Hispanics (12.7). (
  • Dr. Finer found that, because only 27% of 15-17-year-olds are sexually active, traditional estimates of unintended pregnancy understate the extent to which sexually active adolescents experience such pregnancies. (
  • LARC methods-implants and IUDs-have been shown to be effective in reducing rates of unintended pregnancy among adolescents, and their use in this population is endorsed by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the World Health Organization. (
  • 1, 2] Compared with the pill, patch and ring, LARC methods have low failure rates and a reduced likelihood of noncompliant use, which make them particularly suitable for adolescents. (
  • The Adolescent Sexual Health Report , which is issued annually by the University of Minnesota Healthy Youth Development - Prevention Research Center (HYD - PRC), found that the pregnancy rate among adolescents aged 15 to 19 decreased by 11.8 percent and the birth rate fell by 11.3 percent in 2015. (
  • According to bpas 60% of all local authorities have at least one ward with a high rate of under-18 conceptions. (
  • The reasons teen mothers give for not using contraceptives consistently before their first pregnancies predict the occurrence of subsequent conceptions during adolescence. (
  • Our findings suggest that future research should focus on the development of more effective interventions for preventing repeat conceptions among adolescent mothers who had the capacity to prevent their first pregnancies. (
  • The study showed 327 conceptions occurred in 193 women, including 80 pregnancies in 40 women with cirrhosis, 85 pregnancies in 52 women without cirrhosis, and 162 pregnancies in 93 women after liver transplantation. (
  • In 1997, a study revealed that there was a north-south divide in England in the rate of conceptions to under-18s, with the highest rates and proportion leading to maternity being in the north, and the lowest rates with the highest proportion leading to abortion, being in the south, with the exception of London, which had high rates of both conception and abortion. (
  • The lack of information and restricted access to comprehensive sex education and adequate sexual and reproductive health services are directly related to adolescent pregnancies," said Esteban Caballero, UNFPA's regional director. (
  • Starting in 2010, the CDC, in cooperation with the Office of Adolescent Health, began showcasing the effectiveness of 'innovative, multicomponent, community-wide initiatives' in reducing pregnancy rates. (
  • The reality is that adolescent pregnancy is most often not the result of a deliberate choice, but rather the absence of choices, and of circumstances beyond a girl's control," Dr. Osotimehin wrote in the report. (
  • The report said that high rates of adolescent pregnancies correspond with other social problems: "Early pregnancies reflect powerlessness, poverty, and pressures - from partners, peers, families, and communities. (
  • The birth or pregnancy in one adolescent is unacceptable. (
  • Indeed, in Roosevelt, Hempstead and Westbury -- where Planned Parenthood, through the Department of Health's Comprehensive Adolescent Pregnancy Prevention Program, provides evidenced-based sex education programs -- teen pregnancy rates have dropped dramatically: 58 percent, 22 percent and 21 percent, respectively. (
  • These alarming figures are featured in "The State of Adolescent Sexual Health in Colorado 2007" from the Colorado Organization on Adolescent Pregnancy, Parenting and Prevention (COAPPP) . (
  • Casillas adds that integrating cultural relevancy into reproductive health programs is another important key to preventing adolescent Latina pregnancies. (
  • The 198 study participants were enrolled consecutively during their first pregnancies from an adolescent-oriented maternity program. (
  • I went to an ultrasound today and I am a bit worried about the heart rate of the baby. (
  • I went to the OB this morning to have an ultrasound to confirm pregnancy. (
  • Once we see a heart beat on the ultrasound there is a very good chance that the pregnancy will continue. (
  • Doppler ultrasound is utilized during pregnancy to reassure mothers of fetal well-being. (
  • However, the pregnancy rate can be defined broadly to include all positive pregnancy tests, or more narrowly, to include only "clinical pregnancies" - those pregnancies confirmed by ultrasound examination in the first trimester. (
  • The researchers recruited adult women who had a closed cervical os and an ultrasound that showed a nonviable intrauterine pregnancy between five and 12 weeks' gestation. (
  • As always, our clinical pregnancy rates excludes chemical pregnancies (pregnancies registered only as a spike in hCG levels without ultrasound confirmation). (
  • Researchers should consider consistently incorporating measures of sexual activity into future analyses of unintended pregnancy risk. (
  • Researchers at Inprenha Biotecnologia, a company based in Jaboticabal, São Paulo State, Brazil, working in partnership with colleagues at the University of São Paulo's Ribeirão Preto School of Pharmaceutical Sciences (FCFRP-USP), have discovered a molecule that can increase bovine pregnancy rates and reduce early embryo loss. (
  • In a new study , set to be published in the September issue of Obstetrics and Gynecology , researchers found that Texas experienced a dramatic increase in pregnancy-related deaths from 2010 to 2012. (
  • The researchers are of the opinion that this could be due to increase in vitamin intake after being confirmed of a twin pregnancy. (
  • Throughout the United States, researchers have pointed to heart problems, and other chronic medical conditions such as diabetes, to explain the rise in pregnancy-related deaths. (
  • Researchers used data from the Quebec Pregnancy Cohort, looking at a variety of factors, including information about the mother's use of antidepressants and the child's eventual diagnosis of autism. (
  • Researchers specified that all female participants use acceptable birth control, including abstinence, as rosiglitazone is a class C pregnancy medication. (
  • The researchers conducted a retrospective analysis of all pregnancies occurring in women with chronic liver disease or following liver transplantation from 1983 to 2017 at Kings College Hospital. (
  • The researchers then compared the results of these pregnancies in three different time periods: 1983‐ 1996, 1997‐2006 and 2007‐2017. (
  • The researchers found that the number of teenage pregnancies that ended in abortion declined by one third from 1985 to 2007. (
  • Teen pregnancy rates have hit record lows across the country, with nearly 615,000 teen pregnancies occurring each year in the United States, according to the Guttmacher Institute. (
  • To investigate whether growth hormone (GH) could improve pregnancy rates of patients with thin endometrium by clinical study and laboratory experiments. (
  • I have heard of great outcome stories for heart rates just below normal. (
  • The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the outcome of tubal reversal in patients and determine which factors influenced post-reversal pregnancy rates. (
  • The relationship between cardiopulmonary exercise testing parameters and pregnancy outcome has not been defined. (
  • Peak oxygen consumption was not associated with an adverse pregnancy outcome. (
  • Two weeks after rhCG injection, bhCG pregnancy test to determine pregnancy outcome in both groups was done and the outcome results, along with other information were recorded separately. (
  • The presence of liver disease and/or liver transplant confers certain risks to outcome of a pregnancy. (
  • As Society for Assisted Reproductive Technologies (SART) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also note in their annual outcome reporting, center-to-center comparisons of IVF pregnancy rates can be misleading because of the differences in patient population, treatment approaches and selection criteria. (
  • In light of a recent report from CHR that a handful of IVF centers engage in questionable practice of manipulating their IVF outcome reporting in order to inflate their reported pregnancy rates, SART/CDC data should be viewed with caution. (
  • Cesarean sections save lives but do they have any negative impacts on the outcome of subsequent pregnancies? (
  • These couples have trouble either conceiving or maintaining a pregnancy, with a third of infertility cases being attributed to the female partner. (
  • Progesterone has been used also as therapy for PMS syndrome and for women with infertility or frequent pregnancy loss. (
  • BOSTON - There is no doubt that undergoing infertility treatment is stressful, with high rates of anxiety and depression reported by many patients. (
  • According to Saludmovil , a health and lifestyle news site for bilingual Hispanics, data collected by the CDC from 2011-15 revealed that the teen pregnancy rate fell to 22.5 births per 1,000 teens in 2015, down from 62 births per 1,000 teens in 1991 and a 9% decrease from 2014. (
  • The teen birth rate also declined noticeably, to 34.4 births per 1,000 teens, a 44 percent drop from its peak in 1991, when it was 61.8 births per 1,000. (
  • There are substantially greater numbers of unintended pregnancies among women aged 20-24 than among younger women. (
  • Unintended pregnancy rates are elevated not only among poor and low-income women, but also among women aged 18-24, cohabiting women and minority women. (
  • Between 2008 and 2010, the teen pregnancy rate declined in all 50 states. (
  • The findings, published in The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism , suggest that a low daily dose of aspirin may help women who have previously lost a pregnancy successfully carry a baby to term. (
  • For queer youth who are out, the information about pregnancy prevention is being overlooked for them because the adults in their lives think they don't need it," said Erin Wilkins, director of clinical programs at Family Tree Clinic, a community sexual health clinic in St. Paul. (
  • Clinical pregnancy rate. (
  • The diagnosis of acute fatty liver of pregnancy is usually made on clinical grounds by the treating physician, but differentiation from other conditions affecting the liver may be difficult. (
  • A new study by the New York- based Alan Guttmacher Institute shows that pregnancies in females 19 and younger declined 4 percent from 1995 to 1996. (
  • There were 614,000 pregnancies among 15- to 19-year-old women in the United States in 2010, or about 57 pregnancies per 1,000 women in that age group, according to a new study by the Guttmacher Institute. (
  • But those who study teen pregnancy say the problem is not exclusive to Timken High. (
  • Latin America teen pregnancy rate 'unacceptably high': U.N. (
  • The report by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO), the U.N. children's agency (UNICEF) and the U.N. Population Fund (UNFPA) blamed high pregnancy rates on a lack of access to contraception and high levels of sexual violence against girls. (
  • The teen pregnancy rate fell 19 percent from its all-time high in 1991 to reach a record low of 94.3 pregnancies per 1,000 women aged 15-19 years in 1997. (
  • However, pregnancy rates for black and Hispanic teens remain twice as high as the rate for white teens. (
  • According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , heart disease, infection, bleeding and high blood pressure are a few leading causes of pregnancy-related deaths in the United States. (
  • A number of barriers to LARC use among young women and others at high risk of unintended pregnancy have been described. (
  • I'm glad everything is normal because I know that some women experience high blood pressure during pregnancy and one of the signs is a rapid heart rate. (
  • Although an upper level of safe exercise intensity has not been established, women who were regular exercisers before pregnancy and who have uncomplicated, healthy pregnancies should be able to engage in high intensity exercise programs, such as jogging and aerobics, with no adverse effects. (
  • It is important to note, however, that poor women have high unintended pregnancy rates nearly across the board, regardless of their education, race and ethnicity, marital status or age. (
  • In contrast to the high rates among certain groups, some women in the United States are having considerable success timing and spacing their pregnancies. (
  • Florida scientists studying dairy cows reported that for high conception rates the temperature at insemination and the day after insemination was critical to success. (
  • The Vital Signs report looked at data from 1991 to 2009 and found that in addition to the steady decrease in the rate of teen pregnancies, there's also been a decrease in the percentage of high school students even having sex. (
  • In addition, the numbers showed her heart rate had been high. (
  • The rates of pregnancy for foster youth are similar to other high-risk groups, such as youth involved in the juvenile justice system, those with substance use and/or mental health issues, homeless youth, and LGBT youth. (
  • And we cannot ignore high pregnancy rates in other marginalized populations who also need help. (
  • In addition, since our data did not point to obvious causes of the high rates of congenital anomalies, we also need to better understand the reasons for the high rates of congenital anomalies in these young women, in order to know what factors during pregnancy to target. (
  • Heart rate variability reflects the functioning of the autonomic nervous system, and recent research has linked high heart rate variability to greater susceptibility to various environmental influences. (
  • High Rate of Preterm Birth in Pregnancies Complicated by Rheumatoid Arthritis. (
  • Those rates for sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are disproportionately high. (
  • Procedure predicts embryos most likely to result in pregnancy ( To address the high rate of multiple bi. (
  • To address the high rate of multiple births resulting from in-vitro-fe. (
  • Acetaminophen was used by 59 percent of the women in early pregnancy. (
  • Mifepristone pretreatment for the medical management of early pregnancy loss. (
  • Hourvitz, A. (2006) Role of embryo quality in predicting early pregnancy loss following assisted reproductive technology. (
  • Moreover, we don't know enough about the possible adverse effects of glucocorticoids in early pregnancy. (
  • In 1969 the under-18 conception rate was 47.1. (
  • The under 18 conception rate has dropped again for the seventh year in a row, to the lowest rate since the baseline for teenage pregnancies was first set 17 years ago. (
  • This is what cumulative conception rate means. (
  • The 2008 underage conception rate in England and Wales was 13% lower than in 1998. (
  • By 2014, the under-18 conception rate in England had dropped to 22.9 per 1,000, approximately half the 1997 figure of 45.9. (
  • U.S. teen pregnancy rates have fallen nearly 50 percent among Hispanic and black teens, and the overall teen birth rate has dropped more than 40 percent in the past 10 years. (
  • Ultimately, Albert and the CDC said the key to keeping the rates of teen pregnancy down is giving teens 'good quality information' along with access to contraception. (
  • In fact, as Saludmovil explained, Canada's teen pregnancy rate in 2011 was just 13 per 1,000 teens, while France (7 per 1,000 teens) and Germany's (5 per 1,000 teens) were even lower. (
  • Among teens, however, when rates include only those who are sexually active, the picture changes dramatically. (
  • Accounting for sexual activity is an important consideration when calculating teens' rate of unintended pregnancy," says Dr. Finer . (
  • Pregnancy remains more common among older teens than younger ones, with 69 percent of teen pregnancies occurring among 18- to 19-year-olds, according to the report. (
  • In 2010, the rate among black teens was 99.5 pregnancies per 1,000 teens, the rate among Hispanic teens was 83.5 per 1,000 and the rate among white teens was 37.8 per 1,000. (
  • It appears that efforts to ensure teens can access the information and contraceptive services they need to prevent unwanted pregnancies are paying off. (
  • Teens who pledge not to have premarital sex are not cutting their risks of either pregnancy or catching a sexually transmitted disease. (
  • Statistics from 2007 show 39.7 pregnancies per 1,000 teens. (
  • That LGBTQ youths are more likely to have had sex and to have experienced pregnancy than other teens didn't surprise Kahn, with Teenwise Minnesota, but the extent of risk-taking behavior compared with straight teens came as a shock. (
  • In a press release attached to the new Vital Signs report , Dr. Thomas R. Frieden, the director of the CDC, wrote that despite the steady reduction in teen pregnancies over the last two decades, 'still far too many teens are having babies. (
  • Teens aren't careless, what about the parents who aren't around to show them that pregnancy is wrong? (
  • The teen pregnancy rate might be the lowest in 20 years, but not by much and it certainly isn't because teens are having less sex. (
  • Latina teens are giving birth at alarming rates. (
  • The majority (84%) of the teens attributed their failure to use contraceptives before their first pregnancy partially to a lack of capacity to do so. (
  • Yet between 2014 and 2015, the rate of gonorrhea among Minnesota's teens jumped 40 percent, and the rate of chlamydia rose 15 percent. (
  • The overall pregnancy rate among Scottish teens fell to a record low in 2014 after being among the worst in Western Europe, by plummeting 40 per cent in the last decade. (
  • Brook has contributed to a reduction in teenage pregnancies, from 62.9 per 1,000 teens in March to June 2007 to a much lower 42.5 per thousand teens in September 2009. (
  • The use of contraception among sexually active teens is vital in reducing the rates of teen pregnancy. (
  • At the same time, there normally is not a noticeable increase in heart rate during pregnancy until the second trimester. (
  • I'm in my second trimester and lately, I've been experiencing periods of rapid heart rate. (
  • Our study has established that taking antidepressants during the second or third trimester of pregnancy almost doubles the risk that the child will be diagnosed with autism by age 7, especially if the mother takes selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs). (
  • Exposure to antidepressants was defined as "the mother having had one or more prescriptions for antidepressants filled during the second or third trimester of the pregnancy. (
  • Methods and Results- We conducted a multicenter retrospective observational study of women with congenital heart disease who had undergone cardiopulmonary exercise testing within 2 years of pregnancy or during the first trimester. (
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy is a rare life-threatening complication of pregnancy that occurs in the third trimester or the immediate period after delivery. (
  • Acute fatty liver of pregnancy (or hepatic lipidosis of pregnancy) usually manifests in the third trimester of pregnancy, but may occur any time in the second half of pregnancy, or in the puerperium, the period immediately after delivery. (
  • According to the World Health Organization , 99 percent of pregnancy-related deaths occur in developing countries. (
  • Between the 12th and 22nd week of pregnancy a complication called 'Red Degeneration' can occur. (
  • This process can also occur outside of pregnancy. (
  • An estimated 95% of teenage pregnancies are unintended (i.e., they occur sooner than desired or are not wanted at any time). (
  • Many changes occur to the cardiovascular system during pregnancy so that you can support two lives. (
  • About 15 percent of all pregnancies were in girls younger than 20, with the highest teen pregnancy rates found in Central America, in particular Guatemala, Nicaragua and Panama. (
  • The overall teen birth rate in the United States has dropped more than 40 percent in the past 10 years, according to new figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (
  • the 1997 rate is actually 10 percent lower than the 1986 rate when the upturn began. (
  • Arizona had the greatest drop (27 percent) in teen pregnancies in those two years, dropping from 82 to 60 pregnancies per 1,000 women. (
  • Patients who only had one tube successfully reversed had a pregnancy rate of 60 percent, compared to 87 percent for patients who had both tubes successfully reversed. (
  • The employment rate in Minnesota remained steady in May at 3.3 percent, the same as the month before. (
  • Minnesota's unemployment rate remains below the national figure, which was 3.6 percent in May. (
  • That's a 37 percent decrease from the teen birth rate in1991. (
  • Across all racial groups, the birth rate declined by 25 percent overall from 2007 to 2011, the CDC said in a new report . (
  • Sixty percent of pregnancies had evidence of disease flare and 28% delivered prior to 37 weeks. (
  • In 2002, 3.1 embryos on average were transferred in IVF cycles, but only 34.3 percent resulted in pregnancies. (
  • Of those successful pregnancies, 29 percent resulted in multiple births. (
  • After the Colorado Family Planning Initiative (CFPI) started providing free IUDs and implants to low-income women at family planning clinics, the teen birth rate and abortion rate dropped sharply. (
  • The 2011 teenage abortion rate was 13.5 per 1,000 women, the lowest since 1973, according to the report. (
  • The new number is a drop of nearly two-thirds since 1988, when the teen abortion rate peaked, the report states. (
  • The abortion rate in England and Wales in 2015 was 9.9 per 1,000 women under 18, down from 17.8 in 2005. (
  • Electronic fetal heart rate monitoring (EFM) is the most common form of intrapartal fetal assessment in the United States. (
  • I went in for an US monday 16th at my 8 week first sono and they found that my baby only measured 6w1d and had a heart rate of only 53. (
  • The research found those who socialised more in person with their friends or partner were more likely to be sexually active suggesting low levels of face to face interaction may be linked to falling teenage pregnancy rates. (
  • He found that, since most adult women are sexually active, rates for all adults are similar to rates for sexually active adults. (
  • The research found that between 1994 and 2008 the incidence rate of pregnancy-associated cancer increased from 112.3 to 191.5 per 100,000 maternities. (
  • In a meta-analysis study of exercise and pregnancy, it was reportedthat, with exercise intensities of 81% of heart rate maximum, no significant adverse effects were found. (
  • Ratings of perceived exertion have been found to be useful during pregnancy as an alternative to heart rate monitoring of exercise intensity. (
  • WASHINGTON - A new study presented this week at The Liver Meeting® - held by the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases - found that the overall number of pregnancies in women with chronic liver disease or following liver transplantation has risen over the past 30 years. (
  • An increased rate of stillbirth (hazard ratio [HR] 1.14, 95% CI 1.01, 1.28) was found in women with primary cesarean section compared to spontaneous vaginal delivery, giving a theoretical absolute risk increase (ARI) of 0.03% for stillbirth, and a number needed to harm (NNH) of 3,333 women. (
  • The review found no overall improvement in pregnancy rates when the assisted reproductive technologies were combined with glucocorticoid treatment. (
  • The gene responsible for LCHAD has been isolated, and the most common mutation found in acute fatty liver of pregnancy is the E474Q missense mutation. (
  • Pregnancy rates are not available for 1997. (
  • Randomised trial of systemic methotrexate versus laparoscopic salpingostomy in tubal pregnancy," The Lancet , vol. 350, no. 9080, pp. 774-779, 1997. (
  • The number of pregnancies increased over the three time periods, from 30 prior to 1997, to 102 between 1997 and 2006, and then to 181 since 2007. (
  • MIDDLESBROUGH has the highest teen pregnancy rates in the North-east yet today we reveal that a service dedicated to sexual health advice for youngsters in Stockton, where figures have fallen, is facing the axe. (
  • Dr. Finer's analysis of data from the 2002 National Survey of Family Growth examined-for the first time in more than a decade-differences between unintended pregnancy rates among all women of reproductive age and those who are sexually active. (
  • The rate among sexually active 18-19-year-olds (162 per 1,000) is also more than double the national figure. (
  • To better address the problem, the federal government just issued an $18 million grant to Planned Parenthood in nine states - including Minnesota - to support programs aimed at reducing teen pregnancies and sexually transmitted diseases in the LGBTQ population. (
  • Of the remaining 53 pregnancies, 14 resulted in pregnancy loss (26.4%), six in preterm delivery and 33 in full-term live births. (
  • This does not account for number of embryos transferred, and is not a perfect metric for "rating" a clinic (this topic, as well as other perhaps better metrics will be discussed later in this series. (
  • A new study co-authored by SIRM-Los Angeles physicians, Dr. Brian Acacio and Dr. Mory Nouriani, demonstrated that measuring a specific genetic marker produced by early human embryos could help predict the likelihood of a pregnancy. (
  • Second, by allowing us to select the best embryos to transfer, we can reduce the total number of embryos transferred and thereby reduce the incidence of twin and triplet pregnancies. (
  • The results of the tests showed that the product increased pregnancy rates in recipients of embryos produced in vivo by 14 percentage points (pp), in recipients of embryos produced in vitro by 7 pp, and in recipients of artificial insemination by 10 pp. (
  • The successes of in-vitro fertilization often result from simultaneous transfer of multiple embryos with the hope that at least one will lead to a pregnancy. (
  • By comparing the content of the successful and unsuccessful embryos, the team established a metabolic profile of embryos that resulted in pregnancies as well as ones that did not. (
  • The task force has sought guidance from other states that have seen a reduction in pregnancy-related deaths and will make recommendations in its September report. (
  • Our study demonstrates that progesterone gel reduces the rate of early preterm delivery, less than 33 weeks, in women with a short cervix. (
  • The study mentioned changes to women's health services and clinic closures but didn't go so far as to suggest there was a correlation between that and the uptick in pregnancy-related deaths. (
  • Still, in the absence of war, natural disaster, or severe economic upheaval, the doubling of a mortality rate within a two year period in a state with almost 400,000 annual births seems unlikely," the study said. (
  • Furthermore, these rates were lower than those in comparable areas without the study program. (
  • Ninety-eight of the 186 patients delivered healthy infants during the follow-up and 31 had ongoing pregnancies at the close of the study. (
  • Information was gathered from 754 women who were enrolled into the study in weeks 8-13 of their pregnancy. (
  • In the first cycle, there was no difference in conception rates between the study group and the control group. (
  • The study brings into focus that taking of folic acid before pregnancy does not have an effective result of conceiving twin babies. (
  • Family planning advocates say the study shows the potential of the health reform law (now known by both supporters and opponents as Obamacare) to reduce unplanned pregnancies nationwide, WebMD Health News reported. (
  • After our initial study cohort was submitted for publication one patient reported a confirmed ectopic (tubal) pregnancy. (
  • A new study conducted at the University of Tampere in Finland shows that the physiology of the infant has an impact on how strongly the mother's anxiety during pregnancy predicts the infant's temperamental negative emotionality, such as crying, fussiness, and fearfulness. (
  • The main contribution of this study is to point out that not all children are similarly affected by pregnancy-related factors. (
  • The findings of our study may necessitate change in nationwide policies regarding obstetric care of women and emphasize the need for kidney health monitoring for women hospitalized during pregnancy and during their outpatient prenatal visits," said Dr. Shah. (
  • Women taking antidepressant medication prior to conception were included in the sample as the study aimed to document rates of antidepressant medication use, and relationship to depressive symptomatology. (
  • The presence of this genetic marker above a specific threshold level was associated with a pregnancy rate of more than 70% in previously infertile women who underwent IVF for the study. (
  • Participants were 14-45 years of age, at risk for unintended pregnancy, and willing to start a new contraceptive method, many of them were uninsured. (
  • The Obama administration's 2010 budget eliminated spending for abstinence-only, shifting funds to pregnancy prevention education that include abstinence along with "medically accurate and age-appropriate" information. (
  • The new figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention represent 'one of the nation's great success stories of the past two decades,' said Bill Albert, spokesman for the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy . (
  • Parental attitudes about frankly talking to kids and attitudes about school-based sex education are also likely playing a role, said Gary Yates , executive director of the Wellness Foundation of California , a Los Angeles health care organization that is launching a major teen-pregnancy prevention campaign in May. (
  • The messages around pregnancy prevention have sunk in and young people are considering it a really important thing to avoid pregnancy and that's great," said report author Jill Farris, who is also the director of the center. (
  • The increase in pregnancy rates during the era of widespread use of highly active antiretroviral therapy illustrates the continued need for comprehensive prevention and treatment services. (
  • However, the latest data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention show that the actual rate of teen pregnancies in the U.S. has declined to a record low. (
  • The review compares success rates between would-be mothers who took glucocorticoids around the time of embryo implantation and those who did not. (
  • The original purpose of the trial was to test whether a small daily dose of aspirin could prevent further pregnancy loss for women who had already had one or two miscarriages. (