The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Female parents, human or animal.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Intractable VOMITING that develops in early PREGNANCY and persists. This can lead to DEHYDRATION and WEIGHT LOSS.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.
Male parents, human or animal.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Effects of twinning on gestation length, retained placenta, and dystocia. (1/752)

Constraints to maximal productivity from twinning in beef cattle include increased incidence of dystocia and retained placenta, longer postpartum interval, and lower conception rate. Incidence and cause(s) of the shorter gestation length and of the increased retained placenta and dystocia associated with twinning were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births produced in a population of cattle selected for natural twin births. Gestation length was shorter for twin than for single pregnancies (275.6 vs. 281.3 d, P<.01) and likely contributed to the higher incidence of retained placenta associated with twin births (27.9 vs. 1.9%; P<.01). Incidence of retained placenta was also higher in the spring (March-April) than in the fall (August-September) calving season (18.3 vs. 11.4%; P<.01). The higher incidence of dystocia with twins than with singles (46.9 vs. 20.6%, P<.01) was primarily due to abnormal presentation (37.0 vs. 4.5%, respectively) of one or both twin calves at parturition. First- (40.5%) and second- (22.7%) parity dams with a single birth had more (P<.01) dystocia than older dams (13.4%), whereas dystocia was not affected (P>.10) by parity with twin births. Because of the shorter gestation length and the increased incidence of retained placenta and(or) dystocia, achievement of increased productivity with twinning in cattle necessitates intensive management of twin-producing dams and their calves during the calving season. Management of the increased dystocia can be facilitated by preparturient diagnosis of twin pregnancies, enabling timely administration of obstetrical assistance to facilitate delivery of twin calves and to increase their neonatal survival.  (+info)

Effects of twinning on postpartum reproductive performance in cattle selected for twin births. (2/752)

The effects of twinning, dystocia, retained placenta, and body weight on postpartum reproduction were evaluated for 3,370 single and 1,014 twin births. Females were bred by AI for 40 d followed by 20 or 30 d of natural service with equal numbers bred and calved in spring and fall. Percentage of dams cyclic by the end of the AI period was lower (P<.05) for dams birthing and nursing a single calf (92.4%) than for dams birthing twins and nursing zero (98.7%) or two (94.7%) calves. Whereas the interval from parturition to first estrus was shorter (P<.01) for dams birthing and nursing a single (56.9 d) than for dams birthing twins and nursing one (68.5 d) or two (69.6 d) calves, length of the interval was further reduced by dystocia in nonlactating dams of either twins or singles (type of birth x dystocia, P<.05). Ensuing pregnancy rates were also affected by type of birth and dystocia. Without dystocia, dams birthing and nursing a single calf had a higher pregnancy rate (79.2%) than dams birthing twins and nursing one (61.7%) or two (66.3%) calves, whereas the lower ensuing pregnancy rates associated with dystocia in dams of singles (71.9%) resulted in similar rates among dams of singles and twins with dystocia (type of birth x dystocia; P<.01). Having a retained placenta resulted in a lower incidence of (93.5 vs. 96.4%, with vs. without; P<.05) and a longer interval to (64.7 vs. 59.2 d; P<.01) estrus while reducing subsequent pregnancy rates (X = 9.6%) in 3 of the 7 yr evaluated (retained placenta x year, P<.01). Because all parous females were bred during the same calendrical period, the shorter gestation length for twin calves (275.6 vs. 281.3 d) resulted in a longer interval from parturition to conception for twin births, whereas means for conception date differed by only 2 d between dams of twins and singles. Furthermore, a reduction (P<.01) in the interval to conception occurred with dystocia in dams of singles (89.3 vs. 85.0 d, without vs. with dystocia) and of twins nursed by zero (116.9 vs. 83.5 d), one (100.2 vs. 92.8 d), or two (96.1 vs. 97.2 d) calves. Another detriment to fertility was the higher incidence of fetal mortality or abortions associated with twin vs. single pregnancies (12.4 vs. 3.5%; P<.01). However, despite the lower conception rates for dams of twins, the increased prolificacy provides an opportunity to increase total beef production with a twinning technology.  (+info)

Individual growth patterns in the first trimester: evidence for difference in embryonic and fetal growth rates. (3/752)

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate individual fetal growth during the first trimester in pregnancies resulting from spontaneous and in vitro fertilization (IVF). METHODS: The growth of 11 fetuses conceived by spontaneous fertilization (known dates of ovulation) in nine patients and 15 fetuses conceived by IVF in 12 patients were evaluated at weekly intervals from 6 weeks, menstrual age, to 14 weeks. Fetal length was determined at each examination. Measures of fetal length included the crown-rump length (CRL), maximum straight line length (MSLL) and maximum axial length (MAL). Comparisons of CRL and MSLL to MAL were carried out. The MSLL was used as the measure of length except when the MAL was available. Linear and quadratic functions were fitted to the complete data sets of individual fetuses in the two groups. Individual data sets from ten fetuses in each group were then divided into early and late growth phases, and linear functions were fitted to each data subset. Start points and pivotal points for each fetus were estimated from the coefficients of these two functions. Growth in these two groups of fetuses was compared, on the basis of slope values. RESULTS: Evaluation of length measures indicated that, before 8 weeks, only MSLL could be measured. After 8 weeks, all three measures could be obtained, with the MAL being the largest. Both the linear and quadratic models performed well with individual data sets (mean R2(+/- SD): linear 98.1 (1.0)%; quadratic 99.4 (0.4)%), with no differences found between spontaneous and IVF groups (maximum possible differences in mean slopes (95% probability): 5-8%). Similar findings were obtained for the early and late growth phase data subsets. Slope values in the early and late growth phases showed low variability (CV: early 13.5%; late 11.6%), but were significantly different (early 0.72 (+/- 0.10 SD) cm/week; late 1.21 (+/- 0.14 SD) cm/week). The mean start point was 5.9 (+/- 0.3 SD) weeks' menstrual age, while the mean pivotal point was 9.2 (+/- 0.7 SD) weeks, menstrual age. CONCLUSIONS: First-trimester growth studies in individual fetuses indicate that there is a change in length growth rate between 9 and 10 weeks, menstrual age. This is consistent with a shift in development from organogenesis to growth. These results can be used for more accurate assessment of first-trimester growth and may aid in the detection of fetal problems that manifest themselves as growth abnormalities.  (+info)

First-trimester cord entanglement in monoamniotic twins. (4/752)

OBJECTIVE: Monoamniotic twinning occurs in only 1% of twin pregnancies, but carries a high perinatal mortality rate. Early and reliable diagnosis is essential if attempts are to be made to reduce the complication rate. We report color Doppler demonstration of cord entanglement in the first trimester, which is diagnostic of monoamnionicity. METHODS: Two patients with twin pregnancies were examined in the first trimester with pulsed and color Doppler insonation of their umbilical arteries. RESULTS: Cord entanglement was suspected and proved by demonstrating differing fetal heart rate patterns in the same direction on umbilical artery Doppler analysis of a common mass of cord vessels. Following appropriate counselling, medical amnioreduction was induced at 20 weeks of gestation to reduce fetal movements and worsening cord entanglement. Delivery was by elective Cesarean section at 32 weeks' gestation and monoamnionicity was confirmed. CONCLUSION: We report a new sign for the demonstration of monoamnionicity in twin pregnancies in the first trimester. This should improve the reliability of early diagnosis, but further studies are required to confirm that, if cord entanglement occurs, it is usually present by the end of the first trimester.  (+info)

Diagnosis of twin reversed arterial perfusion sequence in the first trimester by transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound. (5/752)

A case of twin reversed arterial perfusion (TRAP) sequence was diagnosed at 12 weeks' gestation using transvaginal color Doppler ultrasound, which demonstrated the presence of retrograde perfusion in the umbilical artery of the abnormal twin. Ultrasound imaging showed a monochorionic-diamniotic twin pregnancy with an inappropriately grown second twin, the morphological evaluation of which revealed an abnormal cephalic pole with acrania, diffuse subcutaneous edema and the presence of cardiac activity in an abnormal heart with a single chamber.  (+info)

The clinical efficacy of low-dose step-up follicle stimulating hormone administration for treatment of unexplained infertility. (6/752)

The present study was designed to compare the clinical efficacy of low-dose step-up follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) administration with conventional FSH protocol (FSH was injected daily starting with a dose of 150 IU), both combined with intrauterine insemination (IUI), for the treatment of unexplained infertility. A total of 97 unexplained infertility couples was randomly assigned to one or other of the two treatment groups, either conventional FSH with IUI (48 patients) or low-dose step-up FSH with IUI (49 patients), and only the first treatment cycle was evaluated in each protocol. The difference in pregnancy rates per cycle was not statistically significant between the low-dose FSH group and the conventional group [seven of 49 (14.3%) and seven of 48 (14.6%) respectively]. A significant reduction in the incidence of ovarian hyperstimulation syndrome (OHSS) was observed in the low-dose group (8.3% versus 27.1%, P < 0.05). The incidence of moderate OHSS requiring hospitalization was reduced significantly in the low-dose group (low-dose 0% versus conventional 16.7%, P < 0.01). However, the low-dose protocol did not completely prevent multiple pregnancies. Our results suggest that the low-dose step-up FSH treatment appeared to be useful for the treatment of unexplained infertility because of the high pregnancy rates and the significant decrease in the incidence of OHSS.  (+info)

Uterine artery embolization--a successful treatment to control bleeding cervical pregnancy with a simultaneous intrauterine gestation. (7/752)

A case of a woman suffering from a bleeding heterotopic cervical pregnancy is described. The concurrent cervical pregnancy and intrauterine gestation were diagnosed by ultrasound and bleeding was initially controlled with selective fluoroscopic uterine artery embolization. A selective fetal reduction was done with ultrasound-guided intracardiac potassium chloride. Uterine artery embolization has been used successfully to control haemorrhage in cervical pregnancies when the main goal was to allow preservation of the uterus, thus maintaining potential fertility. This is the first report of arterial embolization used to control bleeding for maintaining a concurrent intrauterine heterotopic pregnancy in an in-vitro fertilization patient. Unfortunately, subsequent conservative measures led to undesired outcome. This procedure initially controlled the bleeding without disrupting the intrauterine fetal cardiac activity.  (+info)

Early prenatal diagnosis of cord entanglement in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. (8/752)

OBJECTIVES: Cord entanglement is a severe complication in monoamniotic multiple pregnancies. Three cases were reviewed to determine how early ultrasound diagnosis might improve counselling and management. METHODS: In two monoamniotic twin and one dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancies, cord entanglement was detected between 10 and 18 gestational weeks by color Doppler and pulsed Doppler velocimetry. Pregnancies were followed up on a weekly basis with special observation of fetal behavior and use of color Doppler velocimetry. RESULTS: In Case 1, a monoamniotic twin pregnancy with cord entanglement close to the umbilical insertions was diagnosed at 10 weeks. Longitudinal follow-up showed intrauterine death of both twins at 15 weeks. In Case 2, entanglement of the umbilical cords of two monoamniotic triplets within a dichorionic diamniotic triplet pregnancy was diagnosed at 10 weeks. The pregnancy continued uneventfully until 35 weeks when cord entanglement was confirmed at Cesarean section. All triplets have since developed normally. In Case 3, monoamniotic twins were diagnosed at 18 weeks. Color Doppler detected side-by-side insertion of the umbilical cords and Doppler velocimetry suggested an entanglement at the chorionic plate. The pregnancy was complicated by polyhydramnios. Cesarean section at 36 weeks confirmed cord entanglement at the chorionic plate. Postnatal computer angiography and morphological examination of the placenta showed the presence of superficial artery-to-artery and vein-to-vein anastomoses and of deep arteriovenous shunts. The development of the twins was uneventful. CONCLUSIONS: Diagnosis of cord entanglement is feasible early in gestation. Future protocols are proposed to document the gestational age at detection, the location, and the Doppler flow patterns and to facilitate the assessment of short- and long-term development.  (+info)

An issue of great interest to couples who need an infertility treatment is the possibility of multiple pregnancy (twins, triplets etc.). Multiple pregnancy constitutes a well known complication of IVF, which may occur when 2 or more embryos are transferred. Multiple pregnancy increases the medical dangers posed to both mother and baby. At Gennima IVF we believe that transferring 2 embryos is the best choice, thus we have high pregnancy achievement rates, as well as low multiple pregnancy rates. In any case, the couple is fully informed and has a thorough discussion with the doctor concerning the number of embryos to be transferred. In vitro fertilisation (IVF) is the infertility treatment during which the patients oocytes are fertilised outside her body, in a laboratory, under controlled laboratory conditions. To achieve this, the patient follows a medical treatment aiming to stimulate the ovaries and help them produce many oocytes. Then, at the right moment, oocyte retrieval is performed, to be
BACKGROUND:Regular antenatal care for women with a multiple pregnancy is accepted practice, and while most women have an increase in the number of antenatal visits, there is no consensus as to what constitutes optimal care. Specialised antenatal clinics have been advocated as a way of improving outcomes for women and their infants. OBJECTIVES:To assess, using the best available evidence, the benefits and harms of specialised antenatal clinics compared with standard antenatal care for women with a multiple pregnancy. SEARCH METHODS:We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Groups Trials Register (31 May 2015) and reference lists of retrieved studies. SELECTION CRITERIA:All published, unpublished, and ongoing randomised controlled trials with reported data that compared outcomes in mothers and babies with a multiple pregnancy who received antenatal care specifically designed for women with a multiple pregnancy (as defined by the trial authors) with outcomes in controls who received ...
Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy involving more than one fetus. Twins, triplets, quadruplets, and so on, are multiple pregnancies. The rate of multiple births is on the increase for several reasons, including older age of the mother and the use of reproductive technology.. Listed in the directory below are some topics related to multiple pregnancy, for which we have provided a brief overview.. If you cannot find the information in which you are interested, please visit the Online Resources Page in this website for an Internet address that may contain additional information on that topic.. ...
This study compared neonatal outcome and maternal complications in multiple pregnancies after assisted reproductive technologies [ART] to spontaneous pregnancies. In this cross-sectional study, we reviewed medical records of 190 multiple pregnancies and births conceived by ART or spontaneous conceptions between 2004 and 2009 in Women Hospital. Obstetric history and outcomes were recorded and compared between these two groups. SPSS version 13 was used for data analysis. The results were analyzed using students t test, chi square and logistic regression [ ...
Multiple pregnancy occurs when two or more ova are fertilised to form dizygotic (non-identical) twins or a single fertilised egg divides to form monozygotic...
Multiple Pregnancy Management:SmileBaby IVF,Care and Management for Multiple Pregnancy Bangalore ,India.Frequent & thorough check up to avoid Pregnancy risk
There are lots of multiple pregnancies these days from twins to higher order multiples. Here are answers to common questions about multiples.
Discusses pregnancy of two or more babies. Covers identical and fraternal twins and triplets. Discusses infertility treatment, a common cause of multiple pregnancy. Discusses common tests, possible complications, and treatment options. Covers self-care.
Learn about specialized care for a multiple pregnancy (twins, triplets and more) from Brigham and Womens high-risk pregnancy physicians and neonatology specialists.
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In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: 99 7 Wanted Babies, Excess Fetuses The Middle Easts In Vitro Fertilization, High-Order Multiple Pregnancy, Fetal Reduction Nexus Marcia C. Inhorn Although rarely acknowledged by global health agencies, infertility is an important reproductive health problem, affecting between 50 million and 185 million people worldwide (Boivin et al. 2007; Mascarenhas et al. 2012; Rutstein and Shah 2004). Approximately 8 percent to 12 percent of reproductive -aged couples suffer from infertility in any given population, but in some regions of the world, particularly sub-Saharan Africa, South Asia, and the Middle East and North Africa (MENA), infertility rates are significantly higher, ranging from 10 percent to 30 percent (Mascarenhas et al. 2012; Nachtigall 2006; Ombelet, Cooke, et al. 2008; Ombelet, Devroey, et al. 2008). In the MENA region, an estimated 10 percent to 22 percent of all reproductive-aged couples suffer from infertility (Serour ...
After treatment with gonadotrophic preparations, there is an increased risk of having multiple pregnancies, even when only one embryo is transferred into the uterus. Multiple pregnancies carry an increased health risk for both the mother and her babies around the time of birth.. Furthermore, multiple pregnancies and characteristics of the patients undergoing fertility treatment (e.g age of the female, sperm characteristics, genetic background of both parents) may be associated with an increased risk of birth defects.. Generally in women undergoing fertility treatment there may be a slightly higher risk of miscarriage.. There is a slightly increased risk of a pregnancy outside of the uterus (an ectopic pregnancy). Therefore, your doctor should perform an early ultrasound examination to exclude the possibility of pregnancy outside the uterus.. ...
Delivery of multiples depends on many factors including the fetal positions, gestational age, and health of mother and fetuses. Generally, in twins, if both fetuses are in the vertex (head-down) position and there are no other complications, a vaginal delivery is possible. If the first fetus is vertex, but the second is not, the first fetus may be delivered vaginally, then the second is either turned to the vertex position or delivered breech (buttocks are presented first). These procedures can increase the risk for problems such as prolapsed cord (when the cord slips down through the cervical opening). Emergency cesarean birth of the second fetus may be needed. Usually, if the first fetus is not vertex, both babies are delivered by cesarean. Most triplets and other higher-order multiples are born by cesarean.. ...
Every pregnant woman feels like shes getting big, but if youre pregnant with 2 or more babies, youll really be growing fast. Be prepared by learning the signs of a multiple birth.
Every pregnant woman feels like shes getting big. But if youre pregnant with 2 or more babies, youll really be growing fast. Be prepared by learning the signs of a multiple birth.
Read about some potential signs and symptoms of a twin (or other multiple) pregnancy, including the role of ultrasound in detecting multiples.
Women often are uncertain during the early stages of their pregnancy and imagine themselves carrying twins or more babies. A woman who is already a mother
Toward Optimized Practice (TOP) helps Alberta physicians implement clinical practice improvements into their clinics using measurement and evidence with the goal of improving both patient care and clinical management.
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Having more than one baby is especially exciting-and complicated. Find out what to watch for, including a greater chance of anemia and preterm birth.
Having more than one baby is especially exciting-and complicated. Find out what to watch for, including a greater chance of anemia and preterm birth.
Plan B. Were all familiar with it, this spawn of Plan A, born when we find ourselves surrounded by failed good intentions. Then theres Plan WTC. Plan WTC (What the Crap-this is a PG-13 blog) is what happens when Plan B runs amok and you find yourself so far off the beaten path that you … Read more ,,. ...
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OBJECTIVES: To compare the outcome of multifetal pregnancy reduction from triplets to twins performed either early (at 11-12 weeks gestation) or late (at 13-14 weeks). METHODS: Ninety-five high-order pregnancies following assisted conception were st
Looking for online definition of multiple pregnancy in the Medical Dictionary? multiple pregnancy explanation free. What is multiple pregnancy? Meaning of multiple pregnancy medical term. What does multiple pregnancy mean?
Multifetal reductions, although highly stressful psychologically, are well tolerated. Sadness and guilt may persist, especially for an identifiable subgroup. Normal maternal bonding and achievement of parenthood goals facilitate grief resolution. The large majority were reconciled to the termination …
November 23, 2016. Canadian fertility specialists continue to lower multiple pregnancy rates resulting from IVF, achieving the lowest rate since specialists starting tracking outcomes nationally. Multiple pregnancy rates dropped to 10.1% nationally compared to 29.4% a decade earlier. The Society attributes these gains to a concerted effort among specialists to promote elective single embryo transfer, and improvements in technology.. Key Messages:. For more than a decade, IVF centres across Canada have been voluntarily reporting data on IVF outcomes. The national, self-funded Canadian Assisted Reproduction Technologies Registry (CARTR) has enabled continuous improvement in IVF outcomes across the country, and has specifically helped clinics reduce multiple pregnancies. This collaboration among IVF centres is unprecedented. In 2012, CARTR joined forces with BORN Ontario as a means to link IVF treatment data with birth outcomes for children born through ART. Ongoing monitoring of the health of ...
One of the objectives of Assisted Reproduction (AR) is to strive to achieve the same benefits of natural reproduction, one of them being the birth of a single baby. In natural reproduction, multiple pregnancies only represent 1% of the total births. Therefore, the probability of having twins is very low. Also lower is the risk of complications for the mother and her offspring that often comes with these multiple pregnancies.. Ever since reproductive medicine emerged as one of the key components of Spains birth rate representing nearly 10% of all births, multiple pregnancies have grown as a result of these reproductive techniques. The probability of a multiple pregnancy rose to 30% after receiving a fertility treatment due to the use of ovarian stimulation drugs or through the transfer of more than one embryo after in vitro fertilization. (Multiple pregnancy recommendations from SEF. ). As the success rates from assisted reproduction began to exceed those of natural reproduction, and given the ...
This rate is around 7 percent for twins, and below 0.5 percent for triplets or higher order multiples Clomid or Serophene. Ive read that it can sometimes cause more than one egg to be fertilised causing multiple births Multiple births clomid multiple birth rate are much more common today than they were in the past. He mumbled that the chances of multiple births was slim, but when I researched, it said the less that 10% odds were for people who did not ovulate to begin with. It is found that clomid may increase the chances of multiple births (7% twins and 0.5% triplets) May 12, 2008 · My fertility doctor prescribed me fertility drugs to get pregnant; Clomid 150mg(5 days worth), Menopur 75IU(just 1 box of 5 shots),and Ovidrel 250mc (just 1 shot). Sep 24, 2015 · The rate of becoming pregnant with multiples -- twins or triplets -- differed among the medications significantly. Palliative Guide Asked Care Hospice Care Areas And On Rate Birth Answers Multiple Provides And Palliative Hospice Rural ...
A few of their stories appeared in this research publication. Rumors also say that the Child Gender Prediction Chart had been studied by the Chinese Academy of Sciences Research Center. You may really feel over the moon then down within the dumps inside minutes. Thus, if a patient has a historical past of endometriosis or different tubal illness, an HSG would be most well-liked. After an intensive evaluation, theres a lot that physiotherapists can do that can beta hcg level for multiple pregnancy you together with your pregnancy-related back ache. the bleeding took 6 days beta hcg level for multiple pregnancy i tried once more proper interval usually begins on the fifth of every month(common). By sixth week the childs coronary heart begins to beat and by eighth week the fetus develops rudimentary limbs. There isnt a need to attempt to prevent white discharge, as this can be a regular process that happens in each and every girl. Together with feeling nauseous!. Their solely authorized concern ...
Click on the links below to learn more about this topic.. Pregnancy Overview. Anatomy: Fetus in Utero. The First Trimester (0 - 12 Weeks). The Second Trimester (12 - 24 Weeks). The Third Trimester (24 - 40 Weeks). The Pregnant Mother. Hormones During Pregnancy. Weight Gain During Pregnancy. Nutrition During Pregnancy. Exercise During Pregnancy. Work and Pregnancy. Sex During Pregnancy. Sleeping During Pregnancy. Multiple Pregnancy. Overview of Multiple Pregnancy. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy. Complications of Multiple Pregnancy. Care and Management of Multiple Pregnancy. Newborn Multiples. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Comparison of Pregnancy, Implantation, and Multiple Gestation Rates for Day 3 Versus Day 5 Embryo Transfers. AU - Estes, Stephanie J.. AU - Hoover, Linda M.. AU - Smith, Scott E.. AU - Somkuti, Stephen G.. AU - Schinfeld, Jay S.. AU - Barmat, Larry I.. PY - 2003/10/1. Y1 - 2003/10/1. N2 - Purpose: To compare pregnancy, implantation, and multiple gestation rates resulting from day 3 and day 5 embryo transfers after in vitro fertilization emphasizing a subset of patients who met criteria for day 5 transfer but elected to undergo day 3 transfer. Method: A retrospective analysis of day 3 and day 5 embryo transfers from January 2001 to June 2002 were evaluated in a community teaching hospital setting. A total of 331 patients ≤40 years old were included. Using Students t test, 2χtest, and Fishers exact test, we compared the pregnancy, implantation, and multiple gestation rates. Results: Pregnancy, implantation, and multiple gestation rates were not significantly different between ...
The CDC reports that the rate of multiple births has increased by 76% since 1980. Multiple births between 1915 and the 1970s were at about 2% of all pregnancies, so the rise in multiples has been surprising. This is partly due to the increase in fertility treatments, however, any other probable contributing factors have yet to be identified.. Some couples who desire multiple pregnancies will seek out in vitro fertilization as a tool, however, many fertility doctors do not recommend this. Although the chances of having twins or triplets do increase with IVF procedures, the fact remains that multiple pregnancies have significant risks. Twins and triplets are harder on the mother during pregnancy, and multiple births are much more complex than a single birth. Its important to discuss with your fertility doctor the chances of multiple pregnancies and how the situation should be handled. Your doctor may recommend specific treatments, such as blastocyst transfer, to reduce risk. At New York ...
An expectant mother during the last 4 weeks of pregnancy(or 8 weeks if multiple pregnancy)prior to confinement or a mother within the first 7 days after giving birth ,cannot be accepted as a passenger on an EVA flight. An expectant mother during the last 12 to 4 weeks of pregnancy (last 12 to 8 weeks if multiple pregnancy) prior to confinement must obtain a medical information sheet (MEDIF) within 10 days prior to flight departure. Please contact EVA Air reservation office at least 48 hours (two working days) before your scheduled flight departure.. We recommend that pregnant travelers bring a Doctors Diagnostic Statement verifying the expected date of confinement to prevent the possibility of being denied boarding by airport staff of barred from entering a destination country. Regulations vary from country to country. We recommend you check travel requirements with the local diplomatic mission of your destination country before you make a reservation. ...
Clinical review ABC of labour care Unusual presentations and positions and multiple pregnancy Geoffrey Chamberlain, Philip Steer In the vast majority of deliveries near term the fetus presents by the head, with the best fit into the lower pelvis in the occipito-anterior position. However, although the head is presenting, it may be not in an occipito-anterior but in an occipito-posterior or transverse position. In a few cases the head is grossly deflexed so that the brow or even the face can present. In other instances, it is not the head that is at the lower pole of the uterus but the buttocks, or breech (from the old English brec-breeches or buttocks). The fetus many even lie transversely so that no pole is in relation to the pelvic inlet. A fetus in this position is undeliverable vaginally; both transverse lies and breech presentations are much more common if the woman enters labour in the earlier weeks of pregnancy (22-28 weeks of gestation). All these malpresentations and malpositions need ...
Women who have multiple pregnancies have a reduced risk of developing multiple sclerosis (MS), reveals research published in Neurology.
Now it still does increase when we go up to 10 or more cycles, its 41.6 per cent but theres only a marginal gain.. Ms Sullivan says the success rates are higher among younger women. The other message I think is that it reinforces the issue about that the earlier you start planning about having a family or accessing fertility treatment if you need to, the better, she said.. For women under 35, after five cycles youre seeing an over 50 per cent success rate for a live delivery.. The study also reveals fewer high-risk IVF multiple births are occurring in Australia. Fertility Society president Mark Bowman says Australia is a world leader in reducing multiple birth deliveries. Twins have higher rates of prematurity which leads to all sorts of problems: premature death, abnormalities, longer-term disability, he said. Now those wont happen to all twins but they are much, much higher in twins than they are single babies. Mr Bowman says that compared to multiple pregnancy rates in Europe, ...
Currently in the UK, women over 40 years old are allowed to have three embryos used in an IVF treatment cycle, but the research published in The Lancet says the chances of success are no greater than for two while the risk of complications is higher.. The finding is likely to result in new UK guidelines for IVF treatment recommending using no more than two embryos in any one cycle of treatment, and similar recommendations being made in other parts of the world.. A major complication of IVF treatment is multiple pregnancy - the birth of twins or triplets - due to the placement of more than one embryo during treatment.. Currently around 40 per cent of US and 21 per cent of European IVF treatment cycles have three or more embryos transferred and around 20-30 per cent of IVF births result in multiple pregnancy. However, multiple pregnancy carries risks such as higher rates of pre-eclampsia, premature birth, caesarean section and blood loss.. The UK Human Fertilisation and Embryology Authority (HFEA) ...
Looking for multiple birth? Find out information about multiple birth. bringing forth of more than one offspring at birth. Although many smaller mammals bear several young at a time, multiple births are relatively uncommon in... Explanation of multiple birth
O31.31X1 is a billable code used to specify a medical diagnosis of continuing pregnancy after elective fetal reduction of one fetus or more, first trimester, fetus 1. Code valid for the year 2020
The Multiple Births Foundation (UK), 2011.. This guidance is about aspects of infant feeding which are specific to multiples. Where there is information already available on infant feeding which is relevant for multiples, we have referred to these documents and not covered them in detail.. The topics covered in this guidance include feeding with breastmilk, feeding the sick or preterm baby, expressing milk, sterilisation of equipment, formula feeding and starting solids. Triplets and higher order multiples are covered within these sections and also in a separate section ...
It has been known for some time that it is better to transfer a single embryo to a womans womb during assisted reproduction treatment (ART) rather than several embryos in order to avoid a multiple pregnancy and the risks associated with it such as foetal deaths, miscarriage, premature delivery and low birthweight.
Hi, according to my radiologist I am expecting twins. One is 5 weeks and one is 6 weeks. Today at my second follow up ultrasound there were no heartbeats detected. The doctor has suggested that I sched...
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Amys Card Creations has been proudly designing, manufacturing and selling custom stationery products for more than 16 years. We are delighted to specialize in products for mothers of multiples! Twins Birth Announcements, Twins Birthday Invitations, Triplets Birth Announcements and Triplets Birthday Invitations are where we really thrive. We offer a precious selection of kids and adult Birthday Invitations, baby shower invitations and baptism invitations. Now offering a huge selection of matching party supplies like personalized favor containers, birthday yard signs and banners, custom favor tags, cupcake decorations and so much more!
Australia, like most other countries awash in IVF, are coming up against the serious familial and social strain and damage caused by mothers undergoing multiple pregnancies and giving birth to too many children at once . But it is a well-known fact that many of these artificial reproductive technologies (ARTs) themselves cause such phenomena as monozygotic twinning. Thus simply reducing the number of individual embryos implanted will not automatically solve the problem. One solution to multiple pregnancies is blastocyst culture and transfer, where several IVF-produced human embryos from a single patient are allowed to remain in culture longer than usual in order to allow the best of the lot to survive the rest -- the survival of the fittest -- and then be implanted as a single human embryo. But is this a moral solution?
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I didnt really have a concept of how big I was. I was so exhausted, getting no more than an hour or two of sleep every night and had a sinus infection
Renaud, H.; Salle, B.; Berland, M.; Thoulon, J.M.; Magnin, P.; Monnet, P., 1979: Triplet births. 24 cases collected over 10 years
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Sometimes, one egg is fertilized and then divides into two or more embryos. This is called identical twinning and produces all boys, or all girls. Identical multiples are genetically identical, and they usually look so much alike that even parents have a hard time telling them apart. However, these children have different personalities and are distinct individuals. Identical multiples may have individual placentas and amniotic sacs, but most share a placenta with separate sacs. Rarely, identical twins share one placenta and a single amniotic sac.. ...
HealthLink BC, your provincial health line, is as close as your phone or the web any time of the day or night, every day of the year. Call 8-1-1 toll-free in B.C. or for deaf and hearing-impaired, call 7-1-1. You can speak with a health service navigator, who can also connect you with a: ...
The Australian Multiple Birth Association (AMBA) is the leading support organisation for families with twins, triplets or more. We focus on improving health outcomes for multiple birth families and by providing local, practical support for families.
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The large body of evidence citing the effectiveness of IVF and recent advances promoting the safety of ART, including the widespread adoption of SET, have established IVF as a reasonable first-line alternative for many infertile couples rather than the treatment of last resort it was once regarded. ...
His skeleton is starting to harden from rubbery cartilage to bone. Sign up for our newsletters right here. Virtually 32 million children and adolescents aged 3-19 years, or about half of kids on this age group, are uncovered to different individualss cigarette smoke. You might begin to feel your child move this week (that is breathlessness early pregnancy symptom as Quickening). Im also curious to know what you think about the first day of your period. That may help the the hcg to grow to be extra concentrated. If you happen to play sport, you possibly can continue so long as it feels comfortable for you. While hCG levels are usually negligible when youre not pregnant, your levels rise quickly, doubling every couple days in early being pregnant. The typical length of being pregnant was simply over 38 weeks, in-depth analysis of one hundred twenty five mothers-to-be discovered. Multiple pregnancies improve urine signs of pregnancy risks for a mom and her infants. Generally, if it does occur, ...
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ICD-9 code V35.00 for Other multiple birth (three or more) mates all still born in hospital delivered without cesarean section is a medical classifica
Dear Debra. I will quote the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith so that you see why the Church AGAINST this practice:. Embryos produced in vitro which have defects are directly discarded. Cases are becoming ever more prevalent in which couples who have no fertility problems are using artificial means of procreation in order to engage in genetic selection of their offspring. In many countries, it is now common to stimulate ovulation so as to obtain a large number of oocytes which are then fertilized. Of these, some are transferred into the woman s uterus, while the others are frozen for future use. The reason for multiple transfer is to increase the probability that at least one embryo will implant in the uterus. In this technique, therefore, the number of embryos transferred is greater than the single child desired, in the expectation that some embryos will be lost and multiple pregnancy may not occur. In this way, the practice of multiple embryo transfer implies a purely utilitarian ...
It is really amazing what our world has come to, and what we are able to do and what we will be able to do in the near future. Although all of this has also brought upon many ethical and religious concerns for many people, but especially us Catholics.. Regarding genetic modification, it has recently become possible to let embryos grow outside of the human body for up to seven days, by which time, only the most vigorous survive. This reduces the number of embryos implanted and increases the number of successful implantations, while also reducing the number of multiple pregnancies. Most embryos, conceived in in-vitro fertilization clinics eventually die. If they are not implanted, they are either donated for research, in which case they are killed, or they are kept in cold storage in very low temperatures after which most are disposed of, or eventually die.. Not infrequently, early in pregnancy, some of these embryos are killed by injection of potassium chloride into the embryos heart. This ...
Learn about the risk of multiple pregnancy in ivf and danger of over treatment and under treatment of ivf or GIFT. Read more on how to have a baby by Dr.Malpani who runs a fertility center in India.
Kudos to the medical provider that had the training and experience to provide the mom with this opportunity. Many would run in fear and have taken the safe way by doing a C section at 34 weeks and then brought the babies to the NICU for a month or two. Personally, I dont believe there is enough statistically relevant data to dictate such a prescribed manner of managing multiple pregnancies.. ReplyDelete ...
Kudos to the medical provider that had the training and experience to provide the mom with this opportunity. Many would run in fear and have taken the safe way by doing a C section at 34 weeks and then brought the babies to the NICU for a month or two. Personally, I dont believe there is enough statistically relevant data to dictate such a prescribed manner of managing multiple pregnancies.. ReplyDelete ...
Hi Im new to this site. But I was just wondering if any one has/had high HCG levels. My doctor says mine are very high, they were 57,000 at 6 weeks. Could it be twins? Multiple pregnancy run in my family, or could it be a molar? Or do you
Offering our insight into the basic science behind fertility issues including ovulation and multiple pregnancies. We help you learn definitions, procedures and implications.
Steph, I was diagnosed with a diseased thyroid YEARS ago, at least 14 years ago. It is regulated now and I feel good. The period of time following diagnosis was a bit rough until they got everything regulated with my meds. That was how it was with my friend, if you were above a size 6 you were fat. Her mom also had thyroid trouble and had never had any problems maintaining her weight. She was always panicked about gaining weight. However when wed eat out she would order whatever she wanted and never put on a pound. Did she exercise a lot? Yes. but she also had thin parents and had always been active. She had no sympathy for a metabolism that had been hurt by thyroid problems, multiple pregnancies, etc. Her MIL was obese, and she would just go on and on about how fat she was, and then follow up with now Im not talking about you so dont get so sensitive. So, basically, I knew she despised fat people and I knew she thought I was overweight, but I wasnt supposed to take it personally, you ...
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... chronic blood pressure and multiple pregnancies can increase the risk of developing placental disease.[3] Also, exposure to ... endured placental disease within the first pregnancy has an increased risk of the disease progressing within future pregnancies ... of pregnancies that place them at risk of developing placental disease.[6] Ischemic placental disease is linked with ... Especially when these symptoms are evident at early stages of pregnancy.[3] The abnormal invasion of the trophoblast cells, ...
CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) *^ "Glucose screening tests during pregnancy". Medline Plus. U.S. National ... A second pregnancy within 1 year of the previous pregnancy has a large likelihood of GDM recurrence.[74] ... Based on different studies, the chances of developing GDM in a second pregnancy, if a woman had GDM in her first pregnancy, are ... 6% of pregnancies[3]. Gestational diabetes is a condition in which a woman without diabetes develops high blood sugar levels ...
"Multiple Pregnancy: Twins or More - Topic Overview". WebMD Medical Reference from Healthwise. 24 July 2007. Retrieved 5 October ... The corpus luteum can then continue to secrete progesterone to maintain the new pregnancy. Most pregnancy tests look for the ... Dunson, D.B.; Baird, D.D.; Wilcox, A.J.; Weinberg, C.R. (1999). "Day-specific probabilities of clinical pregnancy based on two ... However, this cannot be taken as certainty, as a number of factors can cause bleeding during pregnancy; some factors are ...
Retrieved 13 April 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Ecology of the Asian Elephant in Lowland Dry Zone ... Ascher-Walsh, Charles J. "What is lanugo?". Pregnancy&Baby. SheKnows. Retrieved 7 February 2013. Moore, Keith L (Dec 19, 2011 ... Retrieved 17 February 2013.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "lanugo". Random House Webster's Unabridged ...
In rabbits, nest building occurs towards the last third of pregnancy. The mother digs and builds a nest of straw and grass, ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link) "Nesting Instinct". Parenting Weekly. Retrieved 2013-04-26. "Nesting Instinct in ... "Nesting". Retrieved 2013-04-26. "10 Things That Might Surprise You About Being Pregnant". ... In house mice and golden hamsters, nest-building takes place earlier, at the start or middle of pregnancy. For these species, ...
ISBN 978-1-55861-941-8. OCLC 945948862.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "What is a Doula?". American Pregnancy ... who support all pregnancy experiences and outcomes such as pregnancy termination, miscarriage and fetal loss. Full spectrum ... An antepartum doula provides help and support to someone who has been put on bed rest or is experiencing a high-risk pregnancy ... In the UK, the National Health Service and promotion of midwifery for low-risk pregnancies provide a continuity of care not ...
In low risk pregnancies, most health care providers approve flying until about 36 weeks of gestational age. Most airlines allow ... "Globalization and infectious diseases: A review of the linkages" (PDF). The WHO.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link ... Page 57 in: Sarah Jarvis, Joanne Stone, Keith Eddleman, Mary Duenwald (2011). Pregnancy For Dummies. John Wiley & Sons. ISBN ... The Mama Natural Week-by-Week Guide to Pregnancy and Childbirth. Simon and Schuster. ISBN 9781501146688. ...
S2CID 21358120.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Gray, H (1962). "Duration of pregnancy". Stanford Medical ... Normal pregnancies last between 37 and 42 weeks. Confinement is a traditional term referring to the period of pregnancy when an ... private-care patients with uncomplicated pregnancies and spontaneous labor. The authors suggest that excluding pregnancies ... Except in threatened pregnancies (for example, in pre-eclampsia), "lying-in" or bedrest is no longer a part of antenatal care. ...
There is no evidence that cerclage is effective in a multiple gestation pregnancy for preventing preterm births and reducing ... There is no evidence that cerclage is effective in a multiple gestation pregnancy for preventing preterm births and reducing ... for preventing preterm birth in multiple pregnancy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD009166. doi:10.1002/ ... for preventing preterm birth in multiple pregnancy". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 9: CD009166. doi:10.1002/ ...
It is also effective in the second trimester of pregnancy. Effectiveness should be verified two weeks after use. It is taken by ... Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2011.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Jones, Rachel K.; Kooistra, ... Initially, its use was limited to seven weeks into a pregnancy, but this was changed to nine weeks in 2017. The previous ... "Mifepristone Use During Pregnancy ,". Retrieved 13 March 2018. Corey, E.J. (2012). "Mifepristone". ...
BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth. Retrieved 19 October 2020.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Google (19 October 2020 ... Multiple gestation 4. Cesarean delivery 5. Low birth weight 6. Antepartum hemorrhage and 7.Cord prolapse. The rate of perinatal ... after the 24th week of pregnancy) and neonatal deaths (from age zero to 28 days). The top seven conditions at Tororo General ...
In multiple pregnancies, which often result from use of assisted reproductive technology, there is a high risk of preterm birth ... Pregnancy interval makes a difference as women with a six-month span or less between pregnancies have a two-fold increase in ... The use of fertility medication that stimulates the ovary to release multiple eggs and of IVF with embryo transfer of multiple ... Increased risk has not been shown in women who terminated their pregnancies medically. Pregnancies that are unwanted or ...
They should eschew empirical use of Iron therapy; yet iron deficiency can develop during pregnancy or from chronic bleeding. ... S2CID 41877258.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) Samavat A, Modell B; Modell (November 2004). "Iranian national ... Leung TN, Lau TK, Chung TKh; Lau; Chung (April 2005). "Thalassaemia screening in pregnancy". Current Opinion in Obstetrics and ... 253 (6): 1930-7. doi:10.1016/S0021-9258(19)62337-9. PMID 204636.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) >Brittenham, ...
help)CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ a b c d e Rodriguez-Granger J, Alvargonzalez JC, Berardi A, Berner R, ... Though the GBS colonization status of women can change during pregnancy, cultures to detect GBS carried out ≤5 weeks before ... help)CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ a b Heath PT (2016). "Status of vaccine research and development of ... CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Valkenburg-van den Berg AW, Houtman-Roelofsen RL, Oostvogel PM, Dekker FW, ...
It failed a Phase II trial for multiple sclerosis. "Belimumab (Benlysta) Use During Pregnancy". 5 February 2020. ... Clinical trial number NCT00642902 for "Atacicept in Multiple Sclerosis, Phase II" at Kappos, Ludwig; Hartung ... "Atacicept in multiple sclerosis (ATAMS): A randomised, placebo-controlled, double-blind, phase 2 trial". The Lancet Neurology. ...
... molar pregnancy), diabetes mellitus, alloimmunisation to Rh-D, and multiple gestations. They have rarely been associated with ... These cysts resolve after pregnancy. Rarely, when the theca-lutein cysts are stimulated by gonadotropins, massive ascites can ... "Hyperreactio Luteinalis Associated with Pregnancy: A Case Report and Review of the Literature". American Journal of ...
Baldwin has been on the cover of multiple magazines, including Hello! for July 2012 (with Alec); Mini Magazine for Spring 2013 ... "Great Ideas! Hilaria Baldwin Shares 5 Pregnancy Yoga Moves You Have to Try". People. December 2, 2020. Archived from the ... Juneau, Jen (April 6, 2020). "Hilaria Baldwin Suffers a Second Miscarriage at 4 Months Along After Previous Pregnancy Loss in ... "Strong Moms Rule! Hilaria Baldwin's Confidence Lessons". Fit Pregnancy. July 14, 2016. Archived from the original on February ...
"Ampyra". National Multiple Sclerosis Society. "Notice of Decision for FAMPYRA". Archived from the original on 2012 ... "Dalfampridine (Ampyra) Use During Pregnancy". 22 June 2020. Retrieved 24 August 2020. Solari A, Uitdehaag B, ... It has also been used as a drug, to manage some of the symptoms of multiple sclerosis, and is indicated for symptomatic ... Fampridine has been shown to improve visual function and motor skills and relieve fatigue in patients with multiple sclerosis ( ...
"Rate of pregnancy-related relapse in multiple sclerosis. Pregnancy in Multiple Sclerosis Group". The New England Journal of ... Pregnancy at older ages can reduce risk of ovarian cancer. Numbers of microchimeric cells declines after pregnancy, and ovarian ... "Rate of Pregnancy-Related Relapse in Multiple Sclerosis". New England Journal of Medicine. 339 (5): 285-291. doi:10.1056/ ... improves during pregnancy. These changes in immune responses during pregnancy extend to maternal components specific to fetal ...
Early scans mean that multiple pregnancies can be detected at an early stage of pregnancy[17] and also gives more accurate due ... Check for multiple fetuses. *Assess possible risks to the mother (e.g., miscarriage, blighted ovum, ectopic pregnancy, or a ... Brown, HC; Smith, HJ; Mori, R; Noma, H (14 October 2015). "Giving women their own case notes to carry during pregnancy". The ... Women experiencing a complicated pregnancy may have a test called a Doppler ultrasound to look at the blood flow to their ...
Pregnancy and delivery in protein C-deficiency.. „Curr Drug Targets". 6 (5), s. 577-83, Aug 2005. PMID: 16026278. ... The pathogenesis of venous thromboembolism: evidence for multiple interrelated causes.. „Ann Intern Med". 145 (11), s. 807-15, ...
CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). *^ "MENT®: Subdermal Implants for Men , Population Council". ... A condom is a sheath-shaped barrier device that may be used during sexual intercourse to reduce the probability of pregnancy. ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Zhen QS, Ye X, Wei ZJ; Ye; Wei (February 1995). "Recent progress in research ... CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link). *^ Tash, Joseph; Attardi, B; Hild, SA; Chakrasali, R; Jakkaraj, SR; Georg, GI ( ...
... multiple names: authors list (link) Westfall, Rachel Emma (2001). "Herbal medicine in pregnancy and childbirth". Advances in ...
Multiple pregnancies are much less likely to carry to full term than single births, with twin pregnancies lasting on average 37 ... Researchers suspect that as many as 1 in 8 pregnancies start out as multiples, but only a single fetus is brought to full term ... "Facts About Multiples: An Encyclopedia of Multiple Birth Records". Archived from the original on 2009-10-15. Retrieved 2008-10- ... Occasionally, a woman will suffer a miscarriage early in pregnancy, yet the pregnancy will continue; one twin was miscarried ...
She regarded pregnancy and childbirth as "barbaric" (a friend of hers compared labor to "shitting a pumpkin") and the nuclear ... ISBN 978-1-78478-052-4. OCLC 905734953.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link) "Notes from the First Year". Duke Digital ... Contraception, in vitro fertilization and other medical advances meant that sex would one day be separated from pregnancy and ... sfn error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFFirestone1970 (help) Rich, Jennifer (2014) [2007]. Modern Feminist Theory. Penrith: ...
A current pregnancy, if any, is included in this count. Multiple pregnancy is counted as 1. Parity, or "para", indicates the ... Multiple births (twins, triplets and higher multiples) count as one pregnancy (gravidity) and as one birth. For example, a ... carried one pregnancy to 35 weeks with surviving twins; carried one pregnancy to 9 weeks as an ectopic (tubal) pregnancy; and ... In obstetrics, the term can lead to some ambiguity for events occurring between 20 and 24 weeks, and for multiple pregnancies. ...
Use during pregnancy may harm the baby. It works by blocking inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), which is needed by ... Preliminary data suggests that mycophenolate mofetil might have benefits in people with multiple sclerosis. However the ... Mycophenolic acid is associated with miscarriage and congenital malformations when used during pregnancy, and should be avoided ... "Mycophenolate mofetil (CellCept) Use During Pregnancy". 24 January 2020. Retrieved 6 April 2020. Jasek W, ed. (2007 ...
Women pregnant with twins or higher-order multiples are at higher risk for pregnancy complications. Routine bed rest in twin ... Bed rest is therefore not recommended routinely in those with a multiple pregnancy. Use in combination with assisted ... Crowther, Caroline A; Han, Shanshan; Crowther, Caroline A (2010). "Hospitalisation and bed rest for multiple pregnancy". ... Bed Rest During Pregnancy "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-06-23.CS1 maint: archived ...
Understanding the role of IFN-τ in pregnancy recognition in ruminants and its mechanism of action led to its use in pregnancy ... IFN-τ genes have only been found in ruminants that belong to the Artidactyla order, and multiple polymorphisms and several ... Since the effects of IFN-τ are not limited to ruminants and pregnancy, it has been studied for its anti-inflammatory properties ... IFN-τ was first discovered in ruminants as the signal for the maternal recognition of pregnancy and originally named ovine ...
In the United States peginterferon beta-1a is indicated for the treatment of relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS), to ... "Peginterferon beta-1a (Plegridy) Use During Pregnancy". 22 July 2019. Retrieved 25 June 2020. "Plegridy- ... Peginterferon beta-1a', sold under the brand name Plegridy, is medication used to treat multiple sclerosis. The most common ... In the European Union peginterferon beta-1a is indicated for the treatment of relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis in adults ...
Health Information on Pregnancy: MedlinePlus Multiple Languages Collection ... Pregnancy and Dental Health - English PDF Pregnancy and Dental Health - 繁體中文 (Chinese, Traditional (Cantonese dialect)) PDF ... Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy - English PDF Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy - العربية (Arabic) PDF ... Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy - English PDF Tips for Good Oral Health during Pregnancy - 한국어 (Korean) PDF ...
Having multiple ultrasound examinations during pregnancy is unlikely to cause any lasting harm to the developing fetus, ... Multiple Pregnancy Ultrasounds Safe for Child. No Long-Term Harm to Child From Repeat Ultrasounds During Pregnancy ... 2, 2004 -- Having multiple ultrasound examinations during pregnancy is unlikely to cause any lasting harm to the developing ... Multiple Ultrasounds Safe During Pregnancy. In the study, researchers compared the physical and developmental growth of about ...
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Selective reduction in multiple pregnancy.. BMJ 1988; 297 doi: (Published 13 August ...
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This article discusses the conditions that are unique to multifetal pregnancies.. Guidance from CDC on Zika test results. June ...
If you arent one of those mothers, learn what signs and symptoms point to multiple pregnancy. ... Some mothers can tell early in their pregnancy that theyre carrying multiples. ... Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Pregnancy Some mothers can tell early in their pregnancy that theyre carrying multiples. If you ... Signs and Symptoms of Multiple Pregnancy. E Fact. Multiples manifest their presence in several ways, but no one symptom ...
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Jessica Gruber presents Pregnancy and Postpartum Health + Yoga Series - Monday, January 20, 2020 , Monday, May 18, 2020 at The ... Pregnancy and Postpartum Health + Yoga Series at The Well 3220 17th Street Northwest ##10, Washington, DC 20010 ... February 17 - Pelvic floor during pregnancy and postpartum - this class will be a deep exploration of the physiology of the ... Each month has a different topic or theme around pregnancy and postpartum. ...
Women with multiple sclerosis often find that they have fewer problems when they are expecting. That led researchers to develop ...
... offers tips for pregnant women. ... Multiple Pregnancy. Multiple Pregnancy or multiple births ... Multiple Pregnancy Calculator assesses your pregnancy symptoms and finds if you are pregnant with twins or triplets or more. ... Quiz on Multiple Pregnancy. Twins? Triplets? So, you now know you are having a multiple pregnancy. How do you prepare for a ... Triplets or Multiple Pregnancy Calculator. Twins, Triplets or Multiple Pregnancy Calculator. .rate-avg {font-size: 12px ! ...
The Natural Birth Club presents Pregnancy Relaxations - Wednesday, 10 January 2018 , Wednesday, 28 February 2018 at Ancestral ... With a different pregnancy and birth theme each week we will be able to explore concerns and questions as well as enjoy a ... Pregnancy Relaxations at Ancestral Health 6 Station Road Tiptree, Colchester, CO5 0AD, United Kingdom ... Join Holly for 4 weeks of pregnancy relaxations! Arm yourself with confidence and calm ahead of the birth of your baby by ...
... and long-term effects of pregnancy on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Published studies that used established criteria ... Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis Mayo Clin Proc. 1997 Oct;72(10):977-89. doi: 10.1016/S0025-6196(11)63371-5. ... and long-term effects of pregnancy on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Published studies that used established criteria ... In fact, a full-term pregnancy may increase the time interval to reaching a common disability endpoint-walking with the aid of ...
Some may have questions about avoiding a pregnancy ... FindingsSome people have basic questions about how pregnancy ... All of the common annoyances of pregnancy are more troublesome in multiple pregnancy. The effects of multiple pregnancy on the ... Multiple Pregnancy. *Multiple Pregnancy *Pathogenesis *Pathologic Factors Associated with Twinning *Clinical Findings * ... Considering the possibility of multiple pregnancy is essential to early diagnosis. If one assumes that all pregnancies are ...
... Shirley A. Fong,1 Vidya Palta,1 ... N. Gleicher, D. M. Oleske, I. Tur-Kaspa, A. Vidali, and V. Karande, "Reducing the risk of high-order multiple pregnancy after ... R. P. Dickey, "Strategies to reduce multiple pregnancies due to ovulation stimulation," Fertility and Sterility, vol. 91, no. 1 ... The Practice Committee of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine, "Multiple pregnancy associated with infertility ...
Pregnancy with Twins, Triplets and Other Multiples Get the facts on how twins and multiples are formed and your chance of ...
Her research interests include hypertensive disease in pregnancy, multiple pregnancy, and other complications of pregnancy. ... multiple pregnancy; preeclampsia; prenatal diagnosis; fetal therapy; interventional procedures during pregnancy.. Languages: ... specialising in scanning women and babies with complications in pregnancy. She is the lead for the Multiple Pregnancy service ... Join us in London for a two day Multiple Pregnancy course chaired by Asma Khalil. This hugely popular course was run in April ...
Multiple pregnancies seldom reach the usual 40-week due date:footnote 1 ... Bush MC, Pernoll ML (2013). Multiple gestation. In AH DeCherney et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment Obstetrics and ... Bush MC, Pernoll ML (2013). Multiple gestation. In AH DeCherney et al., eds., Current Diagnosis and Treatment Obstetrics and ...
... Published: 16/11/2016 Multiple pregnancy: having more than one baby(PDF 365.00KB ... This patient information is based on the NICE clinical guideline Multiple pregnancy: Antenatal care for twin and triplet ... Download the Multiple pregnancy: having more than one baby leaflet in large print ... It focuses mainly on twins but it is relevant to any pregnancy where more than one baby is expected. It tells you about:. *the ...
Most people who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) are women in their child-bearing years. Questions about whether MS ... Multiple Sclerosis and Pregnancy. Topic Overview. Most people who are diagnosed with multiple sclerosis (MS) are women in their ... Bennett KA (2005). Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 48(1): 38-47. ... Bennett KA (2005). Pregnancy and multiple sclerosis. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 48(1): 38-47. ...
Previous multiple pregnancy: the incidence of another multiple pregnancy is 10 times the normal incidence. ... Familial: whether the wifes or the husbands family has a history of multiple pregnancies. ... During pregnancy: *Anaemia: because of the increased foetal demand for iron and folic acid. ... Fundal, umbilical and first pelvic grips: can detect multiple foetal poles. At least, 3 poles should be palpated to diagnose ...
... how will your pregnancy be different, and what will happen at the birth... ... Multiple pregnancies are usually more closely supervised than others because 20 to 30% do not go beyond 32 to 33 weeks. The ... Fortunately you have nine months to get used to it (maybe less, as multiple pregnancies are often premature). ... For multiple births, the delivery will depend on several factors:. - If the babies are in the right position then the delivery ...
Evidence-based statements to deliver quality improvements in the management of twin and triplet pregnancies in the antenatal ... Multiple pregnancy: twin and triplet pregnancies. Quality standard [QS46]. Published date: September 2013. ...
Married at First Sight stars Jamie Otis and Doug Hehner celebrated her viable pregnancy after multiple miscarriages - take a ... Pregnancies Jamie Otis Celebrates Viable Pregnancy After Multiple Miscarriages: Everything Is Going Smoothly. By Riley ... Great news! Jamie Otis revealed that her pregnancy is "finally … viable" after suffering multiple miscarriages. ... She has experienced pregnancy loss before, delivering her late son Johnathan at 17 weeks in 2016. ...
Pregnancy and Multiple Sclerosis. BENNETT, KELLY A MD. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology: March 2005 - Volume 48 - Issue 1 - p ...
  • A study released 10 years ago by the same researchers showed that repeat pregnancy ultrasounds were associated with stunted growth among newborn babies compared with babies who were exposed to only one ultrasound during pregnancy. (
  • Some mothers are fully aware that they are pregnant with two or more babies from the very beginning of their pregnancy. (
  • With multiple babies in her womb, a pregnant woman tends to outgrow her regular clothing and require maternity gear sooner. (
  • Although it is difficult to estimate fundal size (the size of the uterus) in early pregnancy, sometimes an increase is evident, indicating multiple babies. (
  • You might assume that multiple babies would be easily identified by listening for multiple heartbeats. (
  • In other situations, multiple babies that are positioned fairly close together in the womb may have indistinguishable rhythms that are misinterpreted as a single heartbeat. (
  • The mother's uterus is the same whether she is expecting one or several babies, so when she is expecting several babies, the uterus undergoes a lot more tension which can be dangerous for the pregnancy. (
  • However, the position that your babies are in during the latter weeks of your pregnancy will affect what method of delivery is decided as safest for your babies. (
  • It's impossible to definitively know whether you are carrying twins (or multiple babies) by simply gauging how you feel or going off of what a home pregnancy test shows. (
  • Every day, women who are pregnant with more than one baby have healthy pregnancies and have healthy babies. (
  • There are many members who are currently pregnant with multiples, as well as moms who have already had their babies and have stuck around to share advice and insight with those who are currently expecting. (
  • If fertilized, they can result in multiple babies. (
  • While most multiple pregnancies result in healthy babies, possible complications during pregnancy include preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, and placental issues. (
  • This makes it more likely that you will have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby or babies. (
  • The procedure may improve your chances of carrying your pregnancy longer and your chances of delivering one or more healthy babies. (
  • Because multiple babies have an increased chance of premature birth and illnesses, they are cared for in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (
  • Most people have heard of mothers who have successfully had multiple pregnancies (twins or more babies). (
  • Ovulation-stimulating medications , such as clomiphene citrate and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) help produce many eggs, which, if fertilized, can result in multiple babies. (
  • In pregnancies involving multiple babies, though, weight gain will probably increase by about 35 to 45 pounds, but there is no hard and fast rule. (
  • Multiple pregnancies have a higher risk of complications for women and their babies than do single pregnancies. (
  • It is therefore important to establish if specialised diets are actually of benefit to women with multiple pregnancies and their babies. (
  • Randomised controlled trials , 'quasi-random' studies, and cluster-randomised trials of women with multiple pregnancies (two or more fetuses) either nulliparous or multiparous and their babies. (
  • Women often are uncertain during the early stages of their pregnancy and imagine themselves carrying twins or more babies. (
  • Six months ago, Dr. Phil met Courtney , who claimed her former friend, Amie, had fabricated multiple pregnancies and even babies' deaths. (
  • Amie insisted she was not lying about any of her pregnancies or babies' deaths and wanted Courtney to back off and stop making a mockery of her lost children's lives. (
  • however, because of the increased pressure and weight that multiple babies will place on the floor of the pelvis as the babies grow, the more dangerous an incompetent cervix becomes. (
  • Twins Rey and Ron Walters, born at 26 weeks' gestation, are among the preemies delivered at Sunnybrook, one of the largest multiple-babies birthing centres on the continent. (
  • A multiple birth is defined as a birth in which two or more babies are delivered from a single pregnancy on the same occasion. (
  • and those born before 28 weeks of pregnancy-the smallest and sickest babies-are extremely preterm. (
  • To understand the biology of multiples and predict women at risk of preterm birth, scientists in the Women & Babies Research Program at SRI are pursuing several research ventures under the guidance of Dr. Jon Barrett . (
  • Many multiple birth babies will need care in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). (
  • Multiple birth babies have about twice the risk of congenital (present at birth) abnormalities including neural tube defects (such as spina bifida), gastrointestinal, and heart abnormalities. (
  • There are some very important elements that should be included in a diet for multiple pregnancies as they profoundly affect the health and development of the babies. (
  • In the last trimester of your pregnancy half of your babies' calcium needs will be required for bones. (
  • Multiple pregnancy is associated with higher risks for both mother and babies. (
  • Of course, pregnancies with more than two babies have occurred throughout history. (
  • If you are purposely planning to have two babies but want to deal with the pain that comes with pregnancy only once, chances are you've researched about how to improve your chances of conceiving multiples. (
  • The risk of losing the pregnancy completely is significant with triplets and more, plus the risk to the babies in triplet, quadruplet, and quintuplet pregnancies is high. (
  • Let's take a closer look at these potential hints at multiple babies. (
  • But with second babies and on, around 15 percent of women reported more morning sickness with multiples than with previous single pregnancies. (
  • Glucose tolerance tests demonstrate that both gestational diabetes mellitus and gestational hypoglycemia are much higher in multiple gestation compared with findings in singleton pregnancy. (
  • The increased risk for gestational diabetes in a multiples pregnancy appears to be a result of the two placentas increasing the resistance to insulin, increased placental size, and an elevation in placental hormones. (
  • The risk of occurrence of gestational diabetes in a multiples pregnancy is still being researched at this time. (
  • Gestational diabetes, which is a common complication during pregnancy, affects approximately 6-7% of pregnant women. (
  • As the frequency of multiple pregnancies is increasing, every obstetrician has to know that the correct, accurate, and timely determination of gestational age, chorionicity, and amnionicity has significant importance in the management of a multiple pregnancy. (
  • In this chapter, we will present the sonographic figures that are visualized in the first trimester in a multiple pregnancy and help us define the gestational age, chorionicity, and amnionicity. (
  • Beyond the diagnosis of early multiple pregnancy, ultrasound scan is more than necessary to define chorionicity, amnionicity, and gestational age [ 4 ]. (
  • In this chapter, we will present the ultrasound figures that help us determine gestational age, chorionicity, and amnionicity, focused on the 14 first weeks of gestation in multiple pregnancies. (
  • Mothers may have a higher risk of pregnancy-induced high blood pressure, gestational diabetes, haemorrhage following birth, and postpartum depression and heightened symptoms of anxiety and parenting stress. (
  • These include higher chances of pregnancy-induced hypertension and pre-eclampsia, increased risk of gestational diabetes and increased risk of anaemia. (
  • Because birth defects associated with diabetes are more likely to occur during the first trimester of pregnancy and before a diagnosis of gestational diabetes is made, the observed associations suggest that some of the mothers with it probably had undiagnosed diabetes before they became pregnant. However symptoms went unnoticed until pregnancy. (
  • Further, the associations of gestational diabetes with various birth defects were noted primarily among women who had pre-pregnancy obesity, which is a known risk factor for both diabetes and birth defects. (
  • In the United States, the prevalence of gestational diabetes has been increasing in recent years and currently affects about seven percent of all pregnancies, resulting in more than 200,000 cases annually. While it is usually resolved shortly after delivery, women who have had gestational diabetes are at increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes in the future. (
  • Increased risk for gestational diabetes should be kept in mind when following MS mothers and glucose tolerance test in early pregnancy should be considered. (
  • However, the majority of these complications (except gestational diabetes, caesarean delivery and ITU admission) can be explained by the higher rate of multiple pregnancy and use of assisted conception seen in women of very advanced maternal age. (
  • PCOS may result in higher rates of miscarriage (the spontaneous loss of the fetus before 20 weeks of pregnancy), gestational diabetes, preeclampsia, and premature delivery. (
  • Diabetes mellitus and pregnancy deals with the interactions of diabetes mellitus (not restricted to gestational diabetes) and pregnancy. (
  • The typical recommendation for the delivery of triplets and higher order multiples is a cesarean, but twins are often delivered vaginally. (
  • According to the National Center for Health Statistics, the number of twin births increased 74% , and the number of higher-order multiples (twins, triplets, quadruplets, etc.) increased fivefold from 1980 to 2000. (
  • The birth rate for triplets and other higher-order multiples rose dramatically, but has slowed since 1998. (
  • If you're pregnant with twins, triplets, or higher-order multiples, our team of specialists wants to optimize the outcomes for both you and your baby. (
  • Over 60 percent of twins and nearly all higher-order multiples are premature (born before 37 weeks). (
  • Contrary to what most people think, the vast majority of higher order multiples (3+) are the result of IUI with injectable ovulatory stimulating drugs, not IVF. (
  • Intensive fetal surveillance is associated with better outcomes and ultrasound plays a vital role in the screening and monitoring of these pregnancies. (
  • 2009). Obstetric outcomes in women with multiple sclerosis and epilepsy. (
  • Practice parameter update: management issues for women with epilepsy--focus on pregnancy (an evidence-based review): teratogenesis and perinatal outcomes: report of the Quality Standards Subcommittee and Therapeutics and Technology Assessment Subcommittee of the American Academy of Neurology and American Epilepsy Society. (
  • The risks of other outcomes were similar for women with and without MS. In the Truven Health database, risk ratios for the pregnancy outcomes in women experiencing relapses versus those without relapses were between 0.9 and 1.4, and confidence intervals overlapped the null. (
  • however, their risks for other adverse pregnancy outcomes were not elevated. (
  • Bricker L, Reed K, Wood L, Neilson J. Nutritional advice for improving outcomes in multiple pregnancies. (
  • Neonatal outcomes in offspring of women with anxiety and depression during pregnancy. (
  • This national study, using data from the UK Obstetric Surveillance System (UKOSS), examined pregnancy complications and maternal and neonatal outcomes among 233 women aged between 48 to 61 years old, compared with 454 comparison women aged 16 to 46 who gave birth in UK obstetrician-led maternity units from July 2013 to June 2014. (
  • Twin pregnancies are associated with serious adverse outcomes, one of which is preterm birth. (
  • OBJECTIVE To compare glycemic control, quality of life, and pregnancy outcomes of women using insulin pumps and multiple daily injection therapy (MDI) during the Continuous Glucose Monitoring in Type 1 Diabetes Pregnancy Trial (CONCEPTT). (
  • Good nutrition and optimal weight gain are essential to good pregnancy outcomes. (
  • According to researchers at the University of British Columbia and Vancouver Coastal Health Research Institute in Vancouver, Canada, multiple sclerosis (MS) is not associated with adverse delivery outcomes or risk to children. (
  • Our finding that MS was not associated with poor pregnancy or birth outcomes should be reassuring to women with MS who are planning to start a family,' said lead researcher Dr Helen Tremlett. (
  • Immunologist Eliza Chakravarty, MD, senior author of the study, commented, "In general, the outcomes of pregnancy were not terribly different from those of healthy women. (
  • Clinical and MRI outcomes were analyzed during and after pregnancy. (
  • The NICHD is one of many federal agencies working to improve pregnancy outcome, prevent high-risk pregnancy, and improve health outcomes for pregnant women who are at high risk. (
  • However the outcomes of the pregnancies were surprisingly similar so more research is needed to look at the effects of screening all women for thyroid problems. (
  • With many forms of assisted reproductive technology (eg, ovulation induction, in vitro fertilization), iatrogenic multiple pregnancies regularly occur in which the number of fetuses is so great that they may preclude any being carried to the point of viability. (
  • Later in pregnancy, ultrasonography is useful to monitor the growth of the fetuses and to detect gross anomalies. (
  • Other research investigated the effects of alcohol exposure during pregnancy studied the effects only on the fetuses directly exposed or the effects on cellular activity over multiple generations, but never alcohol-related behaviors over multiple generations. (
  • Multiple pregnancy is a pregnancy with 2 or more fetuses. (
  • The healthcare provider may diagnose multiple fetuses early in pregnancy. (
  • Carry a pregnancy with three or more fetuses. (
  • The risk of premature birth is higher when you are carrying multiple fetuses, which increases an infant's chances of having severe health problems. (
  • Multifetal pregnancy reduction is a procedure to reduce the number of fetuses in a pregnancy-usually from three, four, or five fetuses to two. (
  • This may help the two fetuses survive and help you have a healthy pregnancy. (
  • Sometimes, very early in a twin pregnancy, one of the fetuses "disappears. (
  • Even after ultrasound has shown fetal heart movement in twins, spontaneous loss of one of the fetuses occurs in up to 20% of twin pregnancies. (
  • Ultrasound examinations performed early in pregnancy occasionally may fail to identify all fetuses. (
  • To assess the effects of specialised diets or nutritional advice for women with multiple pregnancies (two or more fetuses). (
  • The higher the number of fetuses in the pregnancy, the greater the risk for early birth. (
  • Women with multiple fetuses are more than twice as likely to develop high blood pressure of pregnancy. (
  • In recent years, a procedure called multifetal pregnancy reduction has been used for very high numbers of fetuses, especially four or more. (
  • The objective of multifetal reduction is that by reducing the number of fetuses in the pregnancy, the remaining fetuses may have a better chance for health and survival. (
  • Due to apprehensions about their disease and the effect of medications on their fetuses, some women suffering from chronic illness may choose to postpone or even evade pregnancy. (
  • When fertility treatments result in three or more fetuses, most women will be advised by their doctor to reduce the pregnancy to twins for the safety of the remaining fetuses (multifetal pregnancy reduction). (
  • Researcher John Newnham, MD, of the University of Western Australia at King Edward Memorial Hospital in Perth, says exposure to multiple ultrasound examinations during the first 18 weeks of pregnancy onward might be associated with a small effect on fetal growth, but there are no differences in growth and development in childhood compared with children who received a single ultrasound exam. (
  • Recall that the risk of fetal abnormality in twins is approximately 3 times that in singleton pregnancy. (
  • Fetal activity is greater and more persistent in twinning than in singleton pregnancy. (
  • Dr Monique Haak is a fetal specialist at the Department of Obstetrics at Leiden University Medical Center, focusing on diagnostic imaging in pregnancies with fetal malformations. (
  • Her special interest is in fetal cardiac defects, fetal therapy and multiple pregnancies. (
  • She is the leader of research projects on developments in fetal echocardiography, fetal therapy and screening in pregnancy. (
  • exactly, only a fetal ultrasound can tell the clearer point of pregnancy. (
  • If the pregnancy has a single chorion, fetal maturity will be assessed to see if immediate delivery is recommended. (
  • One of the reasons that it affects postpartum depression is that the mother's supply of omega-3 fatty acids needed to control the multiple sclerosis are depleted during pregnancy to for the development of the fetal brain. (
  • A fetal loss rate of 40% may occur in pregnancies with triplets or more. (
  • Because fetal outcome is best at a particular range of maternal weight gain, it has been suggested that women with multiple pregnancies should take special diets (particularly high-calorie diets) designed to boost weight gain. (
  • This study will evaluate the clinical performance of massively parallel sequencing (MPS) using the MaterniT21 PLUS LDT in the detection of fetal aneuploidy in circulating cfDNA extracted from a maternal blood sample obtained from women pregnant with a multiple gestation who were at increased risk for fetal aneuploidy. (
  • Thyroid disease in pregnancy can, if uncorrected, cause adverse effects on fetal and maternal well-being. (
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, "Contribution of assisted reproductive technology and ovulation-inducing drugs to triplet and higher-order multiple births-United States, 1980-1997," Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report , vol. 49, no. 24, pp. 535-538, 2000. (
  • Of all the types of multiple births , twins normally face the fewest medical problems and complications. (
  • While multiples account for only a small percentage of all births (about 3%), the multiple birth rate is rising. (
  • White women, especially those over age 35, have the highest rate of higher-order multiple births (triplets or more). (
  • What Are Multiple Births? (
  • Caucasian women, especially those over age 35, have the highest rate of higher-order multiple births (triplets or more). (
  • There are many reasons why there are more multiple births today. (
  • Multiples make up only about 3 in 100 births, but the multiple birth rate is rising. (
  • With the advent of various fertility treatments, particularly IVF , multiple births are more common than ever before, and while they can be a little scary, the key to successfully navigating your multiple pregnancy and birth is knowledge and organization. (
  • It is also common for students to observe multiple births. (
  • The authors state that many older women depend on IVF to conceive which in turn leads to an increased chance of multiple births. (
  • To address the high rate of multiple births resulting from in-vitro-fe. (
  • To address the high rate of multiple births resulting from in-vitro-fertilization (IVF), researchers at Yale School of Medicine and McGill University have developed a procedure that estimates the reproductive potential of individual embryos, possibly leading to a decrease in multiple-infant births and a higher success rate in women undergoing IVF. (
  • Of those successful pregnancies, 29 percent resulted in multiple births. (
  • On Canadian soil, more than 6,000 sets of twins are born each year, contributing to the current rate of multiple births, which is roughly one in 31. (
  • As per 2013 numbers from Statistics Canada, 3.3% of live births in the country were multiples, a 1.2% increase from 1993. (
  • There has been a strong connection between hypocalcemia (low calcium levels) and preeclampsia - a very serious complication in multiple births. (
  • The number of multiple births increased from 22.7 per cent to 24.3 per cent, due to the usual practice of fertilising three embryos, which then must be implanted in the womb. (
  • The incidence of multiple births is rising, due mainly to increasing use of assisted reproduction techniques. (
  • The frequency of multiple births in the United States has been steadily increasing with advances in reproductive technologies. (
  • Multilevel logistic regression analyses for live birth and multiple births given a live birth were undertaken using data from the UK Human Fertilization and Embryology. (
  • Obesity can make a pregnancy more difficult, increasing a woman's chance of developing diabetes during pregnancy, which can contribute to difficult births. (
  • The present report describes 6 additional cases of this rare association that received chemotherapy during pregnancy, including in the first trimester. (
  • If one assumes that all pregnancies are multiple until proved otherwise, physical examination alone will identify most cases of twinning before the second trimester. (
  • In the second and third trimester, the demise of one fetus in a multiple gestation may trigger disseminated intravascular coagulation ("dead fetus syndrome"), just as a singleton intrauterine demise might. (
  • PRIMS found that a woman's risk of relapse decreased from her baseline during pregnancy with the fewest relapses in the third trimester (Figure 1). (
  • Newswise - (New York, NY - October 24, 2019) -Exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy to mixtures of suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals found in consumer products is related to lower IQ in children by age 7, according to a study by researchers at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai and Karlstad University, Sweden, published in Environment International in October. (
  • Scientists measured 26 chemicals in the blood and urine of 718 mothers during the first trimester of their pregnancies in the study of Swedish mothers and children, known as SELMA. (
  • A phenomenon called the vanishing twin syndrome in which more than one fetus is diagnosed, but vanishes (or is miscarried), usually in the first trimester, is more likely in multiple pregnancies. (
  • Recent research suggests that 75 percent of twin pregnancies are lost before the end of the first trimester. (
  • Moreover, only about 50 percent of pregnancies diagnosed in the first trimester with twins result in the birth of two live infants. (
  • Fraternal multiples each have a separate placenta and amniotic sac. (
  • Identical multiples may have individual placentas and amniotic sacs, but most share a placenta with separate sacs. (
  • Monozygotic multiples usually share a placenta and a small number even share the same amniotic sac. (
  • Some of these chemicals cross the placenta during pregnancy, exposing the fetus and potentially causing irreversible developmental damage. (
  • Amniotic fluid abnormalities are more common in multiple pregnancies, especially for twins that share a placenta. (
  • Complications or failures of pregnancy cannot be explained simply by malabsorption, but by the autoimmune response elicited by the exposure to gluten, which causes damage to the placenta. (
  • Multiple sclerosis ( MS ) is an autoimmune condition that results in a disruption of information signals between the body and the brain that can cause neurological symptoms. (
  • How do you know if you have multiple sclerosis (symptoms and signs)? (
  • Can multiple sclerosis symptoms and signs worsen during pregnancy? (
  • If you aren't one of those mothers, learn what signs and symptoms point to multiple pregnancy. (
  • In addition to physical symptoms, many mothers of multiples report an unexplainable hunch or vague suspicion early in pregnancy. (
  • Some women have fewer MS symptoms during pregnancy, then a temporary relapse after delivery. (
  • Some symptoms common in pregnancy and after the baby's birth can be made worse by MS. These include depression and fatigue. (
  • What are the symptoms of multiple pregnancy? (
  • About 400,000 people in the United States have multiple sclerosis , with symptoms ranging from muscle weakness or paralysis to difficulty thinking. (
  • So by the time Glasser became pregnant for the first time (she has four children now and was free of MS symptoms during all four pregnancies), Voskuhl and other researchers were already hard at work trying to identify the factor that was protecting pregnant women with MS. "If we could just figure it out, we would have an inroad to a major discovery," Voskuhl says. (
  • Urinary tract infections are more common in pregnancy and can produce symptoms similar to a relapse, known as a pseudorelapse. (
  • As the levels of omega-3 fatty acids drop in the mother, the symptoms of multiple sclerosis rapidly return. (
  • Some mothers experience mild discomfort and do not show any symptoms of bearing twins while others express symptoms of multiple pregnancy. (
  • At the start of pregnancy, a total of 15 percent had clinically isolated syndrome, which is the first episode of MS symptoms. (
  • But no previous study has tested whether pregnancy actually results in the production of new myelin, which may explain improvement of symptoms. (
  • The truth is that while there are several signs and symptoms of a twin pregnancy, there is also tremendous overlap with the signs and symptoms of singleton pregnancies. (
  • Some women may find that their symptoms improve during pregnancy, while others experience flare ups and other challenges. (
  • A research team led by Nicole Cameron, assistant professor of psychology at Binghamton University, was the first to investigate the effects of alcohol consumption during pregnancy on alcohol-related behavior (consumption and sensitivity to the effect of alcohol) on generations that were not directly exposed to alcohol in the uterus during the pregnancy. (
  • A "large pregnancy" may be indicative of twinning (distended uterus). (
  • The uterus is larger than expected because a twin or multiples pregnancy may cause the mother's uterus to expand beyond the range of a single pregnancy. (
  • Multiple pregnancy usually happens when more than 1 egg is fertilized and implants in the uterus. (
  • When a woman carries more than one infant in her uterus during pregnancy, they are called "multiples. (
  • Sometimes, two or more embryos are placed within the uterus to increase the chance of a successful pregnancy. (
  • These technologies often use ovulation-stimulating medications to produce multiple eggs, which are then fertilized in the laboratory and returned to the uterus to develop. (
  • Multiple pregnancy usually occurs when more than one egg is fertilized and implants in the uterus. (
  • i go to my doctor at 5 weeks 2 days this coming Monday, Feb. 5 only because i lost my last pregnancy at 6 weeks 6 days due to tubal pregnancy (ectopic) so she needs to do her U/S (ultrasound) blood tests, etc to make sure my baby implanted in my uterus! (
  • In case of subsequent pregnancy the uterus and ligaments are found to be stretched already from the former delivery. (
  • Often those who experience increased uterus size have a strong possibility of multiple pregnancies. (
  • If the uterus is found to be growing rapidly much before the expected due date, then one may conclude the case to be that of a multiple pregnancy. (
  • The large placental area and over-distended uterus place a mother at risk for bleeding after delivery in many multiple pregnancies. (
  • In ectopic pregnancy, the embryo implants outside the uterus (the triangular structure at centre left). (
  • During a pregnancy, it is essential that the uterus be well perfused to sustain the fetus with nutrients and oxygen. (
  • With twins or HOM pregnancies, each baby tends to be smaller since they all need to share the space in your uterus. (
  • Although human pituitary gonadotropin and other ovulation induction agents result in fewer multiple pregnancies when used by experts, even in the best of hands it is inevitable that some multiple pregnancies will occur. (
  • Some of the common complications in early pregnancy may also occur as a result of multiple gestation. (
  • Actually, this cannot occur in human as ovulation is suppressed once pregnancy occurs. (
  • Placental abruption is three times more likely to occur in a multiples pregnancy. (
  • Certain genetic disorders may be more likely to occur in multiple pregnancies. (
  • It is a well-established fact that multiple pregnancies occur more commonly nowadays than a few decades ago. (
  • How does multiple pregnancy occur? (
  • Naturally, twins occur in about one in 250 pregnancies, triplets in about one in 10,000 pregnancies, and quadruplets in about one in 700,000 pregnancies. (
  • Statistically speaking, miscarriage will occur among multiples at around three times the rate that it does with singleton pregnancy. (
  • The idea of a 'vanishing twin' is thought to occur in around 1 in 5 twin pregnancies. (
  • Fertility drugs inhibit these controls, allowing multiple gestation to occur. (
  • Health problems that occur before a woman becomes pregnant or during pregnancy may also increase the likelihood for a high-risk pregnancy. (
  • If you take fertility drugs or have in vitro fertilization to help you get pregnant, you're more likely to have a multiple pregnancy. (
  • Assisted reproductive technology (ART) procedures such as in vitro fertilization (IVF) also contribute to the multiple birth rate. (
  • The main reason for multiple gestations following in-vitro fertilization is the inability to precisely estimate the reproductive potential of individual embryos," Seli said. (
  • The successes of in-vitro fertilization often result from simultaneous transfer of multiple embryos with the hope that at least one will lead to a pregnancy. (
  • Compares the incidence and perinatal outcome of multiple pregnancies after intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), with standard in vitro fertilization (IVF). (
  • Assesses the influence of the presence of quality supernumerary embryos on the clinical outcome and risk of multiple conception in patients having their first in vitro fertilization cycle. (
  • There is not enough evidence to suggest a policy of routine hospitalization for bed rest in multiple pregnancy because no reduction in the risk of preterm birth or perinatal death is evident. (
  • The risk of preterm birth could be reduced to half for a specific group of "super high-risk" twin pregnancies, found an international research involving the University of Adelaide. (
  • Multiple pregnancies are associated with higher rates of perinatal mortality and morbidity than singleton pregnancies, mainly due to an increased risk of preterm birth. (
  • The World Health Organization defines preterm birth as one in which a live baby is born before 37 weeks of pregnancy is completed. (
  • As central as Barrett is to multiples and preterm birth research at SRI, he is nonetheless preparing the next generation of scientists to take the reins. (
  • There is no clear evidence that treatment of asymptomatic candidal vulvovaginitis in pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth. (
  • If terbutaline is used, very close monitoring for pulmonary edema must be maintained, because this complication is much more likely with administration of beta-mimetic agents in multiple gestation. (
  • 3) Polyhydramnios, manifested by uterine size out of proportion to the calculated duration of gestation, is almost 10 times more common in multiple pregnancy. (
  • Indeed, identification of multiple gestation is so important for the institution of appropriate care that many authorities recommend routine ultrasonic scanning at 18-20 weeks. (
  • Indeed, maternal hypochromic normocytic anemia occurs so frequently in multiple pregnancy that it has been suggested that all patients with the process be suspected of having a multiple gestation. (
  • Because the incidence of twin gestation increases with maternal age, women with multiple gestations are often candidates for prenatal genetic diagnosis. (
  • In twin pregnancies not accompanied by neural tube defects, the median MSAFP level will be 2.5 that of the median level for singleton pregnancies at 14-20 weeks' gestation. (
  • Multiple gestation. (
  • For women who suffer multiple pregnancy losses in the first four to six weeks of gestation, the hormone progesterone could offer hope for a successful birth, according to a new study by Yale School of Medicine researchers and their colleagues at University of Illinois at Chicago. (
  • Women with a multiple gestation who were evaluated with the MaterniT21 PLUS LDT and have passed their Estimated Date of Delivery (EDD). (
  • And, "Multiple gestation is a major nutritional stress. (
  • Multiple pregnancy, usually referred to as multiple gestation, is one in which more than one fetus develops simultaneously in the mother's womb. (
  • An old adage related to multiple gestation is the human female was not meant to have more than twins because she only had two breasts for feeding. (
  • The results suggest that if a mother drinks during pregnancy, even just a little bit, she increases the risk that her progeny will become alcoholic. (
  • Each additional baby a woman carries during her pregnancy increases the possibility of developing pregnancy complications . (
  • A family history of multiple pregnancy increases the chances of having twins. (
  • Having 1 or more previous pregnancies, especially a multiple pregnancy, increases the chances of having multiples. (
  • Having one or more previous pregnancies, especially a multiple pregnancy, increases the chances of having multiples. (
  • The main factor that increases your chances of having a multiple pregnancy is the use of infertility treatment, but there are other factors. (
  • The risk of multiple pregnancy increases along with the number of embryos transferred. (
  • Consuming junk food at the time of pregnancy increases your body weight. (
  • Previous studies have shown that MS relapse rate usually reduces during pregnancy and increases again after delivery. (
  • WASHINGTON, DC February 16, 2007 - A hormone produced during pregnancy spontaneously increases myelin, which enhances signaling within the nervous system, and helps repair damage in the brain and spinal cord, according to new animal research. (
  • This suggests prolactin, which increases during pregnancy, may help induce the making of new myelin. (
  • Blood volume increases by 70-80% of your pre-pregnancy rate with twins and more than that with triplets. (
  • Background: In multiple sclerosis (MS), the relapse rate declines during pregnancy and increases during the first three months post-partum before returning to the pre-pregnancy rate. (
  • Many multiple pregnancies in the last few decades are due to a variety of fertility treatments. (
  • Naturally, then, you cannot underestimate the impact that fertility treatments have had on the miscarriage of multiples. (
  • More people are now using fertility treatments, which often result in twin pregnancies. (
  • I ran across this first person article in Elle magazine by Bettina Paige about her decision on whether to reduce her twin pregnancy to a singleton - Fertility Treatments: Would You Get Selective Reduction . (
  • What are the risks of a multiple pregnancy? (
  • Any pregnancy has risks. (
  • What are the risks of multifetal pregnancy reduction? (
  • Emotional risks for you, especially if the pregnancy miscarries. (
  • The associated maternal and newborn risks demand strategies to minimise multiple pregnancies. (
  • Some clinical circumstances may warrant ongoing treatment while pregnant, but this decision should be made only after a careful exploration of the risks for harm to the fetus and mother with or without DMT during pregnancy. (
  • As attractive and efficient as a multiple pregnancy may sound, there can be significant risks associated with carrying, delivering, and raising multiple children. (
  • This video is designed to provide you with some of the answers you may be looking for, and will explore the statistics, health and psychological risks to parents, children and siblings, and other issues surrounding multiple pregnancies and beyond. (
  • The Risks of Multiple Pregnancy Associated with IVF By Angie Beltsos, M.D. (
  • Patients with MS and their treating physicians are interested to know more about the risks the disease can cause to pregnancy and how pregnancy affects the disease. (
  • Aims and methods: The aims of this study were to follow the natural course of MS during and after pregnancy, evaluate pregnancy related risks among MS patients, follow the inflammatory response of MS patients during and after pregnancy and clarify the risk of relevant co-morbidities known to affect other autoimmune diseases after pregnancy and compare these results to healthy controls. (
  • Having a multiple pregnancy carries with it a certain number of very specific risks. (
  • However, multiple pregnancy has increased risks for complications. (
  • You may feel fine, but having twins or a HOM (higher-order multiple pregnancy, meaning more than two) comes with special risks. (
  • Teens may be less likely to get prenatal care or to make ongoing appointments with health care providers during the pregnancy to evaluate risks, ensure they are staying healthy, and understand what medications and drugs they can use. (
  • In individuals who require an artificial heart valve, consideration must be made for deterioration of the valve over time (for bioprosthetic valves) versus the risks of blood clotting in pregnancy with mechanical valves with the resultant need of drugs in pregnancy in the form of anticoagulants. (
  • The majority of multiple pregnancies are currently identified by using maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein (MSAFP) screening or ultrasound. (
  • As we speak about history, the vast majority of multiple pregnancies that occurred in the past were diagnosed during the intrapartum period [ 2 ]. (
  • In this subset of women experiencing multiple early miscarriages, we assume that their embryos were literally starving to death,' Kliman added. (
  • Some couples choose to implant fewer embryos to reduce the chance of a pregnancy of triplets or more, rather than consider having this procedure. (
  • In the United States, the number of triplet and higher pregnancies has declined in the last several years due to the efforts of the ASRM and SART to educate its members and publish guidelines on the number of embryos to transfer in different situations. (
  • Two relatively new developments in the art and science of IVF appear to significantly decrease the need to transfer a large number of embryos and therefore, offer the promise of decreasing the incidence of high order multiple pregnancies. (
  • This screening allows the clinician to transfer fewer PGD screened embryos in women 35 years of age and older, while still maintaining high rates of pregnancy. (
  • Procedure predicts embryos most likely to result in pregnancy ( To address the high rate of multiple bi. (
  • In 2002, 3.1 embryos on average were transferred in IVF cycles, but only 34.3 percent resulted in pregnancies. (
  • By comparing the content of the successful and unsuccessful embryos, the team established a metabolic profile of embryos that resulted in pregnancies as well as ones that did not. (
  • BACKGROUND: Twin pregnancies in IVF should be avoided by transferring embryos one at a time, even for frozen cycles. (
  • If you are pregnant with multiples it does not necessarily mean that you will have a cesarean birth . (
  • Please keep in mind that this board is designed to provide support for women who are pregnant with multiples. (
  • Women pregnant with multiples need comprehensive, specialized care. (
  • Women who are pregnant with multiples need special care. (
  • Furthermore, the rearing of high order multiples creates physical, emotional and financial stress for the family with a reported increase in the incidence of maternal depression and anxiety. (
  • Women who give birth at a very advanced maternal age (48 years+) are at higher risk of pregnancy complications, however most can be explained by multiple pregnancy or the use of assisted conception, suggests a new study published today (1 September) in BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology ( BJOG ). (
  • As healthcare professionals, our role is to advise both men and women about the implications that maternal age can have for fertility, pregnancy and birth, and enable couples to make informed decisions about when to plan a family. (
  • New research shows that maternal multiple sclerosis presents no additional risk to the health of a baby. (
  • You're likely to be referred to a maternal foetal medicine (MFM) specialist trained to deal with high-risk pregnancies. (
  • In case of valvular heart disease in pregnancy, the maternal physiological changes in pregnancy confer additional load on the heart and may lead to complications. (
  • Dec. 2, 2004 -- Having multiple ultrasound examinations during pregnancy is unlikely to cause any lasting harm to the developing fetus , according to a new study that confirms the long-term safety of the commonly used procedure. (
  • Although ultrasound examinations during pregnancy are widely accepted as safe for both mother and child, researchers say the scientific evidence to back up that notion is not comprehensive. (
  • All the children had been exposed to ultrasound during pregnancy. (
  • In fact, only an ultrasound can confirm a twin or multiple pregnancy. (
  • Today, as the use of ultrasound has become a routine in daily medical practice, multiple pregnancies are diagnosed in the initial ultrasound scan [ 3 ]. (
  • An ultrasound test is the best and accurate diagnose to confirm multiple pregnancies in women. (
  • The development of improved technology, such as ultrasound, has made it possible to determine more accurately the early pregnancy loss rate of twins to include both complete pregnancy loss and spontaneous resorption of one twin, frequently referred to as the vanishing twin phenomenon. (
  • Thanks to obstetric ultrasound, multiples can be seen as early as six weeks into a pregnancy. (
  • On average most single pregnancies last 39 weeks, twin pregnancies 36 weeks, triplets 32 weeks, quadruplets 30 weeks, and quintuplets 29 weeks. (
  • Additional studies are needed to see if the same behavior occurs with triplets, quadruplets, and other multiples. (
  • If you are over the age of 30 or undergoing treatment for infertility or have a family history of twins, it can increase the incidence of multiple pregnancies . (
  • Previous multiple pregnancy: the incidence of another multiple pregnancy is 10 times the normal incidence. (
  • Congenital anomalies: double its incidence in singleton pregnancy. (
  • The incidence of pregnancy-related stroke: A systematic review and meta-analysis. (
  • It's important for couples to remember that as they consider IVF, they need to know it has played a significant role in increasing the incidence of high order multiple pregnancies (triplets or more) since its introduction in 1978. (
  • It is estimated that pregnancies resulting from assisted technologies have a 25-30 percent incidence of twins and a 5 percent incidence of triplets. (
  • Multiple Pregnancy: Should I Consider a Multifetal Pregnancy Reduction? (
  • When this occurs, many authorities recommend multifetal pregnancy reduction by transabdominal intracardiac potassium injection. (
  • Have multifetal pregnancy reduction. (
  • What is multifetal pregnancy reduction? (
  • What are the benefits of a multifetal pregnancy reduction? (
  • But researchers say these results should provide reassurance that multiple prenatal ultrasounds have no negative effects on the growth or development of the fetus . (
  • if you happen to carry more than one baby then it is time for you to have more ultrasounds during your pregnancy stage. (
  • If the test shows that you're carrying more than one baby, you'll need to have more ultrasounds during your pregnancy. (
  • Missed twins in multiple early ultrasounds? (
  • Ultrasounds can be done with a vaginal transducer, especially in early pregnancy. (
  • As a mom of multiples, you can expect to have more testing, more ultrasounds, and more monitoring than if you were carrying only one baby. (
  • Compared to women with singleton pregnancies, you'll probably have more pre-natal visits, more blood tests and more frequent ultrasounds. (
  • The chances of spontaneous multiple pregnancies are low, but are increased in some families and older women. (
  • Not much can be done to prevent spontaneous multiple pregnancies, but couples must be aware that such pregnancies warrant greater antenatal surveillance. (
  • Spontaneous losses are even more common in triplet and quadruplet pregnancies. (
  • Monochorionic dizygotic twins in a spontaneous pregnancy: a rare case report. (
  • worst of all, having miscarriage pregnancy. (
  • Rachel's Gift pregnancy and infant loss support groups are open to those who have experienced the loss of a baby through miscarriage, stillbirth, or infant death. (
  • I was almost 18 weeks pregnant when I lost that pregnancy," recalled Fitzgerald, noting the first miscarriage was not her only one. (
  • Is a Miscarriage of Multiples More Dangerous? (
  • In addition, there are specific concerns that a multiple pregnancy has in regard to miscarriage that make it more aggressive than with a singleton. (
  • The rate of miscarriage is even higher if the multiples are from the same egg. (
  • There are other reasons that miscarriage may be more aggressive with multiples than with a singleton. (
  • Having said that, older women are much more likely to experience a miscarriage than younger women, even if they have a singleton pregnancy. (
  • Women with kidney disease often have difficulty getting pregnant, and any pregnancy is at significant risk for miscarriage. (
  • Bacterial vaginosis occurring during pregnancy may increase the risk of pregnancy complications, most notably premature birth or miscarriage. (
  • Answer the following questions to find out whether you are going to give birth to more than one baby in this pregnancy. (
  • Perhaps the information will prepare you for your multiple birth experience. (
  • With a different pregnancy and birth theme each week we will be able to explore concerns and questions as well as enjoy a cheeky biscuit or two! (
  • After the initial shock come the questions: how will your pregnancy be different, and what will happen at the birth? (
  • The recent discovery ( Lancet 2000;356:914) of a gene mutation thought to be responsible for multiple-birth pregnancies could mark the first step in developing a test to identify women at increased risk of having twins and triplets. (
  • By using DNA tests on blood samples from a woman who has given birth to 2 sets of twins and has a family history of multiple pregnancies over 2 generations, Dr. Valter Feyles and colleagues from McMaster University identified a pair of gene defects that appear to increase the sensitivity of the receptor site where follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) binds with the ovaries. (
  • Early identification of women carrying the gene defect would allow doctors to adjust fertility medication to reduce risk of multiple-birth pregnancies," said Feyles. (
  • We deliver unique one-day courses to help you prepare for the birth and the early days of life with multiples. (
  • When you give birth to twins or multiples, the birthing experience will be different from that of an uncomplicated single delivery. (
  • Preconception care also should be considered and promoted for women with pre-pregnancy obesity to prevent birth defects and reduce the risk for health complications. (
  • There are also increasing numbers of women giving birth who have health problems or complicated pregnancies. (
  • Disease activity did not rebound after birth, with a rate in the first three months after birth of 0.27, slightly lower than the pre-pregnancy rate. (
  • By four to six months after birth, the rate had returned to the pre-pregnancy level, at 0.37. (
  • Anemia is more than twice as common in multiple pregnancies as in a single birth. (
  • Twin birth is by far the most common multiple birth. (
  • The microbiota of the oral cavity and GI tract remained stable over pregnancy, but the vaginal microbiota showed a significant increase in diversity leading up to and after birth. (
  • High blood sugar levels can cause birth defects during the first few weeks of pregnancy, often before women even know they are pregnant. (
  • However the rate for high-order multiples has slowed since 2004. (
  • While most of these pregnancies are twins, up to 5% are triplets or other high-order multiples. (
  • For these reasons, reducing the number of high order multiples has become an essential goal of most successful IVF programs. (
  • To prevent the complications of multiple pregnancy, it is imperative to make the diagnosis as early in pregnancy as possible. (
  • In this review, we summarize the available information on the short- and long-term effects of pregnancy on the course of multiple sclerosis (MS). Published studies that used established criteria for the diagnosis of MS were given more weight than studies in which the criteria for diagnosis were unstated or unclear. (
  • Considering the possibility of multiple pregnancy is essential to early diagnosis. (
  • The usual indications for prenatal diagnosis and counseling in a singleton pregnancy also apply to twin and higher-order gestations. (
  • Nonetheless, we will review some cases from the literature that show that situations can be a little more complicated and may lead to a false diagnosis of chorionicity and amnionicity, in order to highlight that when we manage multiple pregnancies, we have to be alert about exceptions despite being infrequent [ 5 ]. (
  • The evolution of multiple sclerosis at the time of diagnosis remains unpredictable since a reliable prognostic marker is not yet available. (
  • Moms with a multiples pregnancy may experience more morning sickness. (
  • Overall, 70% to 80% of women can experience some amount of nausea and vomiting with pregnancies, and up to 2% reportedly experience hyperemesis gravidarum , a form of severe morning sickness . (
  • Most of the expecting mothers with multiples undergo extreme morning sickness. (
  • Statistically, moms of multiples may experience more morning sickness , but using the degree of morning sickness as an estimate that you are carrying twins isn't necessarily very helpful. (
  • Some mothers can tell early in their pregnancy that they're carrying multiples. (
  • Some mothers of multiples report a strong suspicion based on one factor or combination of signals, while others experience absolutely nothing out of the ordinary. (
  • Excessive fatigue is one of the most commonly reported complaints of mothers of multiples in the early stages of pregnancy. (
  • Throughout their entire pregnancy, mothers of twins and multiples are encouraged to see a board certified obstetrician instead of a general practitioner. (
  • Researchers later followed up with the children at age 7 and found that those whose mothers had higher levels of the chemicals in their system during pregnancy had lower IQ scores-particularly boys, whose scores were lower by two points. (
  • Results: MS patients were no more likely to experience pregnancy or delivery complications than the Finnish mothers in general. (
  • Mothers with active pre-pregnancy disease chose to breastfeed less frequently and started medication instead. (
  • Considering MS patients tend to develop thyroid antibody positivity after delivery more often than healthy controls and that certain treatments can predispose MS patients to thyroid hormonal dysfunction, we recommend MS mothers to be screened for thyroid abnormalities during pregnancy and after delivery. (
  • Adequate vitamin D supplementation is essential for MS mothers also during pregnancy and postpartum period. (
  • She did go on to warn, however, that mothers with MS are 'more often overweight', which in itself presents added risk during pregnancy. (
  • A new study by Stanford University School of Medicine claims that suffering from multiple sclerosis or epilepsy apparently doesn't pose a risk for pregnancy-related problems for would-be mothers. (
  • Mothers who have more children are also more likely to have multiples pregnancies. (
  • This patient information is based on the NICE clinical guideline Multiple pregnancy: Antenatal care for twin and triplet pregnancies and the RCOG Green-top guideline Management of monochorionic twin pregnancy . (
  • This pathway covers the management of twin and triplet pregnancies in the antenatal period. (
  • Because of this, women with multiple pregnancies need more antenatal contact with healthcare professionals than women with singleton pregnancies. (
  • This pathway should be used in conjunction with the NICE pathway on antenatal care for uncomplicated pregnancies . (
  • The multiple pregnancy pathway specifies the care that women with twin and triplet pregnancies should receive that is additional to or different from routine antenatal care for women with singleton pregnancies. (
  • For many women the twin or triplet pregnancy will be detected only after the first (booking) appointment in routine antenatal care. (
  • At least, 3 poles should be palpated to diagnose twin pregnancy. (
  • The recommended amount of protein for a twin pregnancy is 110grams and for triplets between 140-150grams per day. (
  • There are two types of twin pregnancy: fraternal and identical. (
  • The health justification is murkier when this issue is reducing a twin pregnancy. (
  • Unfortunately, that is not an effective practice in early pregnancy. (
  • Dr. Tanner says this study only assessed exposure at a single time during early pregnancy, so more research needs to be done to understand how exposures throughout later pregnancy and childhood may influence the results. (
  • A prospective followup continued from early pregnancy until six months postpartum. (
  • Regardless, elevated hCG levels in early pregnancy isn't a proper way to detect twins. (
  • Multiple pregnancy is associated with increased perinatal mortality and morbidity. (
  • Asians, on the other hand, have the lowest chance of multiples. (
  • However, IUI alone doesn't increase the chance of multiples pregnancies. (
  • Even though high blood pressure can be risky for mother and fetus, many women with high blood pressure have healthy pregnancies and healthy children. (
  • Triplet pregnancies begin slowing at 27 to 28 weeks , and quadruplet pregnancies begin slowing at 25 to 26 weeks. (
  • Pregnancy involves a fetus, which has half of the father's proteins on it," Voskuhl says. (
  • Multiple Pregnancy is a pregnancy that includes more than one fetus and is much more common today than in the past. (
  • Microchimerism in pregnancy is common between fetus and mother and between twins, and the chimerism can be long-lasting. (
  • A high-risk pregnancy is one of greater risk to the mother or her fetus than an uncomplicated pregnancy. (
  • Fortunately you have nine months to get used to it (maybe less, as multiple pregnancies are often premature). (
  • The results of those pregnancies were then looked at, which incorporated length of hospital stay, c-section delivery and hypertensive disorders counting pre-eclampsia, premature rupture of membranes and intrauterine growth restriction. (
  • As the risk of aneuploidy is increased, some centers offer invasive testing to all patients carrying multiple gestations who will be over age 33 at delivery. (
  • But pregnancy, delivering a baby, and early motherhood do not increase the risk of being disabled by MS over time. (
  • Simultaneous exposure to multiple sources of iodine should be avoided during pregnancy because it may increase the risk of neonatal hypothyroidism. (
  • Migraine is a risk factor for hypertensive disorders in pregnancy: a prospective cohort study. (
  • There is a higher risk of miscarriages and other pregnancy-associated complications, are increased. (
  • Ultimately, there is more risk of death in women carrying multiple pregnancies compared to those with a single pregnancy, but this is a rare event. (
  • In the medium term, newborns from multiple pregnancies have a higher risk of death in the first year of life. (
  • The Pregnancy in MS (PRIMS) study was the first large prospective study intended to understand the effect of pregnancy on the risk of MS relapses and progression. (
  • Pregnancy did not appear to affect the risk of progression. (
  • The risk of relapse is decreased in pregnancy, but not absent. (
  • Many women are waiting until they are older to have children and more women are receiving infertility treatment, which carries a higher risk of multiple pregnancy than natural conception. (
  • Multiple pregnancy - especially high order multiple pregnancy - clearly puts this goal at risk. (
  • We need more research to better understand how vitamin D levels during pregnancy could contribute to a person's risk of developing MS. (
  • Much research has indicated that older women have a higher risk of pregnancy complications. (
  • Researchers at Kaiser Permanente Southern California in Pasadena, Calif., said the information on an increased risk of relapse after pregnancy was determined more than 20 years ago, before disease-modifying treatments were available and before MRI scans could be used to help diagnose the disease after just one attack. (
  • Your pregnancy is, from the beginning, considered to be high risk. (
  • Twin pregnancies are a major risk factor of prematurity. (
  • The risk of pregnancy loss is increased in later trimesters as well. (
  • This is considered the most important risk of any multiple pregnancy. (
  • Several strategies have been developed to improve embryo selection and embryo developmental potential to increase pregnancy rates without increasing the risk of multiple pregnancies. (
  • It is unknown whether pregnancy impacts the risk of clinical conversion in those within the presymptomatic period.Objectives: We investigate the impact of pregnancy on developing a clinical event in women diagnosed with radiologically isolated syndrome (RIS).Methods: All women with RIS underwent clinical and radiological assessments as part of an observational, prospective, longitudinal study. (
  • The mean (SD) number of active lesions on a subsequent brain MRI scan was significantly higher in the pregnant group [3.2 (±1.7)] compared with the control group [1.8 (±0.6)].Conclusions: The risk for clinical conversion from RIS to a clinical event and new MRI disease activity seems to be influenced by pregnancy. (
  • The NICHD supports and conducts research on the causes and optimal management of the high-risk pregnancy. (
  • Some autoimmune diseases can increase a women's risk for problems during pregnancy. (
  • A pre-existing disease in pregnancy, is a disease that is not directly caused by the pregnancy in contrast to various complications of pregnancy, but which may become worse or be a potential risk to the pregnancy (such as causing pregnancy complications). (
  • A major component of this risk can result from necessary use of drugs in pregnancy to manage the disease. (
  • However, this risk is small overall and appears more significant in women who have had such complications in an earlier pregnancy. (
  • Wainscott G, Sullivan FM, Volans GN, Wilkinson M. The outcome of pregnancy in women suffering from migraine. (
  • It is the most important, vital and proactive thing you can do to influence a good outcome for your pregnancy: ensure you are getting good nutrition. (
  • In September 2019, the timeframes in quality statements 1, 2 and 8 were updated to reflect changes to the NICE guideline on twin and triplet pregnancy . (
  • A twin or triplet pregnancy needs 1,600-2,000mg of calcium per day. (
  • Haemodynamic model of twin-twin transfusion syndrome in monochorionic twin pregnancies. (
  • Multiple pregnancy also occurs naturally without the help of medical intervention. (
  • It seems as if, however, that more pregnancies start out naturally with twins than was originally believed. (
  • I am excited by the prospect of finding aneasily administered treatment for MS based on a naturally occurring phenomenonin pregnancy. (
  • If I had conceived these twins naturally, I wouldn't have reduced this pregnancy, because you feel like if there's a natural order, then you don't want to disturb it. (
  • Our findings also holdpromise for finding new treatments for a host of other autoimmune disordersthat improve during pregnancy, such as rheumatoid arthritis. (
  • Preeclampsia-eclampsia is a common complication of multiple pregnancy. (
  • Preeclampsia , Pregnancy Induced Hypertension (PIH) , Toxemia, and high blood pressure are all synonymous terms. (
  • Twin pregnancies are twice as likely to develop preeclampsia as single pregnancies. (
  • Half of triplet pregnancies develop preeclampsia. (
  • Fraternal multiples are simply siblings conceived at the same time. (
  • However, just as siblings often look alike, fraternal multiples may look very similar. (
  • Fraternal multiples are more common than identical ones. (
  • It also means she is more likely to get pregnant with fraternal multiples. (
  • As the ectopic pregnancy develops the growing embryo may rupture the surrounding tissues causing serious bleeding. (
  • There was also a decrease in the number of pregnancies per embryo transfer, from 27.6 per cent in 2003 to 24.5 per cent in 2005. (
  • The clinical pregnancy rate per embryo transfer following nIVF was 27% and 47% in sIVF cycles for patients aged less than 35. (
  • For decades, women with multiple sclerosis have noticed that they tend to do better while they are pregnant. (
  • Of women who get pregnant with clomiphene citrate, 2.6% to 8% have multiples, but only about 1% have triplets or more. (
  • Kliman worked with lead author Mary Stephenson, M.D., the Dr. Theresa S. Falcon-Cullinan Professor of Obstetrics and Gynecology at the University of Illinois at Chicago and director of the University of Illinois Recurrent Pregnancy Loss Program. (
  • You cannot conclusively distinguish a single pregnancy from twins on a urine pregnancy test. (
  • The reasons for increased relapse rate after delivery are not entirely clear, but loss of pregnancy related immune tolerance and changes in the hormonal status at the time of delivery seem to be of relevance. (
  • The annual relapse rate for the women was 0.39 before pregnancy. (
  • The results were the same after researchers adjusted for other factors that could affect the relapse rate, such as the severity of the disease prior to pregnancy. (