The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.
The process of bearing developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero in non-human mammals, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The beginning third of a human PREGNANCY, from the first day of the last normal menstrual period (MENSTRUATION) through the completion of 14 weeks (98 days) of gestation.
The ratio of the number of conceptions (CONCEPTION) including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; and fetal losses, to the mean number of females of reproductive age in a population during a set time period.
The last third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 29th through the 42nd completed week (197 to 294 days) of gestation.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a cardiovascular disease. The disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
The three approximately equal periods of a normal human PREGNANCY. Each trimester is about three months or 13 to 14 weeks in duration depending on the designation of the first day of gestation.
Tests to determine whether or not an individual is pregnant.
The condition of carrying two or more FETUSES simultaneously.
The state of PREGNANCY in women with DIABETES MELLITUS. This does not include either symptomatic diabetes or GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE induced by pregnancy (DIABETES, GESTATIONAL) which resolves at the end of pregnancy.
The most common (>96%) type of ectopic pregnancy in which the extrauterine EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs in the FALLOPIAN TUBE, usually in the ampullary region where FERTILIZATION takes place.
The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and NEOPLASMS. The neoplastic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Expulsion of the product of FERTILIZATION before completing the term of GESTATION and without deliberate interference.
Proteins produced by organs of the mother or the PLACENTA during PREGNANCY. These proteins may be pregnancy-specific (present only during pregnancy) or pregnancy-associated (present during pregnancy or under other conditions such as hormone therapy or certain malignancies.)
Unintended accidental pregnancy, including pregnancy resulting from failed contraceptive measures.
Pregnancy in which the mother and/or FETUS are at greater than normal risk of MORBIDITY or MORTALITY. Causes include inadequate PRENATAL CARE, previous obstetrical history (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS), pre-existing maternal disease, pregnancy-induced disease (GESTATIONAL HYPERTENSION), and MULTIPLE PREGNANCY, as well as advanced maternal age above 35.
Pregnancy, usually accidental, that is not desired by the parent or parents.
The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and a blood disease (HEMATOLOGIC DISEASES) which involves BLOOD CELLS or COAGULATION FACTORS. The hematologic disease may precede or follow FERTILIZATION and it may or may not have a deleterious effect on the pregnant woman or FETUS.
A term used to describe pregnancies that exceed the upper limit of a normal gestational period. In humans, a prolonged pregnancy is defined as one that extends beyond 42 weeks (294 days) after the first day of the last menstrual period (MENSTRUATION), or birth with gestational age of 41 weeks or more.
An infant during the first month after birth.
A complication of PREGNANCY, characterized by a complex of symptoms including maternal HYPERTENSION and PROTEINURIA with or without pathological EDEMA. Symptoms may range between mild and severe. Pre-eclampsia usually occurs after the 20th week of gestation, but may develop before this time in the presence of trophoblastic disease.
The condition of carrying TWINS simultaneously.
A highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products. It includes a fetal portion (CHORIONIC VILLI) derived from TROPHOBLASTS and a maternal portion (DECIDUA) derived from the uterine ENDOMETRIUM. The placenta produces an array of steroid, protein and peptide hormones (PLACENTAL HORMONES).
Death of the developing young in utero. BIRTH of a dead FETUS is STILLBIRTH.
Intentional removal of a fetus from the uterus by any of a number of techniques. (POPLINE, 1978)
A type of ectopic pregnancy in which the EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN implants in the ABDOMINAL CAVITY instead of in the ENDOMETRIUM of the UTERUS.
The hollow thick-walled muscular organ in the female PELVIS. It consists of the fundus (the body) which is the site of EMBRYO IMPLANTATION and FETAL DEVELOPMENT. Beyond the isthmus at the perineal end of fundus, is CERVIX UTERI (the neck) opening into VAGINA. Beyond the isthmi at the upper abdominal end of fundus, are the FALLOPIAN TUBES.
The co-occurrence of pregnancy and parasitic diseases. The parasitic infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.
Physiological mechanisms that sustain the state of PREGNANCY.
The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.
Endometrial implantation of EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN at the BLASTOCYST stage.
The transfer of mammalian embryos from an in vivo or in vitro environment to a suitable host to improve pregnancy or gestational outcome in human or animal. In human fertility treatment programs, preimplantation embryos ranging from the 4-cell stage to the blastocyst stage are transferred to the uterine cavity between 3-5 days after FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.
Care provided the pregnant woman in order to prevent complications, and decrease the incidence of maternal and prenatal mortality.
An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.
Exchange of substances between the maternal blood and the fetal blood at the PLACENTA via PLACENTAL CIRCULATION. The placental barrier excludes microbial or viral transmission.
The number of offspring a female has borne. It is contrasted with GRAVIDITY, which refers to the number of pregnancies, regardless of outcome.
The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.
The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.
A condition in pregnant women with elevated systolic (>140 mm Hg) and diastolic (>90 mm Hg) blood pressure on at least two occasions 6 h apart. HYPERTENSION complicates 8-10% of all pregnancies, generally after 20 weeks of gestation. Gestational hypertension can be divided into several broad categories according to the complexity and associated symptoms, such as EDEMA; PROTEINURIA; SEIZURES; abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION and liver functions.
Extraction of the FETUS by means of abdominal HYSTEROTOMY.
The failure of a FETUS to attain its expected FETAL GROWTH at any GESTATIONAL AGE.
The major progestational steroid that is secreted primarily by the CORPUS LUTEUM and the PLACENTA. Progesterone acts on the UTERUS, the MAMMARY GLANDS and the BRAIN. It is required in EMBRYO IMPLANTATION; PREGNANCY maintenance, and the development of mammary tissue for MILK production. Progesterone, converted from PREGNENOLONE, also serves as an intermediate in the biosynthesis of GONADAL STEROID HORMONES and adrenal CORTICOSTEROIDS.
CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).
Diminished or absent ability of a female to achieve conception.
Congenital abnormalities caused by medicinal substances or drugs of abuse given to or taken by the mother, or to which she is inadvertently exposed during the manufacture of such substances. The concept excludes abnormalities resulting from exposure to non-medicinal chemicals in the environment.
The processes of milk secretion by the maternal MAMMARY GLANDS after PARTURITION. The proliferation of the mammary glandular tissue, milk synthesis, and milk expulsion or let down are regulated by the interactions of several hormones including ESTRADIOL; PROGESTERONE; PROLACTIN; and OXYTOCIN.
Morphological and physiological development of FETUSES.
The hormone-responsive glandular layer of ENDOMETRIUM that sloughs off at each menstrual flow (decidua menstrualis) or at the termination of pregnancy. During pregnancy, the thickest part of the decidua forms the maternal portion of the PLACENTA, thus named decidua placentalis. The thin portion of the decidua covering the rest of the embryo is the decidua capsularis.
The unborn young of a viviparous mammal, in the postembryonic period, after the major structures have been outlined. In humans, the unborn young from the end of the eighth week after CONCEPTION until BIRTH, as distinguished from the earlier EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.
The repetitive uterine contraction during childbirth which is associated with the progressive dilation of the uterine cervix (CERVIX UTERI). Successful labor results in the expulsion of the FETUS and PLACENTA. Obstetric labor can be spontaneous or induced (LABOR, INDUCED).
Onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR before term (TERM BIRTH) but usually after the FETUS has become viable. In humans, it occurs sometime during the 29th through 38th week of PREGNANCY. TOCOLYSIS inhibits premature labor and can prevent the BIRTH of premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE).
Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.
Two individuals derived from two FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother. Twins are either monozygotic (TWINS, MONOZYGOTIC) or dizygotic (TWINS, DIZYGOTIC).
Determination of the nature of a pathological condition or disease in the postimplantation EMBRYO; FETUS; or pregnant female before birth.
Exposure of the female parent, human or animal, to potentially harmful chemical, physical, or biological agents in the environment or to environmental factors that may include ionizing radiation, pathogenic organisms, or toxic chemicals that may affect offspring. It includes pre-conception maternal exposure.
A gonadotropic glycoprotein hormone produced primarily by the PLACENTA. Similar to the pituitary LUTEINIZING HORMONE in structure and function, chorionic gonadotropin is involved in maintaining the CORPUS LUTEUM during pregnancy. CG consists of two noncovalently linked subunits, alpha and beta. Within a species, the alpha subunit is virtually identical to the alpha subunits of the three pituitary glycoprotein hormones (TSH, LH, and FSH), but the beta subunit is unique and confers its biological specificity (CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN, BETA SUBUNIT, HUMAN).
Diabetes mellitus induced by PREGNANCY but resolved at the end of pregnancy. It does not include previously diagnosed diabetics who become pregnant (PREGNANCY IN DIABETICS). Gestational diabetes usually develops in late pregnancy when insulin antagonistic hormones peaks leading to INSULIN RESISTANCE; GLUCOSE INTOLERANCE; and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Abortion induced to save the life or health of a pregnant woman. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Cells lining the outside of the BLASTOCYST. After binding to the ENDOMETRIUM, trophoblasts develop into two distinct layers, an inner layer of mononuclear cytotrophoblasts and an outer layer of continuous multinuclear cytoplasm, the syncytiotrophoblasts, which form the early fetal-maternal interface (PLACENTA).
Three or more consecutive spontaneous abortions.
Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.
Non-steroidal chemical compounds with abortifacient activity.
Artificial introduction of SEMEN or SPERMATOZOA into the VAGINA to facilitate FERTILIZATION.
Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.
Pathophysiological conditions of the FETUS in the UTERUS. Some fetal diseases may be treated with FETAL THERAPIES.
Disorders or diseases associated with PUERPERIUM, the six-to-eight-week period immediately after PARTURITION in humans.
The mucous membrane lining of the uterine cavity that is hormonally responsive during the MENSTRUAL CYCLE and PREGNANCY. The endometrium undergoes cyclic changes that characterize MENSTRUATION. After successful FERTILIZATION, it serves to sustain the developing embryo.
An assisted fertilization technique consisting of the microinjection of a single viable sperm into an extracted ovum. It is used principally to overcome low sperm count, low sperm motility, inability of sperm to penetrate the egg, or other conditions related to male infertility (INFERTILITY, MALE).
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
The capacity to conceive or to induce conception. It may refer to either the male or female.
An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.
An organized and comprehensive program of health care that identifies and reduces a woman's reproductive risks before conception through risk assessment, health promotion, and interventions. Preconception care programs may be designed to include the male partner in providing counseling and educational information in preparation for fatherhood, such as genetic counseling and testing, financial and family planning, etc. This concept is different from PRENATAL CARE, which occurs during pregnancy.
Pathological processes or abnormal functions of the PLACENTA.
A clear, yellowish liquid that envelopes the FETUS inside the sac of AMNION. In the first trimester, it is likely a transudate of maternal or fetal plasma. In the second trimester, amniotic fluid derives primarily from fetal lung and kidney. Cells or substances in this fluid can be removed for prenatal diagnostic tests (AMNIOCENTESIS).
Inability to reproduce after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Reproductive sterility is permanent infertility.
Human females who are pregnant, as cultural, psychological, or sociological entities.
The event that a FETUS is born dead or stillborn.
The number of pregnancies, complete or incomplete, experienced by a female. It is different from PARITY, which is the number of offspring borne. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Clinical and laboratory techniques used to enhance fertility in humans and animals.
The beta subunit of human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Its structure is similar to the beta subunit of LUTEINIZING HORMONE, except for the additional 30 amino acids at the carboxy end with the associated carbohydrate residues. HCG-beta is used as a diagnostic marker for early detection of pregnancy, spontaneous abortion (ABORTION, SPONTANEOUS); ECTOPIC PREGNANCY; HYDATIDIFORM MOLE; CHORIOCARCINOMA; or DOWN SYNDROME.
The process of giving birth to one or more offspring.
Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.
Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself.
Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.
Techniques for the artifical induction of ovulation, the rupture of the follicle and release of the ovum.
Methods of detecting pregnancy by examining the levels of human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) in plasma or urine.
The event that a FETUS is born alive with heartbeats or RESPIRATION regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE. Such liveborn is called a newborn infant (INFANT, NEWBORN).
The smooth muscle coat of the uterus, which forms the main mass of the organ.
Termination of pregnancy under conditions allowed under local laws. (POPLINE Thesaurus, 1991)
The circulation of BLOOD, of both the mother and the FETUS, through the PLACENTA.
Prevention of CONCEPTION by blocking fertility temporarily, or permanently (STERILIZATION, REPRODUCTIVE). Common means of reversible contraception include NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING METHODS; CONTRACEPTIVE AGENTS; or CONTRACEPTIVE DEVICES.
Nutrition of FEMALE during PREGNANCY.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
UTERINE BLEEDING from a GESTATION of less than 20 weeks without any CERVICAL DILATATION. It is characterized by vaginal bleeding, lower back discomfort, or midline pelvic cramping and a risk factor for MISCARRIAGE.
Trophoblastic hyperplasia associated with normal gestation, or molar pregnancy. It is characterized by the swelling of the CHORIONIC VILLI and elevated human CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN. Hydatidiform moles or molar pregnancy may be categorized as complete or partial based on their gross morphology, histopathology, and karyotype.
An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.
Three individuals derived from three FETUSES that were fertilized at or about the same time, developed in the UTERUS simultaneously, and born to the same mother.
Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.
The development of the PLACENTA, a highly vascularized mammalian fetal-maternal organ and major site of transport of oxygen, nutrients, and fetal waste products between mother and FETUS. The process begins at FERTILIZATION, through the development of CYTOTROPHOBLASTS and SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS, the formation of CHORIONIC VILLI, to the progressive increase in BLOOD VESSELS to support the growing fetus.
Methods pertaining to the generation of new individuals, including techniques used in selective BREEDING, cloning (CLONING, ORGANISM), and assisted reproduction (REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, ASSISTED).
Female parents, human or animal.
A branch arising from the internal iliac artery in females, that supplies blood to the uterus.
Chemical substances that interrupt pregnancy after implantation.
The disintegration and assimilation of the dead FETUS in the UTERUS at any stage after the completion of organogenesis which, in humans, is after the 9th week of GESTATION. It does not include embryo resorption (see EMBRYO LOSS).
Behavior patterns of those practicing CONTRACEPTION.
The yellow body derived from the ruptured OVARIAN FOLLICLE after OVULATION. The process of corpus luteum formation, LUTEINIZATION, is regulated by LUTEINIZING HORMONE.
The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.
Transfer of preovulatory oocytes from donor to a suitable host. Oocytes are collected, fertilized in vitro, and transferred to a host that can be human or animal.
The threadlike, vascular projections of the chorion. Chorionic villi may be free or embedded within the DECIDUA forming the site for exchange of substances between fetal and maternal blood (PLACENTA).
Morphological and physiological development of EMBRYOS or FETUSES.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.
Intractable VOMITING that develops in early PREGNANCY and persists. This can lead to DEHYDRATION and WEIGHT LOSS.
The period in the ESTROUS CYCLE associated with maximum sexual receptivity and fertility in non-primate female mammals.
The weight of the FETUS in utero. It is usually estimated by various formulas based on measurements made during PRENATAL ULTRASONOGRAPHY.
Onset of HYPERREFLEXIA; SEIZURES; or COMA in a previously diagnosed pre-eclamptic patient (PRE-ECLAMPSIA).
Percutaneous transabdominal puncture of the uterus during pregnancy to obtain amniotic fluid. It is commonly used for fetal karyotype determination in order to diagnose abnormal fetal conditions.
Health care programs or services designed to assist individuals in the planning of family size. Various methods of CONTRACEPTION can be used to control the number and timing of childbirths.
Medical problems associated with OBSTETRIC LABOR, such as BREECH PRESENTATION; PREMATURE OBSTETRIC LABOR; HEMORRHAGE; or others. These complications can affect the well-being of the mother, the FETUS, or both.
Blood of the fetus. Exchange of nutrients and waste between the fetal and maternal blood occurs via the PLACENTA. The cord blood is blood contained in the umbilical vessels (UMBILICAL CORD) at the time of delivery.
The retention in the UTERUS of a dead FETUS two months or more after its DEATH.
A pair of highly specialized muscular canals extending from the UTERUS to its corresponding OVARY. They provide the means for OVUM collection, and the site for the final maturation of gametes and FERTILIZATION. The fallopian tube consists of an interstitium, an isthmus, an ampulla, an infundibulum, and fimbriae. Its wall consists of three histologic layers: serous, muscular, and an internal mucosal layer lined with both ciliated and secretory cells.
Preservation of cells, tissues, organs, or embryos by freezing. In histological preparations, cryopreservation or cryofixation is used to maintain the existing form, structure, and chemical composition of all the constituent elements of the specimens.
Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.
In utero measurement corresponding to the sitting height (crown to rump) of the fetus. Length is considered a more accurate criterion of the age of the fetus than is the weight. The average crown-rump length of the fetus at term is 36 cm. (From Williams Obstetrics, 18th ed, p91)
A condition of fetal overgrowth leading to a large-for-gestational-age FETUS. It is defined as BIRTH WEIGHT greater than 4,000 grams or above the 90th percentile for population and sex-specific growth curves. It is commonly seen in GESTATIONAL DIABETES; PROLONGED PREGNANCY; and pregnancies complicated by pre-existing diabetes mellitus.
A syndrome of HEMOLYSIS, elevated liver ENZYMES, and low blood platelets count (THROMBOCYTOPENIA). HELLP syndrome is observed in pregnant women with PRE-ECLAMPSIA or ECLAMPSIA who also exhibit LIVER damage and abnormalities in BLOOD COAGULATION.
Physiologic or biochemical monitoring of the fetus. It is usually done during LABOR, OBSTETRIC and may be performed in conjunction with the monitoring of uterine activity. It may also be performed prenatally as when the mother is undergoing surgery.
The number of births in a given population per year or other unit of time.
The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.
A hydroxylated metabolite of ESTRADIOL or ESTRONE that has a hydroxyl group at C3, 16-alpha, and 17-beta position. Estriol is a major urinary estrogen. During PREGNANCY, a large amount of estriol is produced by the PLACENTA. Isomers with inversion of the hydroxyl group or groups are called epiestriol.
The reproductive organ (GONADS) in female animals. In vertebrates, the ovary contains two functional parts: the OVARIAN FOLLICLE for the production of female germ cells (OOGENESIS); and the endocrine cells (GRANULOSA CELLS; THECA CELLS; and LUTEAL CELLS) for the production of ESTROGENS and PROGESTERONE.
An acyclic state that resembles PREGNANCY in that there is no ovarian cycle, ESTROUS CYCLE, or MENSTRUAL CYCLE. Unlike pregnancy, there is no EMBRYO IMPLANTATION. Pseudopregnancy can be experimentally induced to form DECIDUOMA in the UTERUS.
Any of the ruminant mammals with curved horns in the genus Ovis, family Bovidae. They possess lachrymal grooves and interdigital glands, which are absent in GOATS.
Inhaling and exhaling the smoke of burning TOBACCO.
Symptoms of NAUSEA and VOMITING in pregnant women that usually occur in the morning during the first 2 to 3 months of PREGNANCY. Severe persistent vomiting during pregnancy is called HYPEREMESIS GRAVIDARUM.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The outermost extra-embryonic membrane surrounding the developing embryo. In REPTILES and BIRDS, it adheres to the shell and allows exchange of gases between the egg and its environment. In MAMMALS, the chorion evolves into the fetal contribution of the PLACENTA.
The period of cyclic physiological and behavior changes in non-primate female mammals that exhibit ESTRUS. The estrous cycle generally consists of 4 or 5 distinct periods corresponding to the endocrine status (PROESTRUS; ESTRUS; METESTRUS; DIESTRUS; and ANESTRUS).
Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.
The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.
The potential of the FETUS to survive outside the UTERUS after birth, natural or induced. Fetal viability depends largely on the FETAL ORGAN MATURITY, and environmental conditions.
The fusion of a spermatozoon (SPERMATOZOA) with an OVUM thus resulting in the formation of a ZYGOTE.
A synthetic analog of natural prostaglandin E1. It produces a dose-related inhibition of gastric acid and pepsin secretion, and enhances mucosal resistance to injury. It is an effective anti-ulcer agent and also has oxytocic properties.
Premature separation of the normally implanted PLACENTA from the UTERUS. Signs of varying degree of severity include UTERINE BLEEDING, uterine MUSCLE HYPERTONIA, and FETAL DISTRESS or FETAL DEATH.
Abortion performed because of possible fetal defects.
Increase in BODY WEIGHT over existing weight.
The period from onset of one menstrual bleeding (MENSTRUATION) to the next in an ovulating woman or female primate. The menstrual cycle is regulated by endocrine interactions of the HYPOTHALAMUS; the PITUITARY GLAND; the ovaries; and the genital tract. The menstrual cycle is divided by OVULATION into two phases. Based on the endocrine status of the OVARY, there is a FOLLICULAR PHASE and a LUTEAL PHASE. Based on the response in the ENDOMETRIUM, the menstrual cycle is divided into a proliferative and a secretory phase.
The nursing of an infant at the breast.
A water-soluble polypeptide (molecular weight approximately 8,000) extractable from the corpus luteum of pregnancy. It produces relaxation of the pubic symphysis and dilation of the uterine cervix in certain animal species. Its role in the human pregnant female is uncertain. (Dorland, 28th ed)
Chemical substances that prevent or reduce the probability of CONCEPTION.
Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.
The number of offspring produced at one birth by a viviparous animal.
The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.
A chromosome disorder associated either with an extra chromosome 21 or an effective trisomy for chromosome 21. Clinical manifestations include hypotonia, short stature, brachycephaly, upslanting palpebral fissures, epicanthus, Brushfield spots on the iris, protruding tongue, small ears, short, broad hands, fifth finger clinodactyly, Simian crease, and moderate to severe INTELLECTUAL DISABILITY. Cardiac and gastrointestinal malformations, a marked increase in the incidence of LEUKEMIA, and the early onset of ALZHEIMER DISEASE are also associated with this condition. Pathologic features include the development of NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES in neurons and the deposition of AMYLOID BETA-PROTEIN, similar to the pathology of ALZHEIMER DISEASE. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p213)
Maternal deaths resulting from complications of pregnancy and childbirth in a given population.
The inability of the male to effect FERTILIZATION of an OVUM after a specified period of unprotected intercourse. Male sterility is permanent infertility.
Specialized arterial vessels in the umbilical cord. They carry waste and deoxygenated blood from the FETUS to the mother via the PLACENTA. In humans, there are usually two umbilical arteries but sometimes one.
The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.
MAMMARY GLANDS in the non-human MAMMALS.
Congenital malformations of the central nervous system and adjacent structures related to defective neural tube closure during the first trimester of pregnancy generally occurring between days 18-29 of gestation. Ectodermal and mesodermal malformations (mainly involving the skull and vertebrae) may occur as a result of defects of neural tube closure. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1992, Ch55, pp31-41)
Products in capsule, tablet or liquid form that provide dietary ingredients, and that are intended to be taken by mouth to increase the intake of nutrients. Dietary supplements can include macronutrients, such as proteins, carbohydrates, and fats; and/or MICRONUTRIENTS, such as VITAMINS; MINERALS; and PHYTOCHEMICALS.
Human artificial insemination in which the husband's semen is used.
A polypeptide hormone of approximately 25 kDa that is produced by the SYNCYTIOTROPHOBLASTS of the PLACENTA, also known as chorionic somatomammotropin. It has both GROWTH HORMONE and PROLACTIN activities on growth, lactation, and luteal steroid production. In women, placental lactogen secretion begins soon after implantation and increases to 1 g or more a day in late pregnancy. Placental lactogen is also an insulin antagonist.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
A post-MORULA preimplantation mammalian embryo that develops from a 32-cell stage into a fluid-filled hollow ball of over a hundred cells. A blastocyst has two distinctive tissues. The outer layer of trophoblasts gives rise to extra-embryonic tissues. The inner cell mass gives rise to the embryonic disc and eventual embryo proper.
The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.
The total process by which organisms produce offspring. (Stedman, 25th ed)
Compounds which increase the capacity to conceive in females.
Tumors or cancer of the UTERUS.
Contraction of the UTERINE MUSCLE.
The insertion of drugs into the vagina to treat local infections, neoplasms, or to induce labor. The dosage forms may include medicated pessaries, irrigation fluids, and suppositories.
The periodic shedding of the ENDOMETRIUM and associated menstrual bleeding in the MENSTRUAL CYCLE of humans and primates. Menstruation is due to the decline in circulating PROGESTERONE, and occurs at the late LUTEAL PHASE when LUTEOLYSIS of the CORPUS LUTEUM takes place.
A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A product of the PLACENTA, and DECIDUA, secreted into the maternal circulation during PREGNANCY. It has been identified as an IGF binding protein (IGFBP)-4 protease that proteolyzes IGFBP-4 and thus increases IGF bioavailability. It is found also in human FIBROBLASTS, ovarian FOLLICULAR FLUID, and GRANULOSA CELLS. The enzyme is a heterotetramer of about 500-kDa.
The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.
A method for diagnosis of fetal diseases by sampling the cells of the placental chorionic villi for DNA analysis, presence of bacteria, concentration of metabolites, etc. The advantage over amniocentesis is that the procedure can be carried out in the first trimester.
Male parents, human or animal.
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Artificially induced UTERINE CONTRACTION. Generally, LABOR, OBSTETRIC is induced with the intent to cause delivery of the fetus and termination of pregnancy.
The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.
A triphenyl ethylene stilbene derivative which is an estrogen agonist or antagonist depending on the target tissue. Note that ENCLOMIPHENE and ZUCLOMIPHENE are the (E) and (Z) isomers of Clomiphene respectively.
The beginning of true OBSTETRIC LABOR which is characterized by the cyclic uterine contractions of increasing frequency, duration, and strength causing CERVICAL DILATATION to begin (LABOR STAGE, FIRST ).
Human behavior or decision related to REPRODUCTION.
Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.
Spontaneous tearing of the membranes surrounding the FETUS any time before the onset of OBSTETRIC LABOR. Preterm PROM is membrane rupture before 37 weeks of GESTATION.
A member of the vitamin B family that stimulates the hematopoietic system. It is present in the liver and kidney and is found in mushrooms, spinach, yeast, green leaves, and grasses (POACEAE). Folic acid is used in the treatment and prevention of folate deficiencies and megaloblastic anemia.
A lactogenic hormone secreted by the adenohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, ANTERIOR). It is a polypeptide of approximately 23 kD. Besides its major action on lactation, in some species prolactin exerts effects on reproduction, maternal behavior, fat metabolism, immunomodulation and osmoregulation. Prolactin receptors are present in the mammary gland, hypothalamus, liver, ovary, testis, and prostate.
A condition of abnormally high AMNIOTIC FLUID volume, such as greater than 2,000 ml in the LAST TRIMESTER and usually diagnosed by ultrasonographic criteria (AMNIOTIC FLUID INDEX). It is associated with maternal DIABETES MELLITUS; MULTIPLE PREGNANCY; CHROMOSOMAL DISORDERS; and congenital abnormalities.
The heart rate of the FETUS. The normal range at term is between 120 and 160 beats per minute.
Contraceptive devices placed high in the uterine fundus.
The entity of a developing mammal (MAMMALS), generally from the cleavage of a ZYGOTE to the end of embryonic differentiation of basic structures. For the human embryo, this represents the first two months of intrauterine development preceding the stages of the FETUS.
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.

Plasma concentration changes in LH and FSH following electrochemical stimulation of the medial preoptic are or dorsal anterior hypothalamic area of estrogen- or androgen-sterilized rats.(1/75222)


Incidence of repeated legal abortion.(2/75222)


Coagulation and fibrinolysis in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancy. (3/75222)

Tests of coagulation, fibrinolysis, and platelet function were performed in 17 patients with intact molar pregnancies. Women with intact molar pregnancies had higher fibrinogen factor VIII, and fibrinogen degradation products, concentrations and lower prothrombin, factor X, plasminogen, and plasminogen activator concentrations than controls with normal pregnancies. They also had reduced platelet counts and thromboelastographic values, which indicated hypocoagulability. These results suggest that intravascular coagulation occurs in intact hydatidiform molar pregnancies.  (+info)

Phagocytic acitivity of bovine leukocytes during pregnancy. (4/75222)

The phagocytic competence, measured as the total number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes per mm3 which phagocytosed Staphylococcus aureus, strain 321, in vitro, was determined in eight cows during complete pregnancies. Such leukocytes are referred to as "Active PMN'S". There was a gradual decline in the number of these cells from conception to a minimum between the 16th and 20th weeks of pregnancy, followed by a steady increase to the cessation of lactation when a marked drop occurred, after which there was an increase to a maximun during the second week prepartum. From this maximum there was a rapid decrease to an absolute minimum during the first week after parturition. From the second week postpartum there was a gradual increase to conception. The correlation coefficient (r) of number of active PMN'S with time before conception was -0.474 )p-0.01). There were significant differences (p=0.01) in numbers of active PMNS Among the eight cows. It was found that the cows fell into two groups, one whose members had, overall, significantly more active PMNs (p=0.001) than those in the second group. The between cow differences may have been due to 1) age, since the cows with the highest numbers of circulating active PMNs were younger than those in the other group of 2) the combined stress of pregnancy and lactation, as those cows which were both pregnant and milking had the lowest numbers of active PMNs.  (+info)

Studies on the response of ewes to live chlamydiae adapted to chicken embryos or tissue culture. (5/75222)

Ewes infected before gestation with chicken embryo or tissue culture adapted chlamydial strain B-577 were challenge inoculated with the homologous strain at four to 18 weeks of gestation. The ewes responsed with group specific complement fixing antibody titers of 1:8 to 1:256 by the second week after initial infection. A secondary antibody response in the surviving challenge inoculated ewes occurred at the time of lambing and reached titers of 1:32 to 1:256 by the second week after parturition. Group specific complement fixing antibodies did not appear to play a significant role in resistance to chlamydial infection. Ewes infected with the chicken embryo adapted strain B-577 excreted chlamydiae in their feces 60 days after inoculation. However, chlamydiae were not recovered from feces of ewes infected with the tissue culture adapted strain B-577. Placentas of ewes challenge inoculated by the intravenous route were consistently infected. Chlamydiae were recovered from placentas, some fetuses and lambs. In two instances when challenge inoculation was given by the intramuscular route, infection was detected only by the direct fluorescent antibody method.  (+info)

Life devoid of value.(6/75222)


Graphic monitoring of labour. (7/75222)

The parturograph is a composite record designed for the monitoring of fetal and maternal well-being and the progress of labour. It permits the early recognition of abnormalities and pinpoints the patients who would benefit most from intervention. Observations are made from the time of admission of the mother to the caseroom and recorded graphically. Factors assessed include fetal heart rate, maternal vital signs and urine, cervical dilatation, descent of the presenting fetal part, and frequency, duration and intensity of uterine contractions.  (+info)

The effects of digestive enzymes on characteristics of placental insulin receptor. Comparison of particulate and soluble receptor preparations. (8/75222)

The role of the surrounding membrane structure on the binding characteristics of the insulin receptor was studied by using several digestive enzymes. The effects observed with particulate membrane preparations are compared with those from soluble receptor preparations. beta-Galactosidase and neuraminidase had no effect on insulin binding to either particulate or soluble receptors from human placentae. Exposure to 2 units of phospholipase C/ml increased insulin binding to particulate membranes, but was without effect on the soluble receptor preparation. The increase in binding to particulate membranes was shown to be due to an increase in apparent receptor number. After 5 min exposure to 500 microgram of trypsin/ml there was an increase in insulin binding to the particulate membrane fraction, owing to an increase in receptor affinity. After 15 min exposure to this amount of trypsin, binding decreased, owing to a progressive decrease in receptor availability. In contrast, this concentration of trypsin had no effect on the solubilized receptor preparation. Because of the differential effects of phospholipase C and trypsin on the particulate compared with the solubilized receptor preparations, it is concluded that the effects of these enzymes were due to an effect on the surrounding membrane structure. Changes in receptor configuration due to alterations within the adjoining membrane provide a potential mechanism for mediating short-term alterations in receptor function.  (+info)

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TY - JOUR. T1 - Plasma levels of the immunomodulatory cytokine interleukin-10 during normal human pregnancy: a longitudinal study. AU - Holmes, VA. AU - Wallace, Julie. AU - Gilmore, WS. AU - McFaul, P. AU - Alexander, HD. PY - 2003/3. Y1 - 2003/3. N2 - Pregnancy is proposed to be a Th2 phenomenon, where Th2 cytokines inhibit Th1 responses to improve foetal Survival. The importance of interleukin-10 (IL-10), an immunomodulatory cytokine produced by Th2 cells, in the maintenance of normal pregnancy is becoming increasingly apparent. In a longitudinal case-control study, the physiological effect of pregnancy on plasma IL-10 was investigated. The plasma concentration of IL-10 was determined using an ELISA technique in 99 pregnant women sampled at 12. 20 and 35 weeks of gestation, 38 non-pregnant control subjects sampled in parallel and in a subgroup of women sampled at 3 days post-partum (it. pregnant 21, non-pregnant 21). Plasma IL-10 was significantly higher in pregnant women at 12, 20 and 35 ...
Introduction A number of studies have demonstrated significant associations between changes in obesity-related phenotypes and subsequent risk of CHD. While accumulating evidence suggests that maternal pre-pregnancy body mass index (mppBMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG) may impact adult offspring adiposity, no study has examined their associations with longitudinal changes in obesity. Changes in obesity are likely to reflect genetic-environmental interactions and may have important implications for understanding CHD risk.. Objectives We examined the associations of mppBMI and GWG with longitudinal change in offsprings BMI and assessed whether these associations are explained in part by genetic effects.. Methods We used a birth cohort of 1400 young adults born in Jerusalem, with extensive archival data as well as clinical information at age 32, and longitudinal change in BMI based on two examinations at ages 17 and 32. Genotyping of mothers and offspring was carried out for 180 candidate ...
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If a woman suffers from autoimmune disease (AD), several factors can affect pregnancy or neonatal outcome: repeated spontaneous pregnancy losses (frequently related to antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL)), neonatal lupus with complete congenital heart block (CHB) (linked to transplacental passage of IgG anti Ro/SS-A antibodies) and the disease activity itself that can affect the mother, the pregnancy and fetal outcome. If appropriately managed, the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is bone of the few tractable causes of pregnancy losses.Q A recent case control study, on babies from APS-mothers and healthy mothers, did not show any difference in the occurrence of neonatal complications. There are few data about the longterm outcome of babies born to patients with AD. We recently reported increased occurrence of learning disabilities in children born to aPL positive mothers with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE). The modern management of pregnancy in patients with AD includes the treatment of disease ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The diabetes in early pregnancy study. T2 - β-Hydroxybutyrate levels in type 1 diabetic pregnancy compared with normal pregnancy. AU - Jovanovic, Lois. AU - Metzger, Boyd E.. AU - Knopp, Robert H.. AU - Conley, Mary R.. AU - Park, Eunsik. AU - Lee, Y. Jack. AU - Simpson, Joe Leigh. AU - Holmes, Lewis. AU - Aarons, Jerome H.. AU - Mills, James L.. PY - 1998/10/29. Y1 - 1998/10/29. N2 - OBJECTIVE - The objective was to assess relationships between β- hydroxybutyrate (β-OHB) level and pregnancy outcome in human pregnancy in light of the fact that high levels of β-OHB cause malformations and growth retardation in in vitro studies. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS - We analyzed β-OHB in prospectively collected specimens from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development-Diabetes in Early Pregnancy Study, in gestational weeks 6-12 in diabetic (n = 204-239) and nondiabetic (n = 316- 332) pregnant women. RESULTS - Levels of β-OHB in diabetic women were 2.5- fold higher ...
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For some women, exercise during pregnancy, particularly PFM training is associated with a fear of difficult delivery. We showed that the levator hiatus area was larger in women exercising regularly at gestational week 37 than in non-exercisers at this timepoint. This difference was not associated with labour and delivery variables as there were no statistical significant differences between exercisers and non-exercisers at week 37 in numbers with induction, prolonged second stage, elective or acute caesarean section, episiotomy, operative vaginal delivery (vacuum and forceps), women with third and fourth degree perineal tears and infants birth weight.. Our data extend findings of decreased physical activity level during pregnancy in other larger cohort studies.14 ,15 In the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study, women exercising ≥3 times per week decreased from 46% before pregnancy to 28% at gestational week 17 and to 20% at gestational week 30.15 Similar trends have been found in cohort ...
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Objective: To assess the risk of perinatal complications in overweight and obese women with and without type 1 diabetes (T1DM).. Design: Prospective population-based cohort study.. Setting: This study was based on data from the Swedish Medical Birth Registry from 1998 to 2007.. Participants: 3457 T1DM and 764 498 non-diabetic pregnancies were included. T1DM was identified based on ICD code O24.0. Mothers were categorised according to pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI: weight in kilograms per height in square metres) as normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9), overweight (BMI 25-29.9) or obese (BMI ≥30). Only women with singleton pregnancies and with data on BMI were included. PRIMARY/SECONDARY OUTCOMES: The primary outcome was large for gestational age (LGA: birth weight ,90th percentile) infants. Secondary outcomes were major malformations, pre-eclampsia (PE), preterm delivery, perinatal mortality, delivery by Caesarean section and neonatal overweight. Logistic regression analysis was performed with ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Nutritional paradigms of ovine fetal growth restriction. T2 - implications for human pregnancy. AU - Luther, Justin S.. AU - Redmer, Dale A.. AU - Reynolds, Lawrence P.. AU - Wallace, Jacqueline. PY - 2005/9. Y1 - 2005/9. N2 - Low birth weight and prematurity are associated with short inter-pregnancy intervals, low pre-pregnancy weights, insufficient maternal weight gains during pregnancy, multifetal pregnancies and a young maternal age. Improvements in maternal nutritional status are arguably imperative for ensuring an appropriate pregnancy outcome in these vulnerable groups, but ethical boundaries limit these investigations. Experimental paradigms using the pregnant sheep have been widely used to identify the nutritionally sensitive periods of conceptus development. In adult sheep, severe undernutrition during the periconceptual period accelerates maturation of the fetal hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal axis and results in pre-term delivery. Low pre-pregnancy weight, followed by ...
Improving the quality of care that women experience during pregnancy, childbirth, and the postpartum period has become a major global priority. Achieving good quality care requires not only clinical improvements, but also a person-centered approach that takes into account womens and health workers needs and perspectives.. In 2016, the World Health Organization (WHO) updated its antenatal care guidelines, calling for a positive pregnancy experience through holistic, person-centered antenatal services that provide pregnant women with emotional support and advice in addition to the standard clinical assessments.. Group antenatal care, initially developed in the U.S. several decades ago, is a promising model that responds to womens health and information concerns during pregnancy. Facilitated by a health provider, usually a nurse or midwife, group antenatal care offers a forum for pregnant women to learn more about their pregnancies, share their experiences, receive essential health and self-care ...
Post-Artificial Insemination Supplementation with Calcium Salts of Soybean Oil Influences Pregnancy Establishment Factors in Bos Indicus Beef Cows
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The quality of the intrauterine environment influences maternal-fetal health and also offspring predisposition to obesity and cardiometabolic disease later in life. Several determinants, including but not limited to pregravid obesity and excessive gestational weight gain, alter the developmental milieu, fetal growth, and child obesity risk. However, the role of sleep and its relationship to healthy pregnancy is not fully established. Given the host of psychosocial and physiological complications associated with childhood obesity, targeting the gestational period is purported to be an opportune time for preventive intervention. Many longitudinal studies suggest that short sleep duration is a risk factor for the development of impaired glycemia and obesity. However, there is a dearth of information concerning the role of sleep hygiene and its role in a healthy pregnancy. Reports note disrupted and poorer quality of sleep during gestation and highlight an association between reduced sleep and risk of
Our main finding was that the size of the fetus in the first trimester of pregnancy was associated with the birth weight. Approximately half of this association was due to the effect of first trimester size on the duration of pregnancy. The clinical significance of this finding is underlined by the association between fetal growth in early pregnancy and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age infant. Before the widespread use of ultrasound, fetal growth was thought to be largely genetically determined in early pregnancy and variation in fetal growth was thought to be primarily a feature of the second half of pregnancy.13 With the widespread clinical use of ultrasound, analysis of routinely collected data showed that fetuses that were smaller than expected in early pregnancy were at increased risk of adverse outcome, particularly poor growth. Intrauterine growth restriction was postulated to be evident in very early pregnancy.6 However, other authors suggested that a prolonged interval ...
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The Apremilast Pregnancy Exposure Registry (Registry) is a United States (U.S.) based registry designed to monitor planned or unplanned pregnancies exposed to apremilast when used to treat an approved indication in accordance with the current approved prescribing information, who reside in the U.S. or Canada.. The goal of the Registry is to conduct an observational, controlled prospective cohort study that will involve follow-up of live born infants to one year of age.. The primary objective of the Registry is to evaluate any potential increase in the risk of major birth defects, specifically a pattern of anomalies, in apremilast exposed pregnancies compared to the primary comparison group of disease-matched unexposed pregnancies. Secondary objectives are to evaluate the potential effect of exposure relative to the secondary comparison group of healthy pregnant women, and the effect of exposure on other adverse pregnancy outcomes including spontaneous abortion or stillbirth, preterm delivery, ...
Click on the links below to learn more about this topic.. Pregnancy Overview. Anatomy: Fetus in Utero. The First Trimester (0 - 12 Weeks). The Second Trimester (12 - 24 Weeks). The Third Trimester (24 - 40 Weeks). The Pregnant Mother. Hormones During Pregnancy. Weight Gain During Pregnancy. Nutrition During Pregnancy. Exercise During Pregnancy. Work and Pregnancy. Sex During Pregnancy. Sleeping During Pregnancy. Multiple Pregnancy. Overview of Multiple Pregnancy. Symptoms and Diagnosis of Multiple Pregnancy. Complications of Multiple Pregnancy. Care and Management of Multiple Pregnancy. Newborn Multiples. ...
We investigated the association between timing (before, early and late pregnancy) of probiotic milk consumption and the risk of developing preeclampsia or preterm delivery. Our results showed that probiotic milk intake during late pregnancy (but not before or in early pregnancy) was associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia, and that intake during early pregnancy (but not before or in late pregnancy) was associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery. No dose response effect was found. In this study we were not able to separate the impact of the specific probiotic products. When analysing subgroups, we found a stronger association between probiotic milk intake and reduced risk of spontaneous and late preterm delivery.. We were surprised to find a lack of association between probiotic intake and iatrogenic preterm delivery, since an important reason for selecting pregnancies for induction in preterm pregnancy is severe preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, which can be a cause of ...
We investigated the association between timing (before, early and late pregnancy) of probiotic milk consumption and the risk of developing preeclampsia or preterm delivery. Our results showed that probiotic milk intake during late pregnancy (but not before or in early pregnancy) was associated with reduced risk of preeclampsia, and that intake during early pregnancy (but not before or in late pregnancy) was associated with reduced risk of preterm delivery. No dose response effect was found. In this study we were not able to separate the impact of the specific probiotic products. When analysing subgroups, we found a stronger association between probiotic milk intake and reduced risk of spontaneous and late preterm delivery.. We were surprised to find a lack of association between probiotic intake and iatrogenic preterm delivery, since an important reason for selecting pregnancies for induction in preterm pregnancy is severe preeclampsia and intrauterine growth restriction, which can be a cause of ...
Objective: To investigate changes in tobacco smoking in two consecutive pregnancies and factors associated with the change. Design: Population-based cohort study. Setting: New South Wales, Australia, 2000-2010 Population: 183,385 women having first and second singleton pregnancies. Methods: Descriptive and multivariable logistic regression analyses of perinatal data linked to hospital admission data. Main outcome measures: Proportion of women smoking during their first pregnancy who quit by their second, and of women not smoking in their first pregnancy who did smoke during their second. Results: Among 22,761 smokers in the first pregnancy, 33.5% had quit by their second. Among 160,624 non-smokers in their first pregnancy, 3.6% smoked during their second. Women who aged ≥25 years, were married, born in a non-English speaking country, used private obstetric care, and lived in a socio-economically advantaged area were more likely to quit or less likely to start smoking in the second pregnancy. ...
Ask an OB-GYN, Series I, Blog 3- Why is a healthy diet important for a healthy pregnancy?. A healthy diet prior to pregnancy is important to maintain the proper nutrients needed for your babys organs to form correctly. In addition, if you are already anemic due to deficiencies in things such as iron or vitamin B12, anemia will usually worsen during pregnancy. Correcting that beforehand is very helpful.. Obesity in pregnancy is now one of our most concerning problems in Obstetrics. Obesity increases your risk of complications which may be an issue for the baby. Women who are obese have higher rates of pregnancy related heart failure, hypertension, preeclampsia, preterm delivery, gestational diabetes, large for gestational age baby (macrosomia), increase labor dysfunction, increase c-section rates, and higher rates of hemorrhage after the baby delivers. A baby born to an obese mother also has an increased risk of birth defects, especially neural tube defects (spina bifida) and studies confirm ...
Breast cancer occurring during pregnancy is a relatively rare clinical situation that may present many difficult medical and psychosocial problems. Its diagnosis is commonly delayed, largely related to breast changes which normally occur during pregnancy. When matched for age and stage of disease, patients with breast cancer during pregnancy have the same prognosis as nonpregnant patients; the disease stage at diagnosis is the most important predictor of survival. Breast cancer diagnosed during pregnancy should be treated according to the same principles applied in nonpregnant patients. Termination of pregnancy does not appear to improve survival and thus, decisions regarding termination of pregnancy should be based on the desires of the patient, along with the urgency for radiation or chemotherapy that could potentially be harmful to the fetus. Subsequent pregnancy following the diagnosis of breast cancer does not have a known detrimental effect on survival, although it is usually wise to ...
Complications of pregnancy are health problems that are related to pregnancy. Complications that occur primarily during childbirth are termed obstetric labor complications, and problems that occur primarily after childbirth are termed puerperal disorders. Severe complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium are present in 1.6% of mothers in the US[1] and in 1.5% of mothers in Canada.[2] In the immediate postpartum period (puerperium), 87% to 94% of pregnant individuals report at least one health problem.[3][4] Long-term health problems (persisting after six months postpartum) are reported by 31% of pregnant individuals.[5] In 2016, complications of pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium resulted globally in 230,600 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. The most common causes of maternal mortality are maternal bleeding, maternal sepsis and other infections, hypertensive diseases of pregnancy, obstructed labor, and pregnancy with abortive outcome, which includes miscarriage, ...
Background: Preterm birth defined as birth prior to 37 weeks of gestation is caused by different risk factors and implies an increased risk for disease and early death for the child. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of maternal stress during pregnancy on the risk of preterm birth. Methods: A case-control study that included 340 women; 168 women who gave birth preterm and 172 women who gave birth at term. Data were manually extracted from standardized medical records. If the medical record contained a psychiatric diagnosis or a self-reported stressor e.g., depression or anxiety the woman was considered to have been exposed to stress during pregnancy. Adjusted odds ratio (AOR) was used to calculate the attributable risk (AR) of maternal stress during pregnancy on preterm birth, both for the women exposed to stress during pregnancy (AR1 = (AOR-1)/AOR) and for the whole study population (AR2 = AR1*case fraction). Results: Maternal stress during pregnancy was more common among women ...
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Its only in week two that ovolation and posterior fertilization happens. ive had pregnancj symptoms but my belly feels fat. The premise of this technique is that development 14 weeks pregnancy concern of ache is what causes the ache constant pain in groin during pregnancy. Should you do this commonly and spot it stays elevated for a total of 18 consecutive days, chances are good that you are pregnant. My weight loss program was positively altered, I had to development 14 weeks pregnancy in additional effort than ever earlier than when it got here to consuming nicely and developed new empathy for purchasers who dont care about food. 2011 Jan;86(1):forty five-9. It could be development 14 weeks pregnancy result of a want to have a child or an intense concern of being pregnant. Mayo Clinic doesnt endorse non-Mayo services. Good luck. Typically women see that brown coloration when its going off. This is possibly as a consequence of an elevated price of wfeks of follicles. You possibly can ...
It is important to understand pregnancy symptoms as a result of they may be related to one thing else 20 weeks pregnancy ultrasound pictures has nothing to do with being actually pregnant. Holding postures such as Warrior Pose 20 weeks pregnancy ultrasound pictures women gain confidence and build endurance in preparation for motherhood, says Angela Gallagher, a prenatal teacher and childbirth educator in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. You might be simply 20 weeks pregnancy ultrasound pictures rattling WEIRD. My husband and I want to have a second youngster and I wish to have a v-bac. In case your job entails flying whether or not youre a flight attendant, a pilot or the rest that requires fixed flying it is best to learn this text which has been specifically designed to give you as a lot info as attainable to help you understand flying and the results in your being pregnant. As a pair, you want to determine who will spread the information. Felled by the flu. I have never regretted it as soon as ...
When you learn that youre pregnant, you might begin planning your pregnancy week by week. Every day you might have more questions about a healthy pregnancy. What should you eat? Can you exercise? What type of prenatal tests should you consider?. If youre carrying twins or other multiples, you might have even more questions about your pregnancy week by week. How much weight should you gain? How can you prevent preterm labor? Will you need bed rest?. Whatever your questions, understanding your pregnancy week by week can help you make good decisions throughout your pregnancy. Learn nutrition dos and donts, and get the basics on other healthy pregnancy issues - from exercise to back pain and sex. The more you know about your pregnancy week by week, the more prepared youll be to face what lies ahead. ...
Find out how good prenatal oral care and health can result in a smooth and healthy pregnancy. Also find insights into the effects of anesthesia on pregnant women.
Background: Exposure to alcohol and tobacco during pregnancy may lead to developmental disorders in the foetus and can also adversely impact pregnancy outcomes and the newborns health status. Objective: Assessment of alcohol consumption and tobacco use during pregnancy as well as their impact on pregnancy outcomes and birth parameters of the newborn in a selected group of mothers with children aged ≤ 2 years. Material and methods: The study was conducted in 104 mothers with children aged ≤ 2 years living in the Mazowiecki Voivodeship. A questionnaire was used for assessing selected lifestyle parameters tobacco and alcohol use, dietary supplements use, physical activity during pregnancy, socio-demographic characteristics as well as childrens birth parameters (birth weight, length, head circumference, chest circumference). Data were analyzed statistically using logistic regression analysis, Spearmans rang correlation, the Mann-Whitney U, Kruskal-Wallis, Student-t, Tukey and Chi2 tests ...
The quality on the information found in How Fast To Know If Pregnant (How Fast To Know If Pregnant : How To Get Pregnant - 7 Tips Teaching You How To Get Pregnant) is well above anything youll find on the market today. and babies born into more than 42 lack of appetite in early pregnancy babies can be said to be born in a post-term. The amount of books, products and things can be completely overwhelming (and bleeding nipples early pregnancy unnecessary). Part of the study found that women who ate more than 1 bowl early childbirth practices cereal a day were less probably to conceive a girl than those who ate less than one bowl of cereal a bleeding nipples early pregnancy. It is very common in the latter part of the second trimester, however women with darker bleeding nipples early pregnancy may notice the linea nigra bleeding nipples early pregnancy early as 12 weeks pregnant. I have a question I had sex we didnt use any protection and this happened 4-5 days bleeding nipples early pregnancy 3 ...
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Pregnancy Loss is a loss that occurs at any point during pregnancy. Pregnancy loss includes miscarriage, ectopic pregnancy, molar pregnancy, chemical pregnancy, blighted ovum pregnancy, intrauterine fetal demise (stillbirth), and pregnancy termination. Some, but not all, pregnancy losses are considered perinatal losses. [80]. ...
RESULTS: 9760 women delivered at the Department during the study period, among them 193 met the inclusion criteria for the study: 40 primiparas (average age 40.9 ± 1.14) and 153 multiparas (average age 41.3 ± 1.35). No relation between parity and preterm delivery was observed (5% primiparas vs 11.1% multiparas; p>0.05). However, gestational age at delivery was associated with the number of pregnancies - the higher the pregnancy number, the lower the gestational age (p=0.009; R=-0.188). Primiparity was associated with an increased rate of oligohydramnios (RR=4.78; 95% CI 1.15-20.63) and pregnancy induced hypertension (RR=2.34; 95% CI 0.93-5.58). Primiparas had a significantly greater risk of operative delivery (RR=1.83; 95% CI 1.42-2.12) and unsuccessful labor inductions (RR=3.60; 95% CI 1.04-5.29). They were more often diagnosed with fibroids (RR=3.04; 95%CI 1.15-7.81). No relations between parity and birth weight, fetal abnormalities or Apgar score were observed ...
The being pregnant pillow is a latest luxurious, and one that has develop into a should for contemporary mothers. Course materials are given early pregnancy levels of progesterone all pregbancy. We now have the answers to 15 regularly asked questions ( FAQs ) in numerous languages, and these can be found for download. Like most young women in her community who get pregnant, Gloria has dropped out of college and now spends her days making corn totopas along with her mother and sister Guadalupe, who can also be pregnant from a boyfriend. Is a typical question oc anticipating mothers so we preynancy we could offer some insight on this. When youve got extreme ache or any bleeding is seen, its important that you simply contact a medical professional immediately to ensure that the child is healthy. Watching your diet, together with the quantity of salt, sugar, and carbohydrates you eat before your interval can cut back emotions of fatigue in early pregnancy levels of progesterone to water weight ...
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Anecdotal reports of nursing mothers have long suggested that giving milk is a lot easier in second and subsequent pregnancies, compared with a first pregnancy. Now, researchers at Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory (CSHL) are able to explain why.. Their work shows the mammary gland forms a long-term memory of pregnancy that primes it to respond to the hormonal changes that announce succeeding pregnancies. The memory lasts throughout an individuals reproductive years. The results appear online in Cell Reports.. Secretion of the hormones estrogen and progesterone set the stage for dramatic changes that take place in the breast during pregnancy: a massive proliferation of mammary epithelial cells, and the formation of thousands of ductal structures, which support milk production and transport during lactation.. A team led by HHMI Investigator Greg Hannon, a CSHL Professor and also a Professor and Senior Group Leader at the CRUK Cambridge Institute at the University of Cambridge, hypothesized that ...
Pregnant women at risk of mental health problems or with existing conditions should receive more support, healthcare professionals have been told.The National Institute for Health and Care Excellence...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The effect of method and gestational age at termination of pregnancy on future obstetric and perinatal outcomes. T2 - a register-based cohort study in Aberdeen, Scotland. AU - Woolner, Andrea. AU - Bhattacharya, Siladitya. AU - Bhattacharya, Sohinee. PY - 2014/2. Y1 - 2014/2. N2 - ObjectiveTo determine whether termination of pregnancy (TOP), including the method used or gestational age at termination, affects future obstetric and perinatal outcomes.DesignRegister-based cohort.SettingAberdeen Maternity Hospital, Scotland, UK.PopulationFrom the Aberdeen Maternity and Neonatal Databank (AMND) we identified 3186 women who had terminated their first pregnancy and then had a second pregnancy of beyond 24 weeks of gestation between 1986 and 2010. We identified 42 446 women who had their first delivery in the same time period, for comparison.MethodsUnivariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to compare outcomes between groups. Complete case analysis with adjustment of ...
The being pregnant couldnt survive. You might also develop a heightened sense of odor, making previously mild odors robust symptoms of pregnancy while on lo loestrin fe unappealing) sufficient to make you run for the closest lavatory to puke. So no matter stage in your being pregnant, come along and expertise the benefits of yoga under the care of our expert pregnancy yoga pain right leg pregnancy. We asked the police and county prosecutor to analyze to see if felony costs are warranted. Your temperature will keep elevated pregnanxy through your being pregnant. Follow Bulletin No. Otherwise you can simply have a stomach upset and so if this has not sorted itself out in a fs or two possibly it is best to take a being pregnant take a look at. Nausea and typically vomiting is well known as morning sickness, but these symptoms can happen all day, and can symptoms of pregnancy while on lo loestrin fe be te extreme. Its usually tough to type out things yourself, so its higher to ot your GYN. The ...
Vaccines for a Healthy Pregnancy Vaccines for a Healthy Pregnancy G ALLERY I.1 Healthy Mother and Baby I II Introduction to Tutorial About Flu and Whooping Cough III Getting Vaccinated During Pregnancy:
Risk assessment and counselling of women with a history of CVST regarding future pregnancies is difficult because of the lack of data concerning the associated thrombotic risk. As pregnancy and puerperium are prothrombotic risk factors for VTE, gynaecologists and general physicians are often reluctant to encourage women with previous CVST to become pregnant. The results of this study suggest that a history of CVST does not preclude a subsequent pregnancy. None of our patients had recurrence of CVST during pregnancy and puerperium and no extracerebral VTE occurred. The observed complications (for example, spontaneous abortion, gestosis) were most probably not attributable to thromboembolic complications.. Adding the 22 pregnancies from our series to other published series and case reports,6-9 there are now data available from 63 pregnancies with normal delivery and without recurrence of CVST including 21 women who initially presented with pregnancy related CVST. No heparin or ASS were given ...
Nov. 22, 2013. New research links good health and a healthy lifestyle before becoming pregnant with greater likelihood of having an uncomplicated pregnancy.. The study found that certain health factors, habits and behaviours were linked to increased odds of a problem-free pregnancy. These included having a healthy body weight and normal blood pressure, eating a lot of fruit, not misusing drugs, and being employed.. An international team led by researchers at Kings College London recruited 5,628 women who were pregnant with their first child in Australia, New Zealand, the United Kingdom and Ireland. None of the women had any known pre-existing risk factors for pregnancy complications.. Most existing research looking at pregnancy outcomes has studied risk factors for complications, such as pre-eclampsia, gestational diabetes and preterm birth. This study approached the research from the other direction, looking at factors that were linked to healthy, uncomplicated pregnancies. The researchers ...
Underweight women with a low weight gain during pregnancy appear to have an increased risk of having a low birth weight infant and preterm birth. On the other hand, obese women have an increased risk for having a large for gestational age infant, post term birth, and other pregnancy complications.. There is an increased risk of small for gestational age births in women who gain less than the recommended weight, based on pre-pregnancy weight. Women who exceed the weight gain recommendations double their risk of having a very large infant which increases the risk for C-section and birth trauma. It may also increase the risks of childhood obesity and makes weight loss more difficult after delivery.. Recommendation for weight gain during a single pregnancy are as follows: ...
Pregnancy has always been a major concern in patients with heart disease. Although many women with pre-existing heart disorders tolerate pregnancy well, complications are frequent and in some cases include life threatening conditions for mother and child. In western countries maternal heart disease has indeed become the major cause of maternal death during pregnancy. Furthermore, pregnancy can have a negative impact on the long term course of heart disease.1 Thus, screening for heart disease, appropriate risk assessment, and counselling are crucial. In women at risk who nevertheless desire pregnancy or who present already pregnant, adequate measures during pregnancy and delivery that may reduce complications and optimise outcome have to be taken.. The spectrum of heart disease in pregnancy has changed and differs among regions around the world. In the western world, the risk of cardiovascular disease in pregnancy has increased because of advanced age at first pregnancy and the increasing ...
Pregnancy and breastfeeding[edit]. According to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration pregnancy categories, levothyroxine has ... Thyroid hormone requirements increase during and last throughout pregnancy.[11] As such, it is recommended that pregnant women ... Use during pregnancy has been found to be safe.[1] It is recommended that dosing be based on regular measurements of TSH and T4 ... therapy should be continued during pregnancy.[20] Furthermore, therapy should be immediately administered to women diagnosed ...
Pregnancy and lactation[edit]. The doses of moclobemide in breast milk are very low (0.06% of moclobemide being recovered in ...
During pregnancy[edit]. In addition to the issues mentioned above which are toxic to all people, several medicinal herbs are ... and particularly is not recommended during pregnancy or when prescription drugs are used; comfrey is not recommended for oral ...
Pregnancy and birth outcomes[edit]. Evidence about radiation-related pregnancy and birth outcomes comes from studies of nuclear ... 500 mSv between the 10th and 40th day of pregnancy, the period of organogenesis during which the organs are formed. After the ... "Radiation exposure and pregnancy". Journal of Vascular Surgery. 53 (1): 28S-34S. doi:10.1016/j.jvs.2010.05.140. Retrieved 15 ... that fetal malformations are a greater risk if a woman is exposed to high doses of nuclear-related radiation in early pregnancy ...
Pregnancy[edit]. There is tentative concerns that use during pregnancy can result in harm to the baby.[5] Effective birth ... "Dolutegravir (Tivicay) Use During Pregnancy". 16 October 2018. Retrieved 13 February 2020.. .mw-parser-output cite. ... There is tentative concerns that use during pregnancy can result in harm to the baby.[5] It is unclear if use during ... control is thus recommended while on dolutegravir, with pregnancy testing before starting treatment.[11] Use during the first ...
Pregnancy[edit]. Bitter melon is contraindicated in pregnant women because it can induce bleeding, contractions, and ...
... is not recommended in early pregnancy but may be used in later pregnancy.[1] Its safety during breastfeeding is ... "Pentamidine Use During Pregnancy ,". Archived from the original on 2016-11-09. Retrieved 2016-11-10.. ... "Pentamidine Use During Pregnancy". Archived from the original on 9 November 2016. Retrieved 3 December 2016.. ... Pregnancy[edit]. It has not been shown to cause birth defects in animal studies when given intravenously. There are no ...
Pregnancy and breastfeeding[edit]. Many studies have found no association between lamotrigine exposure in utero and birth ... "Lamotrigine Use During Pregnancy ,". Retrieved 9 December 2017.. ... Prabhu LV, Nasar MA, Rai R, Madhyastha S, Singh G (October 2007). "Lamotrigine in pregnancy: safety profile and the risk of ... There are concerns that use during pregnancy or breastfeeding may result in harm.[3] Lamotrigine is a phenyltriazine, making it ...
In pregnancy. Gestation can predispose for certain digestive disorders. Gestational diabetes can develop in the mother as a ... result of pregnancy and while this often presents with few symptoms it can lead to pre-eclampsia.[52] ...
Pregnancy-related trauma. Main article: Childbirth-related posttraumatic stress disorder. Women who experience miscarriage are ... PTSD can also occur after childbirth and the risk increases if a woman has experienced trauma prior to the pregnancy.[73][74] ... "Journal of Pregnancy. 2015: 646345. doi:10.1155/2015/646345. PMC 4334933. PMID 25734016.. ... between the development of PTSD in mothers that experienced domestic violence during the perinatal period of their pregnancy.[ ...
Pregnancy[edit]. Folate intake during pregnancy has been linked to a lessened risk of neural tube defects (NTDs), and for this ... PRI for pregnancy is 600 μg/day, for lactation 500 μg/day. For children ages 1-17 years the PRIs increase with age from 120 to ... A meta-analysis of folate supplementation during pregnancy reported a 28% lower risk of newborn congenital heart defects.[25] ... Because of this considerable risk, those mothers who must continue to use valproic acid or its derivatives during pregnancy to ...
Pregnancy[edit]. Few women of childbearing age have high blood pressure, up to 11% develop hypertension of pregnancy.[51] While ... Pregnancy: unclear cause.. *Cancers: tumours in the kidney can operate in the same way as kidney disease. More commonly, ... Escher G (April 2009). "Hyperaldosteronism in pregnancy". Therapeutic Advances in Cardiovascular Disease. 3 (2): 123-32. doi: ... Mounier-Vehier C, Delsart P (April 2009). "[Pregnancy-related hypertension: a cardiovascular risk situation]". Presse Médicale ...
Pregnancy. Cancer affects approximately 1 in 1,000 pregnant women. The most common cancers found during pregnancy are the same ... In some cases, some or all treatments are postponed until after birth if the cancer is diagnosed late in the pregnancy. Early ... In a few instances, such as advanced uterine cancer, the pregnancy cannot be continued and in others, the patient may end the ... Excepting the rare transmissions that occur with pregnancies and occasional organ donors, cancer is generally not a ...
Pregnancy and breast-feeding[edit]. Epidemiological data do not show an increased risk of major birth defects after maternal ... Pasternak, Björn; Hviid, Anders (2010). "Use of Proton-Pump Inhibitors in Early Pregnancy and the Risk of Birth Defects". New ... It is unclear if it is safe for use in pregnancy.[1] Omeprazole is a proton-pump inhibitor and as such blocks the release of ... use of omeprazole during pregnancy.[24] No clinical trials have deeply evaluated the potential consequences of the use of ...
Pregnancy and neonates[edit]. During pregnancy the dangers to the fetus associated with a primary VZV infection are greater in ... "Chickenpox in Pregnancy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 June 2010. Retrieved 22 July 2009 ... "Primary Varicella in Adults: Pneumonia, Pregnancy, and Hospital Admissions". Annals of Emergency Medicine. 28 (2): 165-169. ... "The management of varicella-zoster virus exposure and infection in pregnancy and the newborn period. Australasian Subgroup in ...
Pregnancy[edit]. Main article: Smoking and pregnancy. A number of studies have shown that tobacco use is a significant factor ... Wang M, Wang ZP, Gong R, Zhao ZT (January 2014). "Maternal smoking during pregnancy and neural tube defects in offspring: a ... Environmental tobacco smoke exposure and maternal smoking during pregnancy have been shown to cause lower infant birth weights. ... and increases the risk of an IVF pregnancy miscarrying by 30%.[101] ...
Fertility and pregnancy[edit]. The position of the American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery as of 2017 was that it ... Bariatric surgery reduces the risk of gestational diabetes and hypertensive disorders of pregnancy in women who later become ...
Ectopic pregnancy[edit]. An ectopic pregnancy is one of a few cases where the foreseeable death of an embryo is allowed, since ... "Early Pregnancy Complications and the Ethical and Religious Directives". Retrieved 2016-04-20.. ... Most people open to the facts recognize that a human life has begun by the end of the first trimester of a pregnancy. It is at ... The highest number, 83.2%, is in favor of the voluntary termination of pregnancy in case the mother's life is in danger.[110] ...
Pregnancy[edit]. During pregnancy when female sex hormones are naturally raised, biliary sludge (particulate material derived ... Additional risk factors for stone formation during pregnancy include obesity (prior to the pregnancy), reduced high density ... Other risk factors are having over four pregnancies, weight gain, and cigarette smoking. Alcohol was shown to have an inverse ...
Management of pregnancy. Further information: Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy. While most infants born to mothers ... Pregnancy outcome appears to be worse in people with SLE whose disease flares up during pregnancy.[40] ... Further information: Systemic lupus erythematosus and pregnancy. SLE causes an increased rate of fetal death in utero and ... In addition, SLE can flare up during pregnancy, and proper treatment can maintain the health of the mother longer. Women ...
Risk to fertility and pregnancy. Borax was added to the Substance of Very High Concern (SVHC) candidate list on 16 December ...
Pregnancy[edit]. This drug is rated pregnancy category B in the United States. ... It is generally safe in pregnancy.[1] Ranitidine is an H2 histamine receptor antagonist that works by blocking histamine and ...
Home pregnancy test[edit]. Home pregnancy test involves ELISA to detect the increase of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) ...
NK cell function in pregnancy[edit]. As the majority of pregnancies involve two parents who are not tissue-matched, successful ... cells in human early pregnancy decidua". Placenta. 31 Suppl (S): S87-92. doi:10.1016/j.placenta.2009.12.022. PMID 20061017.. ... and uterine natural killer cell maturation during normal murine pregnancy". The Journal of Experimental Medicine. 192 (2): 259- ... These uNK cells are the most abundant leukocytes present in utero in early pregnancy, representing about 70% of leukocytes here ...
Pregnancy[edit]. Folate intake during pregnancy has been linked to a lessened risk of NTDs.[28] ,a meta-analysis of folate ... PRI for pregnancy is 600 μg/day, for lactation 500 μg/day. For children ages 1-17 years the PRIs increase with age from 120 to ... Women with planned pregnancies and who are over the age of 25 are more likely to use folic acid supplement. Canadian public ... Because of this considerable risk, those mothers who must continue to use valproic acid or its derivatives during pregnancy to ...
Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy[edit]. UDCA has been used for intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy. UDCA lessens itching ... "Ursodiol Use During Pregnancy". 4 November 2019. Retrieved 20 February 2020.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font- ... "Interventions for treating cholestasis in pregnancy". Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (6): CD000493. doi:10.1002/ ... "Ursodeoxycholic acid versus placebo in women with intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (PITCHES): a randomised controlled ...
Further information: Pregnancy test. Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests,[59] ... "Pregnancy Symptoms - Early Signs of Pregnancy : American Pregnancy Association". Archived from the original on 15 January 2008 ... Main article: Medical imaging in pregnancy. Medical imaging may be indicated in pregnancy because of pregnancy complications, ... of pregnancies are unplanned.[10] Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[10] Among unintended pregnancies in the United ...
False pregnancy[edit]. In September 1554, Mary stopped menstruating. She gained weight, and felt nauseous in the mornings. For ... "The queen's pregnancy turns out not to have been as certain as we thought": Letter of 25 April 1554, quoted in Porter, p. 337 ... Michieli dismissively ridiculed the pregnancy as more likely to "end in wind rather than anything else".[106] It was most ... Her mother had suffered many miscarriages.[2] Before Mary's birth, four previous pregnancies had resulted in a stillborn ...
However, some pregnancies with CPM experience prenatal or perinatal complications. The pregnancy loss rate in pregnancies with ... What does CPM mean for a pregnancy?[edit]. Most pregnancies that are diagnosed with confined placental mosaicism continue to ... An impaired placenta cannot support the pregnancy and this may lead to the loss of a chromosomally normal baby.[5] On the other ... Level of mosaicism: There is a correlation between a high number of aneuploid cells detected at CVS with poor pregnancy ...
Pregnancy[edit]. Based on the limited data available, docetaxel appears to be safe in pregnancy if administered during the ... "Docetaxel Use During Pregnancy". 4 June 2020. Retrieved 29 October 2020.. .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style ... Koren G, Carey N, Gagnon R, Maxwell C, Nulman I, Senikas V (March 2013). "Cancer chemotherapy and pregnancy". J Obstet Gynaecol ... One small systematic review that examined the use of taxanes to treat breast cancer in pregnancy showed that, out of 19 ...
Fifth Disease Outbreaks in the Workplace & Pregnancy. Pregnant women may choose to continue going to their workplace if there ... Monitoring Parvovirus B19 Infection during Pregnancy. Any pregnant woman who may have been exposed to parvovirus B19 should ... Testing for Parvovirus B19 during Pregnancy. A blood test for parvovirus B19 can show if you ... and it happens more commonly during the first half of pregnancy. Any pregnant woman who may have been exposed to parvovirus B19 ...
A Long Record of Safety for Flu Shots during Pregnancy. Seasonal Flu Vaccine Safety and Pregnancy ... There is a lot of evidence that flu vaccines can be given safely during pregnancy. CDC and ACIP recommend that pregnant people ... Flu shots given during pregnancy help protect both the pregnant parent and the baby from flu. Vaccination has been shown to ... Early vaccination also can be considered for people who are in the third trimester of pregnancy, because this can help protect ...
Current evidence suggests that Zika infection prior to pregnancy would not pose a risk of birth defects to a future pregnancy. ... Because Zika during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects, pregnant women should not travel to areas with Zika outbreaks (as ... The only way to completely prevent Zika infection during pregnancy is to not travel to areas with risk of Zika and to use ... If families would like to speak to someone about a possible Zika virus infection or diagnosis during pregnancy and risk to the ...
Lois Jovanovic discusses the many aspects of having a healthy pregnancy with diabetes, including optimal blood sugar levels, ... Consultant: Hyperglycemia in Pregnancy. Dr. Jovanovic is an international expert, multiple award winning endocrinologist, in ... She specializes in the ages and stages of women with diabetes, and hyperglycemia in pregnancy. ... Florida to discuss the many aspects of having a healthy pregnancy with diabetes, including optimal blood sugar levels, low-cab ...
Pregnancy & Parenting *What to Expect in Pregnancy *Coping with Nausea and Vomiting ... Pregnancy & Parenting*What to Expect in Pregnancy*Coping with Nausea and Vomiting ... Short-term grief counselling is offered to patients of the Early Pregnancy Assessment Clinic and Recurrent Pregnancy Loss ... SOURCE: Pregnancy Loss Resources ( ) Page printed: . Unofficial document if printed. Please refer to SOURCE for latest ...
British Pregnancy Advisory Service, how can we help you?. *Im considering abortion ...
End of the pregnancy test as new smartwatch alerts women when they conceive, scientists announce ... Ode to the pregnancy test: why well miss it when its gone ... Hormone pregnancy tests do not cause birth defects, regulator ...
Further information: Pregnancy test. Pregnancy detection can be accomplished using one or more various pregnancy tests,[59] ... "Pregnancy Symptoms - Early Signs of Pregnancy : American Pregnancy Association". Archived from the original on 15 January 2008 ... Main article: Medical imaging in pregnancy. Medical imaging may be indicated in pregnancy because of pregnancy complications, ... of pregnancies are unplanned.[10] Half of unplanned pregnancies are aborted.[10] Among unintended pregnancies in the United ...
A heterotopic pregnancy is a rare[2][3] complication of pregnancy in which both extra-uterine (ectopic pregnancy) and ... A heterotopic pregnancy may have similar signs and symptoms as a normal intrauterine pregnancy, a normal intrauterine pregnancy ... It may also be referred to as a combined ectopic pregnancy, multiple‑sited pregnancy, or coincident pregnancy. ... The prevalence of heterotopic pregnancy is estimated at 0.6‑2.5:10,000 pregnancies.[3] There is a significant increase in the ...
... antenatal care and how to keep well in pregnancy. ... All you need to know about pregnancy, labour and birth ... Pregnancy. This guide includes all you need to know about trying for a baby, pregnancy, labour and birth. ... Pregnancy week-by-week Find out what to expect from every week of your pregnancy ... Keeping well in pregnancy How to look after yourself and your baby while youre pregnant ...
Produced by the National Campaign to Prevent Teenage Pregnancy, a Washington-based advocacy group, the report says the national ... Produced by the National Campaign to Prevent Teenage Pregnancy, a Washington-based advocacy group, the report says the national ... because of a significant drop in teenage pregnancies, suggests a recent report. ...
If undiagnosed, as the pregnancy grows, it can burst the organ that contains it and endanger the mothers life. ... In an ectopic pregnancy, a fertilized egg has implanted outside the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes. ... What About Future Pregnancies?. Many women who have had an ectopic pregnancy will go on to have normal pregnancies in the ... If the pregnancy is farther along, a woman will likely need surgery to remove the abnormal pregnancy. In the past, this was a ...
... & Work Situations. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA) forbids discrimination based on pregnancy ... Pregnancy Discrimination & Harassment. It is unlawful to harass a woman because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical ... Pregnancy Discrimination. Pregnancy discrimination involves treating a woman (an applicant or employee) unfavorably because of ... Pregnancy Discrimination & Temporary Disability. If a woman is temporarily unable to perform her job due to a medical condition ...
Basically, Pregnancy Miracle eBook is undoubtedly not a scam and you must try the book, if you would like get yourself pregnant ... Pregnancy Miracle Review - Best eBook on Infertility Youll discover women and men world-wide, who was simply attempting to get ... The Pregnancy Miracle system also contains a full money back guarantee involving Sixty days. So, if a person of you is ... Pregnancy Miracle system is available all counties around the globe. Its been promoted on the web and people from throughout ...
Live!": Okay, everyone line up by height: guest co-host Kristen Chenoweth is 411" and Kim Kardashian klocks in at a kool 52". Its too bad all 53" of Kelly Ripa wasnt around today, too... the three of them couldve stood next to 65" Michael Strahan. They wouldve looked like a "Were #1" Foam Finger!. "Anderson": They featured a story on a veterinarian who adopted a deer and raised it as a house pet! I suppose its kind of like having a big dog except it doesnt make any noise and eats less food. Just dont put on "Bambi" when its around, because I heard they can be quite sensitive creatures!. "Home & Family": Im really glad I was a guest on this show, it was a blast! Although I cant decide what my favorite part was! Cooking and dancing at the same time is always fun, its just hard to beat showing off pictures of my dog on national TV!. Watch "Daytime in No Time" right now and e-mail me at [email protected]!. Follow Nikki on Twitter: @nikkiboyer. Like Yahoo!TV on Facebook: ...
Pregnancy Center. Your Pregnancy. Taking care of yourself has never been more important. Heres how to nurture your growing ... Pregnancy Calendar. Read our week-by-week calendar and learn about the changes taking place in your baby - and you! ... Pregnancy Dos & Donts. Learn whats OK to do now, and what will have to wait until after your baby arrives. ... Whats a high-risk pregnancy?. This means a woman has one or more things that raise her - or her babys - chances for health ...
... but the hormonal and physical changes that accompany pregnancy can affect eyesight. ... Most eye experts advise against getting LASIK surgery or being fitted for new contacts during pregnancy. Your eyes will go back ... The chances go up as your pregnancy progresses. A temporary form of diabetes that sometimes affects moms-to-be, called ... The hormonal and physical changes that come with pregnancy can also affect your eyesight. ...
For pregnancies other than those in humans, see gestation.) A new ... Pregnancy, process and series of changes that take place in a ... If other signs of pregnancy are absent, however, and the tests for pregnancy are negative, pregnancy can most likely be ruled ... Pregnancy is characterized by increases in the amount of body water and in the total volume of body fluid. During pregnancy ... The normal events of pregnancy. Initiation of pregnancy. A new individual is created when the elements of a potent sperm merge ...
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Medscape: "Hypertension and Pregnancy.". National Heart Lung and Blood Institute: "High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy,""Your ... Get Pregnancy & Parenting Tips In Your Inbox. Doctor-approved information to keep you and your family healthy and happy.. *. ... It also increases your chances of high blood pressure or heart disease and of having a stroke after your pregnancy or later in ... Even with gestational hypertension, you have a good chance of having a healthy pregnancy and baby since most women with this ...
HOW TO: Avoid Pregnancy Junk Food Cravings and Eat Healthily for Your Growing Baby. *by ... Eating Too Much Junk Food During Pregnancy May Make Your Child a Junk Food Addict. *by ... Know Your Portion Sizes Portion size and calories are important issues to consider during your pregnancy. Especially... ...
Pregnancy Healthy eating. Exercising in pregnancy. Vitamins and supplements. Alcohol. Smoking. Pregnancy FAQs. Week-by-week. * ... Pregnancy Healthy eating. Exercising in pregnancy. Vitamins and supplements. Alcohol. Smoking. Pregnancy FAQs. Week-by-week. * ... Where can I get information on coronavirus and pregnancy?. The Royal College of Obstetricians and Gynaecologists has released ... How does coronavirus affect pregnancy?. At the moment, its expected that most pregnant women will experience mild or moderate ...
... If you have recently arrived in the Netherlands and are pregnant, you will have to deal with many things new to you. ... Pregnancy, giving birth and maternity care involve additional costs. Some of these costs will be covered by the basic health ... You can call a midwifes practice (or in many cases, contact the practice online) from the moment your pregnancy test is ... You should make arrangements for maternity care before the 16th week of your pregnancy. ...
Its really a lifestyle book about the whole "pregnancy season," encompassing pre-conception, pregnancy and that post-baby time ... A deficiency during pregnancy can cause birth defects and impaired cognitive function in baby. Several factors can lead to ... The best sources are actually beef or chicken liver, which I dont recommend during pregnancy due to their high vitamin A ... The perfect "dose" for pregnancy hasnt been established, but one to three servings per week of any cocoa-containing foods (hot ...
Upper back pain during pregnancy can occur at any point, but is most common in the third trimester. This occurs for several ... I went through horrible upper back pain in my second pregnancy and it was even worse post-pregnancy. I have been so lucky to ... If you do experience upper back pain during pregnancy you can use ice, heat, or massage to relieve symptoms. Do not leave ... Upper back pain during pregnancy can be successfully treated, which can improve the quality of your pregnancy and make your ...
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Eating during Pregnancy (Nemours Foundation) Also in Spanish * Eating Right during Pregnancy (Academy of Nutrition and ... Eating right during pregnancy (Medical Encyclopedia) Also in Spanish * Managing your weight gain during pregnancy (Medical ... Before pregnancy, you need 400 mcg (micrograms) per day. During pregnancy and when breastfeeding, you need 600 mcg per day from ... What foods should I avoid during pregnancy?. During pregnancy, you should avoid ...
  • Many women who have had an ectopic pregnancy will go on to have normal pregnancies in the future, but some will have difficulty becoming pregnant again. (
  • Most women who have had an ectopic pregnancy can have normal pregnancies in the future. (
  • [12] Pregnancy can occur by sexual intercourse or assisted reproductive technology . (
  • A heterotopic pregnancy is a rare [2] [3] complication of pregnancy in which both extra-uterine ( ectopic pregnancy ) and intrauterine pregnancy occur simultaneously. (
  • Upper back pain during pregnancy can occur at any point, but is most common in the third trimester. (
  • Hydatidiform moles, which occur in one in every 1000 pregnancies in the United States, increase the risk of persistent gestational trophoblastic disease (GTD) and choriocarcinoma, a malignant, rapidly-growing, and metastatic form of cancer. (
  • Mild histologic changes in melanocytic nevi may occur in pregnancy. (
  • The hormonal, immunological, and mechanical adaptations that occur during pregnancy to accommodate the growing fetus cause noticeable changes in maternal skin, modulated by various factors. (
  • Changes in thyroid hormone concentrations that are characteristic of hyperthyroidism must be distinguished from physiological changes in thyroid hormone economy that occur in pregnancy, especially in the first trimester. (
  • Approximately one to two cases of gestational hyperthyroidism occur per 1000 pregnancies. (
  • We don't know why this may not hold true for the breast tissue of women whose first pregnancies occur later in life, Tung says. (
  • INTRODUCTION - The dermatoses of pregnancy are a heterogeneous group of pruritic inflammatory dermatoses that occur exclusively during pregnancy and/or in the immediate postpartum period [ 1 ]. (
  • Almost all ectopic pregnancies-more than 90%-occur in a fallopian tube . (
  • Most ectopic pregnancies occur in a fallopian tube, so they're often called "tubal" pregnancies. (
  • Leaking amniotic fluid is estimated to occur in 6% -19% of full term pregnancies, and around 2% of premature pregnancies, so between 64,000 and 170,000 pregnant women could be affected in the UK each year. (
  • Pregnancy usually occurs by sexual intercourse, but can occur through assisted reproductive technology procedures. (
  • [10] About 10% to 15% of recognized pregnancies end in miscarriage. (
  • If you carry on drinking, especially in the first 3 months of pregnancy, the risk of miscarriage, premature birth and low birth weight are increased. (
  • I started this website in 1998 after I suffered a miscarriage/ partial molar pregnancy. (
  • This drug used to be prescribed to prevent miscarriage and various pregnancy complications. (
  • A pregnancy may end in a live birth, a spontaneous miscarriage, an induced abortion, or a stillbirth. (
  • For women in an assisted reproductive program, there are additional factors: a higher incidence of multiple ovulation, a higher incidence of tubal malformation and/or tubal damage, and technical factors in embryo transfer which may increase the risk for ectopic and heterotopic pregnancy. (
  • This is why ectopic pregnancies are commonly called "tubal pregnancies. (
  • Tubal pregnancy. (
  • Burke M , Nwosu C . Tubal pregnancy. (
  • An ectopic pregnancy most often occurs in the fallopian tube, causing a "tubal pregnancy. (
  • Tubal ligation for sterilization , tubal ligation reversal, or surgery to correct a problem with your fallopian tubes can increase your ectopic pregnancy risk. (
  • In this Exclusive Interview, Dr. Lois Jovanovic joins Diabetes in Control publisher Steve Freed at the AACE 2016 convention in Orlando, Florida to discuss the many aspects of having a healthy pregnancy with diabetes, including optimal blood sugar levels, low-cab diets, and managing insulin dosage. (
  • A healthy diet can help you have a healthy pregnancy and a healthy baby. (
  • Regular exercise can help you have a healthy pregnancy. (
  • As a rule, the majority of pregnant women who experience these changes have a normal healthy pregnancy. (
  • If you follow your doctor's advice, you can ensure a healthy pregnancy and baby. (
  • Whether you've just started planning, or are looking ahead, gathering information is the first step to a safe and healthy pregnancy with T1D. (
  • Pons Medical Research is working for your healthy pregnancy. (
  • [11] Common causes include maternal bleeding , complications of abortion , high blood pressure of pregnancy, maternal sepsis , and obstructed labor . (
  • Early-stage PAMM does not cause poor fetal or maternal pregnancy outcomes, but metastatic MM is the most common cancer to spread to the placenta and fetus. (
  • Pregnancy following diagnosis and treatment of MM does not have any fetal or maternal adverse effects, but counseling should be individualized based on stage of disease and maternal preferences in cases with high risk for recurrence or metastasis. (
  • In the past, women with rheumatic diseases were advised against pregnancy due to maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality and the complex influence of sex hormones on immunity. (
  • This review aims to discuss the maternal and fetal effects of pregnancy in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), Sjögren's syndrome, anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), spondylarthropathies, the vasculitides and systemic sclerosis. (
  • Growth in the field will likely depend on developing models for how to finance use of telemedicine in pregnancy, investments in broadband, research demonstrating improved maternal and infant outcomes, and payor willingness to reimburse providers for services provided to patients through a telemedicine platform. (
  • Normal physiologic changes of the maternal skin and appendages during pregnancy ( table 1 ) are reviewed elsewhere. (
  • Vitamins and minerals play a key role in maternal and fetal growth during various stages of pregnancy and are critical for cell growth and signaling. (
  • Research out this week has found that women who eat oily fish in the second half of pregnancy are more likely to give birth to stronger children, as scientists find increasingly more links between maternal diet and long term health outcomes for the baby. (
  • Some women have no nausea during their first pregnancy, but feel sick with subsequent pregnancies. (
  • [9] Complications of pregnancy may include disorders of high blood pressure , gestational diabetes , iron-deficiency anemia , and severe nausea and vomiting among others. (
  • Additionally, impairments resulting from pregnancy (for example, gestational diabetes or preeclampsia, a condition characterized by pregnancy-induced hypertension and protein in the urine) may be disabilities under the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA). (
  • Inadequate vitamin D during pregnancy has been linked to bacterial vaginosis, gestational diabetes, pre-eclampsia and decreased bone mass in offspring. (
  • Your book, however, emphasizes the importance of avoiding excess sugar intake during pregnancy to help prevent gestational diabetes. (
  • Obesity during pregnancy is risky for both mother and child, with some risks including gestational diabetes, gestational hypertension (high blood pressure), Cesarean delivery, birth defects and even fetal death. (
  • This comforted me, because I lost a child in the 12th week due to Gestational Trophoblastic Disease, or a partial molar pregnancy. (
  • Deficiency of vitamin D during pregnancy increases the risk of preeclampsia, preterm birth, C section delivery, and gestational diabetes. (
  • Studies show that probiotic supplementation during pregnancy may lower the risk of postpartum depression, gestational diabetes, and infant dermatitis. (
  • The first and most pressing reason behind sleep problems during pregnancy is the increasing size of the fetus, which can make it hard to find a comfortable sleeping position. (
  • Beginning around your 15th week of pregnancy, your doctor will monitor the fetus by fetal echocardiogram either monthly or weekly, depending on your antibody levels (called titers) and medical history. (
  • Pregnancy , process and series of changes that take place in a woman's organs and tissues as a result of a developing fetus. (
  • Taking medications for autoimmune conditions - including inflammatory types of arthritis, connective tissue disorders and inflammatory bowel disease - during the first trimester of pregnancy does not appear to put a fetus at greatly increased risk of a bad outcome, according to Vanderbilt University researchers. (
  • If a woman might have an ectopic pregnancy, her doctor may do an ultrasound to see where the developing fetus is. (
  • The importance of expert pregnancy monitoring during with a fetus diagnosed with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia (CDH). (
  • Here are a few of the key stats missing from the Guttmacher "sound bites": When they make the sweeping statement that "teen pregnancies have increased by 3 %", what they aren't telling you is that among girls 14 years and younger, the pregnancy rate actually continues to decrease . (
  • After ten years of falling teen pregnancy rates that correspond to the rise in the teaching of abstinence education, there was a slight rise in teen pregnancies among 15-17 year-olds in one twelve month period - from 38.2 per thousand in 2005 to 38.9 per thousand in 2006. (
  • Fewer children in the United States may be living in poverty, in large part, because of a significant drop in teenage pregnancies, suggests a recent report. (
  • Often, the first warning signs of an ectopic pregnancy are pain or vaginal bleeding. (
  • Pregnancy , also known as gestation , is the time during which one or more offspring develops inside a woman . (
  • Heterotopic pregnancy is treated with surgical removal of the ectopic gestation by salpingectomy or salpingostomy . (
  • For pregnancies other than those in humans, see gestation . (
  • Obtaining a detailed medical history, including personal and family history of atopy, obstetric history (primigravida, multiple gestation pregnancy, similar illness in previous pregnancies), and time of onset of the current eruption (early or late pregnancy). (
  • A pregnancy is considered term at 37 weeks of gestation. (
  • It happens less than 5% of the time among all pregnant women with parvovirus B19 infection, and it happens more commonly during the first half of pregnancy. (
  • It's usually later in pregnancy that most women have trouble getting enough deep, uninterrupted sleep. (
  • Because Zika during pregnancy can cause severe birth defects, pregnant women should not travel to areas with Zika outbreaks (as indicated by red areas on the Zika map ). (
  • She specializes in the ages and stages of women with diabetes, and hyperglycemia in pregnancy. (
  • Please see the RCOG Green-top Guideline No. 72 Care of Women with Obesity in Pregnancy . (
  • Women and their partners in BC that are grieving the loss of a pregnancy or baby can join the Biweekly Perinatal Loss Support Group in-person (call 604.875.3788). (
  • [10] The number of pregnancies in women ages 15 to 44 is 133 per 1,000 women. (
  • [10] Among unintended pregnancies in the United States, 60% of the women used birth control to some extent during the month pregnancy occurred. (
  • [3] There is a significant increase in the incidence of heterotopic pregnancy in women undergoing ovulation induction . (
  • You'll discover women and men world-wide, who was simply attempting to get information regarding pregnancy miracle book to get themselves pregnant. (
  • A number of people are unclear, if pregnancy miracle eBook is a hoax and really contains the useful information which can help most women to conceive. (
  • It was actually long fight to struggle her infertility and she mastered a variety of methods over the years that made it easier for her and various women, who were being tested working with procedures stated in pregnancy miracle system. (
  • Although pregnant women will continue to be excluded from enrollment in clinical therapeutic trials, the increased acceptance of the use of these therapies during pregnancy should allow for the development of registries to improve the quality of data and analysis to ensure optimal management of and improved outcomes for these women. (
  • However, research consistently suggests that many women start their pregnancies with insufficient or deficient Vitamin D levels, so that dose is not enough. (
  • It is recommended that pregnant women, especially in the second and third trimesters of pregnancy, sleep on their side. (
  • Soundview Pregnancy Services is dedicated to helping women who are experiencing uncertainty in their lives due to an unplanned pregnancy. (
  • Women who experience pregnancy loss and do not go on to have children are at greater risk of cardiovascular disease, such as heart disease and stroke, compared with women who have only one or two children, according to new research from the University of Cambridge and the University of North Carolina. (
  • A complication of pregnancy that causes the mother's blood pressure to rise - often fatally - is more common in women of African descent than any other. (
  • In addition, when coincidental infections or other skin diseases affect women during pregnancy, their course may be worsened, improved, or unaffected by the pregnancy state (Table 43.1). (
  • While pregnancy is not the time to lose weight, women should not use their expanding bellies as a reason to eat more than is necessary. (
  • Many women start off pregnancy with an overweight or obese BMI and many gain more weight than is healthy during their pregnancy. (
  • If a women is obese during pregnancy, it also raises the chance her child will be obese later in life. (
  • Many women choose to work with a team that includes an endocrinologist, primary care doctor, and an OB-GYN, preferably one who has experience with T1D pregnancies. (
  • Women with T1D have been having healthy pregnancies for decades, but a handful of discouraging myths and misconceptions remain. (
  • My pregnancy craving was for that sisterhood that used to exist back in the day when women lived in tribes and pregnancy wisdom was passed down from mother to mother. (
  • Not being able to find what I was truly looking for, I realized something was missing in how we go through our pregnancies in this culture, and that sacred mother sisterhood had been buried, not lost, but buried deep in the past and needed to re-surge for all women. (
  • Pregnant women are often confused about whether they can continue being active or working out during pregnancy, with many old wives tales tell them to stay put. (
  • The Craziest Cravings Women Had During Their Pregnancies. (
  • Pregnancy can often herald the gradual ramp off from leadership that many working women inevitably face in their careers. (
  • When women don't take charge of what their careers will look like during pregnancy, assumptions are made on their behalf. (
  • One mistake Downey says women make all too often is defaulting to their pregnancy as small talk. (
  • Many women find that they need to slow down their level of exercise during pregnancy. (
  • Yet we have very limited data to guide women and healthcare providers about whether to continue immunosuppressive medications during pregnancy," explains lead author William Cooper, MD, professor of pediatrics and of health policy at Vanderbilt University School of Medicine in Nashville, Tenn. (
  • But Dr. Cooper points out, "Up to 50 percent of pregnancies are unplanned and women may become pregnant while taking a potentially harmful drug. (
  • Although the women were economically, racially and geographically diverse, all had an autoimmune condition, such as RA, lupus or scleroderma, and all had been treated with an immunosuppressive drug before or during pregnancy . (
  • Pregnancy itself is associated with a small, short-term increase in cancer risk, and this may be greater for women who give birth at an older age. (
  • In data from the Nurses' Health Study , a large prospective study of risk factors and major diseases in American women, women in the older age group continue to face a higher risk than women without kids do-in other words, the risk added by pregnancy doesn't disappear with time for them. (
  • Older women may be at particular risk of the pregnancy-hormone effect because their breast cells may be more prone to damage from the stimulation that higher hormonal levels cause. (
  • "Nausea and vomiting are the commonest symptoms experienced in the first trimester of pregnancy, affecting 70-85% of women" (British Medical Journal, 2004;328:503 28 February, doi:10.1136/bmj.328.7438.503). (
  • Anecdotal reports by doctors, nurses and midwives indicate that women who carry twins/triplets are more likely to experience morning sickness during their first months of pregnancy, compared to mothers who are carrying a single baby. (
  • We therefore strongly oppose so-called "crisis pregnancy centers" (CPCs) because of the biased and often inaccurate and misleading information they provide to women seeking honest information about birth control and abortion. (
  • As clergy that counsel women around all of their pregnancy options, we know that interfering with a woman's decision about whether to continue a pregnancy denies her right to self-determination and undervalues her moral agency. (
  • Using a sample of outpatient medical claims of reproductive age women enrolled in large employer plans, KFF analyzed telemedicine utilization within the following domains of pregnancy-related care: supervision of normal and high-risk pregnancies, mental health disorders associated with pregnancy and lactation services. (
  • About one half of all women who have an ectopic pregnancy do not have known risk factors. (
  • Sexually active women should be alert to changes in their bodies, especially if they experience symptoms of an ectopic pregnancy. (
  • Of course, the best people to ask are women who have had prenatal massage during their own pregnancies. (
  • Though most women quit smoking during pregnancy, there are some who continue to smoke. (
  • Some women have poor eating habits which affect their health as well as the baby's during pregnancy and hence they need to take vitamin and mineral supplements to avoid nutritional deficiencies. (
  • It is important to start folic acid early in pregnancy, or ideally, before pregnancy, as these birth defects often develop even before women find out they are pregnant. (
  • In pregnant women with biliary colic, supportive care will lead to resolution of symptoms in most cases, but the symptoms frequently recur later in pregnancy. (
  • Yet, pregnancy may open a window of vulnerability for developing binge eating disorder, especially for women from lower socio-economic situations, say researchers. (
  • In a long-term study of 100,000 pregnant Norwegian women, researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill and colleagues in Norway saw an unexpected increase in new incidences of binge eating disorder that began during pregnancy. (
  • Previously, small clinical studies had suggested that often eating disorders go into remission during pregnancy, just as some pregnant women spontaneously quit smoking cigarettes. (
  • In the study, for women who already had the disorder, continuation of symptoms during pregnancy was more common than remission, the researchers found. (
  • In a review of studies, researchers found that in women who had one ectopic pregnancy, the chance of having another ranged from 5 to 25 percent, depending on how the previous ectopic pregnancy was treated. (
  • The babies born to women who had been eating chocolate daily during pregnancy were more active and "positively reactive" - a measure that encompasses traits such as smiling and laughter. (
  • The number of pregnancies in women aged between 15 and 44 is 133 per 1,000 women. (
  • Prenatal care improves pregnancy outcomes. (
  • pregnancy: "biobanks" A discussion about obstetric and gynecological researchers using "biobanks" to improve pregnancy outcomes. (
  • Yes, I was impressed to see how much discussion you devote to cosmetic and household chemicals that may affect pregnancy outcomes. (
  • However, there are some cutaneous disorders associated with ongoing pregnancy, which can be a harbinger of adverse fetal outcomes and remit postpartum [3]. (
  • Among the more than 600 pregnancies, there were a total of 68 adverse outcomes. (
  • The first will be the effect of rheumatic diseases in the mother on fertility, followed by the effects of pregnancy on the disease, then the risk of transmission of disease from mother to foetus, and finally fetal outcome in the different rheumatic diseases. (
  • The Fifth Circuit on Thursday once again blocked Mississippi's persistent efforts to usher in some of the nation's most sweeping abortion restrictions, striking down a controversial ban on abortions once a fetal heartbeat has been detected - around six weeks of pregnancy. (
  • Smoking and having multiple sexual partners also increase the risk of an ectopic pregnancy. (
  • If the tissue grows on your fallopian tubes, it causes inflammation and scarring, increasing your risk of an ectopic pregnancy. (
  • If your mother took it while she was pregnant with you, you may have health problems, including abnormalities of your fallopian tubes and uterus, which increase your risk of an ectopic pregnancy. (
  • Although the chance of this happening is rare, you have a higher than average risk of an ectopic pregnancy if it does. (
  • And having used an IUD in the past doesn't raise your risk of an ectopic pregnancy. (
  • Whether you need a pregnancy test or are looking for information or services related to your pregnancy options, fertility, prenatal care, or pregnancy loss, Planned Parenthood is here to help. (
  • Pregnancy, fertility treatment, and cancer. (
  • Do pregnancy and fertility treatment increase the risk of breast cancer? (
  • As for the role of fertility treatments, since some tumors are fueled by estrogen, treatments that boost estrogen levels in theory could further boost the pregnancy-related cancer risk. (
  • If you get pregnant as a result of fertility drugs or in vitro fertilization (IVF) , there's a slightly higher than average chance that the pregnancy will be ectopic. (
  • A possible pregnancy must be considered in any woman who has abdominal pain or abnormal vaginal bleeding. (
  • If the pregnancy is farther along, a woman will likely need surgery to remove the abnormal pregnancy. (
  • Molar pregnancy is an abnormal form of pregnancy in which a fertilized but non-viable egg implants in the uterus, resulting in a hydatidiform mole. (
  • If the pregnancy is farther along, doctors usually need to do surgery to remove the abnormal pregnancy. (
  • [5] Symptoms of early pregnancy may include missed periods , tender breasts, nausea and vomiting , hunger, and frequent urination. (
  • There are many physiological changes and common concerns that comes with pregnancy such as nausea, fatigue, or swelling. (
  • In addition, we know from the 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines that most Americans fall short in key nutrients, and pregnancy is no exception, especially if you consider appetite changes and nausea that can accompany pregnancy. (
  • It is common for a pregnant woman to live through nausea and vomiting during her first few months of pregnancy. (
  • The severity of the nausea varies from pregnancy to pregnancy. (
  • It might be no coincidence that hCG, a pregnancy hormone, as well as estrogen rise in levels during the first trimester, and drop at about the same time the nausea starts going away. (
  • Should I be worried about nausea during pregnancy? (
  • This pregnancy-related complication of severe nausea and vomiting can result in weight loss and deficiencies. (
  • Early symptoms of pregnancy may include: missed menstrual period, nausea or vomiting, tiredness and fatigue, a craving for certain foods. (
  • Early vaccination also can be considered for people who are in the third trimester of pregnancy, because this can help protect the baby after birth during their first months of life (when they are too young to be vaccinated). (
  • Frequency and clinical variants of specific dermatoses in third trimester of pregnancy: a study from a tertiary care centre. (
  • If you do not have symptoms, you should be offered testing at your first prenatal care visit, followed by two additional rounds of testing at regular prenatal care visits during your pregnancy. (
  • Most prenatal supplements provide the current recommended Vitamin D intake for pregnancy--600 international units (IU). (
  • In fact, iodine is now recognized as a nutrient so critical to the cognitive development of the baby during pregnancy that CRN recently developed guidelines urging the dietary supplement industry to ensure that prenatal multivitamins contain at least 150 mcg of iodine daily. (
  • Dr. Steen has found the disease generally does not get worse during pregnancy, provided the woman has waited past the first three years of diagnosis to become pregnant - the most critical period in the development of complications, whether a woman is pregnant or not. (
  • therefore, screening, evaluation, and biopsy of suspicious lesions are paramount to avoid delayed diagnosis of MM during pregnancy. (
  • Sauerbrei A, Wutzler P. Herpes simplex and varicella-zoster virus infections during pregnancy: current concepts of prevention, diagnosis and therapy. (
  • In this Review, we discuss physiological and pathophysiological changes in thyroid hormone economy in pregnancy, the diagnosis and management of hyperthyroidism during pregnancy, severe life-threatening thyrotoxicosis in pregnancy, neonatal thyrotoxicosis, and post-partum hyperthyroidism. (
  • A skin biopsy should also be performed to confirm a clinical diagnosis of pustular psoriasis of pregnancy. (
  • (Accessed on July 03, 2014). (
  • How doctors treat an ectopic pregnancy depends on things like the size and location of the pregnancy. (
  • There are two methods used to treat an ectopic pregnancy: 1) medication and 2) surgery. (
  • Call your doctor right away if you're pregnant and having any pain, bleeding, or other symptoms of ectopic pregnancy. (
  • What are the symptoms of ectopic pregnancy? (
  • The new figures from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention represent 'one of the nation's great success stories of the past two decades,' said Bill Albert, spokesman for the National Campaign to Prevent Teen and Unplanned Pregnancy . (
  • Dermatological diseases associated with pregnancy: pemphigoid gestationis, polymorphic eruption of pregnancy, intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy, and atopic eruption of pregnancy. (
  • Kremer AE, Wolf K, Ständer S. Intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy: rare but important. (
  • Severe generalized pruritus, especially if predominant on the palms and soles, in the absence of primary skin lesions suggests intrahepatic cholestasis of pregnancy (ICP). (
  • Involvement of striae is common in polymorphic eruption of pregnancy (PEP). (
  • Eczematous lesions with a flexural distribution suggest atopic eruption of pregnancy (AEP). (
  • Early in pregnancy, the ultrasound may be done using a wand-like device in your vagina. (
  • If your doctor can't diagnose ectopic pregnancy but can't rule it out, he or she may ask you to return every few days for blood work and an ultrasound until it is clear whether or not there is an ectopic pregnancy. (
  • Often, pregnancies are too small to see on ultrasound until more than 5 or 6 weeks after a woman's last menstrual period. (
  • If an external ultrasound can't show the pregnancy, the doctor might do the test with a wand-like device in the vagina. (
  • Your doctor might want to check your hormone levels or schedule an early ultrasound to ensure that your pregnancy is developing normally. (
  • Getting vaccinated also can help protect a baby after birth from flu (the pregnant parent passes antibodies on to the developing baby during pregnancy). (
  • Flu shots given during pregnancy help protect both the pregnant parent and the baby from flu. (
  • This guide includes all you need to know about trying for a baby, pregnancy, labour and birth. (
  • Your doctor will continue to treat and monitor you throughout your pregnancy, because heart block may necessitate early delivery of the baby. (
  • It's really a lifestyle book about the whole "pregnancy season," encompassing pre-conception, pregnancy and that post-baby time when nutrition is important for breastfeeding and getting back in shape. (
  • A deficiency during pregnancy can cause birth defects and impaired cognitive function in baby. (
  • First, as pregnancy progresses, the growing size of the baby and the uterus shifts the center of gravity forward placing increased pressure on the muscles in the back. (
  • During pregnancy, the amount of blood in your body increases, so you need more iron for yourself and your growing baby. (
  • The sex of a baby controls the level of small molecules known as metabolites in the pregnant mother's blood, which may explain why risks of some diseases in pregnancy vary depending whether the mother is carrying a boy or a girl, according to new research from the University of Cambridge. (
  • You can meticulously track your baby's growth with our Pregnancy Week by Week feature or have fun checking out our baby shower games, nursery ideas and Chinese Gender Predictor. (
  • We're the best resource for Pregnancy and Baby. (
  • If you have type 1 diabetes (T1D) and are pregnant, or planning to become pregnant, we have helpful resources for every step of your pregnancy journey - including bringing baby home! (
  • Having a blood-sugar level in the 200‒300 mg/dL range during the first few weeks of pregnancy (before the pregnancy is confirmed) will cause the baby to have birth defects. (
  • A Sacred Pregnancy is a gift you give yourself and your baby and one that is unique to every single pregnancy and birthing experience. (
  • People often say some foods such as dairy products and peanuts should be avoided during pregnancy, as the baby can become allergic to these foods. (
  • Generally speaking, being active during pregnancy is crucial for the health of the mom and the baby. (
  • Celebrate the baby on the way with bespoke pregnancy announcements made using Adobe Spark. (
  • Later in their pregnancy, they may worry it will cause their baby to be born early or at a low birth weight. (
  • Pregnancy increases a woman's need for micro- and macronutrients to address the nutritional needs of the growing baby and her own body's increased nutritional needs. (
  • Find out how your age affects pregnancy -- and what you can to do ensure that both you and your developing baby are safe and healthy. (
  • I am due to sit a major exam in the future and am worried that if I do get pregnant, the stress of revising for that exam might interfere with the pregnancy and harm the baby. (
  • With Fit & Firm: Pregnancy, fitness icon (and the mother of two) Denise Austin delivers an energy-boosting program that focuses on everyday strength, 'perfect pregnancy posture' and reshaping your after-baby body! (
  • This could also be done as part of a [2] Family Relationship Switcheroo (in which, for example, a daughter gets pregnant out of wedlock, and her mother fakes a pregnancy in an effort to pass the baby off as her own, rather than her daughter's). (
  • [11] Globally, 40% of pregnancies are unplanned . (
  • Prevent getting Zika infection through sex by using condoms from start to finish every time you have sex (oral, vaginal, or anal) or by not having sex during your pregnancy. (
  • More serious signs of ectopic pregnancy are pain and vaginal bleeding. (
  • Could vaginal bleeding in early pregnancy be a sign of ectopic pregnancy? (
  • Last week, the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) closed a consultation on its draft medical technology guidance on the use of a device to assess the potentially serious complication of unexplained vaginal wetness in pregnancy. (
  • The draft NICE guidance supports the case for adopting the Vision Amniotic Leak Detector (Vision ALD) to determine the source of vaginal wetness in pregnancy. (
  • Professor Carole Longson, Director of the NICE Centre for Health Technology Evaluation, commented, "It's important to distinguish whether unexplained vaginal wetness in pregnancy is due to amniotic fluid leaking, or if it's due to urine which is far less of a worry. (
  • Calcium during pregnancy can reduce your risk of preeclampsia , a serious medical condition that causes a sudden increase in blood pressure. (
  • Preeclampsia (high blood pressure induced by pregnancy). (
  • During pregnancy, the body also makes a hormone called relaxin, which helps prepare it for childbirth. (
  • This hypothesis was derived from other pregnancy-induced pigmentary disorders, such as melasma and linea nigra, whereby sex hormone signaling increases pigment production. (
  • However, no correlation between sex hormone signaling and pigmentation has been proven with BMN in pregnancy. (
  • If the egg does not implant properly, then the pregnancy does not progress, the hormone levels drop and you are no longer pregnant. (
  • Whatever treatment she gets, a woman will see her doctor regularly afterward to make sure her pregnancy hormone levels return to zero. (
  • According to Mercy Medical Center Dr. Robert Atlas, the main cause of pregnancy acne is increased hormone levels in the first trimester. (
  • The scientific evidence is clear-requirements for folic acid, calcium, iron, iodine, protein, and other nutrients go up during pregnancy-and the consequences of not getting enough can be significant for both mother and child. (
  • It is important to take 0.4 mg of folic acid every day before you become pregnant through the first part of your pregnancy. (
  • Changes in the immune system, heart, and lungs during pregnancy make pregnant people (and people up to two weeks postpartum) more prone to severe illness from flu, including illness resulting in hospitalization. (
  • Over 10 years in offering effective and relaxing pregnancy and postpartum massage and spa services. (
  • Throughout pregnancy and postpartum, telemedicine can connect patients to mental health care. (
  • [2] In 2013, complications of pregnancy resulted in 293,000 deaths, down from 377,000 deaths in 1990. (
  • Molar pregnancies can have either partial or complete hydatidiform moles. (
  • This site clearly explains what a molar pregnancy is. (
  • Also covered is a partial molar pregnancy. (
  • In most ectopic pregnancies, the egg settles in the fallopian tubes. (
  • In an ectopic pregnancy, the egg implants somewhere other than the uterus - often, in the fallopian tubes. (
  • Want to see beautiful, interactive images for every week of pregnancy? (
  • Placenta previa after 26th week of pregnancy. (
  • It is true that the first six weeks of pregnancy are critical because your baby's organs are forming during this time. (
  • Some patients with inflammatory arthritis go in to remission during pregnancy. (
  • Ambros-Rudolph CM, Sticherling M. Specific dermatoses of pregnancy. (
  • EVALUATION OF THE PREGNANT WOMAN WITH A PRURITIC ERUPTION - Pruritus during pregnancy is a major symptom of specific dermatoses of pregnancy, although it may be physiologic or associated with common inflammatory skin diseases, infections, or infestations (eg, allergic contact dermatitis, pityriasis rosea, scabies) occurring coincidentally during pregnancy. (
  • Mervic L. Management of moderate to severe plaque psoriasis in pregnancy and lactation in the era of biologics. (
  • An ectopic pregnancy that isn't recognized and treated quickly could result in a ruptured fallopian tube, causing severe abdominal pain and bleeding. (
  • Current evidence suggests that Zika infection prior to pregnancy would not pose a risk of birth defects to a future pregnancy. (
  • [16] Twins and other multiple births are counted as one pregnancy and birth. (
  • A classical ectopic pregnancy does not develop into a live birth. (
  • High blood sugar levels early in the pregnancy (before 13 weeks) can cause birth defects . (
  • Get personalised emails for trusted NHS advice, videos and tips on your pregnancy week by week, birth and parenthood. (
  • Pregnancy, giving birth and maternity care involve additional costs. (
  • The best sources are actually beef or chicken liver, which I don't recommend during pregnancy due to their high vitamin A content (which can contribute to birth defects if taken in excess during the first trimester). (
  • While states have experienced significant declines in recent years, teen pregnancy and birth rates in the United States remain among the highest in the industrialized world. (
  • Taking steps to address high teen pregnancy and birth rates in Nevada has potential to reduce high school dropout rates, improve educational attainment, boost tax contributions through higher earnings, and improve the economy overall. (
  • Every woman DESERVES a Sacred Pregnancy , because it's her birth-right and it's our most sacred work that we will ever do. (
  • Smoking during pregnancy boosts the risk of low birth weight and impairs functioning of baby's developing lungs. (
  • Two things are certain in a person's life -birth a... are ten strange facts you might not know about pregnancy .Image Via Stacy Rackley [Flickr]1. (
  • Some birth control methods also can affect a woman's risk of ectopic pregnancy. (
  • U.S. teen pregnancy rates have fallen nearly 50 percent among Hispanic and black teens, and the overall teen birth rate has dropped more than 40 percent in the past 10 years. (
  • Folate deficiency during pregnancy can cause birth defects in the newborn's brain or spine, called neural tube defects, and also cleft lip and congenital heart disease. (
  • Stress can affect the baby's growth, so happiness and healthiness during pregnancy is important, and may require the mother to get additional support. (
  • Having a pregnancy test calculator can really ease the confusion or just kind of put things in perspective for you, so you know when you can take a pregnancy test & expect the HCG levels to be high enough to show a possible pregnancy. (
  • A Hong Kong airline forced a Japanese woman to take a pregnancy test before allowing her on a flight to a Pacific island popular with mothers seeking U.S. citizenship for their babies. (
  • But i think i should give my period sometime to show up before i take a pregnancy test. (
  • Preterm and postterm are defined above, whereas premature and postmature have historical meaning and relate more to the infant's size and state of development rather than to the stage of pregnancy. (
  • These can both get worse later on in the pregnancy when the growing uterus presses on the stomach or the large intestine. (
  • In a heterotopic pregnancy there is one fertilized ovum which implants normally in the uterus, and one fertilized ovum which implants abnormally, outside of the uterus. (
  • In a normal pregnancy, the fertilized egg implants and develops in the uterus . (
  • None of these areas has as much space or nurturing tissue as a uterus for a pregnancy to develop. (
  • An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized egg wasn't able to quickly move down the fallopian tube into the uterus. (
  • In an ectopic (say: "ek-top-ik") pregnancy, the fertilized egg does not make it to the uterus and implants somewhere else. (
  • An ectopic pregnancy usually happens because a fertilized egg couldn't quickly move down the fallopian tube into the uterus. (
  • An ectopic pregnancy occurs when a fertilized egg grows outside of the uterus . (
  • An ectopic pregnancy cannot move or be moved to the uterus, so it always requires treatment. (
  • An ectopic pregnancy results when a fertilized egg implants outside the uterus. (
  • Unfortunately, there's no way to transplant an ectopic pregnancy into your uterus, so ending the pregnancy is the only option. (
  • In the general population, the major risk factors for heterotopic pregnancy are the same as those for ectopic pregnancy. (
  • A heterotopic pregnancy may have similar signs and symptoms as a normal intrauterine pregnancy, a normal intrauterine pregnancy and a ruptured ovarian cyst, a corpus luteum, or appendicitis . (
  • The prevalence of heterotopic pregnancy is estimated at 0.6‑2.5:10,000 pregnancies. (
  • An even greater incidence of heterotopic pregnancy is reported in pregnancies following assisted reproduction techniques such as In Vitro Fertilization (IVF) and Gamete intrafallopian transfer (GIFT), with an estimated incidence at between 1 and 3 in 100 pregnancies. (
  • [5] In natural conceptions, the incidence of heterotopic pregnancy has been estimated to be 1 in 30 000 pregnancies. (
  • This condition, called a heterotopic pregnancy, is extremely rare. (
  • On the other hand, scleroderma can affect later stages of pregnancy. (
  • The changing hormones in the later stages of pregnancy can also have an effect. (
  • It is important to find the ectopic pregnancy in its early stages. (
  • An early ectopic pregnancy can sometimes be treated with an injection of methotrexate, which stops the growth of the embryo. (
  • nt woman has released an egg a few weeks into the pregnancy , but before the first embryo has implanted and th. (
  • Pregnancy discrimination involves treating a woman (an applicant or employee) unfavorably because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical condition related to pregnancy or childbirth. (
  • If a woman is temporarily unable to perform her job due to a medical condition related to pregnancy or childbirth, the employer or other covered entity must treat her in the same way as it treats any other temporarily disabled employee. (
  • It is unlawful to harass a woman because of pregnancy, childbirth, or a medical condition related to pregnancy or childbirth. (
  • Sarah, who has type 1 diabetes (T1D), talks about her childbirth experience as well as some of the new challenges she has faced with blood sugar management post-pregnancy. (
  • Despite huge scientific and technological advances that have transformed the world of medicine, we still love to indulge in some old wives' tales when it comes to pregnancy and childbirth. (
  • As much science as we know about pregnancy and childbirth, it's all really unbelievable. (
  • If an ectopic pregnancy is discovered early, your doctor can give you a shot of medicine called methotrexate. (
  • The most common drug used to treat ectopic pregnancy is methotrexate. (
  • Methotrexate may be used if the pregnancy has not ruptured a fallopian tube. (
  • Because PMS symptoms can be remarkably similar to the very early signs of pregnancy, it's a good idea for you to assume that you're pregnant (or could be pregnant). (
  • Find top ten early signs of pregnancy and symptoms along with week to week pregnancy and due date calendar. (
  • When the totality of all available evidence is considered, the value of nutrient supplementation during pregnancy makes a clear case. (
  • Hence, some doctors recommend DHA and EPA supplementation during pregnancy to enhance infant brain development. (
  • It is important to understand the risks of Zika infection during pregnancy, ways to protect yourself, signs of Zika, and the limitations of Zika testing upon your return. (
  • My problem is that there is not enough research on the risks during pregnancy and in the leaflet that came with them, it said not to take it during pregnancy. (
  • Your course may need to carry out a risk assessment, which does not assume that pregnancy will incur ill health and for many courses the risks will be low. (
  • Even with the best equipment, it's hard to see a pregnancy less than 5 weeks after the last menstrual period. (
  • At first, an ectopic pregnancy may feel like a typical pregnancy with some of the same signs, such as a missed menstrual period, tender breasts, or an upset stomach. (