Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Clinical Coding: Process of substituting a symbol or code for a term such as a diagnosis or procedure. (from Slee's Health Care Terms, 3d ed.)Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Preoperative Care: Care given during the period prior to undergoing surgery when psychological and physical preparations are made according to the special needs of the individual patient. This period spans the time between admission to the hospital to the time the surgery begins. (From Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)International Classification of Diseases: A system of categories to which morbid entries are assigned according to established criteria. Included is the entire range of conditions in a manageable number of categories, grouped to facilitate mortality reporting. It is produced by the World Health Organization (From ICD-10, p1). The Clinical Modifications, produced by the UNITED STATES DEPT. OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES, are larger extensions used for morbidity and general epidemiological purposes, primarily in the U.S.Diagnostic Tests, Routine: Diagnostic procedures, such as laboratory tests and x-rays, routinely performed on all individuals or specified categories of individuals in a specified situation, e.g., patients being admitted to the hospital. These include routine tests administered to neonates.Coronary Angiography: Radiography of the vascular system of the heart muscle after injection of a contrast medium.Area Under Curve: A statistical means of summarizing information from a series of measurements on one individual. It is frequently used in clinical pharmacology where the AUC from serum levels can be interpreted as the total uptake of whatever has been administered. As a plot of the concentration of a drug against time, after a single dose of medicine, producing a standard shape curve, it is a means of comparing the bioavailability of the same drug made by different companies. (From Winslade, Dictionary of Clinical Research, 1992)Ultrasonography: The visualization of deep structures of the body by recording the reflections or echoes of ultrasonic pulses directed into the tissues. Use of ultrasound for imaging or diagnostic purposes employs frequencies ranging from 1.6 to 10 megahertz.Tomography, Spiral Computed: Computed tomography where there is continuous X-ray exposure to the patient while being transported in a spiral or helical pattern through the beam of irradiation. This provides improved three-dimensional contrast and spatial resolution compared to conventional computed tomography, where data is obtained and computed from individual sequential exposures.Breast Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the human BREAST.Electrocardiography: Recording of the moment-to-moment electromotive forces of the HEART as projected onto various sites on the body's surface, delineated as a scalar function of time. The recording is monitored by a tracing on slow moving chart paper or by observing it on a cardioscope, which is a CATHODE RAY TUBE DISPLAY.Neoplasm Staging: Methods which attempt to express in replicable terms the extent of the neoplasm in the patient.Biopsy, Needle: Removal and examination of tissue obtained through a transdermal needle inserted into the specific region, organ, or tissue being analyzed.Point-of-Care Systems: Laboratory and other services provided to patients at the bedside. These include diagnostic and laboratory testing using automated information entry.Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products: Soluble protein fragments formed by the proteolytic action of plasmin on fibrin or fibrinogen. FDP and their complexes profoundly impair the hemostatic process and are a major cause of hemorrhage in intravascular coagulation and fibrinolysis.Immunoassay: A technique using antibodies for identifying or quantifying a substance. Usually the substance being studied serves as antigen both in antibody production and in measurement of antibody by the test substance.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Endosonography: Ultrasonography of internal organs using an ultrasound transducer sometimes mounted on a fiberoptic endoscope. In endosonography the transducer converts electronic signals into acoustic pulses or continuous waves and acts also as a receiver to detect reflected pulses from within the organ. An audiovisual-electronic interface converts the detected or processed echo signals, which pass through the electronics of the instrument, into a form that the technologist can evaluate. The procedure should not be confused with ENDOSCOPY which employs a special instrument called an endoscope. The "endo-" of endosonography refers to the examination of tissue within hollow organs, with reference to the usual ultrasonography procedure which is performed externally or transcutaneously.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Palpation: Application of fingers with light pressure to the surface of the body to determine consistence of parts beneath in physical diagnosis; includes palpation for determining the outlines of organs.Serologic Tests: Diagnostic procedures involving immunoglobulin reactions.Contrast Media: Substances used to allow enhanced visualization of tissues.Acute Disease: Disease having a short and relatively severe course.Cytodiagnosis: Diagnosis of the type and, when feasible, the cause of a pathologic process by means of microscopic study of cells in an exudate or other form of body fluid. (Stedman, 26th ed)Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Thyroid Nodule: A small circumscribed mass in the THYROID GLAND that can be of neoplastic growth or non-neoplastic abnormality. It lacks a well-defined capsule or glandular architecture. Thyroid nodules are often benign but can be malignant. The growth of nodules can lead to a multinodular goiter (GOITER, NODULAR).Epidemiologic Methods: Research techniques that focus on study designs and data gathering methods in human and animal populations.Survival Analysis: A class of statistical procedures for estimating the survival function (function of time, starting with a population 100% well at a given time and providing the percentage of the population still well at later times). The survival analysis is then used for making inferences about the effects of treatments, prognostic factors, exposures, and other covariates on the function.Tomography, Emission-Computed, Single-Photon: A method of computed tomography that uses radionuclides which emit a single photon of a given energy. The camera is rotated 180 or 360 degrees around the patient to capture images at multiple positions along the arc. The computer is then used to reconstruct the transaxial, sagittal, and coronal images from the 3-dimensional distribution of radionuclides in the organ. The advantages of SPECT are that it can be used to observe biochemical and physiological processes as well as size and volume of the organ. The disadvantage is that, unlike positron-emission tomography where the positron-electron annihilation results in the emission of 2 photons at 180 degrees from each other, SPECT requires physical collimation to line up the photons, which results in the loss of many available photons and hence degrades the image.Molecular Diagnostic Techniques: MOLECULAR BIOLOGY techniques used in the diagnosis of disease.Diagnosis, Computer-Assisted: Application of computer programs designed to assist the physician in solving a diagnostic problem.Immunoenzyme Techniques: Immunologic techniques based on the use of: (1) enzyme-antibody conjugates; (2) enzyme-antigen conjugates; (3) antienzyme antibody followed by its homologous enzyme; or (4) enzyme-antienzyme complexes. These are used histologically for visualizing or labeling tissue specimens.Physical Examination: Systematic and thorough inspection of the patient for physical signs of disease or abnormality.Chi-Square Distribution: A distribution in which a variable is distributed like the sum of the squares of any given independent random variable, each of which has a normal distribution with mean of zero and variance of one. The chi-square test is a statistical test based on comparison of a test statistic to a chi-square distribution. The oldest of these tests are used to detect whether two or more population distributions differ from one another.Coronary Stenosis: Narrowing or constriction of a coronary artery.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Ultrasonography, Doppler: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with frequency-shifted ultrasound reflections produced by moving targets (usually red blood cells) in the bloodstream along the ultrasound axis in direct proportion to the velocity of movement of the targets, to determine both direction and velocity of blood flow. (Stedman, 25th ed)Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures: Methods, procedures, and tests performed to diagnose disease, disordered function, or disability.Proportional Hazards Models: Statistical models used in survival analysis that assert that the effect of the study factors on the hazard rate in the study population is multiplicative and does not change over time.Clinical Enzyme Tests: Analyses for a specific enzyme activity, or of the level of a specific enzyme that is used to assess health and disease risk, for early detection of disease or disease prediction, diagnosis, and change in disease status.Frozen Sections: Thinly cut sections of frozen tissue specimens prepared with a cryostat or freezing microtome.Disease Progression: The worsening of a disease over time. This concept is most often used for chronic and incurable diseases where the stage of the disease is an important determinant of therapy and prognosis.Ultrasonography, Prenatal: The visualization of tissues during pregnancy through recording of the echoes of ultrasonic waves directed into the body. The procedure may be applied with reference to the mother or the fetus and with reference to organs or the detection of maternal or fetal disease.Vaginal Smears: Collection of pooled secretions of the posterior vaginal fornix for cytologic examination.Clinical Laboratory Techniques: Techniques used to carry out clinical investigative procedures in the diagnosis and therapy of disease.Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Coronary Artery Disease: Pathological processes of CORONARY ARTERIES that may derive from a congenital abnormality, atherosclerotic, or non-atherosclerotic cause.Myocardial Infarction: NECROSIS of the MYOCARDIUM caused by an obstruction of the blood supply to the heart (CORONARY CIRCULATION).Lymphatic Metastasis: Transfer of a neoplasm from its primary site to lymph nodes or to distant parts of the body by way of the lymphatic system.Multidetector Computed Tomography: Types of spiral computed tomography technology in which multiple slices of data are acquired simultaneously improving the resolution over single slice acquisition technology.Kaplan-Meier Estimate: A nonparametric method of compiling LIFE TABLES or survival tables. It combines calculated probabilities of survival and estimates to allow for observations occurring beyond a measurement threshold, which are assumed to occur randomly. Time intervals are defined as ending each time an event occurs and are therefore unequal. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1995)Gentian Violet: A dye that is a mixture of violet rosanilinis with antibacterial, antifungal, and anthelmintic properties.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Multimodal Imaging: The use of combination of imaging techniques or platforms (e.g., MRI SCAN and PET SCAN) encompassing aspects of anatomical, functional, or molecular imaging methods.Recurrence: The return of a sign, symptom, or disease after a remission.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Chest Pain: Pressure, burning, or numbness in the chest.Cervix Uteri: The neck portion of the UTERUS between the lower isthmus and the VAGINA forming the cervical canal.C-Reactive Protein: A plasma protein that circulates in increased amounts during inflammation and after tissue damage.Urinalysis: Examination of urine by chemical, physical, or microscopic means. Routine urinalysis usually includes performing chemical screening tests, determining specific gravity, observing any unusual color or odor, screening for bacteriuria, and examining the sediment microscopically.Ultrasonography, Mammary: Use of ultrasound for imaging the breast. The most frequent application is the diagnosis of neoplasms of the female breast.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Echocardiography: Ultrasonic recording of the size, motion, and composition of the heart and surrounding tissues. The standard approach is transthoracic.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Survival Rate: The proportion of survivors in a group, e.g., of patients, studied and followed over a period, or the proportion of persons in a specified group alive at the beginning of a time interval who survive to the end of the interval. It is often studied using life table methods.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Latex Fixation Tests: Passive agglutination tests in which antigen is adsorbed onto latex particles which then clump in the presence of antibody specific for the adsorbed antigen. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Databases, Factual: Extensive collections, reputedly complete, of facts and data garnered from material of a specialized subject area and made available for analysis and application. The collection can be automated by various contemporary methods for retrieval. The concept should be differentiated from DATABASES, BIBLIOGRAPHIC which is restricted to collections of bibliographic references.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Single-Blind Method: A method in which either the observer(s) or the subject(s) is kept ignorant of the group to which the subjects are assigned.Natriuretic Peptide, Brain: A PEPTIDE that is secreted by the BRAIN and the HEART ATRIA, stored mainly in cardiac ventricular MYOCARDIUM. It can cause NATRIURESIS; DIURESIS; VASODILATION; and inhibits secretion of RENIN and ALDOSTERONE. It improves heart function. It contains 32 AMINO ACIDS.Vagina: The genital canal in the female, extending from the UTERUS to the VULVA. (Stedman, 25th ed)Exercise Test: Controlled physical activity which is performed in order to allow assessment of physiological functions, particularly cardiovascular and pulmonary, but also aerobic capacity. Maximal (most intense) exercise is usually required but submaximal exercise is also used.Confidence Intervals: A range of values for a variable of interest, e.g., a rate, constructed so that this range has a specified probability of including the true value of the variable.Fever: An abnormal elevation of body temperature, usually as a result of a pathologic process.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Liver Cirrhosis: Liver disease in which the normal microcirculation, the gross vascular anatomy, and the hepatic architecture have been variably destroyed and altered with fibrous septa surrounding regenerated or regenerating parenchymal nodules.Uterine Cervical Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the UTERINE CERVIX.Bacteriuria: The presence of bacteria in the urine which is normally bacteria-free. These bacteria are from the URINARY TRACT and are not contaminants of the surrounding tissues. Bacteriuria can be symptomatic or asymptomatic. Significant bacteriuria is an indicator of urinary tract infection.Feces: Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.Vaginal Discharge: A common gynecologic disorder characterized by an abnormal, nonbloody discharge from the genital tract.Angiography, Digital Subtraction: A method of delineating blood vessels by subtracting a tissue background image from an image of tissue plus intravascular contrast material that attenuates the X-ray photons. The background image is determined from a digitized image taken a few moments before injection of the contrast material. The resulting angiogram is a high-contrast image of the vessel. This subtraction technique allows extraction of a high-intensity signal from the superimposed background information. The image is thus the result of the differential absorption of X-rays by different tissues.Chlamydia trachomatis: Type species of CHLAMYDIA causing a variety of ocular and urogenital diseases.Chlamydia Infections: Infections with bacteria of the genus CHLAMYDIA.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect combined with real-time imaging. The real-time image is created by rapid movement of the ultrasound beam. A powerful advantage of this technique is the ability to estimate the velocity of flow from the Doppler shift frequency.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Elasticity Imaging Techniques: Non-invasive imaging methods based on the mechanical response of an object to a vibrational or impulsive force. It is used for determining the viscoelastic properties of tissue, and thereby differentiating soft from hard inclusions in tissue such as microcalcifications, and some cancer lesions. Most techniques use ultrasound to create the images - eliciting the response with an ultrasonic radiation force and/or recording displacements of the tissue by Doppler ultrasonography.Triage: The sorting out and classification of patients or casualties to determine priority of need and proper place of treatment.Fluorescent Antibody Technique, Direct: A form of fluorescent antibody technique utilizing a fluorochrome conjugated to an antibody, which is added directly to a tissue or cell suspension for the detection of a specific antigen. (Bennington, Saunders Dictionary & Encyclopedia of Laboratory Medicine and Technology, 1984)Patient Selection: Criteria and standards used for the determination of the appropriateness of the inclusion of patients with specific conditions in proposed treatment plans and the criteria used for the inclusion of subjects in various clinical trials and other research protocols.Odds Ratio: The ratio of two odds. The exposure-odds ratio for case control data is the ratio of the odds in favor of exposure among cases to the odds in favor of exposure among noncases. The disease-odds ratio for a cohort or cross section is the ratio of the odds in favor of disease among the exposed to the odds in favor of disease among the unexposed. The prevalence-odds ratio refers to an odds ratio derived cross-sectionally from studies of prevalent cases.CA-125 Antigen: Carbohydrate antigen most commonly seen in tumors of the ovary and occasionally seen in breast, kidney, and gastrointestinal tract tumors and normal tissue. CA 125 is clearly tumor-associated but not tumor-specific.Magnetic Resonance Angiography: Non-invasive method of vascular imaging and determination of internal anatomy without injection of contrast media or radiation exposure. The technique is used especially in CEREBRAL ANGIOGRAPHY as well as for studies of other vascular structures.Blood Flow Velocity: A value equal to the total volume flow divided by the cross-sectional area of the vascular bed.Lymph Nodes: They are oval or bean shaped bodies (1 - 30 mm in diameter) located along the lymphatic system.Feasibility Studies: Studies to determine the advantages or disadvantages, practicability, or capability of accomplishing a projected plan, study, or project.Mediastinum: A membrane in the midline of the THORAX of mammals. It separates the lungs between the STERNUM in front and the VERTEBRAL COLUMN behind. It also surrounds the HEART, TRACHEA, ESOPHAGUS, THYMUS, and LYMPH NODES.Sputum: Material coughed up from the lungs and expectorated via the mouth. It contains MUCUS, cellular debris, and microorganisms. It may also contain blood or pus.Mammography: Radiographic examination of the breast.Pregnancy Trimester, Second: The middle third of a human PREGNANCY, from the beginning of the 15th through the 28th completed week (99 to 196 days) of gestation.Troponin T: One of the three polypeptide chains that make up the TROPONIN complex. It is a cardiac-specific protein that binds to TROPOMYOSIN. It is released from damaged or injured heart muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC). Defects in the gene encoding troponin T result in FAMILIAL HYPERTROPHIC CARDIOMYOPATHY.Forecasting: The prediction or projection of the nature of future problems or existing conditions based upon the extrapolation or interpretation of existing scientific data or by the application of scientific methodology.Disease-Free Survival: Period after successful treatment in which there is no appearance of the symptoms or effects of the disease.Decision Trees: A graphic device used in decision analysis, series of decision options are represented as branches (hierarchical).Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia: A malignancy arising in uterine cervical epithelium and confined thereto, representing a continuum of histological changes ranging from well-differentiated CIN 1 (formerly, mild dysplasia) to severe dysplasia/carcinoma in situ, CIN 3. The lesion arises at the squamocolumnar cell junction at the transformation zone of the endocervical canal, with a variable tendency to develop invasive epidermoid carcinoma, a tendency that is enhanced by concomitant human papillomaviral infection. (Segen, Dictionary of Modern Medicine, 1992)Mycobacterium tuberculosis: A species of gram-positive, aerobic bacteria that produces TUBERCULOSIS in humans, other primates, CATTLE; DOGS; and some other animals which have contact with humans. Growth tends to be in serpentine, cordlike masses in which the bacilli show a parallel orientation.Microscopy: The use of instrumentation and techniques for visualizing material and details that cannot be seen by the unaided eye. It is usually done by enlarging images, transmitted by light or electron beams, with optical or magnetic lenses that magnify the entire image field. With scanning microscopy, images are generated by collecting output from the specimen in a point-by-point fashion, on a magnified scale, as it is scanned by a narrow beam of light or electrons, a laser, a conductive probe, or a topographical probe.Calcitonin: A peptide hormone that lowers calcium concentration in the blood. In humans, it is released by thyroid cells and acts to decrease the formation and absorptive activity of osteoclasts. Its role in regulating plasma calcium is much greater in children and in certain diseases than in normal adults.Fetal Distress: A nonreassuring fetal status (NRFS) indicating that the FETUS is compromised (American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists 1988). It can be identified by sub-optimal values in FETAL HEART RATE; oxygenation of FETAL BLOOD; and other parameters.Calcinosis: Pathologic deposition of calcium salts in tissues.Lung Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the LUNG.Specimen Handling: Procedures for collecting, preserving, and transporting of specimens sufficiently stable to provide accurate and precise results suitable for clinical interpretation.Immunoglobulin G: The major immunoglobulin isotype class in normal human serum. There are several isotype subclasses of IgG, for example, IgG1, IgG2A, and IgG2B.Immunologic Tests: Immunologic techniques involved in diagnosis.Technetium Tc 99m Sestamibi: A technetium imaging agent used to reveal blood-starved cardiac tissue during a heart attack.Decision Support Techniques: Mathematical or statistical procedures used as aids in making a decision. They are frequently used in medical decision-making.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Radiography, Thoracic: X-ray visualization of the chest and organs of the thoracic cavity. It is not restricted to visualization of the lungs.Early Detection of Cancer: Methods to identify and characterize cancer in the early stages of disease and predict tumor behavior.Tuberculosis, Pulmonary: MYCOBACTERIUM infections of the lung.Pharyngitis: Inflammation of the throat (PHARYNX).Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted: Methods developed to aid in the interpretation of ultrasound, radiographic images, etc., for diagnosis of disease.Neoplasm Recurrence, Local: The local recurrence of a neoplasm following treatment. It arises from microscopic cells of the original neoplasm that have escaped therapeutic intervention and later become clinically visible at the original site.Adnexa Uteri: Appendages of the UTERUS which include the FALLOPIAN TUBES, the OVARY, and the supporting ligaments of the uterus (BROAD LIGAMENT; ROUND LIGAMENT).Gestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Fertilization in Vitro: An assisted reproductive technique that includes the direct handling and manipulation of oocytes and sperm to achieve fertilization in vitro.Ventricular Dysfunction, Left: A condition in which the LEFT VENTRICLE of the heart was functionally impaired. This condition usually leads to HEART FAILURE; MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION; and other cardiovascular complications. Diagnosis is made by measuring the diminished ejection fraction and a depressed level of motility of the left ventricular wall.Chromogenic Compounds: Colorless, endogenous or exogenous pigment precursors that may be transformed by biological mechanisms into colored compounds; used in biochemical assays and in diagnosis as indicators, especially in the form of enzyme substrates. Synonym: chromogens (not to be confused with pigment-synthesizing bacteria also called chromogens).Coronary Disease: An imbalance between myocardial functional requirements and the capacity of the CORONARY VESSELS to supply sufficient blood flow. It is a form of MYOCARDIAL ISCHEMIA (insufficient blood supply to the heart muscle) caused by a decreased capacity of the coronary vessels.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Emergency Service, Hospital: Hospital department responsible for the administration and provision of immediate medical or surgical care to the emergency patient.PhenazinesBreast Diseases: Pathological processes of the BREAST.Rectum: The distal segment of the LARGE INTESTINE, between the SIGMOID COLON and the ANAL CANAL.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Medical History Taking: Acquiring information from a patient on past medical conditions and treatments.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Unnecessary Procedures: Diagnostic, therapeutic, and investigative procedures prescribed and performed by health professionals, the results of which do not justify the benefits or hazards and costs to the patient.Colposcopy: The examination, therapy or surgery of the cervix and vagina by means of a specially designed endoscope introduced vaginally.Image Enhancement: Improvement of the quality of a picture by various techniques, including computer processing, digital filtering, echocardiographic techniques, light and ultrastructural MICROSCOPY, fluorescence spectrometry and microscopy, scintigraphy, and in vitro image processing at the molecular level.Dobutamine: A catecholamine derivative with specificity for BETA-1 ADRENERGIC RECEPTORS. It is commonly used as a cardiotonic agent after CARDIAC SURGERY and during DOBUTAMINE STRESS ECHOCARDIOGRAPHY.Models, Statistical: Statistical formulations or analyses which, when applied to data and found to fit the data, are then used to verify the assumptions and parameters used in the analysis. Examples of statistical models are the linear model, binomial model, polynomial model, two-parameter model, etc.Risk: The probability that an event will occur. It encompasses a variety of measures of the probability of a generally unfavorable outcome.Pyuria: The presence of white blood cells (LEUKOCYTES) in the urine. It is often associated with bacterial infections of the urinary tract. Pyuria without BACTERIURIA can be caused by TUBERCULOSIS, stones, or cancer.Colorectal Neoplasms: Tumors or cancer of the COLON or the RECTUM or both. Risk factors for colorectal cancer include chronic ULCERATIVE COLITIS; FAMILIAL POLYPOSIS COLI; exposure to ASBESTOS; and irradiation of the CERVIX UTERI.Antibodies, Bacterial: Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.Diagnostic Techniques, Obstetrical and Gynecological: Methods and procedures for the diagnosis of conditions related to pregnancy, labor, and the puerperium and of diseases of the female genitalia. It includes also demonstration of genital and pregnancy physiology.Iopamidol: A non-ionic, water-soluble contrast agent which is used in myelography, arthrography, nephroangiography, arteriography, and other radiological procedures.Vision Screening: Application of tests and examinations to identify visual defects or vision disorders occurring in specific populations, as in school children, the elderly, etc. It is differentiated from VISION TESTS, which are given to evaluate/measure individual visual performance not related to a specific population.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Pulmonary Embolism: Blocking of the PULMONARY ARTERY or one of its branches by an EMBOLUS.Uterine Hemorrhage: Bleeding from blood vessels in the UTERUS, sometimes manifested as vaginal bleeding.Mediastinoscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the anterior superior mediastinum of the thorax.Leukocyte Count: The number of WHITE BLOOD CELLS per unit volume in venous BLOOD. A differential leukocyte count measures the relative numbers of the different types of white cells.Hysteroscopy: Endoscopic examination, therapy or surgery of the interior of the uterus.Postoperative Complications: Pathologic processes that affect patients after a surgical procedure. They may or may not be related to the disease for which the surgery was done, and they may or may not be direct results of the surgery.Monitoring, Physiologic: The continuous measurement of physiological processes, blood pressure, heart rate, renal output, reflexes, respiration, etc., in a patient or experimental animal; includes pharmacologic monitoring, the measurement of administered drugs or their metabolites in the blood, tissues, or urine.Angiography: Radiography of blood vessels after injection of a contrast medium.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.

Validation of the Rockall risk scoring system in upper gastrointestinal bleeding. (1/30648)

BACKGROUND: Several scoring systems have been developed to predict the risk of rebleeding or death in patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB). These risk scoring systems have not been validated in a new patient population outside the clinical context of the original study. AIMS: To assess internal and external validity of a simple risk scoring system recently developed by Rockall and coworkers. METHODS: Calibration and discrimination were assessed as measures of validity of the scoring system. Internal validity was assessed using an independent, but similar patient sample studied by Rockall and coworkers, after developing the scoring system (Rockall's validation sample). External validity was assessed using patients admitted to several hospitals in Amsterdam (Vreeburg's validation sample). Calibration was evaluated by a chi2 goodness of fit test, and discrimination was evaluated by calculating the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: Calibration indicated a poor fit in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (p<0.0001, Vreeburg; p=0.007, Rockall), but a better fit for the prediction of mortality in both validation samples (p=0.2, Vreeburg; p=0.3, Rockall). The areas under the ROC curves were rather low in both validation samples for the prediction of rebleeding (0.61, Vreeburg; 0.70, Rockall), but higher for the prediction of mortality (0.73, Vreeburg; 0.81, Rockall). CONCLUSIONS: The risk scoring system developed by Rockall and coworkers is a clinically useful scoring system for stratifying patients with acute UGIB into high and low risk categories for mortality. For the prediction of rebleeding, however, the performance of this scoring system was unsatisfactory.  (+info)

Predicting delayed anxiety and depression in patients with gastrointestinal cancer. (2/30648)

The aim of this study was to examine the possibility of predicting anxiety and depression 6 months after a cancer diagnosis on the basis of measures of anxiety, depression, coping and subjective distress associated with the diagnosis and to explore the possibility of identifying individual patients with high levels of delayed anxiety and depression associated with the diagnosis. A consecutive series of 159 patients with gastrointestinal cancer were interviewed in connection with the diagnosis, 3 months (non-cured patients only) and 6 months later. The interviews utilized structured questionnaires assessing anxiety and depression [Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HAD) scale], coping [Mental Adjustment to Cancer (MAC) scale] and subjective distress [Impact of Event (IES) scale]. Patient anxiety and depression close to the diagnosis were found to explain approximately 35% of the variance in anxiety and depression that was found 6 months later. The addition of coping and subjective distress measures did little to improve that prediction. A model using (standardized) cut-off scores of moderate to high anxiety, depression (HAD) and intrusive thoughts (IES subscale) close to the diagnosis to identify patients at risk for delayed anxiety and depression achieved a sensitivity of 75% and a specificity of 98%. Levels of anxiety and depression at diagnosis predicted a similar status 6 months later. The results also indicated that the HAD scale in combination with the IES intrusion subscale may be used as a tool for detecting patients at risk of delayed anxiety and depression.  (+info)

Immunocytochemically detected free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) are a strong prognostic factor in gastric carcinoma. (3/30648)

We prospectively investigated the prognostic significance of free peritoneal tumour cells (FPTC) in a series of 118 patients with completely resected gastric carcinoma. Immunocytochemistry with the monoclonal antibody Ber-Ep4 was performed on cytospins from intraoperative peritoneal lavage specimens. Twenty-three patients (20%) had FPTC which was significantly correlated with pT and pN categories, stage, tumour size, lymphatic invasion, Lauren and WHO classifications and perigastric adipose tissue metastases. The median survival time for all FPTC positive compared with negative patients was significantly shorter (11 compared with >72 months), with estimated 5-year survival rates of 8% vs. 60%. None of the patients with FPTC had an early gastric cancer. In advanced tumour subgroups without and with serosal invasion (n = 59 and 35), there were 19% and 34% with FPTC. Multivariate survival analysis showed nodal status, FPTC, mesenteric lymphangiosis, and lymph node metastasis to the compartment III to be independent prognostic factors with relative risks of 6.6, 4.5, 2.9 and 2.2 respectively. Recurrent disease occurred in 91% of FPTC-positive and in 38% of FPTC-negative patients. FPTC had a positive predictive value of 91% and a specificity of 97% for tumour recurrence. FPTC is a strong negative, independent prognostic indicator for survival in gastric carcinoma.  (+info)

Profound variation in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase activity in human blood cells: major implications for the detection of partly deficient patients. (4/30648)

Dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) is responsible for the breakdown of the widely used antineoplastic agent 5-fluorouracil (5FU), thereby limiting the efficacy of the therapy. To identify patients suffering from a complete or partial DPD deficiency, the activity of DPD is usually determined in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM cells). In this study, we demonstrated that the highest activity of DPD was found in monocytes followed by that of lymphocytes, granulocytes and platelets, whereas no significant activity of DPD could be detected in erythrocytes. The activity of DPD in PBM cells proved to be intermediate compared with the DPD activity observed in monocytes and lymphocytes. The mean percentage of monocytes in the PBM cells obtained from cancer patients proved to be significantly higher than that observed in PBM cells obtained from healthy volunteers. Moreover, a profound positive correlation was observed between the DPD activity of PBM cells and the percentage of monocytes, thus introducing a large inter- and intrapatient variability in the activity of DPD and hindering the detection of patients with a partial DPD deficiency.  (+info)

Prognostic value of myocardial perfusion imaging in patients with high exercise tolerance. (5/30648)

BACKGROUND: Although high exercise tolerance is associated with an excellent prognosis, the significance of abnormal myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) in patients with high exercise tolerance has not been established. This study retrospectively compares the utility of MPI and exercise ECG (EECG) in these patients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Of 388 consecutive patients who underwent exercise MPI and reached at least Bruce stage IV, 157 (40.5%) had abnormal results and 231 (59.5%) had normal results. Follow-up was performed at 18+/-2.7 months. Adverse events, including revascularization, myocardial infarction, and cardiac death, occurred in 40 patients. Nineteen patients had revascularization related to the MPI results or the patient's condition at the time of MPI and were not included in further analysis. Seventeen patients (12.2%) with abnormal MPI and 4 (1.7%) with normal MPI had adverse cardiac events (P<0.001). Cox proportional-hazards regression analysis showed that MPI was an excellent predictor of cardiac events (global chi2=13.2; P<0.001; relative risk=8; 95% CI=3 to 23) but EECG had no predictive power (global chi2=0.05; P=0.8; relative risk=1; 95% CI=0.4 to 3.0). The addition of Duke's treadmill score risk categories did not improve the predictive power of EECG (global chi2=0.17). The predictive power of the combination of EECG (including Duke score categories) and MPI was no better than that of MPI alone (global chi2=13.5). CONCLUSIONS: Unlike EECG, MPI is an excellent prognostic indicator for adverse cardiac events in patients with known or suspected CAD and high exercise tolerance.  (+info)

Usefulness of fractional flow reserve to predict clinical outcome after balloon angioplasty. (6/30648)

BACKGROUND: After regular coronary balloon angioplasty, it would be helpful to identify those patients who have a low cardiac event rate. Coronary angiography alone is not sensitive enough for that purpose, but it has been suggested that the combination of optimal angiographic and optimal functional results indicates a low restenosis chance. Pressure-derived myocardial fractional flow reserve (FFR) is an index of the functional severity of the residual epicardial lesion and could be useful for that purpose. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 60 consecutive patients with single-vessel disease, balloon angioplasty was performed by use of a pressure instead of a regular guide wire. Both quantitative coronary angiography (QCA) and measurement of FFR were performed 15 minutes after the procedure. A successful angioplasty result, defined as a residual diameter stenosis (DS) <50%, was achieved in 58 patients. In these patients, DS and FFR, measured 15 minutes after PTCA, were analyzed in relation to clinical outcome. In those 26 patients with both optimal angiographic (residual DS by QCA /=0.90) results, event-free survival rates at 6, 12, and 24 months were 92+/-5%, 92+/-5%, and 88+/-6%, respectively, versus 72+/-8%, 69+/-8%, and 59+/-9%, respectively, in the remaining 32 patients in whom the angiographic or functional result or both were suboptimal (P=0.047, P=0.028, and P=0.014, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with a residual DS /=0.90, clinical outcome up to 2 years is excellent. Therefore, there is a complementary value of coronary angiography and coronary pressure measurement in the evaluation of PTCA result.  (+info)

The clinical utility of CMV surveillance cultures and antigenemia following bone marrow transplantation. (7/30648)

At our institution, the cytomegalovirus (CMV) prophylaxis protocol for allogeneic bone marrow transplant (BMT) recipients who are CMV-seropositive or receive marrow from a CMV-seropositive donor consists of a surveillance bronchoscopy approximately 35 days posttransplant. Patients with a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. In order to determine the utility of other screening methods for CMV, we prospectively performed weekly CMV antigenemia, and blood, urine and throat cultures from time of engraftment to day 120 post-BMT in 126 consecutive patients. Pre-emptive ganciclovir was given to 11/81 patients (13.6%) because of a positive surveillance bronchoscopy for CMV. Results of CMV blood, urine and throat cultures and the antigenemia assay done prior to or at the time of the surveillance bronchoscopy were analyzed for their ability to predict the bronchoscopy result. The antigenemia test had the highest positive and negative predictive values (72% and 96%, respectively). The ability of these tests to predict CMV disease was evaluated in the 70 patients with a negative surveillance bronchoscopy who did not receive pre-emptive ganciclovir. Of 19 cases of active CMV disease, CMV antigenemia was positive in 15 patients (79%) a mean of 34 days preceding symptoms. Blood cultures were positive in 14/19 patients (74%) a mean of 31 days before onset of disease. CMV antigenemia is useful for predicting the surveillance bronchoscopy result, and also predicts the development of CMV disease in the majority of patients missed by the surveillance bronchoscopy.  (+info)

Immunologic proliferation marker Ki-S2 as prognostic indicator for lymph node-negative breast cancer. (8/30648)

BACKGROUND: Proper treatment of lymph node-negative breast cancer depends on an accurate prognosis. To improve prognostic models for this disease, we evaluated whether an immunohistochemical marker for proliferating cells, Ki-S2 (a monoclonal antibody that binds to a 100-kd nuclear protein expressed in S, G2, and M phases of the cell cycle), is an accurate indicator of prognosis. METHODS: We studied 371 Swedish women with lymph node-negative breast cancer; the median follow-up time was 95 months. The fraction of tumor cells in S phase was assessed by flow cytometry, and tumor cell proliferation was measured immunohistochemically with the monoclonal antibodies Ki-S2 and Ki-S5 (directed against the nuclear antigen Ki-67). A combined prognostic index was calculated on the basis of the S-phase fraction, progesterone receptor content, and tumor size. RESULTS: In multivariate analyses that did or did not (263 and 332 observations, respectively) include the S-phase fraction and the combined prognostic index, the Ki-S2 labeling index (percentage of antibody-stained tumor cell nuclei) emerged as the most statistically significant predictor of overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival (all two-sided P<.0001). In the risk group defined by a Ki-S2 labeling index of 10% or less, life expectancy was not statistically significantly different from that of age-matched women without breast cancer, whereas the group with a high Ki-S2 labeling index had an increased risk of mortality of up to 20-fold. CONCLUSIONS: Cellular proliferation is a major determinant of the biologic behavior of breast cancer. Prognosis is apparently best indicated by the percentage of cells in S through M phases of the cell cycle. Measurement of the Ki-S2 labeling index of a tumor sample may improve a clinician's ability to make an accurate prognosis and to identify patients with a low risk of recurrence who may not need adjuvant therapy.  (+info)

Prediction models are developed to aid health care providers in estimating the probability that a specific outcome or disease is present (diagnostic prediction models) or will occur in the future (prognostic prediction models), to inform their decision making. Prognostic models here also include models to predict treatment outcomes or responses; in the cancer literature often referred to as predictive models. Clinical prediction models have become abundant. Pathology measurement or results are frequently included as predictors in such prediction models, certainly in the cancer domain. Only when full information on all aspects of a prediction modeling study are clearly reported, risk of bias and potential usefulness of the prediction model can be adequately assessed. Many reviews have illustrated that the quality of reports on the development, validation, and/or adjusting (updating) of prediction models, is very poor. Hence, the Transparent Reporting of a multivariable prediction model for Individual
The main findings of our study are that: 1) low-radiation CTDE performed immediately after a stress-rest MDCT protocol is capable of scar detection with reasonable accuracy but low sensitivity; and 2) the addition of CTDE to a stress-rest CTA + CTP integrated protocol does not improve the global accuracy of MDCT for the detection of functionally significant CAD in patients with intermediate-to-high pre-test probability.. We and others have previously shown that integration of CTP with CTA improved diagnostic accuracy of MDCT in patients with intermediate-to-high pre-test probability, mainly because of an increased specificity in heavily calcified coronary arteries (7-12). In this study, we added CTDE analysis to our integrated CTA + CTP protocol, aiming to test its potential as an additive tool for the diagnosis of CAD. A similar approach has been proposed for CMR using LGE to improve the accuracy of stress perfusion, but currently, this algorithm is seldom used (21).. In our study, ischemic ...
The risk of CAD as predicted by ESC guidelines on the left compared with the actual number of cohort patients in each category and the proportion of those patients diagnosed with significant CAD.. The average discrepancy between pre-test probability of CAD, according to the ESCs risk stratification table, and actual incidence of CAD in cohort patients was 20.7%. In 28% of cells, the pre-test probability of CAD exceeded the found incidence of CAD by 30% or more (Table 5).. The cells highlighted in dark red in table 5 represent very high risk patients with a pre-test probability of CAD greater than 85%, according to ESC guidelines (Table 5). 73.4% (n= 58, 95% CI 63.7 - 82.7) of cohort patients in this high-risk category were diagnosed with CAD (Table 6). On average, incidence of CAD in each cell has been overestimated by 13% in this category.. The cells highlighted in pale pink in table 5 represent high risk patients, with a pre-test probability of CAD of 66-85%, according to ESC guidelines. ...
Stroke is one of the most common causes of serious adult physical disability and the third most common cause of death worldwide.1 Despite the introduction of effective treatments for acute stroke, early rehabilitation and secondary prevention, the majority of stroke survivors have medical comorbidities, physical and/or cognitive impairments that require ongoing active assessment and management.2 Stroke can be seen as a chronic condition, spanning not only the incident event and formal rehabilitation but the rest of the patients life. Rehabilitation from stroke requires a sustained, coordinated effort from informed multidisciplinary teams (MDTs), as well as patients and carers, both in the clinical setting and in the community.3 MDTs and patients make numerous decisions on the basis of an estimated probability that a specific event will occur in the future. These predictions are used for planning lifestyle or therapeutic decisions on the basis of the risk of developing a particular outcome or ...
Clinical prediction models are increasingly used to complement clinical reasoning and decision-making in modern medicine, in general, and in the cardiovascular domain, in particular. To these ends, developed models first and foremost need to provide accurate and (internally and externally) validated estimates of probabilities of specific health conditions or outcomes in the targeted individuals. Subsequently, the adoption of such models by professionals must guide their decision-making, and improve patient outcomes and the cost-effectiveness of care. In the first paper of this series of two companion papers, issues relating to prediction model development, their internal validation, and estimating the added value of a new (bio)marker to existing predictors were discussed. In this second paper, an overview is provided of the consecutive steps for the assessment of the models predictive performance in new individuals (external validation studies), how to adjust or update existing models to local
Alternative: Br J Cancer 1996 paper: make a score from 0 - 5, ## and leave postsize on one axis; exclude increase in size (low p(nec)) score5 ,- n544$Teratoma+n544$Pre.AFP+n544$Pre.HCG+n544$PRELDH+n544$REDUCr score5 ,- ifelse(n544$REDUCr,0,0,score5) describe(score5) # Simple coding: 5 categories for postsize (no difference 20-30 and 30-50 mm) n544$POST5 ,- ifelse(n544$SQPOST,=sqrt(10),0, ifelse(n544$SQPOST,=sqrt(20),1, ifelse(n544$SQPOST,=sqrt(30),2, ifelse(n544$SQPOST,=sqrt(50),3,4)))) POST5 ,- n544$POST5[n544$REDUCr,-1] y ,- n544$NEC[n544$REDUCr,-1] x ,- ftable(as.data.frame(cbind(score5,POST5,y))) ftable(x, col.vars = c(1,3)) # Predictions from simplified lrm model full.simple2 ,- lrm(y~as.factor(POST5)+score5,x=T,y=T,se.fit=T) # Calculate predicted probabilities + 95% CI x ,- cbind(full.simple2$x, round(plogis(full.simple2$linear.predictors),2), round(plogis(full.simple2$linear.predictors-1.96*full.simple2$se.fit),2), round(plogis(full.simple2$linear.predictors+1.96*full.simple2$se.fit),2)) ...
Post-test probability of disease; Precision rate In Machine Learning, the positive predictive value is defined as the proportion of predicted positives which are actual positives. It reflects the...
Final model. Each and every predictor variable is offered a numerical weighting and, when it can be applied to new circumstances within the test information set
An overview of sensitivity- the statistic that can tell us how well a test might perform at identifying those who have a disease.
Final model. Every single predictor variable is provided a numerical weighting and, when it is applied to new cases within the test information set (without
Health, ...CINCINNATIResearchers have identified a molecule that may be more accu...Detailed Oct. 24 2007 in an early online edition of the Internationa...When diagnosing breast cancer pathologists currently look for elevate...The problem with these biomarkers is that many of them are present at ...,Biomarker,may,be,an,early,predictor,of,advanced,breast,cancer,medicine,medical news today,latest medical news,medical newsletters,current medical news,latest medicine news
Is the negative predictive value of the test high does a negative test provide reassurance that the risk of the condition is very low. Yaar.
Buckley and colleagues explored the use of a clinical prediction model in the diagnosis of ectopic pregnancy among women with complicated first-trimester pregnancies. Criteria from the model that were useful (i.e., signs of abdominal or pelvic peritoneal irritation and the presence of either fetal heartbeats or products of conception at the cervical os) only revealed the obvious cases and were seen too infrequently to influence management in most patients. The authors state that incorporating historical risk factors in the model (e.g., exposure to previous tubal surgery) did not improve its accuracy, although these data were not analyzed in the report. This finding is strange unless these women were underrepresented through selection and received prenatal care elsewhere. They obviously have a higher risk for ectopic pregnancy than unexposed women-a factor that increases the probability of ectopic pregnancy once they are symptomatic (1, 2). This finding probably does not affect the ...
There was good agreement between falls risk classification using the AHFRST and the TNH-STRATIFY; participants identified as high falls risk on TNH- STRATIFY were likely to be identified as high falls risk on the 3 item AHFRST. However, results indicate that both tools demonstrated poor predictive validity. While the TNH- STRATIFY had better sensitivity than the AHFRST, indicating it was better at identifying participants who fell, both tools had low specificity, indicating neither tool was able to identify those who did not fall. Both tools had low positive predictive values, indicating that only a small proportion of participants classified as high falls risk actually fell. It has been recognised that many falls screening tools have low positive predictive values [18]. While the study was not powered to compare the predictive validity of both tools, results indicate no difference in the ability of the two tests to predict falls.. The predictive validity of the TNH-STRATIFY was comparable ...
Home , Papers , Developing a Predictive Score for Chronic Arthritis among a Cohort of Children with Musculoskeletal Complaints-The Chronic Arthritis Score Study. ...
Emissions from a large peat fire in North Carolina in 2008 were associated with increased hospital admissions for asthma and the rate of heart failure in the exposed population. Peat fires often produce larger amounts of smoke and last longer than forest fires, however few studies have reported on their toxicity. Moreover, reliable alternatives to traditional animal toxicity testing are needed to reduce the number of animals required for hazard identification and risk assessments. Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM; ultrafine, fine, and coarse) were obtained from the peat fire while smoldering (ENCF-1) or when nearly extinguished (ENCF-4). Extracted samples were analyzed for chemical constituents and endotoxin content. Female CD-1 mice were exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to 100 μg/mouse, and assessed for relative changes in lung and systemic markers of injury and inflammation. At 24 h post-exposure, hearts were removed for ex vivo functional assessments and ischemic challenge. Lastly, 8 mm
Emissions from a large peat fire in North Carolina in 2008 were associated with increased hospital admissions for asthma and the rate of heart failure in the exposed population. Peat fires often produce larger amounts of smoke and last longer than forest fires, however few studies have reported on their toxicity. Moreover, reliable alternatives to traditional animal toxicity testing are needed to reduce the number of animals required for hazard identification and risk assessments. Size-fractionated particulate matter (PM; ultrafine, fine, and coarse) were obtained from the peat fire while smoldering (ENCF-1) or when nearly extinguished (ENCF-4). Extracted samples were analyzed for chemical constituents and endotoxin content. Female CD-1 mice were exposed via oropharyngeal aspiration to 100 μg/mouse, and assessed for relative changes in lung and systemic markers of injury and inflammation. At 24 h post-exposure, hearts were removed for ex vivo functional assessments and ischemic challenge. Lastly, 8 mm
The American guidelines, which use very much the same terms --- low, intermediate and high pre-test probability--- and similar Diamond-Forrester table, have tried to reproduce this. But there are differences. Firstly, intermediate probability is defined from 10-90%. NICE guidelines suggest that low risk starts from 10%, and high risk ends at 90%. Secondly, exercise testing is still recommended in selected patients: broadly speaking, those who can exercise, and who are not at the extremes of pre-test probability, which they define as less than 5% and greater than 90%. High pre-test probability would then trigger a functional test in the 2012 guidelines, whereas, the 60-90% (or higher) pre-test group would trigger an invasive diagnostic coronary angiography by NICE guidelines. Thirdly, the American guidelines do not consider risk factors in the pre-test probability table. History, age and gender form the axes of assessment. This removes the difficulty in assessing how significant certain lifestyle ...
The settings in the included datasets were stratified as having low prevalence (LP; 0 to 5%), intermediate prevalence (IP; 5 to 20%) or high prevalence (HP; ,20%) of the serious infection(s) of interest (including all serious infections, pneumonia, meningitis) with the clinical assumption that diagnostic goals are different in each setting. In LP settings, CPRs should have high sensitivity in order to correctly rule out (at a negative likelihood ratio (NLR) of up to 0.2) the target disorder(s) at a reasonable cost in terms of referral or admission rates [19, 20].. The accuracy of the CPRs was assessed retrospectively in each of the available prospectively collected datasets by calculating sensitivity, specificity, predictive value, and likelihood ratio (LR). We used dumbbell plots to display the change from pre-test to post-test probabilities [3].. To avoid the risk of influencing diagnostic accuracy by either an arbitrarily chosen number of required variables, or the age range available in each ...
The main findings of this study are the following: 1) CTA shows a better prognostic performance compared with ex-ECG; 2) evaluation of coronary anatomy with CTA may be the first diagnostic tool needed for prognostic stratification of patients with a low to intermediate pre-test likelihood of CAD, whereas ex-ECG may be more appropriate for further prognostic stratification in the subset of patients with CAD ≥50% on CTA; and 3) positive CTA findings identify a shorter event-free survival time regardless of the presence of ischemia at ex-ECG.. In the management of patients with suspected CAD, the prognostic stratification plays a crucial role beyond the simple diagnosis of coronary artery stenoses. Indeed, the occurrence of adverse events determines morbidity and mortality and influences the overall health expenditure. Until few years ago, diagnosis and prognostic evaluation of patients with suspected CAD were made with functional stress tests only in the majority of patients. Nowadays, ex-ECG is ...
Numerous risk assessment tools have been developed which predict either current or future risk of a cancer diagnosis yet very few are used in routine clinical practice. These tools could be used for tailored disease prevention, more efficient use of cancer screening tests and to promote behavioural change to reduce cancer risk. We have a growing number of cancer risk-prediction models which incorporate phenotypic, behavioural and, increasingly, genomic variables; these models require simple-to-use risk assessment tools for their implementation into clinical practice, and in particular ones which can be incorporated into primary care. In this presentation I will present a recent systematic review of RCTs in primary care of cancer risk assessment tools. This will highlight some of the key issues which remain for successful implementation of these tools into primary care practice. Selecting which cancer risk prediction model to incorporate into a tool will depend not only the predictive utility of ...
Results The prevalence of obstructive CAD and functionally significant CAD were 69% and 44%, respectively. Coronary CTA alone demonstrated a per-vessel and per-patient sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy of 98%, 76%, 99%, 63%, and 83% and of 98%, 54%, 96%, 68%, and 76%, respectively. Combining coronary CTA with stress CTP, per-vessel and per-patient sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, positive predictive value, and accuracy were 91%, 94%, 96%, 86%, and 93% and 98%, 83%, 98%, 86%, and 91%, with a significant improvement in specificity, positive predictive value, and accuracy in both models. The mean effective dose for coronary CTA and stress CTP were 2.8 ± 1.4 mSv and 2.5 ± 1.1 mSv.. ...
This calculator can determine diagnostic test characteristics (sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios) and/or determine the post-test probability of disease given given the pre-test probability and test characteristics. Given sample sizes, confidence intervals are also computed. Fill out one of the sections below on the left, and then click on the Compute button. Sections you dont fill out will be computed for you, and the nomogram on the right will display the probability that a patient has the disease after a positive or negative test ...
Purpose We sought to test and validate the predictive utility of trichotomous tumor response (TriTR; complete response [CR] or partial response [PR] stable disease [SD] progressive disease [PD]), disease control rate (DCR; CR/PR/SD PD), and dichotomous tumor response (DiTR; CR/PR others) metrics using alternate cut points for PR and PD. with landmark analyses at 12 and 24 weeks stratified by study and number of lesions (fewer than three three or more) and adjusted for Rabbit Polyclonal to IRAK2. average baseline tumor size were used to assess the impact of each metric on overall survival (OS). Model discrimination was assessed by using the concordance index (c-index). Results Standard RECIST cut points demonstrated predictive ability similar to the alternate PR and PD cut points. Regardless of tumor type, the TriTR, DiTR, and DCR metrics had similar predictive performance. The 24-week metrics (albeit with higher c-index point estimate) were not meaningfully better than the 12-week metrics. None ...
Although weaning predictors have been extensively explored in weaning research, their use is currently under debate. From all the stages of mechanical ventilation, the measurements of weaning predictors have been considered by some authors as imperative in order to progress weaning and initiate a weaning trial. However, this practice is rejected by other authors who considered that these tests are not necessary to perform a weaning trial, based in a meta-analysis study from the American College of Chest Physicians. Among all the weaning predictors, the frequency-to-tidal volume ratio (f/VT) remains the most important predictor of weaning. Other predictors have been defined, but their narrow predictive capacity or the requirement of specific technology, have limited their use. The variability of the results obtained by the efficacy of f/VT is probably explained because in most cases weaning is initiated late, when pre-test probability of weaning success is high. In order to reduce weaning ...
The primary objective of this project was to determine whether a 30kDa adipocyte-secreted protein, adiponectin, has utility as predictive serum biomarker of glycemic control in normal non-diabetic subjects and patients with type 2 diabetes, following treatment with a novel and promising new class of compounds, PPARγ agonists. Results confirmed previous relationships between adiponectin levels and metabolic parameters, and support the robust and predictive utility of adiponectin across the spectrum of glucose tolerance.. ...
Most prediction models are developed in secondary care, and it is common to want to apply them to primary care.1 8 9 10 The predictive performance of secondary care models is usually decreased when they are validated in a primary care setting.1 9 One example is the diagnostic model to predict deep vein thrombosis, which had a negative predictive value of 97% (95% confidence interval 95% to 99%) and sensitivity 90% (83% to 96%) in Canadian secondary care patients.11 When the model was validated in Dutch primary care patients, the negative predictive value was only 88% (85% to 91%) and sensitivity 79% (74% to 84%).12 The question arises whether primary and secondary care populations can indeed be considered to be different but similar.. A change in setting clearly results in a different case mix, which commonly affects the generalisability of prognostic models.4 9 13 14 Case mix is here defined as the distribution of the outcome and predictive factors whether included in the model or not. Primary ...
This is a well-understood problem in medicine. To determine the accuracy of a given diagnostic test, sensitivity and specificity are calculated. Sensitivity is the probability that an individual with disease X will have positive test X. (Specificity, meanwhile is the inverse of the probabilty of a person without disease X will test negative. They are usually quited in tandem, but given the nature of the discussion, I assume that were talking about accuracy of postive tests - there is no one number for test "accuracy," more like a number for the accuracy of positive tests and a separate number for the accuracy of negative tests.). However, to determine the clinical significance of a test, the positive and negative predictive values are more valuable. PPV is the probability of having a disease with a positive test. A test may be insanely accurate, but if a disease is so rare, the clinical significance of a positive test may be next to nothing.. The point is that more random (in the sense that ...
Recent research cited above has documented that QRS/T angle and other novel repolarization measures of deviant repolarization are potent predictors of cardiac morbidity and mortality over and above the traditional risk factors such as old ECG-MI, ECG-LVH or QT prolongation.
Recent research cited above has documented that QRS/T angle and other novel repolarization measures of deviant repolarization are potent predictors of cardiac morbidity and mortality over and above the traditional risk factors such as old ECG-MI, ECG-LVH or QT prolongation.
Validation sample: flow of participants through the study. * 6 patients were readmitted during the study period and were tested twice as new admissions. # 106
- Theralink predicts 5-year survival for patients in response to standard of care - Negative predictive value allows physicians to change treatment decisions Avant Diagnostics, Inc.
This is among a list of actions utilized to evaluate the accuracy of a diagnostic check (see sensitivity, damaging predictive value and favourable predictive worth). Specificity could be the proportion of people with no disorder whore properly determined as not possessing that ailment with the diagnostic test ...
Which statistical tools are well suited for validating qualitative methods? Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value (of a positive and negative...
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Background: Plaque rupture, acute ischemia, and necrosis in acute coronary syndromes are accompanied by concurrent pro-and anti-inflammatory cascades. Whether STEMI clinical prediction models can be improved with the addition of baseline inflammatory biomarkers remains unknown. Methods: In an APEX-AMI trial substudy, 772 patients had a panel of 9 inflammatory serum biomarkers, high sensitivity C reactive protein (hsCRP), and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) measured at baseline after randomization. Baseline biomarkers were incorporated into a clinical prediction model for a composite of 90-day death, shock, or heart failure. Incremental prognostic value was assessed using Net Reclassification Improvement (NRI) and Integrated Discrimination Improvement (IDI). Results: Individually, several biomarkers were independent predictors of clinical outcome: hsCRP (hazard ratio [HR] 1.12; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.03-1.21; p=0.007, per doubling), NT-proBNP (HR 1.14; 95% CI, ...
The cardiac rhythm disorder Brugada syndrome (BrS) is characterized by a signature electrocardiogram (ECG) characterized by coved-type right precordial ST-segment elevation, has a presumed prevalence of 1:2,000, and is associated with a relatively high incidence of ventricular fibrillation (VF)-related sudden cardiac death (SCD) in the absence of overt structural heart disease (1-3). Whereas the high-risk BrS patient is universally recognized (either resuscitated or experiencing suspicious symptoms) (3,4), risk stratification in asymptomatic patients is ill-defined. As such, the problem is not much different from predicting SCD in the general population in which noninvasive (and invasive) risk assessment identifies only a very small portion of all future SCDs with sufficient specificity to justify implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) therapy (5). Indeed, the vast majority of noninvasive tests have a low positive predictive value (but a relatively high negative predictive value) ...
For instance, let us consider a 55 year old non-smoking woman who presents with a 10 mm spiculated nodule located in the right upper lobe. Her past medical history includes a mastectomy for breast cancer six years previously. From table 3 the pre-test probability of malignancy is 44%. A TNAB is performed and a diagnosis of "malignancy" is obtained, which corresponds from the meta-analysis to a likelihood ratio of 72. From the nomogram of Fagan the post-test probability of malignancy reaches more than 98%. Had the pathologist responded "suspicious for malignancy" the post-test probability would have been around 92%. On the other hand, if the pathologist had diagnosed a "benign" lesion without being more specific, the post-test probability of malignancy is 5%. Finally, had the pathologist reported a finding of "hamartoma" the post-test probability of malignancy would have been less than 1%.. We restricted this analysis to studies that met methodological criteria for assessing diagnostic ...
Cytokine Markers Could Be Potent Predictors of Heart Disease, Report Researchers at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center Cytokine Markers Could Be Potent Predictors of Heart Disease, Report Researchers at Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. - Two hormone-like proteins th
This large study of 92,072 patients with HF is among the first to explore the association between race/ethnicity, BNP levels at admission, quality of care, and outcomes. Our results offer some important findings. First, BNP levels at admission were higher in Asian and black patients than in white and Hispanic patients enrolled in GWTG-HF. Second, patients in higher BNP quartiles were more likely to be older and male and to have lower BMI, ischemic etiology, systolic dysfunction (LV ejection fraction ,40%), and renal insufficiency regardless of race/ethnicity. Third, with few exceptions, the association between BNP levels and adherence to HF performance measures did not vary significantly across race/ethnicity. Finally, higher BNP levels correlated with longer hospital stay and in-hospital mortality irrespective of racial/ethnic group.. Similar to results from the ADHERE (Acute Decompensated Heart Failure National Registry) study (9), we found that patients in higher BNP quartiles were more ...
• In this study we analyze the results of the use of a predictive index to decide whether to perform abdominal reoperation in the event of septic complications.
A multicentric study of lung cancer staged by PET-TC and EBUS-NA was performed to identify PET-TC measures with high positive predictive value (PPV) for the identification of stage III disease and to evaluate EBUS-NA sensitivity. A surgical gold standard was used when EBUS-NA was negative.. Results: 76/105 patients showed ≥1 hypermetabolic spot in mediastinum (72%). PET-TC SUVmax did not show statistically significant differences between centers. Lung SUVmax had mean of 11.4 (SD 5.3), and hypermetabolic spot in mediastinum median of 3.4 (IQR 0-6.5). EBUS-NA confirmed mediastinal metastasis in 43/54 patients (79.6%). A single hypermetabolic image in mediastinum was not a significant predictor of dissemination (OR 1.99 95%CI 0.75-5.32), but ≥2 hypermetabolic spots showed an increased risk (OR 3.64 95%CI 1.29-10.26). Lung SUVmax was not associated with mediastinal malignancy (OR 0.93 95%CI 0.86-1.01), but mediastinum SUVmax ,3.4 was a significant predictor (OR 6,36 95%CI 2,71-14,91), that ...
Twenty-five patients (12 men) were included. Mean age was 68 years, mean APACHE score 31. The most frequent reasons for ICU admission were abdominal sepsis (n = 11) and pneumosepsis (n = 7). Statistically significant correlations were found between SvO2 and SrO2: PCC SrO2 LF, 0.46; PCC SrO2 RF, 0.50; PCC SrO2 RA, 0.21. Low, although statistically significant, correlations were found between SrO2 and SL: PCC SrO2 LF, -0.16; PCC SrO2 RF, -0.15; and PCC SrO2 RA, -0.20. Calculated normal values for SrO2 LF were 60 to 80%, for SrO2 RF were 60 to 76% and for SrO2 RA were 64 to 84%. An out-of-range SrO2 had a high positive predictive value (PPV) for an increased SL. The PPV for out-of-range SrO2 LF was 85% versus 58% for normal SrO2 LF (OR 4.27; 95% CI 2.09 to 8.72), the PPV for out-of-range SrO2 RF was 77% versus 60% for normal SrO2 RF (OR 2.32; 95% CI 1.25 to 4.31) and the PPV for out-of-range SrO2 RA 75% versus 60% for normal SrO2 RA (OR 1.94; 95% CI 0.95 to 4.00). ...
Population estimates show that the fastest-growing demographic is adults over 65, with adults over 85 exhibiting the most rapid growth. Frail and vulnerable older adults may benefit from targeted interventions, with recent evidence suggesting that frailty itself may be reversible. Despite the existence of several validated definitions and instruments, measures of frailty have been slow to integrate into clinical care. Based on the theoretical model of deficit accumulation, we have previously developed an electronic Frailty Index (eFI) based on routine data captured in the Electronic Health Record (EHR), including encounters, diagnosis codes, vital signs, laboratory measurements, medications, and functional information from the Medicare Annual Wellness Visits.. In this talk, we will demonstrate the predictive utility of the eFI in two settings. First, we examine the association of the eFI with healthcare utilization, injurious falls, and all-cause mortality in a primary care population affiliated ...
Positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) - Positive predictive value is the probability that subjects with a positive point-of-care test truly have the bacteria present. Negative predictive value is the probability that subjects with a negative point-of-care test truly do not have the bacteria present. ...
Risk prediction equations are recommended to assist health care providers in weighing the benefits and risks of treatments for the primary prevention of ASCVD. The 2013 ACC/AHA guideline for cholesterol management recommended using the Pooled Cohort Equations in guiding the decision to consider statin initiation among individuals without ASCVD and diabetes, and with an LDL-C between 70 and 190 mg/dL. It has been estimated that using the Pooled Cohort Equations would more than double the number of U.S. adults recommended consideration of statin therapy for primary prevention due to a predicted risk of ASCVD ≥7.5%.6 The data by DeFilippis and colleagues make an important contribution by suggesting that none of the published ASCVD and coronary heart disease risk prediction equations, including the Pooled Cohort Equations, is accurate among both men and women.. The over-estimation of ASCVD risk with prediction equations may result in individuals with low ASCVD risk receiving statin treatment. ...
In receiver operating characteristic ROC curve analysis, the optimal cutoff value for a diagnostic test can be found on the ROC curve where the slope of the curve is equal to C/B x 1-pD/pD, where pD is the disease prevalence and C/B is the ratio of net costs of treating nondiseased individuals to net benefits of treating diseased individuals....
The Fagan nomogram is one simple method that the physician can use to obtain some evidence to support his decision-making without the need of a computer.
This review shows that there is an abundance of cardiovascular risk prediction models for the general population. Previous reviews also indicated this but were conducted more than a decade ago,12 excluded models that were not internally or externally validated,13 or excluded articles that solely described external validation.14. Clearly, the array of studies describing the development of new risk prediction models for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population is overwhelming, whereas there is a paucity of external validation studies for most of these developed models. Notwithstanding a few notable exceptions, including the Framingham and SCORE models, most of the models (n=231, 64%) have not been externally validated, only 70 (19%) have been validated by independent investigators, and only 38 (10%)-from only seven articles-were validated more than 10 times.. Healthcare professionals and policymakers are already in great doubt about which CVD prediction model to use or advocate in ...
Fig 8 Summary receiver operating characteristics plot of sensitivity and specificity for cut-off value of either 3 ng/L or 5 ng/L
GOTHENBURG, Sweden -- Screening newborns for congenital heart disease using pulse oximetry has high predictive value and a low false-positive rate, a large, prospective study found.
In the single predictor case of linear regression, the standardized slope has the same value as the correlation coefficient. The advantage of the linear regression is that the relationship can be described in such a way that you can predict (based on the relationship between the two variables) the score on the predicted variable given any particular value of the predictor variable. In particular one piece of information a linear regression gives you that a correlation does not is the intercept, the value on the predicted variable when the predictor is 0.. In short - they produce identical results computationally, but there are more elements which are capable of interpretation in the simple linear regression. If you are interested in simply characterizing the magnitude of the relationship between two variables, use correlation - if you are interested in predicting or explaining your results in terms of particular values you probably want regression.. ...
The incorporation of repeated measurements into multivariable prediction research may greatly enhance predictive performance. However, the methodological possibilities vary widely and a structured overview of the possible and utilized approaches lacks. Therefore, we [1] propose a structured framework for these approaches, [2] determine what methods are currently used to incorporate repeated measurements in prediction research in the critical care setting and, where possible, [3] assess the added discriminative value of incorporating repeated measurements. The proposed framework consists of three domains: the observation window (static or dynamic), the processing of the raw data (raw data modelling, feature extraction and reduction) and the type of modelling. A systematic review was performed to identify studies which incorporate repeated measurements to predict (e.g. mortality) in the critical care setting. The within-study difference in c-statistics between models with versus without repeated
Thirteen studies evaluated 1498 patients (mean age, 74?y; 47% men; 76% transcatheter AVR). The pooled prevalence of significant stenosis determined by ICA was 43%. Hierarchical summary receiver-operating characteristic analysis demonstrated a summary area under curve of 0.96. The pooled sensitivity, specificity, and positive-likelihood and negative-likelihood ratios of CCTA in identifying significant stenosis determined by ICA were 95%, 79%, 4.48, and 0.06, respectively. In subgroup analysis, the diagnostic profiles of CCTA were comparable between surgical and transcatheter AVR.. ...
We thank Venema et al for their continuing attention1 to our recent work.2 Careful reading of the Statistical Methods section would have identified that our analysis did not dichotomize variables for a regression model, but rather used the output of the classification and regression tree analysis. As Venema et al will be aware, the classification and regression tree analysis output is dichotomous and indeed clinically meaningful, aligning in the 4.5-hour alteplase time … ...
The retrospective study was carried out for patients who visited the ED at Ulsan University Hospital due to gas inhalation from March 2014 to February 2016. General demographics, mechanism of accident, critical symptoms, vital signs, blood lab test results, severity, and clinical manifestation were investigated. Patients were divided into a critical group and non-critical group, and predictors of critical cases were investigated by comparing both groups ...
Receiving Operationg Characteristic (ROC) is managed with R, for example with the package OptimalCutpoints. Area under the curve, sensitivity, specificity.
Clinical responses to bendamustine in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) are highly heterogeneous and no specific markers to predict sensitivity to this drug have been reported. In order to identify biomarkers of response, we analyzed the in vitro activity of bendamustine and the gene expression profile in primary CLL cells. We observed that mRNA expression of CD69 (CD69) and ITGAM (CD11b) constitute the most powerful predictor of response to bendamustine. When we interrogated the predictive value of the corresponding cell surface proteins, the expression of the activation marker CD69 was the most reliable predictor of sensitivity to bendamustine. Importantly, a multivariate analysis revealed that the predictive value of CD69 expression was independent from other clinico-biological CLL features. We also showed that when CLL cells were co-cultured with distinct subtypes of stromal cells, an upregulation of CD69 was accompanied by a reduced sensitivity to bendamustine. In agreement with this, ...
Mock-up is not always a tool for aesthetic outcome, it is an excellent predictor of the functional result and an excellent guide for minimal invasive preparatio...
Cancer and Involuntary Weight Loss: Failure to Validate a Prediction Score. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Sometime later this year, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention will release its latest accounting of the nations weight problem, as measured by the body mass index, or BMI.This much we (Page 2 of 2)
A system and method for returning a sorted result set of information corresponding to files in a file system that have properties which match user query criteria. A view index of files sorted by at least one property common to those files is provided. The view index may be synchronously or asynchronously updated as files are changed. Upon receipt of query requesting a result set of files corresponding to properties in the query criteria, the view index is compared to determine if the properties are maintained in an order that corresponds to the query criteria. If so, the view index is accessed to locate information of files that have the matching properties, and the result set is returned. The view index may be associated with a view description of the identities and order of the properties. The comparison to determine if a view index corresponds with the criteria may then be performed against the view description.
The tri-fold Clinical Prediction Card is a great reminder of several commonly-used prediction rules for the emergency department.
Any significant disease or disorder (e.g. cardiovascular, pulmonary (other than asthma), gastrointestinal, liver, renal, neurological, musculoskeletal, endocrine, metabolic, malignant, psychiatric, major physical impairment) which, in the opinion of the investigator, may either put the subject at risk because of participation in the study, or may influence the results of the study, or the subjects ability to participate in the ...
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Computes sensitivity, specificity and positive and negative predictive values for a test based on dichotomizing along the variable test, for prediction of stat. Plots curves of these and a ROC-curve.
This is one of a list of actions used to show the accuracy of a diagnostic test (see sensitivity, specificity and constructive predictive value). The adverse predictive worth (NPV) of the check is really a measure of how correct a adverse consequence on that exam is at pinpointing that an individual does not have a condition. The NPV is definitely the proportion of those with a negative test outcome who usually do not genuinely Possess a illness ...
SpatiaLite does not implements any kind of spatial index, mainly because SQLite in its own does not supports R-trees, but only B-trees. Please note well that this one may be a severe limitation, if you need to fastly access a very large data set by using some spatial selection criterion; but if yours data sets are not too large [less than 10.000 rows, just to fix an arbitrary limit] lacking of any kind of spatial index may be practically unnoticed ...
However, when considering an article on screening, there are also measures of the quality of the test itself that you need to take into consideration. In particular, you will want to be aware of concerns related to Prevalance, Sensitivity, and Positive Predictive Value. These concepts are discussed in the section on Important Concepts as relates to diagnosis ...
The signature of COVID-19 presents a novel predictor and prognostic biomarker for closely monitoring patients and providing timely treatment for those who are severely or critically ill.
steps. The index may be negative. This is efficient for calculating single Fibonacci numbers (with large index), but for computing many Fibonacci numbers in close proximity, it is better to use the simple addition formula starting from an appropriate pair of successive Fibonacci numbers. ...
Regression analysis shows the relationship between two variables X and Y as a straight line that minimizes, for a series of values of a predictive variable X, the square of the difference between the expected value and observed values of the response variable Y. The slope of the line is the regression coefficient (r), which shows the strength of the predictability of Y from X. A slope of 1.0 indicates that Y is perfectly predictable, and a slope of 0.0 that there is no relationship. Here, the slope of 0.5 indicates a strong but imperfect relationship: small values of Y are typically associated with small values of X, and high with high, but note for example that of the nine smallest values of X, three are associated with the highest values of Y. ...
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On Thu, 11 Mar 2004 13:16:15 -0500 XIAO LIU ,xiaoliu at jhmi.edu, wrote: , Dear R-helpers: , , I want to calculate area under a Receiver Operator Characteristic curve. , Where can I find related functions? , , Thank you in advance , , Xiao , install.packages(Hmisc) library(Hmisc) w ,- somers2(predicted probability, 0/1 diagnosis) Convert Somers Dxy rank correlation to ROC area (C) using Dxy=2*(C-.5). To get standard error of Dxy (and hence C) type ?rcorr.cens (another Hmisc function). This is the nonparametric Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney approach. --- Frank E Harrell Jr Professor and Chair School of Medicine Department of Biostatistics Vanderbilt University ...
Results 900 patients (87% men, mean age 64±10 years) were included in the analysis. During a median follow-up of 669 days (IQR 363-1322 days), 150 patients (17%) died and 191 (21%) patients received appropriate device therapy. 114 (13%) patients died without prior appropriate therapy. Stratification of the risk for death without prior appropriate therapy resulted in risk categorisation of patients as low, intermediate or high risk. NYHA ≥III, advanced age, diabetes mellitus, left ventricular ejection fraction ≤25% and a history of smoking were significant independent predictors of death without appropriate ICD therapy. 5-year cumulative incidence for death without prior appropriate therapy ranged from 10% (95% CI 6% to 16%) in low-risk patients to 41% (95% CI 33% to 51%) in high-risk patients. ...
Results The ALFED model demonstrated excellent discrimination with an area under the receiver operator characteristic curve of 0.91 in the derivation cohort and of 0.92 in the validation cohort. The model was well calibrated in both cohorts and showed a similar increase in mortality with increasing risk scores from 0 to 6. The performance of the ALFED model was superior to the Kings College Hospital criteria and the Model for End stage Liver Disease score, even when their 3-day serial values were taken into consideration. An ALFED score of ≥4 had a high positive predictive value (85%) and negative predictive value (87%) in the validation cohort. ...
How is the cutoff point actually determined? This can be based on a pure mathematical analysis to either minimize the mathematical distance between the receiver operator characteristic curve and the ideal point (sensitivity = specificity = 1) or to maximize the difference (Youden index) between the receiver operator characteristic curve and the diagonal or chance line (sensitivity + specificity − 1). Whereas the first approach minimizes misclassification, the second one maximizes appropriate classification.4 An alternative approach will also take into account the cost-benefit ratio of the consequence of having either false-positive or false-negative results. One can easily appreciate that in certain pathologic conditions, treatment of a patient with a false-positive result may be worse than missing a false-negative result or conversely that not treating a patient with a false-negative result may be worse than treating one with a false-positive result. In the case of PPV assessment, a low ...
One of the major challenges and most time-consuming task in the development of prediction models has concerned the use of nonstandard terminology within individual hospital information systems [13]. Most hospital and laboratory information systems catalogs have very similar data under diverse naming schemas. Time and effort were required to understand the data and coding of the electronic data elements recorded in the individual institutional databases in this study. Cases were found with different clinical event names, different clinical event codes, but similar data distribution; or cases were found with similar clinical event names, different clinical event codes, but different data distribution. After a long data cleaning process and discussion with pediatric critical care experts and IT personnel at each institution, it was possible to map distinct clinical event codes referring to the same data.. Another limitation in the development of the model was the difference in the patient ...
In this 2-center study of 2,583 consecutive patients without prior known CAD and without obstructive CAD, nonobstructive coronary artery plaque presence and extent as identified by 64-detector row CCTA are associated with heightened mortality risk in a 3-year follow-up period. The CCTA nonobstructive plaque assessment added significant risk prediction beyond patient demographic data, traditional CAD risk factors, and Framingham risk score.. The results of the present study suggest a potential utility for diagnosis of nonobstructive CAD by CCTA. Such patients experience heightened mortality risk, even though they represent a patient population for whom functional stress testing would be expected to be negative and who might not be referred for evaluation by invasive coronary angiography (ICA) after CCTA. Our results confirm prior observations of a high negative predictive value of a normal CCTA for later adverse clinical events but are additive to the prior published reports by identifying a ...
Compared to those with bacterial or mixed infection (n = 9), patients with 2009 H1N1 infection (n = 16) were significantly more likely to have bilateral chest X-ray infiltrates, lower APACHE scores, more prolonged lengths of stay in ICU and lower white cell count, procalcitonin and CRP levels. Using a cutoff of ,0.8 ng/ml, the sensitivity and specificity of procalcitonin for detection of patients with bacterial/mixed infection were 100 and 62%, respectively. A CRP cutoff of ,200 mg/l best identified patients with bacterial/mixed infection (sensitivity 100%, specificity 87.5%). In combination, procalcitonin levels ,0.8 ng/ml and CRP ,200 mg/l had optimal sensitivity (100%), specificity (94%), negative predictive value (100%) and positive predictive value (90%). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis suggested the diagnostic accuracy of procalcitonin may be inferior to CRP in this setting.. ...
The pooled data reported in Table 1 summarize the ability of different imaging modalities to predict the recovery of global LV function (sensitivity and specificity values) after revascularization in a population, with a prevalence of viability assessed by the optimal cutoff (ie, number of viable segments) identified by the receiver-operating curve analysis.22,49,60,62-66,70,72 The generally accepted opinion18,82 that SPECT and PET demonstrate higher sensitivity is confirmed. On the other hand, in this population, DSE has superior specificity and lower positive predictive value.64 Negative predictive value is similar for both DSE and SPECT. The importance of the definition of the cutoff value has to be highlighted. In fact, shifting the optimal cutoff value to a higher number of viable segments can improve specificity but at the expense of a decline in sensitivity.62 A higher prevalence of viability also will result in a higher positive predictive value and a lower negative predictive value. The ...
In this study, we describe the clinical features and treatment practices of the largest cohort of IgG4-RD in our locality. After combination of our patients with all other published cases of IgG4-RD from Hong Kong, we analysed 104 cases comprising predominantly older men (mean age, 62 ± 13 years; male-to-female ratio=3:1), which is consistent with other reports.19 20 21 22 Over 95% of patients had serum IgG4 level of ,135 mg/dL and an IgG4:IgG ratio of ,8%. Although these cut-offs are often quoted in the diagnostic criteria for IgG4-RD,4 23 it is important to note that elevated serum IgG4 levels can be seen in a variety of other conditions such as malignancies, infections, or autoimmune disorders. Serum IgG4 level and IgG4:IgG ratio alone have poor specificity and low positive predictive value. The specificity and positive predictive value of serum IgG4 and IgG4:IgG ratio have been reported to be approximately only 0.6 and 0.3, respectively.24 Of note, 4/72 (5.6%) of our patients with ...
In hospitalized hematology-oncology patients, culture of blood drawn through a central catheter or peripheral vein has excellent negative predictive value. Culture of blood drawn through an indwelling central venous catheter has a low positive predictive value, apparently less than seen with peripheral venipuncture. Thus, a positive result from a catheter needs clinical interpretation and may require confirmation. However, use of a catheter to obtain blood for culture may be acceptable for ruling out bloodstream infections. ...
Acute lung injury (ALI) is an example of a critical care syndrome with limited treatment options once the condition is fully established.Not surprisingly, many treatments targeting the mechanisms identified in preclinical studies have failed to improve patient outcomes.The most likely reason could be due to inadequate and delayed recognition of patients at risk and the subsequent development of the full blown syndrome.ALI/ARDS usually develops during the first hours of ICU admission, and often is the very reason for ICU admission.. Clinical prediction models have been extensively used in the clinical practice to identify patients at high risks who may benefit from specific interventions. However, no such tool exists to predict the development of ALI in patients at risk. We have recently developed an ALI prediction model (Lung Injury Prediction Score:LIPS)which incorporates demographic, environmental and clinical characteristics at the time of, and before, hospital admission. If validated, this ...
This study presents the development and performance of a clinical prediction model with its accompanying risk-assessment table to identify admitted stroke patients able to communicate adequately, who are at increased risk for PSD. The DePreS showed acceptable discrimination and calibration.. The structural use of a screening instrument in the daily care of stroke patients will promote the early recognition of depression.5,23 The trend toward decreasing hospital stays6 complicates proper screening for PSD during hospital stay4 and emphasizes the need for an easy-to-use prediction model to identify the risk for PSD. Our aim was to develop a prediction model that clinicians can apply in the daily care during the first week after stroke. Although a systematic review showed that several studies have been conducted on the prediction of PSD, the overall conclusion was that most of the available models lack precision, were not thoroughly developed or validated and were not clinically useful.11 In this ...
Several indexes to predict perioperative cardiovascular risk have been proposed overtime. The most widely used is the Revised Cardiac Risk Index (RCRI) developed by Lee since 1999. It predicts major cardiac outcomes from five independent clinical determinants: history of ischemic heart disease, history of cardiovascular disease, heart failure, insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, and chronic renal failure (i.e. serum creatinine ,2 mg/dl). In external validation studies, the RCRI showed high negative predictive value in all groups of age, indicating that it may be used to identify people at low risk for perioperative adverse cardiovascular events in noncardiac surgery ...
The SAMe-TT2R2 score is a clinical prediction rule to aid decision making between a non-VKA oral anticoagulant (NOAC) and a vitamin K antagonist (VKA)
Results. Sixteen patients (32%) developed ESLD during 173.5 ± 64.7 months of followup. Elevated serum Krebs von den Lungen-6 (KL-6) at initial assessment was highly correlated with ESLD development (p = 0.0002). Receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis revealed that a KL-6 value of 1273 U/ml effectively discriminated patients who developed ESLD from those who did not. Patients with KL-6 , 1273 U/ml were less likely to remain ESLD-free compared with those with lower KL-6 levels (p , 0.0001). Multivariate analysis showed that KL-6 , 1273 U/ml was the most reliable predictor of ESLD development (OR 51.2, 95% CI 7.6-343, p , 0.0001). Finally, the initial KL-6 level correlated with the forced vital capacity (FVC) decline rate (r = 0.58, p , 0.0001). ...
Background: Due to the faltering sensitivity and/or specificity, urine-based assays currently have a limited role in the management of patients with bladder cancer (BCa). The aim of this study was to externally validate our previously reported protein biomarker panel from multiple sites in the US and Europe. Methods: This multicenter external validation study included a total of 320 subjects (BCa = 183). The 10 biomarkers (IL8, MMP9, MMP10, SERPINA1, VEGFA, ANG, CA9, APOE, SDC1 and SERPINE1) were measured using commercial ELISA assays in an external laboratory. The diagnostic performance of the biomarker panel was assessed using receiver operator curves (ROC) and descriptive statistical values. Results: Utilizing the combination of all 10 biomarkers, the AUROC for the diagnostic panel was noted to be 0.847 [95% CI: 0.796 - 0.899], outperforming any single biomarker. The multiplex assay at optimal cutoff value achieved an overall sensitivity of 0.79, specificity of 0.79, PPV of 0.73 and NPV of ...
Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has recently emerged as a noninvasive method to image the coronary arteries. CCTA has a negative predictive value of nearly 100% for the detection of coronary artery disease (demonstrated in the trial known as ROMICAT). This approach has been investigated recently as a means of helping sort out which patients presenting to an emergency department with chest pain are safe to treat and then discharge as opposed to treat urgently and then admit. It is a huge challenge.. In a nonurgent setting, the guidelines state CCTA may be reasonable for patients with an intermediate pretest probability of SIHD who have at least moderate physical functioning or no disabling comorbidity. CCTA is reasonable for these same patients with an intermediate pretest probability of SIHD who a) have continued symptoms with prior normal test findings, or b) have inconclusive results from prior exercise or pharmacological stress testing, or c) are unable to undergo stress with ...
Identifying triggers for challenging behavior is difficult in some children with autism because of their limited communication abilities. Physiological indicators of stress may provide important insights. This study examined whether heart rate (HR) predicts challenging behavior in children with autism. While wearing an electrocardiograph monitor, 41 children with autism aged 2- to 4-years participated in tasks designed to induce low-level stress (e.g. waiting for a snack). Coders identified 106 time periods during which challenging behaviors occurred and also coded 106 randomly selected time samples that did not include challenging behaviors. Thirteen (32%) participants exhibited challenging behaviors and were included in the study. Baseline-corrected HR was computed for each behavior/time sample. On average, children with autism showed a 22 ± 16% HR increase from baseline 58 ± 22 seconds before the onset of a challenging behavior episode. Peak HR change had moderate predictive utility (area ...
We selected 14 studies covering 732 patients; analysis was conducted in 11, while the other 3 were used for simple qualitative examination. In individual papers, the presence of SEP predicted favourable outcomes as shown by the area under both sROC curves being 0.958. The same value was shown by SEP absence for predicting unfavourable outcomes. All covariates showed no significant effects on diagnostic accuracy, but only a slight non-significant trend. For SEP grading, a simple sub-group analysis showed a high predictive value for non-awakening for absence of SEPs (PPV 97.0%) and a high prognostic power to predict awakening for normal SEPs (PPV 92.2%). Pathological SEPs did not show reliable predictivity. In children, the presence of SEPs showed a high prognostic power similar to that in adults.. ...
Results 10 807 patients were included in the derivation and 10 480 in the validation cohorts. The strongest independent predictors of hospital admission among the 8728 patients ,70 years old were age, sex, triage category, mode of arrival, performance of blood tests, chief complaint, ED revisit, type of specialist, phlebotomised blood sample and all vital signs. The area under the curve (AUC) of the validation cohort for those ,70 years old was 0.86 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.87). Among the 2079 patients ≥70 years, the same factors were predictive, except for gender, type of specialist and heart rate; the AUC was 0.77 (95% CI 0.75 to 0.79). The prediction models could identify a group of 10% of patients with the highest risk in whom hospital admission was predicted at ED triage, with a positive predictive value (PPV) of 71% (95% CI 68% to 74%) in younger patients and PPV of 87% (95% CI 81% to 92%) in older patients. ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Interpretation of dichotomous outcomes. T2 - Journal of Physiotherapy. AU - Kent, Peter. AU - Hancock, Mark J.. N1 - Version archived for private and non-commercial use with the permission of the author/s and according to publisher conditions. For further rights please contact the publisher.. PY - 2016/10/1. Y1 - 2016/10/1. UR - http://www.scopus.com/inward/record.url?scp=84992316719&partnerID=8YFLogxK. U2 - 10.1016/j.jphys.2016.08.008. DO - 10.1016/j.jphys.2016.08.008. M3 - Comment/opinion. VL - 62. SP - 231. EP - 233. JO - Journal of Physiotherapy. JF - Journal of Physiotherapy. SN - 1836-9553. IS - 4. ER - ...
Current clinical prediction scores for acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have limited positive predictive value. No studies have evaluated predictive kinetics of plasma biomarkers and receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) polymorphisms in a broad population of critically ill patients or as an adjunct to clinical prediction scores. The main objective of the investigators study is to evaluate the predictive values of plasma soluble RAGE levels for the onset of ARDS in a high risk population of patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). One of the investigators goals is to improve early identification of patients at risk for ARDS in order to better implement preventive stategies prior to ARDS development. The primary outcome is the occurrence of ARDS during the first week after admission to the ICU. ...
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Discussion. The main findings from our study are: (a) a high prevalence of anemia was found in a series of unselected ACS patients from routine clinical practice; (b) no significant differences were observed regarding the predictive ability of the three bleeding risk scores in patients with or without anemia according to the WHO criteria; and (c) only the Mehran risk score showed a significantly poorer predictive ability in patients with severe anemia.. Anemia is a common comorbidity in ACS, and is strongly associated with higher mortality and morbidity in this setting.15,21,22 The reasons for this association have not been clearly elucidated. Anemia worsens myocardial ischemia by reducing oxygen delivery to the injured myocardium as well as by increasing myocardial oxygen demands due to a larger stroke volume and higher heart rate. At the same time, anemia potentially reflects occult disease, such as malignancy or kidney disease, and can have unfavorable effects on the clinical course of ...
Improving the Positive Predictive Value of Non-Invasive Prenatal Screening NIPS. . Biblioteca virtual para leer y descargar libros, documentos, trabajos y tesis universitarias en PDF. Material universiario, documentación y tareas realizadas por universitarios en nuestra biblioteca. Para descargar gratis y para leer online.
Its easy to think of medical tests as black and white. If the test is positive, you have the disease; if its negative, you dont. Even good clinicians sometimes fall into that trap. Based on the pre-test probability of the disease, a positive test result only increases the probability by a variable amount. An example: if the probability that a patient has a pulmonary embolus (based on symptoms and physical findings) is 10% and you do a D-dimer test, a positive result raises the probability of PE to 17% and a negative result lowers it to 0.2%. Even something as simple as a throat culture for strep throat can be misleading. Its possible to have a positive culture because you happen to be an asymptomatic strep carrier, while your current symptoms of fever and sore throat are actually due to a virus. Not to mention all the things that might have gone wrong in the lab: a mix-up of specimens, contamination, inaccurate recording…. Mammography is widely used to screen for breast cancer. Most ...
Predictive tests[edit]. There have been many assessments of tests aimed at predicting pre-eclampsia, though no single biomarker ... This test has a high negative predictive value among those individuals with a history of prior pre-eclampsia.[15] ... is likely to be sufficiently predictive of the disorder.[10] Predictive tests that have been assessed include those related to ... Examples of notable tests include: *Doppler ultrasonography of the uterine arteries to investigate for signs of inadequate ...
Predictive genetic testing[edit]. One hope for future genetic testing is the ability to test for presymptomatic or prenatal ... If possible to test for schizophrenia before the symptoms develop, proactive interventions could be developed, or even ... of patients with bipolar disorder indicated that they would probably take a genetic test to determine they were carrying a gene ... associated with the disorder, if such a test existed.[6] Ethical issues[edit]. Francis Galton studied both desirable and ...
NIJ, HOSDB, US-Army and ISO ballistic test methods *^ "Third Status Report to the Attorney General on Safety Initiative Testing ... Variability reduces the predictive power of a determination of V0. If for example, the V0 of an armor design is measured to be ... Ballistic testing has a number of sources of variability: the armor, test backing materials, bullet, casing, powder, primer and ... Vests that will be tested after ISO-type water immersion tend to have heat-sealed enclosures and those that are tested under ...
Biomedical testing for blunt force testing, very good tissue match Pig or Sheep animal testing[50] Live tissue Various Research ... Variability reduces the predictive power of a determination of V0. If for example, the v0 of an armor design is measured to be ... is based on drop testing with a test knife in a mounting of controlled mass. The slash test uses the Stanley Utility knife or ... Backing materials for testing[edit]. Ballistic[edit]. One of the critical requirements in soft ballistic testing is measurement ...
"Attitudes regarding predictive testing for retinitis pigmentosa". Ophthalmic Genet. 28 (1): 9-15. doi:10.1080/13816810701199423 ... Other supportive testing may include an electroretinogram, visual field testing, or genetic testing.[1] ... Visual field and acuity tests measure and compare the size of the patient's field of vision and the clarity of their visual ... For all other genes (e.g. DHDDS), molecular genetic testing is available on a research basis only. ...
The majority of measuring instruments (tests) are constructed so that the trait could be normalized with the normal ... 2.Asendorpf, J. B. (2003). Head-to-head comparison of the predictive validity of personality types and dimensions. European ... Because of this, for instance, estimations of personality characteristics with the help of projective tests (which are ... 4.Daniels, David; and Price, Virginia (Updated and Revised 2009). The Essential Enneagram: Test and Self-Discovery Guide. ...
doi:10.1016/0165-1110(81)90032-4. Purchase (1982). "An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity". Mutation Research. ... The umu test, using only a single Salmonella strain, could potentially test a greater range of new chemicals with the same ... A simple colorimetric test is possible by adding a lactose analog which is degraded by β-galactosidase, producing a colored ... This test uses an operon fusion placing the lac operon (responsible for producing β-galactosidase, a protein which degrades ...
doi:10.1016/0165-1110(81)90032-4. Purchase (1982). "An appraisal of predictive tests for carcinogenicity". Mutation Research. ... The test is performed over a few hours in columns of a 96-well microplate with increasing concentrations of test samples. This ... The test is a colorimetric assay which measures the expression of genes induced by genotoxic agents in Escherichia coli, by ... Since the chemical tested may inhibit protein synthesis at higher concentrations, which would lead to an underestimation of B- ...
This is called predictive testing. Predictive testing cannot determine the age of onset that someone will begin to have ... Genetic tests, including prenatal testing, are available for both confirmed forms. Molecular testing is considered the gold ... Testing at pregnancy to determine whether an unborn child is affected is possible if genetic testing in a family has identified ... If the child is not having symptoms, the testing is not possible with an exception of emancipated minors as a policy. There is ...
... but since predictive testing has been offered far fewer choose to be tested. Over 95% of individuals at risk of inheriting HD ... throughout all stages of the testing process. Because of the implications of this test, patients who wish to undergo testing ... Chapman MA (1990). "Predictive testing for adult-onset genetic disease: ethical and legal implications of the use of linkage ... "Predictive Testing for Huntington's Disease". 2011. Archived from the original on 22 January 2013. Retrieved 7 May 2013. Kuliev ...
Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models. Circulation, 6;115(5):654-7. ... Pepe, M.S. (2003). The statistical evaluation of medical tests for classification and prediction. Oxford. ISBN 0198565828. ... The magnificent ROC - An explanation and interactive demonstration of the connection of ROCs to archetypal bi-normal test ... a misleading measure of the performance of predictive distribution models, Global Ecology and Biogeography, 17: 145-151 ...
These methods estimate the predictive validity of employment tests. This research has demonstrated that these validities ... From the Association of Test Publishers (ATP). Recipient of James McKeen Cattell Award for Scientific Contributions to Applied ... known for his work in personnel selection and employment testing. Schmidt is a researcher in the area of industrial and ... FL Statistical significance testing and cumulative knowledge in psychology: Implications for training. (PDF) Psychological ...
... test,[10] which tests whether the factors fully explain the expected returns of various portfolios, the test suggests that the ... Petkova, Ralitsa (2006). "Do the Fama-French Factors Proxy for Innovations in Predictive Variables?". Journal of Finance. 61 (2 ... Foye (2017) tested the five-factor model and in the UK and raises some serious concerns. Firstly, he questions the way in which ... They then test returns for β, controlling for size, and find no relationship. Assuming stocks are first partitioned by size the ...
"Evaluating the Predictive Validity of Graduate Management Admission Test Scores". Retrieved 16 June 2008. "Calibrate Student ... NMAT exam also known as NMIMS Management Admission test which is conducted by GMAC for admission to top B schools of India. 16 ... The website also serves as the portal for scheduling GMAT exam appointments at one of the more than 600 test centers located in ... This section is designed to measure a test taker's ability to evaluate information presented in new formats from multiple ...
Positive PCR at the completion of treatment is not predictive of subsequent relapse. PCR testing for fluid and tissue samples ... In the laboratory, biochemical tests can be diagnostic. Oxidase and catalase tests are positive for most members of the genus ... Testing for urease would successfully accomplish the task; it is positive for Brucella and negative for Salmonella. Brucella ... The liver is involved in most cases, but function tests are normal or mildly abnormal. Granulomas (B. abortus), hepatitis (B. ...
Porck, H. J. (2000). Rate of paper degradation: The predictive value of artificial aging tests. Amsterdam: European Commission ... This test is based on the Arrhenius equation. This type of test is, however, a subject of frequent criticism. There is no ... Physical testing or chemical testing is carried out by subjecting the product to representative levels of stress for long time ... In such a test, the purpose is not to predict a particular outcome for a specific type of paper, but rather to gain a greater ...
"Receiver-operating characteristic analysis for evaluating diagnostic tests and predictive models". Circulation. 115 (5): 654-7 ... Although the original C method has negative predictive power, simply reversing its decisions leads to a new predictive method C ... to choose the optimal cut-off of a test and to compare diagnostic accuracy of several tests. ROC curves also proved useful for ... A medical test might measure the level of a certain protein in a blood sample and classify any number above a certain threshold ...
... the value of the test is as a research tool and a supplement test to medical testing procedures. But as a predictor of future ... As for validity, it has "poorly documented predictive and construct validity." It also does not do a good job at predicting ... This test purports to provide an index of a newborn's abilities, and is usually given to an infant somewhere between the age of ... Kaplan, R. M., & Sacuzzo, D. P.(2010). Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, & Issues, Eighth Edition. Belmont, CA: ...
97-8. ISBN 0801463386 - via Google Books (preview). Sleeboom-Faulkner, Margaret (2010). Frameworks of Choice: Predictive & ... Genetic Testing in Asia. Amsterdam University Press. p. 28. ISBN 9789089641656 - via Google Books (full view). Staff (April 15 ...
Meta-analysis of predictive validity". Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. 97 (1): 17-41. doi:10.1037/a0015575. PMID ... Greenwald, A.G.; Poehlman, T.A.; Uhlmann, E.L. & Banaji, M.R. (2009). "Understanding and using the Implicit Association Test: ...
December 2001). "Food allergy-towards predictive testing for novel foods". Food Addit Contam. 18 (12): 1099-107. doi:10.1080/ ...
... predictive values are available for milk, egg, peanut, fish, soy, and wheat.[49][50][51] Blood tests allow for hundreds of ... It tests for delayed food reactions.[44][45][46]. *Blood testing is another way to test for allergies; however, it poses the ... In these tests, a tiny amount of the suspected allergen is put onto the skin or into a testing device, and the device is placed ... Skin testing on the arm is a common way for detecting an allergy, but it is not as effective as other tests. ...
Can be tested with Box's M statistic.[page needed] It has been suggested, however, that linear discriminant analysis be used ... Multicollinearity: Predictive power can decrease with an increased correlation between predictor variables. Independence: ... In this case, a significant F test allows classification based on a linear combination of predictor variables. Terminology can ...
The predictive value may be increased if two or more tests are carried out in parallel. The condition is that the tests have in ... Interlaboratory proficiency testing for tumor marker tests, and for clinical tests more generally, is routine in Europe and an ... resulting in needless further testing or anxiety. As with other tests, predictive value (the chance that a positive or negative ... Test combinations that will give more exact results are for instance: Colorectal: M2-PK; if M2-PK is not available, can test ...
Machine and equipment surveillance for predictive maintenance. Mobile instrumentation for test and measurement during outage ...
Fetal stethoscope Nonstress test (NST) Biophysical profile (BPP) Grivell, Rosalie M; Alfirevic, Zarko; Gyte, Gillian ML; Devane ... Category I (Normal): Tracings with all these findings present are strongly predictive of normal fetal acid-base status at the ... Tan, Kelvin H; Smyth, Rebecca MD; Wei, Xing; Tan, Kelvin H (2013). "Fetal vibroacoustic stimulation for facilitation of tests ... Category II (Indeterminate): Tracing is not predictive of abnormal fetal acid-base status, but evaluation and continued ...
Annualized Predictive Breast Cancer Gene Testing market revenue, annual cost of gene testing and breast cancer gene testing ... Pipeline analysis: Emerging breast cancer gene tests, both predictive gene tests and gene expression tests, emerging platform ... 7.1.2 Gene Test Analysis 130. 7.1.3 Gene-Testing Hardware 133. 7.1.4 Laboratory-Developed Tests 136. 7.2 Testing Volumes 140. ... Predictive breast cancer gene testing is dominated by a single provider who has exclusive rights to a patented gene test. How ...
Source for information on Genetic Testing and Screening: V. Predictive Genetic Testing: Encyclopedia of Bioethics dictionary. ... PREDICTIVE GENETIC TESTINGIn June 2000 international leaders of the Human Genome Project (HGP) confirmed that the rough draft ... Genetic Testing and Screening: V. Predictive Genetic Testing. Updated About encyclopedia.com content Print Article Share ... "Genetic Testing and Screening: V. Predictive Genetic Testing ." Encyclopedia of Bioethics . . Encyclopedia.com. 25 May. 2020 , ...
As a test of predictive performance the chi-squared test of independence will, in general, be more conservative than the ... suggested test of predictive failure. The paper also contains two applications: A dichotomous version of the test is applied to ... The test applies to a general m x n contingency table and it is shown that the standard null hypothesis of independence in a ... contingency table implies the null hypothesis of the proposed test of predictive failure but not vice versa. ...
Samples collected during urination versus directly from the bladder are best for testing the most common cause of urinary tract ... Evaluating the Predictive Value of Urine Tests for Urinary Tract Infections. Research Update Nov. 14, 2013. ... Once collected, the urine can be tested for the presence of certain microbes-often by seeing what types and amounts of microbes ... These and other results suggest that testing of midstream void samples is best used for detecting and diagnosing the most ...
... Jan P. A. Baak,1,2,3 Arnold-Jan Kruse,1 Emiel Janssen,1 and ...
British scientists have made a discovery that could pave the way for a test to predict pre-eclampsia, a potentially fatal ... A blood test could predict chances of miscarriage after positive pregnancy test ... British scientists have made a discovery that could pave the way for a test to predict pre-eclampsia, a potentially fatal ... a VEGF test could guide the prescription of aspirin - which decreases the incidence of pre-eclampsia by 15 per cent - and ...
Predictive testing is a form of genetic testing. It is also known as presymptomatic testing. These types of testing are used to ... but who have no features of the disorder themselves at the time of testing. Predictive testing can identify mutations that ... The results of predictive and presymptomatic testing can provide information about a persons risk of developing a specific ... List of human genes List of genetic disorders GAO report on at-home predictive genetic test kits. ...
... than any of the individual genes that comprise the test, according to a peer-reviewed analysis by investigators from the Mayo ... multi-gene GeneSight test has been found to better predict antidepressant treatment outcomes for patients with depression, and ... GeneSight multi-gene test more predictive of antidepressant response. Assurex Health. Journal. The Pharmacogenomics Journal. ... GeneSight multi-gene test more predictive of antidepressant response Retrospective chart review also showed GeneSight results ...
NuPhysicia First To Use Predictive Medical Test For Offshore Workers Microalbumin test important to predict employee risk of ... HOUSTON--(BUSINESS WIRE)--NuPhysicia, Inc., is now using the important predictive laboratory test, Urine Microalbumin Assay, as ... These advanced tests use small blood samples, instead of full blood draws, to perform analysis of blood sugar and blood fats ... "The microalbumin test is an important addition to our remote health risk assessment programs for the long-term benefit of ...
Accenture helps companies rotate to New IT with testing services that drive continuous quality and efficiency, and shape their ... ABOUT ACCENTURE TESTING SERVICES. Accentures innovative testing services help testing organization be a catalyst for speed, ... INTELLIGENT TESTING DELIVERY. Our proprietary testing platforms enable intelligent, secure and automated testing delivery. ... Accenture Testing Services puts power in the hands of test professionals to do more for the business. Better experiences, ...
Accenture helps companies rotate to New IT with testing services that drive continuous quality and efficiency, and shape their ... WE ENABLE INTELLIGENT, SECURE AND AUTOMATED TESTING. Our proprietary testing platforms and frameworks allow testing teams to ... AI TESTING. We validate the safety, reliability and transparency of AI systems powered by a unique Teach and Test framework ... OMNI-CHANNEL TESTING. PLATFORM. Helps fast-track digital application testing to create a seamless end-user experience whatever ...
For example, for positive or negative test, the predictive values are termed positive predictive value or negative predictive ... Predictive value of tests is the probability of a target condition (for example a disease) given by the result of a test, often ... In cases where the test result is of a continuous value, the predictive value generally changes continuously along with the ... For example, for a pregnancy test that displays the urine concentration of hCG, the predictive value increases with increasing ...
... week announced results from an analysis of three multicenter clinical research trials that indicate its BGM Galectin-3 test is ... predictive of rehospitalization for heart failure within the first 30 days following discharge from an initial hospital stay. ... Analysis Indicates BG Medicines Galectin-3 Test is Predictive of Hospital Readmissions. Mar 28, 2014 ... Home » Analysis Indicates BG Medicines Galectin-3 Test is Predictive of Hospital Readmissions ...
Family Health After Predictive Huntington Disease (HD) Testing. The safety and scientific validity of this study is the ... have received a positive result from predictive testing for a mutation in the HD gene, 2) are symptomatic and living at home, ... Impact of a positive HD test or presence of HD on a family members perceptions of: health problems, emotional and functional ... In Phase 2, a survey instrument will be developed and field-tested in order to describe the health care needs, management ...
... explored whether genetic counseling programs are incorporating instruction about the applications and techniques of predictive ... genomic testing (PGT) based on student recollection, and wheth ... The Incorporation of Predictive Genomic Testing into Genetic ... Predictive genomic testing Genome sequencing Genomic medicine Genetic counseling Education Predictive testing ... to interpret PGT test results (60.2 %) and to identify clinical situations warranting testing (53.1 %). Although the majority ...
Intel IT has developed a predictive analytics solution which it claims can reduce chip test time by 25 percent and save $30 ... Intel IT slashes chip test times by a quarter predictive analytics. Intel IT has developed a predictive analytics solution ... Intel IT has developed a predictive analytics solution which it claims can reduce chip test time by 25 percent and save $30 ... "The predictive piece were hoping for is that we can use real-time sensors out there within the environment, which from a chip ...
Improving Non-Invasive Diagnostic Tests Predictive of Oral Helicobacter pylori Infection. Helicobacter pylori is known as one ... Furthermore, the diagnosis of H. pylori infection can be made through several tests, from which the most accurate ones are ... In this sense saliva could be used as an alternative, non-invasive diagnostic test. ... pylori infection and discover potential biomarkers predictive of oral infection. ...
Hot Stove season is slowing, which means its almost time for team executives and players to start telling you how good theyre going to be in 2014. There are many reasons for teams and players to predict success: to sell tickets, to avoid 0.0 Nielsen ratings, to motivate themselves and their teammates. Most of the time, predicting success makes more sense than saying "We suck.". We know that media members make many regrettable predictions: that the 2013 Red Sox would be boring, that Mike Trout wouldnt be worth taking early in a fantasy draft, that the Angels and Blue Jays would win the West and the East. But anything a team might tell you is equally suspect. So just like last year, Ive trawled the internet for predictions that teams and players made about themselves before the start of last season. The only condition was that there werent conditions-if we stay healthy, if we play up to our capabilities, etc. Only unqualified forecasts of future events could be counted-the stronger and more ...
... service provider BIOENSIS for his insights into overcoming the limitations of 2D pharmacology and improving the predictive ... Predictive Pharmacology: Novel 3D Drug Testing Systems For Improved Predictive Accuracy , 3D Spheroid Pharmacology , Corning. ... Predictive Pharmacology: Novel 3D Drug Testing Systems For Improved Predictive Accuracy. In the Field ... What technology or equipment do you use for spheroid growth? Are there difficulties or have you got a tried and tested formula ...
Predictive genetic testing: Psychological factors. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 43 (5), pp. 477-487. ... in medical technology such as those linked to the human genome project are increasing the potential for predictive testing for ... There have not been comparable advances in understanding of the psychological factors involved in such testing. These factors ... and it is suggested that a cognitive-behavioral approach to the understanding and management of adverse reactions to testing is ...
Tag: predictive testing. The Value of Knowing: Most People Want and Are Willing to Pay For Predictive Tests. August 19, ... Tagged doctor/physician marketing & advertising healthcare marketing & advertising PHARMACEUTICAL MARKETING predictive testing ... People-healthcare consumers and prospective patients, that is-tell researchers they want tests that predict if certain serious ...
We analyzed the predictive validity of four widely used intelligence tests in German-speaking countries: The Intelligence and ... We analyzed the predictive validity of four widely used intelligence tests in German-speaking countries: The Intelligence and ... However, little is known regarding the predictive validity of well-established intelligence tests for school grades. ... The results revealed the predictive validity of currently used intelligence tests for longitudinal scholastic achievement in ...
... and how these differences affect the predictive value of genetic tests. It then reviews some measures for the clinical validity ... The clinical validity and clinical utility of a genetic test depend on the disease risk, the genotype frequency, and the ... Different performance measures can lead to different conclusions about the value of genetic testing; therefore, each of these ... 30 Cytochrome P450 testing in the treatment of depression. *31 A Rapid-ACCE review of CYP2C9 and VKORC1 allele testing to ...
... megohmmeter testing, high potential testing, battery impedance testing, motor circuit analysis, and circuit breaker contact ... A. Acceptance Testing. A best practice use of PT&I technologies is in acceptance testing during construction and during the ... The test used will depend on the test results sensitivity and accuracy, the cost, and the machine construction and application ... General industry-wide application of predictive testing and inspection technologies are detailed as follows. Many approaches ...
... applied in the pre-test and post-test, one-year after notification of results. Values decreased significantly one year after ... we have researched the psychological impact of pre-symptomatic testing (PST) for 2 autosomal dominant late-onset diseases: ... this seems to corroborate previous studies showing that testing does not increase pre-symptomatic levels of emotional ... the implementation of the PST, regardless of the studied disease or test result; ...
  • The overall goal of this study is to improve knowledge of the oral microbiome during H. pylori infection and discover potential biomarkers predictive of oral infection. (jcvi.org)
  • Lactate dehydrogenase and other biomarkers appear to predict risk of critical illness and death, and testing soon after exposure is associated with high rates of false negatives, new studies showed. (acphospitalist.org)
  • The demographic characteristics, laboratory biomarkers, microbiological test results, pneumonia severity index (PSI), CURB-65, and A-DROP on admission were retrieved from their medical charts. (rcjournal.com)
  • The Predictive Breast Cancer Gene Testing market has seen exponential growth in the US, dominated by Myriad Genetics. (prnewswire.com)
  • Using a patient's unique genetics, the GeneSight Psychotropic test creates a personalized report that places 38 U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved medications for depression and other mental health conditions into three color-coded categories for clinicians to review: "Use as Directed" in green, "Use with Caution" in yellow, or "Use with Increased Caution and with More Frequent Monitoring" in red. (eurekalert.org)
  • International Huntington Association and World Federation of Neurology Research Group on Huntington's Disease (1994) Guidelines for the molecular genetics predictive test in Huntington's disease. (scirp.org)
  • However, it is not well-known what role numeric probabilities and/or the conception of disease and genetics play in the lay understanding of predictive genetic diagnostics. (frontiersin.org)
  • Medical genetics and pediatric cardiology charts were reviewed to identify factors associated with uptake of genetic testing and cardiac evaluation for children at risk for long QT syndrome, hypertrophic cardiomyopathy or arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy. (springer.com)
  • BioFocus Laboratory in Germany and the RGCC Laboratory in Greece both provide culture assays of circulating tumor cells (in peripheral blood), with assay of cell genetics which can provide a reason why these cells should or should not be sensitive to specific chemotherapy agents (Type I). Both companies can test the tumor cells against alternative as well as standard therapies. (arizonaadvancedmedicine.com)
  • This policy statement represents recommendations developed collaboratively by the American Academy of Pediatrics and the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics with respect to many of the scenarios in which genetic testing and screening can occur. (aappublications.org)
  • Our knowledge of genetics grows rapidly, as does consumer interest in undergoing genetic testing. (aappublications.org)
  • The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) provide the following recommendations regarding genetic testing and screening of minors. (aappublications.org)
  • The rising health care awareness and shifting population preference toward a healthy lifestyle have led to the expansion of the market for predictive genetics testing & consumer/wellness genomics. (wordpress.com)
  • Most players in the predictive genetics testing & consumer/wellness genomics market are focused on developing technologically advanced and cost-efficient services in order to offer comfortable, easy, and quicker testing solutions to customers. (wordpress.com)
  • Most single gene tests have high variability and are less accurate in predicting patient responses to psychotropic medications. (eurekalert.org)
  • We describe the origins of current AST reference methodology, highlight the sources of AST variability, and propose ideas for improving AST predictive power. (asm.org)
  • Although promising, there was a large variability in methods used for dynamic testing and, therefore, it remains unclear which dynamic testing methods are most appropriate for patients with cognitive impairments. (uu.nl)
  • Spheroidal 3D tissue cultures are one step closer to representing in vivo tumor responses, allowing for greater predictive power in drug candidacy. (corning.com)
  • There have not been comparable advances in understanding of the psychological factors involved in such testing. (bath.ac.uk)
  • These factors and issues relating to them are examined, and it is suggested that a cognitive-behavioral approach to the understanding and management of adverse reactions to testing is likely to be particularly fruitful. (bath.ac.uk)
  • The PI cognitive test is just one of many factors that recruiters will consider before hiring you. (demotix.com)
  • This report on the global market for predictive genetic testing and consumer/wellness genomics analyzes all the important factors that may influence the demand in the near future and forecasts the condition of the market until 2025. (medgadget.com)
  • This study provides a greater understanding of factors associated with uptake of genetic testing and cardiac evaluation in children at risk of an inherited arrhythmia or cardiomyopathy. (springer.com)
  • The manuscript, Orthogonal Comparison of Four Plasma NGS Tests with Tumor Suggests Technical Factors are a Major Source of Assay Discordance , was released online ahead of publication in JCO Precision Oncology . (bio-itworld.com)
  • Diabetes and insulin resistance are also predictive factors for development of cancer. (arizonaadvancedmedicine.com)
  • In general, models that incorporate multiple predictive factors demonstrate better detection rates than those using only a single factor. (acog.org)
  • Linkage testing is labor-intensive and expensive and can result in erroneous conclusions caused by incorrectly attributed paternity, misdiagnosis, and the distance between the gene and the markers used for testing. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Conclusions Exposure to simulated patient cases promotes accurate estimation of predictive values in clinicians. (bmj.com)
  • HOUSTON--( BUSINESS WIRE )-- NuPhysicia, Inc. , is now using the important predictive laboratory test, Urine Microalbumin Assay, as part of their leading telemedicine technology and health care services to offshore rig employees. (businesswire.com)
  • Looking back in our experience, we confirm that the platelets count and the quantitation of plasmatic Fibrin Degradation Products (FDP) are the most useful tests for the diagnosis of full blown DIC, and that the biological assay of plasmatic fibrinogen helps to follow the disorder. (elsevier.com)
  • The GeneSight Psychotropic test helps inform clinicians' treatment selection for commonly prescribed medications including those for depression, post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, bipolar disorder and schizophrenia. (eurekalert.org)
  • Once collected, the urine can be tested for the presence of certain microbes-often by seeing what types and amounts of microbes will grow in a laboratory setting. (nih.gov)
  • The laboratory tests of 38 patients in pediatric age with Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) were retrospectively evaluated. (elsevier.com)
  • These geographically restricted organisms are closely related genetically and are antigenically similar to T. pallidum ssp pallidum, and will be detected by the same laboratory tests. (health.gov.au)
  • Omni channel (primarily mobile and web predictive analytics): Analytic tools provide metrics in the form of heat maps for most used business processes, features and statistics on operating systems used by channels across geographies. (capgemini.com)
  • As a test of predictive performance the chi-squared test of independence will, in general, be more conservative than the suggested test of predictive failure. (repec.org)
  • A Simple Nonparametric Test of Predictive Performance ," Journal of Business & Economic Statistics , American Statistical Association, vol. 10(4), pages 561-565, October. (repec.org)
  • A Simple, Non-Parametric Test Of Predictive Performance ," Cambridge Working Papers in Economics 9021, Faculty of Economics, University of Cambridge. (repec.org)
  • Accenture's innovative testing services help testing organization be a catalyst for speed, agility and business performance while achieving radical productivity. (accenture.com)
  • We harness and integrate AI, analytics, Internet of Things, blockchain testing, performance engineering and app security to test and monitor end user experiences across digital channels to help companies realize market potential. (accenture.com)
  • 4 For example, scientists have previously identified genes that are associated with improved athletic performance to later discover that the same gene has an increased risk for Alzheimer's disease which may affect the athlete who was tested. (coach.ca)
  • While you are testing the model's performance, you're also testing how well it performs on data. (delphifeeds.com)
  • Continuous monitoring analytics for building performance SLA's: This means, leveraging predictive analytics from operational production data, to build business SLA's against critical business processes. (capgemini.com)
  • The finding of Wilkinson and colleagues 1 that the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test (UMAT) score and medical school performance are only weakly correlated came as no surprise. (mja.com.au)
  • In Australia and New Zealand, selection of students into medical study directly from high school typically uses a combination of academic performance at school, performance on a standardised test (the Undergraduate Medicine and Health Sciences Admission Test [UMAT]) and an interview. (mja.com.au)
  • It is helping test engineers to earmark areas that need more focus depending on the areas including performance, compatibility or functional issues. (qainfotech.com)
  • In the subpopulation of patients with stage III disease predictive performance was good (area under the curve 0.92 within 30 days of diagnosing recurrent disease). (ovid.com)
  • When looking at the specific subpopulation of patients with stage III disease predictive performance of TPA was good. (ovid.com)
  • We tested the performance of this cell culture device by co-culturing human primary non-parenchymal cells (fibroblasts, stellate, and Kupffer cells) with human primary hepatocytes for 14 days, finding that hepatocytes produced albumin and urea at elevated levels compared to static cultures. (cornell.edu)
  • It included seven studies with 1,330 patients (some hospitalized, some not) that provided data on reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test performance by time since symptom onset or exposure. (acphospitalist.org)
  • A variant is to grow both the training and the test sets simultaneously, perhaps to optimize the measurement-performance tradeoff, or to capture in the test set any evolution in the conception of relevance that occurs during training. (codalism.com)
  • Dynamic testing includes procedures that examine the effects of brief training on test performance where pre- to post-training change reflects patients' learning potential. (uu.nl)
  • We investigated the performance of this risk stratification strategy by examining epidemiological parameters that impact the predictive ability of risk models. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Linkage testing requires the collection and analysis of blood samples from affected and elderly unaffected relatives of the at-risk individual who asks for testing to trace the pattern of inheritance of the HD gene in a specific family. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This analysis looked at the GeneSight test that included the liver metabolism genes CYP2D6, CYP2C19, CYP2C9, and CYP1A2, and the two drug response genes, SLC6A4 and HTR2A. (eurekalert.org)
  • Since these studies were conducted, Assurex Health has enhanced the GeneSight test to include two more genes, CYP3A4 and CYP2B6, making it the first and only psychiatric pharmacogenomic test to offer CYP3A4 analysis distinct and separate from CYP3A5. (eurekalert.org)
  • These advanced tests use small blood samples, instead of full blood draws, to perform analysis of blood sugar and blood fats like cholesterol-HDL, LDL and triglycerides. (businesswire.com)
  • Vibration Analysis, Infrared Thermography, Oil (Fluid) Analysis, Electrical Analysis, and Ultrasonic Measurements are considered the core predictive testing and inspection technologies. (wbdg.org)
  • Analysis of lay attitudes and risk perceptions of German lay people on genetic testing with a special focus on how they deal with the numerical information. (frontiersin.org)
  • We have worked closely with counterparts in Los Angeles from the moment we became interested in predictive policing and the benefits it brings to keeping communities safe," said Mark Johnson, head of analysis for the Kent police. (healthcanal.com)
  • The Homeland Security Department is testing whether predictive analysis technology could prevent crimes by identifying potential criminals before they act. (gcn.com)
  • They are generally complex tests and commonly require sophisticated analysis and interpretation. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This package includes practice tests, question analysis, and in-depth testing strategies that will help you ace the aptitude tests. (assessment-training.com)
  • Researchers from the University of Utah compared those who received YouScript-guided genetic testing and analysis in a prospective group to those who did not in a matched retrospective cohort. (genelex.com)
  • The study compared healthcare resource utilization and estimated costs between the two groups to determine the impact of YouScript testing and analysis. (genelex.com)
  • The paper also contains two applications: A dichotomous version of the test is applied to the CBI's Industrial Trends Surveys of actual and expected price changes in the manufacturing sector, and a trichotomous version of the test is applied to the demand data from business surveys of French manufacturing industry conducted by INSEE. (repec.org)
  • Using Big Data to gather historical information during manufacturing and combine new sources of information that had previously been too unmanageable to use, a small team of five people was able to slash $3 million off the cost of testing just one line of Intel Core processors in 2012. (techworld.com)
  • Predictive analytics is where we want to go with our analytics capabilities, in combination with what we can glean from Big Data," said Chris Shaw, Intel EMEA IT Director. (techworld.com)
  • Testing data analytics models is different from testing most other types of software. (delphifeeds.com)
  • Predictive analytics encompasses a variety of techniques from statistics to data mining, which analyzes current and historical data to make predictions about future events. (capgemini.com)
  • Data warehouse testing: This refers, to using statistical and OLAP tools to identify significant trends. (capgemini.com)
  • Amidst changing times, quality assurance is also transforming its methodologies and becoming more data-driven to deliver intelligent software testing services. (qainfotech.com)
  • By leveraging statistical algorithms, predictive analytics helps in identifying patterns in data and generates the forecast on how data would behave in the future. (qainfotech.com)
  • Predictive analytics makes use of multiple algorithms for data processing. (qainfotech.com)
  • Enormous amount of data is generated through all the tasks performed in software testing life cycle (STLC). (qainfotech.com)
  • Instead of letting the test data lie idle, test engineers can leverage it through analytics solutions and state-of-the-art tools to streamline software testing. (qainfotech.com)
  • The data captured from social media enables test engineers to identify negative sentiments caused from past performances. (qainfotech.com)
  • The tissue is being analyzed by the FDA-approved MSK-IMPACT NGS test, providing consistent, well-validated concordance data. (bio-itworld.com)
  • This proposal will be tested by new data from current as well as new ARM-risk subjects. (arvojournals.org)
  • Based on these new data, the company is working to enhance the Vectra test report to provide patients with their "individual risk" of radiographic progression in one year. (globalbankingandfinance.com)
  • Text classifiers (or predictive coders) are in general trained iteratively, with training data added until acceptable effectiveness is achieved. (codalism.com)
  • So when we have AIC, why does one at all use the method of dividing the data into training, validation and test sets to measure the predictive properties of models? (stackexchange.com)
  • From simple A/B to complex multivariate tests, Oracle Maxymiser's intuitive, self-service interface, advanced personalization tools, and robust, data-driven insights make testing easy and allow you to optimize your website and mobile apps. (oracle.com)
  • Test on all site areas while protecting your data with Oracle Maxymiser's highly secure platform. (oracle.com)
  • Built to meet the rigorous requirements associated with enterprise-level scale and security, Oracle CX Marketing products have proven integrations that easily connect to first-, second-, and third-party data for testing, personalization, and optimization initiatives on websites and mobile apps. (oracle.com)
  • Mine test data to automatically uncover customer preferences to know exactly why and where to personalize. (oracle.com)
  • With a large enough data set, predictive analytics can identify unknown events in the past, present or future. (tadigital.com)
  • Predictive analytics allows decision makers within an organization to plan for future events based on hard data rather than intuition and supposition. (tadigital.com)
  • When using predictive analytics to enhance software testing, the best data points are the ones that your users provide. (tadigital.com)
  • Combining all of these data sources makes it easy to apply a predictive analytics approach and anticipate potential points of failure before they occur. (tadigital.com)
  • The bayesplot package provides various plotting functions for graphical posterior predictive checking , that is, creating graphical displays comparing observed data to simulated data from the posterior predictive distribution ( Gabry et al, 2019 ). (r-project.org)
  • The idea behind posterior predictive checking is simple: if a model is a good fit then we should be able to use it to generate data that looks a lot like the data we observed. (r-project.org)
  • To generate the data used for posterior predictive checks (PPCs) we simulate from the posterior predictive distribution . (r-project.org)
  • Using the replicated datasets drawn from the posterior predictive distribution, the functions in the bayesplot package create various graphical displays comparing the observed data \(y\) to the replications. (r-project.org)
  • This review of 122 research reports (184 independent samples, 14,900 subjects) found average r = .274 for prediction of behavioral, judgment, and physiological measures by Implicit Association Test (IAT)measures. (harvard.edu)
  • As a result, the client is now equipped to handle increased volumes and complexity with greater agility, better testing strategies, lower delivery effort and improved productivity. (accenture.com)
  • In Phase 2, a survey instrument will be developed and field-tested in order to describe the health care needs, management strategies, and needs for health and social services of relative/significant others of asymptomatic and symptomatic persons with the mutation in the gene for HD. (clinicaltrials.gov)
  • Predictive breast cancer gene tests can be used to identify women who are at increased risk of developing hereditary breast cancer. (prnewswire.com)
  • Not only did the markers provide a possible clue for finding the HD gene and understanding the mechanism by which the gene causes brain cells to die, this discovery meant that predictive testing for some individuals at risk for HD was possible through the use of a technique called linkage. (encyclopedia.com)
  • This helps in creating a risk based test matrix. (capgemini.com)
  • This will serve as a key input to building the high risk test matrix for vulnerabilities. (capgemini.com)
  • Cardiometabolic testing available through Atherotech includes C-Reactive Protein (hsCRP), LpPLA2, apoE genotype, NT-proBNP, Cystatin-C, T3 and T4 when TSH is abnormal, plus gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), a recognized cardiovascular risk biomarker. (bio-medicine.org)
  • Testing hamstring strength with the hip and knee at functional angles and assessing endurance parameters may be more relevant for examining the risk of hamstring injury. (bmj.com)
  • In order for predictive tests to be accepted and used by those at risk, there is a need to understand people's perceptions of predictive testing. (diva-portal.org)
  • The feasibility of this strategy will depend not solely on the predictive ability of the risk model, but also on the threshold level that is chosen. (biomedcentral.com)
  • These tests require a large number of women to be identified as high risk and to potentially undergo intensive surveillance in order to detect one case of early-onset preeclampsia. (acog.org)
  • This is achieved by developing NPI lower and upper ROC surfaces and the corresponding volumes under these surfaces, and we also consider the choice of cut-o points for classications based on such diagnostic tests. (dur.ac.uk)
  • Diagnostic tests are intended to definitively determine whether a patient has a particular problem. (encyclopedia.com)
  • He claimed: 'These researchers have made a vital finding that, if confirmed by other studies, has the potential to translate into a simple test that could potentially save many lives. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Helping humans and machines reach their exponential potential in application services through intelligent collaboration across the entire testing process. (accenture.com)
  • Helps fast-track digital application testing to create a seamless end-user experience whatever the user interface, while improving and realizing market potential. (accenture.com)
  • Advances in medical technology such as those linked to the human genome project are increasing the potential for predictive testing for a wide range of health threats. (bath.ac.uk)
  • Until now, the only accepted field service test for vacuum interrupters has been a simple pass/fail test performed with an AC high potential (HiPot) test. (tdworld.com)
  • The test is also aimed at identifying potential user concerns, including the usability and functionality of the technology and maintenance and operations of the technology as well as the associated training needed. (gcn.com)
  • Learning potential was quantified using numerical (post-test score, difference score, gain score, regression residuals) and categorical (groups) indices. (uu.nl)
  • 3) a balancing of potential disadvantages, and (4) the greater availability of commercial genetic tests in the future. (georgetown.edu)
  • Oracle understands the potential of A/B and multivariate testing . (oracle.com)
  • The PI LI is given to potential hires to test for skills not easily found on a resume or during an interview. (assessment-training.com)
  • Researchers estimated potential cost savings per patient in the tested group at $218 in just four months. (genelex.com)
  • Since using predictive analytics can help you anticipate any potential interactions with an application before you release it, it also helps to eliminate the possibility of post-production bugs. (tadigital.com)
  • Enables automated, artificial intelligence and analytics-driven software testing to deliver new enterprise software solutions faster to market and with higher quality. (accenture.com)
  • The company's novel 3D drug testing system enables more accurate in vitro to in vivo predictions, preventing costly expenditures in downstream development. (corning.com)
  • Vacuum Interrupters' patented flexible magnetic field coil enables technicians to test most vacuum interrupters installed in the circuit breaker without having to remove the interrupter. (tdworld.com)
  • This type of testing enables a person to make good lifestyle changes and choices. (wordpress.com)
  • The Parallel Review pathway, meanwhile, enables test developers to simultaneously obtain premarket approval and clearance through the FDA and a national coverage determination through CMS - a six to nine-month process by which CMS determines if it will pay for a product or service that it deems "reasonable and necessary" for the Medicare population. (genomeweb.com)