Evoked Potentials, Somatosensory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by stimulation along AFFERENT PATHWAYS from PERIPHERAL NERVES to CEREBRUM.Somatosensory Cortex: Area of the parietal lobe concerned with receiving sensations such as movement, pain, pressure, position, temperature, touch, and vibration. It lies posterior to the central sulcus.Predictive Value of Tests: In screening and diagnostic tests, the probability that a person with a positive test is a true positive (i.e., has the disease), is referred to as the predictive value of a positive test; whereas, the predictive value of a negative test is the probability that the person with a negative test does not have the disease. Predictive value is related to the sensitivity and specificity of the test.Somatosensory Disorders: Disorders of sensory information received from superficial and deep regions of the body. The somatosensory system conveys neural impulses which pertain to proprioception, tactile sensation, thermal sensation, pressure sensation, and pain. PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; SPINAL CORD DISEASES; and BRAIN DISEASES may be associated with impaired or abnormal somatic sensation.Touch: Sensation of making physical contact with objects, animate or inanimate. Tactile stimuli are detected by MECHANORECEPTORS in the skin and mucous membranes.Vibrissae: Stiff hairs projecting from the face around the nose of most mammals, acting as touch receptors.Physical Stimulation: Act of eliciting a response from a person or organism through physical contact.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Touch Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of tactile stimuli are recognized and interpreted by the brain, such as realizing the characteristics or name of an object being touched.Median Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the median nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C6 to T1), travel via the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the forearm and hand.Afferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a peripheral part toward a nerve center.Thalamus: Paired bodies containing mostly GRAY MATTER and forming part of the lateral wall of the THIRD VENTRICLE of the brain.Brain Mapping: Imaging techniques used to colocalize sites of brain functions or physiological activity with brain structures.Ventral Thalamic Nuclei: A large group of nuclei lying between the internal medullary lamina and the INTERNAL CAPSULE. It includes the ventral anterior, ventral lateral, and ventral posterior nuclei.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Sensation: The process in which specialized SENSORY RECEPTOR CELLS transduce peripheral stimuli (physical or chemical) into NERVE IMPULSES which are then transmitted to the various sensory centers in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Forelimb: A front limb of a quadruped. (The Random House College Dictionary, 1980)Neural Pathways: Neural tracts connecting one part of the nervous system with another.Thalamic Nuclei: Several groups of nuclei in the thalamus that serve as the major relay centers for sensory impulses in the brain.Magnetic Resonance Imaging: Non-invasive method of demonstrating internal anatomy based on the principle that atomic nuclei in a strong magnetic field absorb pulses of radiofrequency energy and emit them as radiowaves which can be reconstructed into computerized images. The concept includes proton spin tomographic techniques.Magnetoencephalography: The measurement of magnetic fields over the head generated by electric currents in the brain. As in any electrical conductor, electric fields in the brain are accompanied by orthogonal magnetic fields. The measurement of these fields provides information about the localization of brain activity which is complementary to that provided by ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY. Magnetoencephalography may be used alone or together with electroencephalography, for measurement of spontaneous or evoked activity, and for research or clinical purposes.Reaction Time: The time from the onset of a stimulus until a response is observed.ROC Curve: A graphic means for assessing the ability of a screening test to discriminate between healthy and diseased persons; may also be used in other studies, e.g., distinguishing stimuli responses as to a faint stimuli or nonstimuli.Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Fingers: Four or five slender jointed digits in humans and primates, attached to each HAND.Proprioception: Sensory functions that transduce stimuli received by proprioceptive receptors in joints, tendons, muscles, and the INNER EAR into neural impulses to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Proprioception provides sense of stationary positions and movements of one's body parts, and is important in maintaining KINESTHESIA and POSTURAL BALANCE.Tibial Nerve: The medial terminal branch of the sciatic nerve. The tibial nerve fibers originate in lumbar and sacral spinal segments (L4 to S2). They supply motor and sensory innervation to parts of the calf and foot.Electroencephalography: Recording of electric currents developed in the brain by means of electrodes applied to the scalp, to the surface of the brain, or placed within the substance of the brain.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Functional Laterality: Behavioral manifestations of cerebral dominance in which there is preferential use and superior functioning of either the left or the right side, as in the preferred use of the right hand or right foot.Hand: The distal part of the arm beyond the wrist in humans and primates, that includes the palm, fingers, and thumb.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neuronal Plasticity: The capacity of the NERVOUS SYSTEM to change its reactivity as the result of successive activations.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Trigeminal Nerve: The 5th and largest cranial nerve. The trigeminal nerve is a mixed motor and sensory nerve. The larger sensory part forms the ophthalmic, mandibular, and maxillary nerves which carry afferents sensitive to external or internal stimuli from the skin, muscles, and joints of the face and mouth and from the teeth. Most of these fibers originate from cells of the TRIGEMINAL GANGLION and project to the TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS of the brain stem. The smaller motor part arises from the brain stem trigeminal motor nucleus and innervates the muscles of mastication.Motor Cortex: Area of the FRONTAL LOBE concerned with primary motor control located in the dorsal PRECENTRAL GYRUS immediately anterior to the central sulcus. It is comprised of three areas: the primary motor cortex located on the anterior paracentral lobule on the medial surface of the brain; the premotor cortex located anterior to the primary motor cortex; and the supplementary motor area located on the midline surface of the hemisphere anterior to the primary motor cortex.Evoked Potentials: Electrical responses recorded from nerve, muscle, SENSORY RECEPTOR, or area of the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM following stimulation. They range from less than a microvolt to several microvolts. The evoked potential can be auditory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, AUDITORY), somatosensory (EVOKED POTENTIALS, SOMATOSENSORY), visual (EVOKED POTENTIALS, VISUAL), or motor (EVOKED POTENTIALS, MOTOR), or other modalities that have been reported.Vibration: A continuing periodic change in displacement with respect to a fixed reference. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)False Positive Reactions: Positive test results in subjects who do not possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of healthy persons as diseased when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Posterior Thalamic Nuclei: A transitional diencephalic zone of the thalamus consisting of complex and varied cells lying caudal to the VENTRAL POSTEROLATERAL NUCLEUS, medial to the rostral part of the PULVINAR, and dorsal to the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY. It contains the limitans, posterior, suprageniculate, and submedial nuclei.Prognosis: A prediction of the probable outcome of a disease based on a individual's condition and the usual course of the disease as seen in similar situations.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Sensory Thresholds: The minimum amount of stimulus energy necessary to elicit a sensory response.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Pain: An unpleasant sensation induced by noxious stimuli which are detected by NERVE ENDINGS of NOCICEPTIVE NEURONS.False Negative Reactions: Negative test results in subjects who possess the attribute for which the test is conducted. The labeling of diseased persons as healthy when screening in the detection of disease. (Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Trigeminal Nuclei: Nuclei of the trigeminal nerve situated in the brain stem. They include the nucleus of the spinal trigeminal tract (TRIGEMINAL NUCLEUS, SPINAL), the principal sensory nucleus, the mesencephalic nucleus, and the motor nucleus.Neurons, Afferent: Neurons which conduct NERVE IMPULSES to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Neocortex: The largest portion of the CEREBRAL CORTEX in which the NEURONS are arranged in six layers in the mammalian brain: molecular, external granular, external pyramidal, internal granular, internal pyramidal and multiform layers.Parietal Lobe: Upper central part of the cerebral hemisphere. It is located posterior to central sulcus, anterior to the OCCIPITAL LOBE, and superior to the TEMPORAL LOBES.Mechanoreceptors: Cells specialized to transduce mechanical stimuli and relay that information centrally in the nervous system. Mechanoreceptor cells include the INNER EAR hair cells, which mediate hearing and balance, and the various somatosensory receptors, often with non-neural accessory structures.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Sensory Receptor Cells: Specialized afferent neurons capable of transducing sensory stimuli into NERVE IMPULSES to be transmitted to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sometimes sensory receptors for external stimuli are called exteroceptors; for internal stimuli are called interoceptors and proprioceptors.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Nerve Net: A meshlike structure composed of interconnecting nerve cells that are separated at the synaptic junction or joined to one another by cytoplasmic processes. In invertebrates, for example, the nerve net allows nerve impulses to spread over a wide area of the net because synapses can pass information in any direction.Cerebrovascular Circulation: The circulation of blood through the BLOOD VESSELS of the BRAIN.Sensation Disorders: Disorders of the special senses (i.e., VISION; HEARING; TASTE; and SMELL) or somatosensory system (i.e., afferent components of the PERIPHERAL NERVOUS SYSTEM).Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Neural Inhibition: The function of opposing or restraining the excitation of neurons or their target excitable cells.Movement: The act, process, or result of passing from one place or position to another. It differs from LOCOMOTION in that locomotion is restricted to the passing of the whole body from one place to another, while movement encompasses both locomotion but also a change of the position of the whole body or any of its parts. Movement may be used with reference to humans, vertebrate and invertebrate animals, and microorganisms. Differentiate also from MOTOR ACTIVITY, movement associated with behavior.Auditory Cortex: The region of the cerebral cortex that receives the auditory radiation from the MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY.Tomography, X-Ray Computed: Tomography using x-ray transmission and a computer algorithm to reconstruct the image.Monitoring, Intraoperative: The constant checking on the state or condition of a patient during the course of a surgical operation (e.g., checking of vital signs).Image Processing, Computer-Assisted: A technique of inputting two-dimensional images into a computer and then enhancing or analyzing the imagery into a form that is more useful to the human observer.Saimiri: A genus of the family CEBIDAE consisting of four species: S. boliviensis, S. orstedii (red-backed squirrel monkey), S. sciureus (common squirrel monkey), and S. ustus. They inhabit tropical rain forests in Central and South America. S. sciureus is used extensively in research studies.Neural Conduction: The propagation of the NERVE IMPULSE along the nerve away from the site of an excitation stimulus.Psychomotor Performance: The coordination of a sensory or ideational (cognitive) process and a motor activity.Electrodes, Implanted: Surgically placed electric conductors through which ELECTRIC STIMULATION is delivered to or electrical activity is recorded from a specific point inside the body.Pain Threshold: Amount of stimulation required before the sensation of pain is experienced.Rats, Long-Evans: An outbred strain of rats developed in 1915 by crossing several Wistar Institute white females with a wild gray male. Inbred strains have been derived from this original outbred strain, including Long-Evans cinnamon rats (RATS, INBRED LEC) and Otsuka-Long-Evans-Tokushima Fatty rats (RATS, INBRED OLETF), which are models for Wilson's disease and non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus, respectively.Discrimination (Psychology): Differential response to different stimuli.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Spinal Cord: A cylindrical column of tissue that lies within the vertebral canal. It is composed of WHITE MATTER and GRAY MATTER.Reagent Kits, Diagnostic: Commercially prepared reagent sets, with accessory devices, containing all of the major components and literature necessary to perform one or more designated diagnostic tests or procedures. They may be for laboratory or personal use.Evoked Potentials, Motor: The electrical response evoked in a muscle or motor nerve by electrical or magnetic stimulation. Common methods of stimulation are by transcranial electrical and TRANSCRANIAL MAGNETIC STIMULATION. It is often used for monitoring during neurosurgery.Pain Perception: The process by which PAIN is recognized and interpreted by the brain.Ulnar Nerve: A major nerve of the upper extremity. In humans, the fibers of the ulnar nerve originate in the lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal cord (usually C7 to T1), travel via the medial cord of the brachial plexus, and supply sensory and motor innervation to parts of the hand and forearm.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Cats: The domestic cat, Felis catus, of the carnivore family FELIDAE, comprising over 30 different breeds. The domestic cat is descended primarily from the wild cat of Africa and extreme southwestern Asia. Though probably present in towns in Palestine as long ago as 7000 years, actual domestication occurred in Egypt about 4000 years ago. (From Walker's Mammals of the World, 6th ed, p801)Thermosensing: The sensation of cold, heat, coolness, and warmth as detected by THERMORECEPTORS.Stereognosis: Perception of shape and form of objects by TOUCH, via tactile stimuli.Pyramidal Cells: Projection neurons in the CEREBRAL CORTEX and the HIPPOCAMPUS. Pyramidal cells have a pyramid-shaped soma with the apex and an apical dendrite pointed toward the pial surface and other dendrites and an axon emerging from the base. The axons may have local collaterals but also project outside their cortical region.Lip: Either of the two fleshy, full-blooded margins of the mouth.Phantom Limb: Perception of painful and nonpainful phantom sensations that occur following the complete or partial loss of a limb. The majority of individuals with an amputated extremity will experience the impression that the limb is still present, and in many cases, painful. (From Neurol Clin 1998 Nov;16(4):919-36; Brain 1998 Sep;121(Pt 9):1603-30)Algorithms: A procedure consisting of a sequence of algebraic formulas and/or logical steps to calculate or determine a given task.Brain Stem: The part of the brain that connects the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES with the SPINAL CORD. It consists of the MESENCEPHALON; PONS; and MEDULLA OBLONGATA.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Peripheral Nerves: The nerves outside of the brain and spinal cord, including the autonomic, cranial, and spinal nerves. Peripheral nerves contain non-neuronal cells and connective tissue as well as axons. The connective tissue layers include, from the outside to the inside, the epineurium, the perineurium, and the endoneurium.Myoclonus: Involuntary shock-like contractions, irregular in rhythm and amplitude, followed by relaxation, of a muscle or a group of muscles. This condition may be a feature of some CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASES; (e.g., EPILEPSY, MYOCLONIC). Nocturnal myoclonus is the principal feature of the NOCTURNAL MYOCLONUS SYNDROME. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp102-3).Reagent Strips: Narrow pieces of material impregnated or covered with a substance used to produce a chemical reaction. The strips are used in detecting, measuring, producing, etc., other substances. (From Dorland, 28th ed)Animals, Newborn: Refers to animals in the period of time just after birth.Models, Neurological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of the neurological system, processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Evaluation Studies as Topic: Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.Aotidae: A family of the New World monkeys inhabiting the forests of South and Central America. There is a single genus and several species occurring in this family, including AOTUS TRIVIRGATUS (Northern night monkeys).Synaptic Transmission: The communication from a NEURON to a target (neuron, muscle, or secretory cell) across a SYNAPSE. In chemical synaptic transmission, the presynaptic neuron releases a NEUROTRANSMITTER that diffuses across the synaptic cleft and binds to specific synaptic receptors, activating them. The activated receptors modulate specific ion channels and/or second-messenger systems in the postsynaptic cell. In electrical synaptic transmission, electrical signals are communicated as an ionic current flow across ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES.Thalamic Diseases: Disorders of the centrally located thalamus, which integrates a wide range of cortical and subcortical information. Manifestations include sensory loss, MOVEMENT DISORDERS; ATAXIA, pain syndromes, visual disorders, a variety of neuropsychological conditions, and COMA. Relatively common etiologies include CEREBROVASCULAR DISORDERS; CRANIOCEREBRAL TRAUMA; BRAIN NEOPLASMS; BRAIN HYPOXIA; INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES; and infectious processes.Electromyography: Recording of the changes in electric potential of muscle by means of surface or needle electrodes.Macaca mulatta: A species of the genus MACACA inhabiting India, China, and other parts of Asia. The species is used extensively in biomedical research and adapts very well to living with humans.Feedback, Sensory: A mechanism of communicating one's own sensory system information about a task, movement or skill.Sensory Aids: Devices that help people with impaired sensory responses.Acoustic Stimulation: Use of sound to elicit a response in the nervous system.Lateral Thalamic Nuclei: A narrow strip of cell groups on the dorsomedial surface of the thalamus. It includes the lateral dorsal nucleus, lateral posterior nucleus, and the PULVINAR.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Sensory Deprivation: The absence or restriction of the usual external sensory stimuli to which the individual responds.Signal Processing, Computer-Assisted: Computer-assisted processing of electric, ultrasonic, or electronic signals to interpret function and activity.Neurologic Examination: Assessment of sensory and motor responses and reflexes that is used to determine impairment of the nervous system.Microelectrodes: Electrodes with an extremely small tip, used in a voltage clamp or other apparatus to stimulate or record bioelectric potentials of single cells intracellularly or extracellularly. (Dorland, 28th ed)Evoked Potentials, Auditory: The electric response evoked in the CEREBRAL CORTEX by ACOUSTIC STIMULATION or stimulation of the AUDITORY PATHWAYS.Nociceptors: Peripheral AFFERENT NEURONS which are sensitive to injuries or pain, usually caused by extreme thermal exposures, mechanical forces, or other noxious stimuli. Their cell bodies reside in the DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA. Their peripheral terminals (NERVE ENDINGS) innervate target tissues and transduce noxious stimuli via axons to the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Efferent Pathways: Nerve structures through which impulses are conducted from a nerve center toward a peripheral site. Such impulses are conducted via efferent neurons (NEURONS, EFFERENT), such as MOTOR NEURONS, autonomic neurons, and hypophyseal neurons.Vestibule, Labyrinth: An oval, bony chamber of the inner ear, part of the bony labyrinth. It is continuous with bony COCHLEA anteriorly, and SEMICIRCULAR CANALS posteriorly. The vestibule contains two communicating sacs (utricle and saccule) of the balancing apparatus. The oval window on its lateral wall is occupied by the base of the STAPES of the MIDDLE EAR.Perception: The process by which the nature and meaning of sensory stimuli are recognized and interpreted.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Oxygen: An element with atomic symbol O, atomic number 8, and atomic weight [15.99903; 15.99977]. It is the most abundant element on earth and essential for respiration.Axons: Nerve fibers that are capable of rapidly conducting impulses away from the neuron cell body.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Excitatory Postsynaptic Potentials: Depolarization of membrane potentials at the SYNAPTIC MEMBRANES of target neurons during neurotransmission. Excitatory postsynaptic potentials can singly or in summation reach the trigger threshold for ACTION POTENTIALS.Skin Physiological Phenomena: The functions of the skin in the human and animal body. It includes the pigmentation of the skin.Synapses: Specialized junctions at which a neuron communicates with a target cell. At classical synapses, a neuron's presynaptic terminal releases a chemical transmitter stored in synaptic vesicles which diffuses across a narrow synaptic cleft and activates receptors on the postsynaptic membrane of the target cell. The target may be a dendrite, cell body, or axon of another neuron, or a specialized region of a muscle or secretory cell. Neurons may also communicate via direct electrical coupling with ELECTRICAL SYNAPSES. Several other non-synaptic chemical or electric signal transmitting processes occur via extracellular mediated interactions.Foot: The distal extremity of the leg in vertebrates, consisting of the tarsus (ANKLE); METATARSUS; phalanges; and the soft tissues surrounding these bones.Deaf-Blind Disorders: The absence of both hearing and vision.Electrodiagnosis: Diagnosis of disease states by recording the spontaneous electrical activity of tissues or organs or by the response to stimulation of electrically excitable tissue.Pain Measurement: Scales, questionnaires, tests, and other methods used to assess pain severity and duration in patients or experimental animals to aid in diagnosis, therapy, and physiological studies.Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Biopsy: Removal and pathologic examination of specimens in the form of small pieces of tissue from the living body.Denervation: The resection or removal of the nerve to an organ or part. (Dorland, 28th ed)Spinothalamic Tracts: A bundle of NERVE FIBERS connecting each posterior horn of the spinal cord to the opposite side of the THALAMUS, carrying information about pain, temperature, and touch. It is one of two major routes by which afferent spinal NERVE FIBERS carrying sensations of somaesthesis are transmitted to the THALAMUS.Reference Values: The range or frequency distribution of a measurement in a population (of organisms, organs or things) that has not been selected for the presence of disease or abnormality.Illusions: The misinterpretation of a real external, sensory experience.Hypesthesia: Absent or reduced sensitivity to cutaneous stimulation.Bacteriological Techniques: Techniques used in studying bacteria.Arm: The superior part of the upper extremity between the SHOULDER and the ELBOW.Radiopharmaceuticals: Compounds that are used in medicine as sources of radiation for radiotherapy and for diagnostic purposes. They have numerous uses in research and industry. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1161)Scalp: The outer covering of the calvaria. It is composed of several layers: SKIN; subcutaneous connective tissue; the occipitofrontal muscle which includes the tendinous galea aponeurotica; loose connective tissue; and the pericranium (the PERIOSTEUM of the SKULL).Corpus Callosum: Broad plate of dense myelinated fibers that reciprocally interconnect regions of the cortex in all lobes with corresponding regions of the opposite hemisphere. The corpus callosum is located deep in the longitudinal fissure.Cerebral Decortication: Partial or total removal, ablation, or destruction of the cerebral cortex; may be chemical. It is not used with animals that do not possess a cortex, i.e., it is used only with mammals.Dystonic Disorders: Acquired and inherited conditions that feature DYSTONIA as a primary manifestation of disease. These disorders are generally divided into generalized dystonias (e.g., dystonia musculorum deformans) and focal dystonias (e.g., writer's cramp). They are also classified by patterns of inheritance and by age of onset.Beta Rhythm: Brain waves with frequency between 15-30 Hz seen on EEG during wakefulness and mental activity.Tomography, Emission-Computed: Tomography using radioactive emissions from injected RADIONUCLIDES and computer ALGORITHMS to reconstruct an image.Photic Stimulation: Investigative technique commonly used during ELECTROENCEPHALOGRAPHY in which a series of bright light flashes or visual patterns are used to elicit brain activity.Behavior, Animal: The observable response an animal makes to any situation.Visual Cortex: Area of the OCCIPITAL LOBE concerned with the processing of visual information relayed via VISUAL PATHWAYS.Jaw: Bony structure of the mouth that holds the teeth. It consists of the MANDIBLE and the MAXILLA.Neuroanatomical Tract-Tracing Techniques: Methods used to label and follow the course of NEURAL PATHWAYS by AXONAL TRANSPORT of injected NEURONAL TRACT-TRACERS.Personal Space: Invisible boundaries surrounding the individual's body which are maintained in relation to others.Cochlear Nucleus: The brain stem nucleus that receives the central input from the cochlear nerve. The cochlear nucleus is located lateral and dorsolateral to the inferior cerebellar peduncles and is functionally divided into dorsal and ventral parts. It is tonotopically organized, performs the first stage of central auditory processing, and projects (directly or indirectly) to higher auditory areas including the superior olivary nuclei, the medial geniculi, the inferior colliculi, and the auditory cortex.Trigeminal Nucleus, Spinal: Nucleus of the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve. It is divided cytoarchitectonically into three parts: oralis, caudalis (TRIGEMINAL CAUDAL NUCLEUS), and interpolaris.Brain Ischemia: Localized reduction of blood flow to brain tissue due to arterial obstruction or systemic hypoperfusion. This frequently occurs in conjunction with brain hypoxia (HYPOXIA, BRAIN). Prolonged ischemia is associated with BRAIN INFARCTION.Macaca fascicularis: A species of the genus MACACA which typically lives near the coast in tidal creeks and mangrove swamps primarily on the islands of the Malay peninsula.Amputation Stumps: The part of a limb or tail following amputation that is proximal to the amputated section.Spinal Osteophytosis: Outgrowth of immature bony processes or bone spurs (OSTEOPHYTE) from the VERTEBRAE, reflecting the presence of degenerative disease and calcification. It commonly occurs in cervical and lumbar SPONDYLOSIS.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Stroke: A group of pathological conditions characterized by sudden, non-convulsive loss of neurological function due to BRAIN ISCHEMIA or INTRACRANIAL HEMORRHAGES. Stroke is classified by the type of tissue NECROSIS, such as the anatomic location, vasculature involved, etiology, age of the affected individual, and hemorrhagic vs. non-hemorrhagic nature. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp777-810)Skin: The outer covering of the body that protects it from the environment. It is composed of the DERMIS and the EPIDERMIS.Tumor Markers, Biological: Molecular products metabolized and secreted by neoplastic tissue and characterized biochemically in cells or body fluids. They are indicators of tumor stage and grade as well as useful for monitoring responses to treatment and predicting recurrence. Many chemical groups are represented including hormones, antigens, amino and nucleic acids, enzymes, polyamines, and specific cell membrane proteins and lipids.Interneurons: Most generally any NEURONS which are not motor or sensory. Interneurons may also refer to neurons whose AXONS remain within a particular brain region in contrast to projection neurons, which have axons projecting to other brain regions.Macaca: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of 16 species inhabiting forests of Africa, Asia, and the islands of Borneo, Philippines, and Celebes.Dendrites: Extensions of the nerve cell body. They are short and branched and receive stimuli from other NEURONS.Anesthesia: A state characterized by loss of feeling or sensation. This depression of nerve function is usually the result of pharmacologic action and is induced to allow performance of surgery or other painful procedures.Psychophysics: The science dealing with the correlation of the physical characteristics of a stimulus, e.g., frequency or intensity, with the response to the stimulus, in order to assess the psychologic factors involved in the relationship.Fluorodeoxyglucose F18: The compound is given by intravenous injection to do POSITRON-EMISSION TOMOGRAPHY for the assessment of cerebral and myocardial glucose metabolism in various physiological or pathological states including stroke and myocardial ischemia. It is also employed for the detection of malignant tumors including those of the brain, liver, and thyroid gland. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p1162)Case-Control Studies: Studies which start with the identification of persons with a disease of interest and a control (comparison, referent) group without the disease. The relationship of an attribute to the disease is examined by comparing diseased and non-diseased persons with regard to the frequency or levels of the attribute in each group.Adaptation, Physiological: The non-genetic biological changes of an organism in response to challenges in its ENVIRONMENT.Hindlimb: Either of two extremities of four-footed non-primate land animals. It usually consists of a FEMUR; TIBIA; and FIBULA; tarsals; METATARSALS; and TOES. (From Storer et al., General Zoology, 6th ed, p73)Recovery of Function: A partial or complete return to the normal or proper physiologic activity of an organ or part following disease or trauma.Ultrasonography, Doppler, Color: Ultrasonography applying the Doppler effect, with the superposition of flow information as colors on a gray scale in a real-time image. This type of ultrasonography is well-suited to identifying the location of high-velocity flow (such as in a stenosis) or of mapping the extent of flow in a certain region.Statistics, Nonparametric: A class of statistical methods applicable to a large set of probability distributions used to test for correlation, location, independence, etc. In most nonparametric statistical tests, the original scores or observations are replaced by another variable containing less information. An important class of nonparametric tests employs the ordinal properties of the data. Another class of tests uses information about whether an observation is above or below some fixed value such as the median, and a third class is based on the frequency of the occurrence of runs in the data. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1284; Corsini, Concise Encyclopedia of Psychology, 1987, p764-5)Tongue: A muscular organ in the mouth that is covered with pink tissue called mucosa, tiny bumps called papillae, and thousands of taste buds. The tongue is anchored to the mouth and is vital for chewing, swallowing, and for speech.Diagnostic Errors: Incorrect diagnoses after clinical examination or technical diagnostic procedures.Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay: An immunoassay utilizing an antibody labeled with an enzyme marker such as horseradish peroxidase. While either the enzyme or the antibody is bound to an immunosorbent substrate, they both retain their biologic activity; the change in enzyme activity as a result of the enzyme-antibody-antigen reaction is proportional to the concentration of the antigen and can be measured spectrophotometrically or with the naked eye. Many variations of the method have been developed.Raccoons: Carnivores of the genus Procyon of the family PROCYONIDAE. Two subgenera and seven species are currently recognized. They range from southern Canada to Panama and are found in several of the Caribbean Islands.Cortical Synchronization: EEG phase synchronization of the cortical brain region (CEREBRAL CORTEX).Observer Variation: The failure by the observer to measure or identify a phenomenon accurately, which results in an error. Sources for this may be due to the observer's missing an abnormality, or to faulty technique resulting in incorrect test measurement, or to misinterpretation of the data. Two varieties are inter-observer variation (the amount observers vary from one another when reporting on the same material) and intra-observer variation (the amount one observer varies between observations when reporting more than once on the same material).Positron-Emission Tomography: An imaging technique using compounds labelled with short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides (such as carbon-11, nitrogen-13, oxygen-15 and fluorine-18) to measure cell metabolism. It has been useful in study of soft tissues such as CANCER; CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM; and brain. SINGLE-PHOTON EMISSION-COMPUTED TOMOGRAPHY is closely related to positron emission tomography, but uses isotopes with longer half-lives and resolution is lower.Data Interpretation, Statistical: Application of statistical procedures to analyze specific observed or assumed facts from a particular study.Posture: The position or attitude of the body.Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: A technique that involves the use of electrical coils on the head to generate a brief magnetic field which reaches the CEREBRAL CORTEX. It is coupled with ELECTROMYOGRAPHY response detection to assess cortical excitability by the threshold required to induce MOTOR EVOKED POTENTIALS. This method is also used for BRAIN MAPPING, to study NEUROPHYSIOLOGY, and as a substitute for ELECTROCONVULSIVE THERAPY for treating DEPRESSION. Induction of SEIZURES limits its clinical usage.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Epilepsy, Absence: A childhood seizure disorder characterized by rhythmic electrical brain discharges of generalized onset. Clinical features include a sudden cessation of ongoing activity usually without loss of postural tone. Rhythmic blinking of the eyelids or lip smacking frequently accompanies the SEIZURES. The usual duration is 5-10 seconds, and multiple episodes may occur daily. Juvenile absence epilepsy is characterized by the juvenile onset of absence seizures and an increased incidence of myoclonus and tonic-clonic seizures. (Menkes, Textbook of Child Neurology, 5th ed, p736)Probability: The study of chance processes or the relative frequency characterizing a chance process.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Visual Perception: The selecting and organizing of visual stimuli based on the individual's past experience.Lasers: An optical source that emits photons in a coherent beam. Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation (LASER) is brought about using devices that transform light of varying frequencies into a single intense, nearly nondivergent beam of monochromatic radiation. Lasers operate in the infrared, visible, ultraviolet, or X-ray regions of the spectrum.Wrist: The region of the upper limb between the metacarpus and the FOREARM.Coma: A profound state of unconsciousness associated with depressed cerebral activity from which the individual cannot be aroused. Coma generally occurs when there is dysfunction or injury involving both cerebral hemispheres or the brain stem RETICULAR FORMATION.Postural Balance: A POSTURE in which an ideal body mass distribution is achieved. Postural balance provides the body carriage stability and conditions for normal functions in stationary position or in movement, such as sitting, standing, or walking.Biopsy, Fine-Needle: Using fine needles (finer than 22-gauge) to remove tissue or fluid specimens from the living body for examination in the pathology laboratory and for disease diagnosis.Feedback: A mechanism of communication within a system in that the input signal generates an output response which returns to influence the continued activity or productivity of that system.Subthalamus: A transition zone in the anterior part of the diencephalon interposed between the thalamus, hypothalamus, and tegmentum of the mesencephalon. Components of the subthalamus include the SUBTHALAMIC NUCLEUS, zona incerta, nucleus of field H, and the nucleus of ansa lenticularis. The latter contains the ENTOPEDUNCULAR NUCLEUS.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Early Diagnosis: Methods to determine in patients the nature of a disease or disorder at its early stage of progression. Generally, early diagnosis improves PROGNOSIS and TREATMENT OUTCOME.Neck: The part of a human or animal body connecting the HEAD to the rest of the body.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Frontal Lobe: The part of the cerebral hemisphere anterior to the central sulcus, and anterior and superior to the lateral sulcus.Trigeminal Nerve Diseases: Diseases of the trigeminal nerve or its nuclei, which are located in the pons and medulla. The nerve is composed of three divisions: ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular, which provide sensory innervation to structures of the face, sinuses, and portions of the cranial vault. The mandibular nerve also innervates muscles of mastication. Clinical features include loss of facial and intra-oral sensation and weakness of jaw closure. Common conditions affecting the nerve include brain stem ischemia, INFRATENTORIAL NEOPLASMS, and TRIGEMINAL NEURALGIA.
Robinson, LR; Micklesen, PJ; Tirschwell, DL; Lew, HL (Mar 2003). "Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for ...
"Short latency somatosensory evoked potentials and brain-stem auditory evoked potentials in coma due to CNS depressant drug ... Blood benzodiazepine concentrations, however, do not appear to be related to any toxicological effect or predictive of clinical ... Brain-stem auditory evoked potentials demonstrate delayed interpeak latencies (IPLs) I-III, III-V and I-V. Toxic overdoses of ... In a New Zealand study (2003) of 200 deaths, Zopiclone, a benzodiazepine receptor agonist, had similar overdose potential as ...
Marlowe, N. (1995). "Somatosensory evoked potentials and headache: A further examination of the central theory". Journal of ... Fischer, C.; Luauté, J.; Adeleine, P.; Morlet, D. (2004). "Predictive value of sensory and cognitive evoked potentials for ... The N100 is a slow-developing evoked potential. From one to four years of age, a positive evoked potential, P100, is the ... Older children start to develop a negative evoked potential at 200 ms that dominates evoked potentials until adolescence; this ...
P600 Somatosensory evoked potential Visual N1 Wagner, AD., Koutstaal, W., & Schacter, D.L. (1999). When encoding yields ... Considering that the Dm is a comparison of neural activity during encoding, and that this activity is predictive of subsequent ... In Current trends in event-related potential research, EEG Suppl. 40 (ed. R. Johnson Jr., J.W. Rohrbaugh & R. Parasuraman), pp ... It is mainly discussed as an event-related potential (ERP) effect that appears in studies employing a subsequent memory ...
1999 Effect of stress on somatosensory evoked potentials Usha Panjwani, S. B. Singh, K. Harinath, Deepak K. Yadav and W. ... Decline in the predictive efficiency on deacclimatisation to low altitude H. Bharadwaj, T. Zachariah, S. Kishnani, S. N. ... Effect of Sojourn at Altitude of 3,500 m on auditory evoked potential in man S. Mukhopadhyay, L. Thakur, J. P. Anand and W. ... Effect of Sahaja Yoga Meditation on Auditory Evoked Potentials (AEP) and visual contrast sensitivity (VCS) in Epileptics U. ...
P600 Somatosensory evoked potential Visual N1 Folstein, J. R., & Van Petten, C. (2008). Influence of cognitive control and ... In the uncertain condition, the cue stimulus was not predictive and could be followed by either a click or a light flash. The ... Sutton, S., Braren, M., & Zubin, J. (1965). Evoked-potential correlates of stimulus uncertainty. Science, 150, 1187-1188. ... In the certain condition, a cue stimulus was presented that was predictive of the modality of the target stimulus, which was ...
The same study also found abnormalities in visual evoked potential and median somatosensory evoked potential in some SCA1 ... differential diagnosis of SCA types is to record the progression of symptoms and use Bayesian probability to build a predictive ... Chandran V, Jhunjhunwala K, Purushottam M, Jain S, Pal PK (July 2014). "Multimodal evoked potentials in spinocerebellar ataxia ... Individuals with SCA1 often exhibit abnormal brainstem auditory evoked potential, including prolonged latency and absent or ...
"Heartbeat Evoked Potentials Mirror Altered Body Perception in Depressed Patients." Clinical Neurophysiology, vol. 123, 01 Oct. ... Predictive regulation refers to the brain's ability to anticipate needs and prepare to fulfill them before they arise. ... This suggested that somatosensory information from afferents innervating the skin outside of the heart may provide information ... The regulatory model of allostasis claims that the brain's primary role as an organ is the predictive regulation of internal ...
Two types of gamma activity were found by Snyder & Large: induced gamma activity, and evoked gamma activity. Evoked gamma ... The hair cells in the cochlea release neurotransmitter as a result, causing action potentials down the auditory nerve. The ... often in a predictive way. An example is the phenomenon of tapping to the beat, where the listener anticipates the rhythmic ... and gray matter volume in the primary motor and somatosensory areas, premotor areas, anterior superior parietal areas and in ...
The new technology in the upcoming years offers many exciting potentials for the continued research. An ancient model of the ... predictive of poor mental health. Reductions in rumination have been found following Mindfulness meditation practise. Under- ... secondary somatosensory cortex, and thalamus". Frontiers in Psychology. 5. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2014.01489. ISSN 1664-1078. PMC ... are required or not to inhibit reactivity of the amygdala activation related to the production of evoked emotional responses. ...
Robinson, LR; Micklesen, PJ; Tirschwell, DL; Lew, HL (Mar 2003). "Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for ...
"The Predictive Value of Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring: Review of 244 Procedures, Neurosurgery" on ... The Predictive Value of Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring: Review of 244 Procedures. The Predictive ... T E C H N IQ U E A P P L IC A T IO N S The Predictive Value of Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring: Review ... The Predictive Value of Intraoperative Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring: Review of 244 Procedures. Bejjani, Ghassan K. ...
... developed novel high-density flexible ECoG arrays and conducted decoding analyses with monkey somatosensory evoked potentials ( ... developed novel high-density flexible ECoG arrays and conducted decoding analyses with monkey somatosensory evoked potentials ( ... The arrays were mainly placed onto the finger representation area in the somatosensory cortex of the macaque, and partially ... The arrays were mainly placed onto the finger representation area in the somatosensory cortex of the macaque, and partially ...
Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for awakening from coma. Crit Care Med. 2003;31:960-7. [PubMed ID: 12627012 ... Review: Absence of somatosensory-evoked potentials after onset of coma has a high specificity for predicting nonawakening PDF. ... Diagnostic characteristics of somatosensory-evoked potentials (SEPs) for predicting nonawakening from coma* Patient category. ... The absence of somatosensory-evoked potentials performed early after onset of hypoxic-ischemic coma has a high specificity for ...
... laser evoked potential; MCS = motor cortex stimulation; MEP = motor evoked potential; NPV = negative predictive value; NRS = ... somatosensory evoked potential; %R MCS = percentage of pain relief following MCS; %R rTMS = percentage of pain relief following ... Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of rTMS at the first (upper) and fourth (lower) rTMS sessions for MCS ... Positive (PPV) and negative (NPV) predictive values of rTMS at the first (upper) and fourth (lower) rTMS sessions for MCS ...
... negative predictive value; PPV = positive predictive value; SSEP = somatosensory evoked potential.. ... intraoperative neuromonitoring; motor evoked potentials; somatosensory evoked potentials; intradural extramedullary spinal ... Xu RRitzl EKSait MSciubba DMWolinsky JPWitham TF: A role for motor and somatosensory evoked potentials during anterior cervical ... Wicks RTPradilla GRaza SMHadelsberg UCoon ALHuang J: Impact of changes in intraoperative somatosensory evoked potentials on ...
Robinson, LR; Micklesen, PJ; Tirschwell, DL; Lew, HL (Mar 2003). "Predictive value of somatosensory evoked potentials for ...
Predictive value of intraoperative neurophysiological monitoring during cervical spine surgery: a prospective analysis of 1055 ... Somatosensory evoked potentials: clinical uses. AAEM Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Subcommittee. American Association of ... Clinical Applications of Somatosensory Evoked Potentials Q&A What is the role of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in the ... Chiappa K. Short-latency somatosensory evoked potentials: interpretation. Evoked Potentials in Clinical Medicine. New York: ...
... predictive coding mechanisms. Even though humans are mostly not aware of their heartbeats, several heartbeat-related effects ... late somatosensory processing. First, an effect on early sensory processing was found for the heartbeat-evoked potential (HEP ... First, increased heartbeat-evoked neural activity before stimulation is followed by decreased somatosensory detection. This ... which is accompanied by changes in early and late somatosensory-evoked responses. Second, stimulus timing during the cardiac ...
Accordingly, simultaneous 16-channel continuous electroencephalogram (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring ... Predictive Value of Somatosensory Evoked Potential Monitoring during Resection of Intraparenchymal and Intraventricular Tumors ... A somatosensory evoked potential monitoring algorithm using time frequency filtering. *S. M. Amin Motahari, Krishnatej Vedala, ... Monitoring electrophysiologic function during carotid endarterectomy: a comparison of somatosensory evoked potentials and ...
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials During Temporary Arterial Occlusion for Intracranial Aneurysm Surgery: Predictive Value for ... A Potential New Risk Factor for Stroke: Streptococcus Mutans With Collagen-Binding Protein.. World Neurosurg. 2018;113:e77-e81. ... The AVICH Score: Potential Implications for Stroke Center Designations and Patient-Centered Care.. World Neurosurg. 2017;98:841 ...
Somatosensory evoked potentials during temporary arterial occlusion for intracranial aneurysm surgery: predictive value for ... Monitoring of motor evoked potentials compared with somatosensory evoked potentials and microvascular Doppler ultrasonography ... The monitoring of somatosensory evoked potentials and neurologic complications in aneurysm surgery. Yonsei Med J 2001;42:227-32 ... Diagnostic value of somatosensory evoked potential changes during carotid endarterectomy. JAMA Neurol 2015;72:73-2.doi:10.1001/ ...
Predictive Value of Tests * Somatosensory Evoked Potentials 1 Scopus citations Video: Microsurgical laser resection of ...
Predictive value of neurological examination for early cortical responses to somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with ... Bilateral absence of cortical N20 responses of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP) predicts poor neurological ...
Azzam MA, Randolph AG, Butt W. Positive predictive value of bilateral absence of somatosensory evoked potentials in severe ... Potential for donation after cardiac death in a childrens hospital. Pediatrics. 2007 Jan; 119(1):e219-24. View abstract ... Randolph AG, Kane J. Potential for meeting clinician information requirements in an intensive care unit (ICU) via the web. Proc ...
Somatosensory Evoked Potentials. Somatosensory Evoked Potentials (SSEPs) are often used for prognostication in CA survivors who ... SjvO2 between 24 and 48 h after ROSC had a positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 92% for ... Somatosensory evoked potentials in patients with hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. Semin Neurol. (2017) 37:60-5. doi: 10.1055/s- ... Somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Crit Care Med. ( ...
... patients who underwent intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring with electromyography and somatosensory-evoked potentials ... However, only limited data are available on the sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values of intraoperative ... Somatosensory-evoked potentials had a sensitivity of 28.6% and specificity of 94.7%.Conclusions.Intraoperative ... In contrast, somatosensory-evoked potentials have low sensitivity but high specificity. Combined intraoperative ...
... and somatosensory-evoked potentials. Although traditionally difficult to perform in this typically clinically unstable ... a wealth of predictive prognostic tools exist, ranging from clinical markers, including level of consciousness and motor ... Our findings warrant additional study, particularly in light of the potential utility of MOLH in patients undergoing ... prospective investigation in a cohort of patients with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to determine its predictive ...
... somatosensory, motor) evoked potentials (EPs) measured by electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation ( ... An interoceptive predictive coding model of conscious presence. Front Psychol 2011;2:395.doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2011.00395 ... A new role for evoked potentials in MS? Repurposing evoked potentials as biomarkers for clinical trials in MS. Mult Scler 2017; ... Multimodal evoked potentials for functional quantification and prognosis in multiple sclerosis. BMC Neurol 2016;16:83.doi: ...
... and visual evoked potentials (VEP) along with EEG recordings took place within the first two weeks after admission. Length of ... SEP somatosensory evoked potentials, EEG electroencephalography, MEP motor evoked potentials, VEP visual evoked potentials, BI ... Results from this study defy ready summary, but EEG, median SEP, AEP and flash VEP may be of some predictive value in early ... SEP somatosensory evoked potentials, AEP auditory evoked potentials, EEG electroencephalography, VEP visual evoked potentials, ...
We evaluated a combined clinical and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) approach aimed to identify possible predictive ... Somatosensory evoked potentials. Muscle Nerve. 1998;21:277-90.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar. ... Utility of somatosensory evoked potentials in the assessment of response to IVIG in a long-lasting case of chronic immune ... Segmental somatosensory-evoked potentials as a diagnostic tool in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies and other ...
The prognostic value of median nerve somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) has been proposed previously. The present prospective ... which would be a potential indication of surgical treatment for CSM to help decision making of surgical planning for CSM ... Predictive factors for spondylotic cervical myelopathy treated conservatively or surgically. Eur J Neurol. 2005;12(1):55-63. ... It is much more difficult to extract single-trial SEP than other evoked potentials like evoked electromyography, visual evoked ...
Somatosensory and brainstem auditory evoked potentials in cardiac arrest patients treated with hypothermia. Crit Care Med. 2005 ... Zellner T, Gärtner R, Schopohl J, Angstwurm M. NSE and S-100B are not sufficiently predictive of neurologic outcome after ... Estimating the false positive rate of absent somatosensory evoked potentials in cardiac arrest prognostication. Crit Care Med. ... somatosensory-evoked potentials, head computed tomography, and both pupillary and corneal reflexes.PubMedCrossRefPubMedCentral ...
... negative predictive value) for somatosensory evoked potentials. This study confirms that evoked potentials are accurate tools ... In the present study, the prognostic value of multimodal evoked potentials including visual evoked potentials (VEPs), auditory ... and somatosensory evoked potentials, recorded within the first week after birth, was determined in relation to adverse ... A preliminary study of multimodal evoked potentials in relation to outcome in term infants with post-asphyxial hypoxic-ischemic ...
... absent N20 waves bilaterally on somatosensory evoked potentials, electrocerebral silence or burst suppression patterns on ... Combining these modalities improves the overall predictive value.Conclusions:All testing provides the best prognostic ... evoked potentials, neuroimaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. The results of these searches were scanned by the authors to ... such as electroencephalogram and evoked potentials; and neuroimaging.Data Source:A literature search of MEDLINE was performed ...
La Joie WJ, Reddy NM, Melvin JL: Somatosensory evoked potentials: their predictive value in right hemiplegia. Arch Phys Med ... Pavot AP, Ignacio DR, Kuntavanish A, Lightfoote WE 2nd: The prognostic value of somatosensory evoked potentials in ... We considered the potential influence of sex given that age-related changes are often thought to be more prominent in the male ... Scott SH, Dukelow SP: Potential of robots as next-generation technology for clinical assessment of neurological disorders and ...
  • A literature search of MEDLINE was performed using the search terms HIE and prognosis cross-referenced in series with specific domains used to provide prognostic information, including physical examination, electroencephalogram, evoked potentials, neuroimaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. (ovid.com)
  • Isolated sensory symptoms, long interval between relapses, and a normal initial MRI are predictive of a good prognosis [5, (ama-assn.org)
  • Predictive biomarkers to aid DBS prognosis for children are lacking, especially in acquired dystonias, such as dystonic Cerebral Palsy. (cdc.gov)
  • Most of the research on prognosis for comatose patients after cardiac arrest was done before hypothermia was adopted, so there's some concern that previously established prognostic criteria are no longer valid (or at least not as powerfully predictive). (pallimed.org)
  • Akatsuka K, Wasaka T, Nakata H, Kida T, Kakigi R (2007) The effect of stimulus probability on the somatosensory mismatch field. (springermedizin.de)
  • Similarly, a prominent electroencephalographic (EEG) signal known as "mismatch negativity" (MMN), typically peaking ∼100-250 ms after stimulus onset, is evoked by deviant tones in the human and animal brain. (jneurosci.org)
  • We found that the model was able to predict the performance of the animals, supporting the notion that perceived intensity can be largely accounted for by spatiotemporal integration of the action potentials evoked by the stimulus train. (nih.gov)
  • Medial occipital lobe hyperperfusion is a distinctive pattern that merits prospective investigation in a cohort of patients with moderate hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy to determine its predictive ability in patients with a higher likelihood of survival. (ajnr.org)
  • Visual evoked potentials (VEPs) are a powerful tool to evaluate nervous conduction along the visual pathways, both in humans and in animal models. (readbyqxmd.com)
  • Historically, the classic signs for monitoring the depth of anesthesia, such as haemodynamics, patient's movements, sweating and pupil size are gradually losing weight and yielding to EEGbased techniques, the most popular in practice being the BIS-monitor, the evoked potentials and the EEG- entropy. (alliedacademies.org)
  • In spite of these changes in the peripheral and central aspects of somatosensory processing, there remains disagreement whether position sense in the upper limb actually declines with age (for a review see Goble et al. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are a group of heterogeneous clonal bone marrow disorders characterized by ineffective hematopoiesis, peripheral blood cytopenias, and potential for malignant transformation. (biomedsearch.com)
  • New serum biomarkers such as Neurofilament light chain have shown good predictive abilities and need further validation in these populations. (springer.com)
  • Associations between evoked pain, neck pain, and NPS activation, were not significant and less clear, possibly due to inadequate power, methodological limitations, or other confounding factors.The findings provide preliminary evidence that SM may alter the processing of pain-related brain activity within specific pain-related brain regions and support the use of brain-based models as clinical biomarkers of pain. (stanford.edu)
  • In line with the latter, results recorded in humans (both sexes) show a network-specific oscillatory profile linking the auditory DFI to occipital alpha oscillations, replicating previous findings, and tactile DFI to occipital beta oscillations, a rhythm typical of somatosensory processes. (jneurosci.org)
  • These methods have produced data that are not only some of the first reported evoked oscillations analyses in infants, but are also, importantly, the product of a well-established method of recording and analyzing clean, meticulously collected, infant EEG and ERPs. (jove.com)