Amino Acids: Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Amino Acid Substitution: The naturally occurring or experimentally induced replacement of one or more AMINO ACIDS in a protein with another. If a functionally equivalent amino acid is substituted, the protein may retain wild-type activity. Substitution may also diminish, enhance, or eliminate protein function. Experimentally induced substitution is often used to study enzyme activities and binding site properties.Cloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Amino Acids, Essential: Amino acids that are not synthesized by the human body in amounts sufficient to carry out physiological functions. They are obtained from dietary foodstuffs.Amino Acid Transport Systems: Cellular proteins and protein complexes that transport amino acids across biological membranes.Sequence Alignment: The arrangement of two or more amino acid or base sequences from an organism or organisms in such a way as to align areas of the sequences sharing common properties. The degree of relatedness or homology between the sequences is predicted computationally or statistically based on weights assigned to the elements aligned between the sequences. This in turn can serve as a potential indicator of the genetic relatedness between the organisms.Amino Acid Motifs: Commonly observed structural components of proteins formed by simple combinations of adjacent secondary structures. A commonly observed structure may be composed of a CONSERVED SEQUENCE which can be represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Mutagenesis, Site-Directed: Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Amino Acids, Aromatic: Amino acids containing an aromatic side chain.Sequence Homology, Nucleic Acid: The sequential correspondence of nucleotides in one nucleic acid molecule with those of another nucleic acid molecule. Sequence homology is an indication of the genetic relatedness of different organisms and gene function.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Amino Acids, Branched-Chain: Amino acids which have a branched carbon chain.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Amino Acids, SulfurKinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Leucine: An essential branched-chain amino acid important for hemoglobin formation.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Bacterial Proteins: Proteins found in any species of bacterium.Restriction Mapping: Use of restriction endonucleases to analyze and generate a physical map of genomes, genes, or other segments of DNA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Phylogeny: The relationships of groups of organisms as reflected by their genetic makeup.Alanine: A non-essential amino acid that occurs in high levels in its free state in plasma. It is produced from pyruvate by transamination. It is involved in sugar and acid metabolism, increases IMMUNITY, and provides energy for muscle tissue, BRAIN, and the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Sequence Analysis, DNA: A multistage process that includes cloning, physical mapping, subcloning, determination of the DNA SEQUENCE, and information analysis.Genes, Bacterial: The functional hereditary units of BACTERIA.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Amino Acid Transport Systems, Basic: Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting basic amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, BASIC).Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Conserved Sequence: A sequence of amino acids in a polypeptide or of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that is similar across multiple species. A known set of conserved sequences is represented by a CONSENSUS SEQUENCE. AMINO ACID MOTIFS are often composed of conserved sequences.Isoleucine: An essential branched-chain aliphatic amino acid found in many proteins. It is an isomer of LEUCINE. It is important in hemoglobin synthesis and regulation of blood sugar and energy levels.Amino Acids, Basic: Amino acids with side chains that are positively charged at physiological pH.Lysine: An essential amino acid. It is often added to animal feed.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Codon: A set of three nucleotides in a protein coding sequence that specifies individual amino acids or a termination signal (CODON, TERMINATOR). Most codons are universal, but some organisms do not produce the transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER) complementary to all codons. These codons are referred to as unassigned codons (CODONS, NONSENSE).Cyanogen Bromide: Cyanogen bromide (CNBr). A compound used in molecular biology to digest some proteins and as a coupling reagent for phosphoroamidate or pyrophosphate internucleotide bonds in DNA duplexes.Trypsin: A serine endopeptidase that is formed from TRYPSINOGEN in the pancreas. It is converted into its active form by ENTEROPEPTIDASE in the small intestine. It catalyzes hydrolysis of the carboxyl group of either arginine or lysine. EC 3.4.21.4.Glycine: A non-essential amino acid. It is found primarily in gelatin and silk fibroin and used therapeutically as a nutrient. It is also a fast inhibitory neurotransmitter.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acids, DiaminoGlutamine: A non-essential amino acid present abundantly throughout the body and is involved in many metabolic processes. It is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID and AMMONIA. It is the principal carrier of NITROGEN in the body and is an important energy source for many cells.Open Reading Frames: A sequence of successive nucleotide triplets that are read as CODONS specifying AMINO ACIDS and begin with an INITIATOR CODON and end with a stop codon (CODON, TERMINATOR).Genes: A category of nucleic acid sequences that function as units of heredity and which code for the basic instructions for the development, reproduction, and maintenance of organisms.Valine: A branched-chain essential amino acid that has stimulant activity. It promotes muscle growth and tissue repair. It is a precursor in the penicillin biosynthetic pathway.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Excitatory Amino Acids: Endogenous amino acids released by neurons as excitatory neurotransmitters. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain. Aspartic acid has been regarded as an excitatory transmitter for many years, but the extent of its role as a transmitter is unclear.Methionine: A sulfur-containing essential L-amino acid that is important in many body functions.Arginine: An essential amino acid that is physiologically active in the L-form.Aspartic Acid: One of the non-essential amino acids commonly occurring in the L-form. It is found in animals and plants, especially in sugar cane and sugar beets. It may be a neurotransmitter.Gene Library: A large collection of DNA fragments cloned (CLONING, MOLECULAR) from a given organism, tissue, organ, or cell type. It may contain complete genomic sequences (GENOMIC LIBRARY) or complementary DNA sequences, the latter being formed from messenger RNA and lacking intron sequences.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.Sequence Deletion: Deletion of sequences of nucleic acids from the genetic material of an individual.Sequence Analysis: A multistage process that includes the determination of a sequence (protein, carbohydrate, etc.), its fragmentation and analysis, and the interpretation of the resulting sequence information.Polymerase Chain Reaction: In vitro method for producing large amounts of specific DNA or RNA fragments of defined length and sequence from small amounts of short oligonucleotide flanking sequences (primers). The essential steps include thermal denaturation of the double-stranded target molecules, annealing of the primers to their complementary sequences, and extension of the annealed primers by enzymatic synthesis with DNA polymerase. The reaction is efficient, specific, and extremely sensitive. Uses for the reaction include disease diagnosis, detection of difficult-to-isolate pathogens, mutation analysis, genetic testing, DNA sequencing, and analyzing evolutionary relationships.Nitrogen: An element with the atomic symbol N, atomic number 7, and atomic weight [14.00643; 14.00728]. Nitrogen exists as a diatomic gas and makes up about 78% of the earth's atmosphere by volume. It is a constituent of proteins and nucleic acids and found in all living cells.Proline: A non-essential amino acid that is synthesized from GLUTAMIC ACID. It is an essential component of COLLAGEN and is important for proper functioning of joints and tendons.Phenylalanine: An essential aromatic amino acid that is a precursor of MELANIN; DOPAMINE; noradrenalin (NOREPINEPHRINE), and THYROXINE.Point Mutation: A mutation caused by the substitution of one nucleotide for another. This results in the DNA molecule having a change in a single base pair.Mutagenesis: Process of generating a genetic MUTATION. It may occur spontaneously or be induced by MUTAGENS.Amino Acid Transport System A: A sodium-dependent neutral amino acid transporter that accounts for most of the sodium-dependent neutral amino acid uptake by mammalian cells. The preferred substrates for this transporter system include ALANINE; SERINE; and GLUTAMINE.Amino Acids, Neutral: Amino acids with uncharged R groups or side chains.Cysteine: A thiol-containing non-essential amino acid that is oxidized to form CYSTINE.Tryptophan: An essential amino acid that is necessary for normal growth in infants and for NITROGEN balance in adults. It is a precursor of INDOLE ALKALOIDS in plants. It is a precursor of SEROTONIN (hence its use as an antidepressant and sleep aid). It can be a precursor to NIACIN, albeit inefficiently, in mammals.Transfection: The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.DNA, Bacterial: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of bacteria.Blotting, Northern: Detection of RNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Macromolecular Substances: Compounds and molecular complexes that consist of very large numbers of atoms and are generally over 500 kDa in size. In biological systems macromolecular substances usually can be visualized using ELECTRON MICROSCOPY and are distinguished from ORGANELLES by the lack of a membrane structure.Evolution, Molecular: The process of cumulative change at the level of DNA; RNA; and PROTEINS, over successive generations.Sequence Analysis, Protein: A process that includes the determination of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE of a protein (or peptide, oligopeptide or peptide fragment) and the information analysis of the sequence.Viral Proteins: Proteins found in any species of virus.Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Plant Proteins: Proteins found in plants (flowers, herbs, shrubs, trees, etc.). The concept does not include proteins found in vegetables for which VEGETABLE PROTEINS is available.Threonine: An essential amino acid occurring naturally in the L-form, which is the active form. It is found in eggs, milk, gelatin, and other proteins.Receptors, Amino Acid: Cell surface proteins that bind amino acids and trigger changes which influence the behavior of cells. Glutamate receptors are the most common receptors for fast excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate central nervous system, and GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID and glycine receptors are the most common receptors for fast inhibition.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Dietary Proteins: Proteins obtained from foods. They are the main source of the ESSENTIAL AMINO ACIDS.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).Protein PrecursorsCOS Cells: CELL LINES derived from the CV-1 cell line by transformation with a replication origin defective mutant of SV40 VIRUS, which codes for wild type large T antigen (ANTIGENS, POLYOMAVIRUS TRANSFORMING). They are used for transfection and cloning. (The CV-1 cell line was derived from the kidney of an adult male African green monkey (CERCOPITHECUS AETHIOPS).)Chymotrypsin: A serine endopeptidase secreted by the pancreas as its zymogen, CHYMOTRYPSINOGEN and carried in the pancreatic juice to the duodenum where it is activated by TRYPSIN. It selectively cleaves aromatic amino acids on the carboxyl side.Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Amino Acids, Cyclic: A class of amino acids characterized by a closed ring structure.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Serine: A non-essential amino acid occurring in natural form as the L-isomer. It is synthesized from GLYCINE or THREONINE. It is involved in the biosynthesis of PURINES; PYRIMIDINES; and other amino acids.Repetitive Sequences, Amino Acid: A sequential pattern of amino acids occurring more than once in the same protein sequence.DNA-Binding Proteins: Proteins which bind to DNA. The family includes proteins which bind to both double- and single-stranded DNA and also includes specific DNA binding proteins in serum which can be used as markers for malignant diseases.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Aminoisobutyric Acids: A group of compounds that are derivatives of the amino acid 2-amino-2-methylpropanoic acid.Chickens: Common name for the species Gallus gallus, the domestic fowl, in the family Phasianidae, order GALLIFORMES. It is descended from the red jungle fowl of SOUTHEAST ASIA.Genetic Complementation Test: A test used to determine whether or not complementation (compensation in the form of dominance) will occur in a cell with a given mutant phenotype when another mutant genome, encoding the same mutant phenotype, is introduced into that cell.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Multigene Family: A set of genes descended by duplication and variation from some ancestral gene. Such genes may be clustered together on the same chromosome or dispersed on different chromosomes. Examples of multigene families include those that encode the hemoglobins, immunoglobulins, histocompatibility antigens, actins, tubulins, keratins, collagens, heat shock proteins, salivary glue proteins, chorion proteins, cuticle proteins, yolk proteins, and phaseolins, as well as histones, ribosomal RNA, and transfer RNA genes. The latter three are examples of reiterated genes, where hundreds of identical genes are present in a tandem array. (King & Stanfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Catalysis: The facilitation of a chemical reaction by material (catalyst) that is not consumed by the reaction.Peptide Mapping: Analysis of PEPTIDES that are generated from the digestion or fragmentation of a protein or mixture of PROTEINS, by ELECTROPHORESIS; CHROMATOGRAPHY; or MASS SPECTROMETRY. The resulting peptide fingerprints are analyzed for a variety of purposes including the identification of the proteins in a sample, GENETIC POLYMORPHISMS, patterns of gene expression, and patterns diagnostic for diseases.Amino Acyl-tRNA Synthetases: A subclass of enzymes that aminoacylate AMINO ACID-SPECIFIC TRANSFER RNA with their corresponding AMINO ACIDS.Fungal Proteins: Proteins found in any species of fungus.DNA Mutational Analysis: Biochemical identification of mutational changes in a nucleotide sequence.Glutamic Acid: A non-essential amino acid naturally occurring in the L-form. Glutamic acid is the most common excitatory neurotransmitter in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM.Blotting, Southern: A method (first developed by E.M. Southern) for detection of DNA that has been electrophoretically separated and immobilized by blotting on nitrocellulose or other type of paper or nylon membrane followed by hybridization with labeled NUCLEIC ACID PROBES.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Escherichia coli Proteins: Proteins obtained from ESCHERICHIA COLI.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Chromosome Mapping: Any method used for determining the location of and relative distances between genes on a chromosome.Circular Dichroism: A change from planar to elliptic polarization when an initially plane-polarized light wave traverses an optically active medium. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Large Neutral Amino Acid-Transporter 1: A CD98 antigen light chain that when heterodimerized with CD98 antigen heavy chain (ANTIGENS, CD98 HEAVY CHAIN) forms a protein that mediates sodium-independent L-type amino acid transport.Enzyme Stability: The extent to which an enzyme retains its structural conformation or its activity when subjected to storage, isolation, and purification or various other physical or chemical manipulations, including proteolytic enzymes and heat.Genetic Variation: Genotypic differences observed among individuals in a population.Oligopeptides: Peptides composed of between two and twelve amino acids.Genes, Fungal: The functional hereditary units of FUNGI.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tyrosine: A non-essential amino acid. In animals it is synthesized from PHENYLALANINE. It is also the precursor of EPINEPHRINE; THYROID HORMONES; and melanin.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Oligonucleotide Probes: Synthetic or natural oligonucleotides used in hybridization studies in order to identify and study specific nucleic acid fragments, e.g., DNA segments near or within a specific gene locus or gene. The probe hybridizes with a specific mRNA, if present. Conventional techniques used for testing for the hybridization product include dot blot assays, Southern blot assays, and DNA:RNA hybrid-specific antibody tests. Conventional labels for the probe include the radioisotope labels 32P and 125I and the chemical label biotin.Cystine: A covalently linked dimeric nonessential amino acid formed by the oxidation of CYSTEINE. Two molecules of cysteine are joined together by a disulfide bridge to form cystine.Amino Acids, Acidic: Amino acids with side chains that are negatively charged at physiological pH.Serine Endopeptidases: Any member of the group of ENDOPEPTIDASES containing at the active site a serine residue involved in catalysis.Exons: The parts of a transcript of a split GENE remaining after the INTRONS are removed. They are spliced together to become a MESSENGER RNA or other functional RNA.Oligodeoxyribonucleotides: A group of deoxyribonucleotides (up to 12) in which the phosphate residues of each deoxyribonucleotide act as bridges in forming diester linkages between the deoxyribose moieties.Sequence Homology: The degree of similarity between sequences. Studies of AMINO ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY and NUCLEIC ACID SEQUENCE HOMOLOGY provide useful information about the genetic relatedness of genes, gene products, and species.Genetic Code: The meaning ascribed to the BASE SEQUENCE with respect to how it is translated into AMINO ACID SEQUENCE. The start, stop, and order of amino acids of a protein is specified by consecutive triplets of nucleotides called codons (CODON).Asparagine: A non-essential amino acid that is involved in the metabolic control of cell functions in nerve and brain tissue. It is biosynthesized from ASPARTIC ACID and AMMONIA by asparagine synthetase. (From Concise Encyclopedia Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 3rd ed)Carbohydrates: The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Culture Media: Any liquid or solid preparation made specifically for the growth, storage, or transport of microorganisms or other types of cells. The variety of media that exist allow for the culturing of specific microorganisms and cell types, such as differential media, selective media, test media, and defined media. Solid media consist of liquid media that have been solidified with an agent such as AGAR or GELATIN.Caseins: A mixture of related phosphoproteins occurring in milk and cheese. The group is characterized as one of the most nutritive milk proteins, containing all of the common amino acids and rich in the essential ones.Stereoisomerism: The phenomenon whereby compounds whose molecules have the same number and kind of atoms and the same atomic arrangement, but differ in their spatial relationships. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Mutation, Missense: A mutation in which a codon is mutated to one directing the incorporation of a different amino acid. This substitution may result in an inactive or unstable product. (From A Dictionary of Genetics, King & Stansfield, 5th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Protein Folding: Processes involved in the formation of TERTIARY PROTEIN STRUCTURE.Isoenzymes: Structurally related forms of an enzyme. Each isoenzyme has the same mechanism and classification, but differs in its chemical, physical, or immunological characteristics.Genes, Viral: The functional hereditary units of VIRUSES.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Saccharomyces cerevisiae Proteins: Proteins obtained from the species SACCHAROMYCES CEREVISIAE. The function of specific proteins from this organism are the subject of intense scientific interest and have been used to derive basic understanding of the functioning similar proteins in higher eukaryotes.Consensus Sequence: A theoretical representative nucleotide or amino acid sequence in which each nucleotide or amino acid is the one which occurs most frequently at that site in the different sequences which occur in nature. The phrase also refers to an actual sequence which approximates the theoretical consensus. A known CONSERVED SEQUENCE set is represented by a consensus sequence. Commonly observed supersecondary protein structures (AMINO ACID MOTIFS) are often formed by conserved sequences.Plants: Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.Crystallography, X-Ray: The study of crystal structure using X-RAY DIFFRACTION techniques. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glycosylation: The chemical or biochemical addition of carbohydrate or glycosyl groups to other chemicals, especially peptides or proteins. Glycosyl transferases are used in this biochemical reaction.HeLa Cells: The first continuously cultured human malignant CELL LINE, derived from the cervical carcinoma of Henrietta Lacks. These cells are used for VIRUS CULTIVATION and antitumor drug screening assays.Phosphorylation: The introduction of a phosphoryl group into a compound through the formation of an ester bond between the compound and a phosphorus moiety.RNA: A polynucleotide consisting essentially of chains with a repeating backbone of phosphate and ribose units to which nitrogenous bases are attached. RNA is unique among biological macromolecules in that it can encode genetic information, serve as an abundant structural component of cells, and also possesses catalytic activity. (Rieger et al., Glossary of Genetics: Classical and Molecular, 5th ed)Histidine: An essential amino acid that is required for the production of HISTAMINE.Catalytic Domain: The region of an enzyme that interacts with its substrate to cause the enzymatic reaction.DNA Restriction Enzymes: Enzymes that are part of the restriction-modification systems. They catalyze the endonucleolytic cleavage of DNA sequences which lack the species-specific methylation pattern in the host cell's DNA. Cleavage yields random or specific double-stranded fragments with terminal 5'-phosphates. The function of restriction enzymes is to destroy any foreign DNA that invades the host cell. Most have been studied in bacterial systems, but a few have been found in eukaryotic organisms. They are also used as tools for the systematic dissection and mapping of chromosomes, in the determination of base sequences of DNAs, and have made it possible to splice and recombine genes from one organism into the genome of another. EC 3.21.1.Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial: Any of the processes by which cytoplasmic or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action in bacteria.Transaminases: A subclass of enzymes of the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of an amino group from a donor (generally an amino acid) to an acceptor (generally a 2-keto acid). Most of these enzymes are pyridoxyl phosphate proteins. (Dorland, 28th ed) EC 2.6.1.Cationic Amino Acid Transporter 1: A high-affinity, low capacity system y+ amino acid transporter found ubiquitously. It has specificity for the transport of ARGININE; LYSINE; and ORNITHINE. It may also act as an ecotropic leukemia retroviral receptor.Amino Acid Isomerases: Enzymes that catalyze either the racemization or epimerization of chiral centers within amino acids or derivatives. EC 5.1.1.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Antibodies, Monoclonal: Antibodies produced by a single clone of cells.Dimerization: The process by which two molecules of the same chemical composition form a condensation product or polymer.Protein Engineering: Procedures by which protein structure and function are changed or created in vitro by altering existing or synthesizing new structural genes that direct the synthesis of proteins with sought-after properties. Such procedures may include the design of MOLECULAR MODELS of proteins using COMPUTER GRAPHICS or other molecular modeling techniques; site-specific mutagenesis (MUTAGENESIS, SITE-SPECIFIC) of existing genes; and DIRECTED MOLECULAR EVOLUTION techniques to create new genes.Nucleic Acid Hybridization: Widely used technique which exploits the ability of complementary sequences in single-stranded DNAs or RNAs to pair with each other to form a double helix. Hybridization can take place between two complimentary DNA sequences, between a single-stranded DNA and a complementary RNA, or between two RNA sequences. The technique is used to detect and isolate specific sequences, measure homology, or define other characteristics of one or both strands. (Kendrew, Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology, 1994, p503)Membrane Transport Proteins: Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of molecules across a biological membrane. Included in this broad category are proteins involved in active transport (BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT, ACTIVE), facilitated transport and ION CHANNELS.Dipeptides: Peptides composed of two amino acid units.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Carboxypeptidases: Enzymes that act at a free C-terminus of a polypeptide to liberate a single amino acid residue.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Biological Evolution: The process of cumulative change over successive generations through which organisms acquire their distinguishing morphological and physiological characteristics.
"Predicting deleterious amino acid substitutions". Genome Res. 11 (5): 863-74. doi:10.1101/gr.176601. PMC 311071. PMID 11337480. ... color is often used to indicate amino acid properties to aid in judging the conservation of a given amino acid substitution. ... Although DNA and RNA nucleotide bases are more similar to each other than are amino acids, the conservation of base pairs can ... In typical usage, protein alignments use a substitution matrix to assign scores to amino-acid matches or mismatches, and a gap ...
The predicted isoelectric point is 9.37. The domain of unknown function, DUF2048, is found from amino acid residues 25 to 414 ... ABHD18 codes a 414 amino acid sequence of 46.9 kDa in humans. ... The protein product of ABHD18 in humans is predicted to be a ... Predicted post-translational modifications include glycosylation at residues Ser287 and Ser319 and sumoylation at the motifs ... Swine muscle transcriptome analysis indicates high expression of ABHD18 in swine with extreme low levels of fatty acid ...
Emanuelsson O (Dec 2002). "Predicting protein subcellular localisation from amino acid sequence information". Briefings in ... such as a protein sequence of amino acids, and produce a predicted location within the cell as output, such as the nucleus, ... Experimental validation is typically required to confirm the predicted localizations. Tools[edit]. Main article: List of ... In 1999 PSORT was the first published program to predict subcellular localization.[3] Subsequent tools and websites have been ...
The translated PROSER1 protein is 944 amino acids long. Its predicted molecular weight is 95.7 kdal. PROSER1 has an isoelectric ... The sequence is rich in proline and serine and not particularly low in any other amino acids. PROSER1 contains one domain of ... The DUF spans from amino acids 26 to 121.[2] The molecular weight of DUF 4476 is 11.1 kdal. PROSER1 is composed primarily of ... point of 9. It is predicted to be localized to the nucleus. ...
The 836 amino acid protein has a predicted molecular weight of 94.2 kdal. It does not contain a signal peptide or a ... predicted 63 phosphorylation sites in ZC3H12B, which are marked on the conceptual translation. YinOYang1.2. predicted three 0- ... Several miRNA interactions were predicted. The predicted miRNA targets have yet to be matched to the ZC3H12B sequence and it is ... There is only one predicted transcript by Aceview. No folding patterns have been predicted (Mfold). There are for introns ...
Proteins that belong to this family are often between 94 and 123 amino acids in length. This domain is found in bacteria, ... C11orf86 is predicted to have nine possible phosphorylation sites, of which eight are serine, and one is threonine. It is also ... C11orf86 protein is 115 amino acids in length. The molecular weight of C11orf86 is 13.2 kdal. Its isoelectric point is ... This protein is predicted to be a nuclear protein. There appears to be a bipartite nuclear localization sequence beginning at ...
... is a protein of unknown function consisting of 391 amino acid residues that are translated from an mRNA consisting of ... FAM46C has a predicted isoelectric point of 5.338. The protein contains one domain of unknown function, DUF1693 (Pfam: PF07984 ... This ortholog provides evidence that FAM46C is a member of a group of proteins containing highly conserved amino acid residues ... FAM46C encodes a 391 amino acid protein with no known isoforms. "Homo sapiens" FAM46C has not been crystallized and its ...
The predicted BAG2 protein contains 211 amino acids. The BAG domains of BAG1, BAG2, and BAG3 interact specifically with the ... All the BAG proteins have an approximately 45-amino acid BAG domain near the C terminus but differ markedly in their N-terminal ... 2006). "The LIFEdb database in 2006". Nucleic Acids Res. 34 (Database issue): D415-8. doi:10.1093/nar/gkj139. PMC 1347501 . ...
In turn, the mature CCL2 is 76 amino acids long. The CCL2 predicted weight is 11.025 kiloDaltons (kDa). The gene homologous to ... The CCL2 protein precursor contains a signal peptide of 23 amino acids. ...
There is one predicted sulfinated tyrosine at amino acid 725. No predicted Signal Peptide or signal peptide cleavage. ... The glutamine-rich protein 1 is 776 amino acids in length. Glutamine residues are abundant, comprising 109 of the amino acids ... This protein is predicted to localize to the nucleus and is known to interact with the ATXN1 and ATF7IP proteins shown in the ... "Predicted Functional Partners". Retrieved 1 May 2017. "SAPS: Biology Workbench". Retrieved 19 April 2011. Brendel V, Bucher P, ...
"Predicting Deleterious Amino Acid Substitutions". Genome Research. 11 (5): 863-874. doi:10.1101/gr.176601. PMC 311071. PMID ... The sequence of nucleobases on a nucleic acid strand is translated by cell machinery into a sequence of amino acids making up a ... A depiction of the genetic code, by which the information contained in nucleic acids are translated into amino acid sequences ... Each group of three bases, called a codon, corresponds to a single amino acid, and there is a specific genetic code by which ...
The protein it encodes for is 344 amino acids in length. The protein itself is very acidic and is very rich in aspartic acid ... CCDC82 has several predicted phosphorylation sites. There are 32 predicted serine phosphorylation sites, 5 threonine, and 3 ... The alanines are located adjacent to each other, amino acid number 233 and 234. Alanine 233 is highly conserved throughout the ... The predicted promoter for CCDC82 is located on the minus strand and spans from base pairs 96,122,963 to 96,123,587. It is 625 ...
... as well as three predicted structures (X1, X2, and X3). These isoforms range from 813 to 645 amino acids in length. Isoform 1 ... is 799 amino acids in length. The presence of nuclear localization signals within the amino acid sequence or primary structure ... The predicted molecular weight is 87.9 kDal. The predicted isoelectric point is pH 5.07. The internal composition is enriched ... BEND2 is predicted to be a DNA-binding protein due to the presence of BEN domains at its C-terminus, a hypothesis supported by ...
Other highly conserved amino acids include Asn87, Lys88, Arg216, and Phe229. "Predicted: protein FAM203B [Homo sapiens]". NCBI ... The FAM203B protein has 390 amino acids, a molecular weight of 42.1 kdal, and an isoelectric point of 4.56. FAM203B contains ... Related to the HEAT domain, consists of a 40-amino-acid tandemly repeated sequence motif, and is thought to mediate protein- ... FAM203A is 99% identical to FAM203B with only one amino acid difference (E264Q) due to a point mutation (G857C). This indicates ...
... beyond the twenty canonical amino acids found in nature, to include an unnatural amino acid as well. The unnatural amino acid ... Panwar B, Raghava GP (May 2012). "Predicting sub-cellular localization of tRNA synthetases from their primary structures". ... the tRNA with the amino acid. Once the tRNA is charged, a ribosome can transfer the amino acid from the tRNA onto a growing ... and redox-active amino acids.[14] Another use is introducing amino acids bearing reactive functional groups for chemically ...
Abedinia M, Layfield R, Jones SM, Nixon PF, Mattick JS (1992). "Nucleotide and predicted amino acid sequence of a cDNA clone ...
One propeptide cleavage site was predicted at amino acid 38. There were three predicted sumoylation sites found at amino acids ... There were seven GlcNAc O-glycosylation sites predicted within the protein sequence found at amino acids 116, 120, 139, 165, ... There was also a mixed charge cluster found in the Homo sapiens' sequence of this protein, located from amino acid 750-778, ... There was one repeat sequence found as well, TASKPPA, located at amino acids 163-169 and 116-1172. This protein is Proline and ...
The DUF position on the human protein is from amino acid 53 to 341. Bioinformatic tools at ExPASy predicted a second ... LOC84267 is 341 amino acids long with a molecular weight of 39,029 Daltons and an isoelectric point of 5.61. It is a member of ...
Teng S, Luo H, Wang L (July 2012). "Predicting protein SUMOylation sites from sequence features". Amino Acids. 43 (1): 447-55. ... direct amino acid match to the SUMO-CS observed and shown to bind Ubc9, and 2) substitution of the consensus amino acid ... residues with amino acid residues exhibiting similar hydrophobicity. SUMOplot has been used in the past to predict Ubc9 ... It shows SUMO1 as a globular protein with both ends of the amino acid chain (shown in red and blue) sticking out of the ...
... is 612 amino acids long. CCDC116 is 67.9 kdal. This protein has an isoelectric point of 9.24. This protein is a part of ... It is predicted that CCDC116 is located in the nucleus. It is predicted that the membrane typology of this protein is a type 3a ... CCDC116 has two predicted function partners. NGFRAP is a nerve growth factor receptor associated protein. This gene is believed ... Since this protein is serine rich, it is predicted to have 15 phosphorylation sites. CCDC116 is primarily found in the testis, ...
The amino acid sequence encoded by the gene is then predicted. Despite the rules that govern the genetic code and the various ... For every 1000 amino acid incorporated into the protein, no more than one is incorrect. This fidelity of codon recognition, ... A protein′s amino acid backbone sequence is defined by contiguous triplets. Codons are key to translation of genetic ... As each codon (triplet) is read, amino acids are being joined together until a stop codon (UAG, UGA or UAA) is reached. At this ...
... of amino acids are leucines) Predicted to be localized to the nucleus The secondary structure of TMEM53 is predicted to consist ... It contains a domain of unknown function, DUF829, which is approximately 240 amino acids long. This domain has not been found ... Based on ClustalW multiple sequence alignments of 38 orthologs, including the ones above, 11 amino acids are completely ... it includes only the ones that use highly conserved amino acids. CK2 phosphorylation sites 140-143, 217-220 Tyrosine ...
The protein contains a putative 30- amino-acid signal peptide; removal of the signal sequence gives a predicted molecular ...
The longest protein encoded for is isoform 1, which spans 349 amino acids, and is predicted to have a molecular weight at 38 ... amino acids 22-29). Phosphorylation and glycosylation sites have also been predicted in TMEM255A. Affinity Capture MS ... The protein is predicted to have four transmembrane domains in the nuclear membrane. The structure of the protein is predicted ... Blom, N. (Summer 2002). "Prediction of post-translational glycosylation and phosphorylation of proteins from the amino acid ...
The UBA2 cDNA fragment 2683 bp long and encodes a peptide of 640 amino acids. The predicted protein sequence is more analogous ... The predicted protein has 766 amino acid residues and weighs 84 kDa. The protein has an overall identity of 47% to hUBA2 and 31 ...
... amino acid sequence predicted tertiary structure, carbohydrate recognition and analysis of the b-prims fold". Protein Science. ...
... tools primarily focus on studying the deleterious effects of single amino acid substitutions through examining amino acid ... versatile alignment-based score as a new metric to predict the damaging effects of variations not limited to single amino acid ... a generalized approach to predict the functional effects of protein sequence variations including single or multiple amino acid ... and multiple amino acid substitutions. This alignment-based score measures the change in sequence similarity of a query ...
... J Mol Biol. 2000 Jul 21;300(4): ... TargetP also predicts cleavage sites with levels of correctly predicted sites ranging from approximately 40% to 50% ( ...
... tools primarily focus on studying the deleterious effects of single amino acid substitutions through examining amino acid ... versatile alignment-based score as a new metric to predict the damaging effects of variations not limited to single amino acid ... a generalized approach to predict the functional effects of protein sequence variations including single or multiple amino acid ... and multiple amino acid substitutions. This alignment-based score measures the change in sequence similarity of a query ...
Predicted Structure and Amino Acid Sequence of the Mutant Form of Human CCR5 Downloads ... Predicted structure and amino acid sequence of the mutant form of human CCR5. Modified and reprinted with permission from ... Suggested citation: Predicted Structure and Amino Acid Sequence of the Mutant Form of Human CCR5.[about the cover]. Emerg ... Predicted Structure and Amino Acid Sequence of the Mutant Form of Human CCR5 ...
Protein-protein interactions (PPI) play a key role in investigation of various biochemical processes and their identification is thus of great importance.
Protein-DNA interactions are vitally important in a wide range of biological processes such as gene regulation and DNA replication and repair. We predict D
... from amino acid sequence?. Reply as soon as possible ... how predict which aminoacid form secondary structure. * Quote ... how predict which aminoacid form secondary structure. Debate and discussion of any biological questions not pertaining to a ... The residues predicted as helical are marked by H by PSIPRED and by H and & by ALB, and those predicted as -structural are ... How do predict what types of secondary structure (left alpha helices, right alpha helices, parallel beta sheet, anti parallel ...
Gene sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the motA protein, a membrane-associated protein required for flagellar ... The amino acid sequence, which was quite hydrophobic, was subjected to a theoretical analysis designed to predict membrane- ... Gene sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the motA protein, a membrane-associated protein required for flagellar ... Gene sequence and predicted amino acid sequence of the motA protein, a membrane-associated protein required for flagellar ...
In this paper, a new method for predicting protein ... Neural Networks and GOR-V Information Theory to Predict Protein ... Secondary Structure from Amino Acid Sequences: 10.4018/jiit.2005100104: Protein secondary structure prediction is a fundamental ... In this paper, a new method for predicting protein secondary structure from amino acid sequences has been proposed and ... "Combining Artificial Neural Networks and GOR-V Information Theory to Predict Protein Secondary Structure from Amino Acid ...
These descriptors include composition, transition, and distribution of defined attributes in the amino acid or nucleotide ... Global Description of Amino Acid & Nucleotide Sequences: Application to Predicting Protein Folds, Intron-Exon Discrimination ... These descriptors include composition, transition, and distribution of defined attributes in the amino acid or nucleotide ...
Using Chous Pseudo Amino Acid Composition to Predict Protein Quaternary Structure A Sequence-Segmented PseAAC Approach. Amino ... Using Chous Pseudo Amino Acid Composition to Predict Protein Quaternary Structure: A Sequence-Segmented PseAAC Approach. Amino ... A Method to Predict Amino Acids at Proximity of Beta-Sheet Axes from Protein Sequences ... Amino Acid Composition of Cowpea (Vigna ungiculata L. Walp) Flour and Its Protein Isolates ...
Using pseudo amino acid composition to predict protein subcellular location: Approached with Lyapunov index, Bessel function, ... In this article, based on the concept of pseudo amino acid composition (Chou, K.C. Proteins: Structure, Function, and Genetics ... Keywords: Covariant-discriminant algorithm - Pseudo amino acid composition - Chaos - Lyapunov index - Bessel function - ... three pseudo amino acid components are introduced via Lyapunov index, Bessel function, Chebyshev filter that can be more ...
Predicting Ion Channels and Their Types by the Dipeptide Mode of Pseudo Amino Acid Composition. Journal of Theoretical Biology ... Lin, H. and Ding, H. (2011) Predicting Ion Channels and Their Types by the Dipeptide Mode of Pseudo Amino Acid Composition. ... A Molecular Dynamics Simulation Study of Two Dipeptide Based Molecular Micelles: Effect of Amino Acid Order ... Its predicted results are significantly better than its counterparts, particularly for those proteins that may simultaneously ...
Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ... Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ... Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ... Inhibition of amino acid transport by nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: a model for predicting relative therapeutic potency ...
Previous mutational analyses of charged and polar amino acids in predicted TM helices 11, 16, and 17 support this suggestion. ... MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF POLAR AMINO ACID RESIDUES WITHIN PREDICTED TRANSMEMBRANE HELICES 10 AND 16 OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ... MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF POLAR AMINO ACID RESIDUES WITHIN PREDICTED TRANSMEMBRANE HELICES 10 AND 16 OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ... MUTATIONAL ANALYSIS OF POLAR AMINO ACID RESIDUES WITHIN PREDICTED TRANSMEMBRANE HELICES 10 AND 16 OF MULTIDRUG RESISTANCE ...
Identification of possible evolutionary pathways of Plum pox virus and predicting amino acid residues of importance to host ... 1163_16 Identification of possible evolutionary pathways of Plum pox virus and predicting amino acid residues of importance to ... Identification of possible evolutionary pathways of Plum pox virus and predicting amino acid residues of importance to host ... These amino acid sites cluster into two areas, P1 and VPg. These areas of the genome are known to be important for functions ...
... and amino acid substitution matrix kernel for predicting protein-protein, protein-DNA and protein-RNA binding sites. The ... properties of amino acids yields modest improvement in the performance of the resulting SVM classifiers for predicting protein- ... with the substitution kernel based on amino acid substitution matrices that take into account structural or evolutionary ... Support vector machines (SVM) and related kernel methods offer an attractive approach to predicting protein binding sites. An ...
Results We start with a Naïve Bayes classifier trained to predict whether a given amino acid residue is a DNA-binding residue ... We present a machine learning approach for the identification of amino acid residues involved in protein-DNA interactions. ... We start with a Naïve Bayes classifier trained to predict whether a given amino acid residue is a DNA-binding residue based on ... "Predicting DNA-binding sites of proteins from amino acid sequence" (2006). Genetics, Development and Cell Biology Publications ...
Local structural change can be predicted. Future work will have to establish how useful this new perspective on predicting the ... Mutants for which our method predicted a change of structure were also enriched in terms of disrupting stability and function. ... However, no method directly predicts the impact of mutations on structure. Here, we compare pairs of pentamers (five ... Amino acid point mutations (nsSNPs) may change protein structure and function. ...
Predicted molecular weight. 72 kDa including tags. * Amino acids. 1 to 414 ...
We conclude that there is very good prospect of successfully predicting the function of yet uncharacterized proteins using ... Predicting the function of newly discovered proteins by simply inspecting their amino acid sequence is one of the major ... For every protein we calculated the frequency and total number of each amino acid, as well as of certain sets of amino acids (e ... Predicting the function of newly discovered proteins by simply inspecting their amino acid sequence is one of the major ...
The protein sequence, either locally or globally, is encoded using amino acid composition, weighted amino acid composition, ... AAIndexLoc is a machine-learning-based algorithm that uses amino acid index to predict protein subcellular localization based ... It is believed that the physico-chemical properties of amino acids play an important role in determining the protein ... The user can predict the unknown protein sequence(s) by pasting the protein sequences in FASTA format in the textarea below. ...
Predicted molecular weight. 86 kDa including tags. * Amino acids. 2 to 746 ...
Sequence Variation in the Predicted Amino Acid Sequences of βC1. An alignment of the predicted amino acid sequences of the βC1 ... Standard IUPAC/IUBMB single letter amino acid codes are used. Along the bottom the major amino acid sequence changes are ... Standard IUPAC/IUBMB single letter amino acid codes are used. Along the bottom the major amino acid sequence changes are ... Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequences of the βC1 gene of CLCuMB show that sequence variation in this protein is highly ...
... the amino acid substitution likelihoods, the equilibrium fluctuations of the alpha- and beta-carbon atoms, and the packing ... regression methods to predict the sign vs. the output of stability change. (4) We allow a reject option for doubtful cases ... Computational prediction of protein stability change due to single-site amino acid substitutions is of interest in protein ... From: Machine learning integration for predicting the effect of single amino acid substitutions on protein stability ...
  • In the present investigation the applicability of various topological indices are tested for the QSPR study on 80 amino acids derivatives. (ac.ir)
  • The obtained results show that combining of the two descriptors (J, 1X) could be used successfully for modeling and predicting the heat capacity (CV), and thermal energy (Eth) of amino acids derivatives. (ac.ir)
  • Herradon and Seebach (1989) Mono- and Dialkylation of Derivatives of (1R,2S)-2-Hydroxyxyclopentanecarboxylic Acid and -cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid via Bicylic Dioxannes Selective Generation of Three Contiguous Stereogenic Centers on a Cyclohexane Ring, Helv. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • 1970) The Resolution and Rotations of trans-2-Aminocyclohexanecarboxylic Acids and Derivatives, Bull. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • Amino acid metabolism-related gene expression-based risk signature can better predict overall survival for glioma. (cdc.gov)
  • However, in glioma, the characteristics of the amino acid metabolism-related gene set have not been systematically profiled. (cdc.gov)
  • Amino acid‐related gene sets could classify the clinical and molecular features of gliomas. (cdc.gov)
  • E, Heat map and clinicopathological features of the two clusters defined by the amino acid‐related gene sets. (cdc.gov)
  • As genome sequencing becomes cheaper and faster, resulting in an exponential increase in data, the need for efficiency in predicting gene function is growing, as is the need to train the next generation of scientists in bioinformatics. (phys.org)
  • TargetP also predicts cleavage sites with levels of correctly predicted sites ranging from approximately 40% to 50% (chloroplastic and mitochondrial presequences) to above 70% (secretory signal peptides). (nih.gov)
  • When the mass of adipose tissue increases, released leptin inhibits feeding and fat synthesis and stimulates oxidation of fatty acids . (78stepshealth.us)
  • When the mass of adipose tissue decreases, a lowered leptin production favors a greater food intake and less fatty acid oxidation . (78stepshealth.us)
  • This permits continual oxidation of fuel (fatty acids in an adipocyte) without ATP synthesis, dissipating energy as heat and consuming dietary calories or stored fats in potentially very large amounts. (78stepshealth.us)
  • Disclosed are β-amino acid monomers containing cylcoalkyl, cycloalkenyl, and heterocylic substituents which encompass the α and β carbons of the peptide backbone and β-polypeptides made from such monomers. (freepatentsonline.com)
  • I've recently learned that we can predict the shape of molecules with a small amount of atoms. (physicsforums.com)
  • Hokkaido University researchers have developed a computational method that can predict how clusters of molecules behave and interact over time, providing critical insight for future electronics. (phys.org)
  • Metabolomics, particularly amino acid profiling, may be a useful tool in predicting the development of diabetes long before the symptoms become apparent (Wang, T.J. et al. (nimitfinance.com)
  • Blood specimens at baseline of 189 of the 201 diabetic cases and 189 nondiabetic matched controls were profiled for metabolites, including amino acids, amines and other polar metabolites. (nimitfinance.com)
  • Among the 20 amino acids some are acidic, some are basic, some are polar, some non-polar. (scribd.com)