Any significant change in measures of climate (such as temperature, precipitation, or wind) lasting for an extended period (decades or longer). It may result from natural factors such as changes in the sun's intensity, natural processes within the climate system such as changes in ocean circulation, or human activities.
Conservation of Natural Resources
Oceans and Seas
The science of studying the characteristics of the atmosphere such as its temperature, density, winds, clouds, precipitation, and other atmospheric phenomena and aiming to account for the weather in terms of external influences and the basic laws of physics. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
El Nino-Southern Oscillation
El Nino-Southern Oscillation or ENSO is a cycle of extreme alternating warm El Niño and cold La Nina events which is the dominant year-to-year climate pattern on Earth. Both terms refer to large-scale changes in sea-surface temperature across the eastern tropical Pacific. ENSO is associated with a heightened risk of certain vector-borne diseases. (From http://www.elnino.noaa.gov/lanina_new_faq.html, accessed 5/12/2020)
A genus of deer, Rangifer, that inhabits the northern parts of Europe, Asia, and America. Caribou is the North American name; reindeer, the European. They are often domesticated and used, especially in Lapland, for drawing sleds and as a source of food. Rangifer is the only genus of the deer family in which both sexes are antlered. Most caribou inhabit arctic tundra and surrounding arboreal coniferous forests and most have seasonal shifts in migration. They are hunted extensively for their meat, skin, antlers, and other parts. (From Webster, 3d ed; Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1397)
Free-floating minute organisms that are photosynthetic. The term is non-taxonomic and refers to a lifestyle (energy utilization and motility), rather than a particular type of organism. Most, but not all, are unicellular algae. Important groups include DIATOMS; DINOFLAGELLATES; CYANOBACTERIA; CHLOROPHYTA; HAPTOPHYTA; CRYPTOMONADS; and silicoflagellates.
Multicellular, eukaryotic life forms of kingdom Plantae (sensu lato), comprising the VIRIDIPLANTAE; RHODOPHYTA; and GLAUCOPHYTA; all of which acquired chloroplasts by direct endosymbiosis of CYANOBACTERIA. They are characterized by a mainly photosynthetic mode of nutrition; essentially unlimited growth at localized regions of cell divisions (MERISTEMS); cellulose within cells providing rigidity; the absence of organs of locomotion; absence of nervous and sensory systems; and an alternation of haploid and diploid generations.
The circulation of nitrogen in nature, consisting of a cycle of biochemical reactions in which atmospheric nitrogen is compounded, dissolved in rain, and deposited in the soil, where it is assimilated and metabolized by bacteria and plants, eventually returning to the atmosphere by bacterial decomposition of organic matter.
The sequence of transfers of matter and energy from organism to organism in the form of FOOD. Food chains intertwine locally into a food web because most organisms consume more than one type of animal or plant. PLANTS, which convert SOLAR ENERGY to food by PHOTOSYNTHESIS, are the primary food source. In a predator chain, a plant-eating animal is eaten by a larger animal. In a parasite chain, a smaller organism consumes part of a larger host and may itself be parasitized by smaller organisms. In a saprophytic chain, microorganisms live on dead organic matter.
Plant Physiological Phenomena
The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.
The ash, dust, gases, and lava released by volcanic explosion. The gases are volatile matter composed principally of about 90% water vapor, and carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. The ash or dust is pyroclastic ejecta and lava is molten extrusive material consisting mainly of magnesium silicate. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
The development of systems to prevent accidents, injuries, and other adverse occurrences in an institutional setting. The concept includes prevention or reduction of adverse events or incidents involving employees, patients, or facilities. Examples include plans to reduce injuries from falls or plans for fire safety to promote a safe institutional environment.
Heat Stress Disorders
A mass of organic or inorganic solid fragmented material, or the solid fragment itself, that comes from the weathering of rock and is carried by, suspended in, or dropped by air, water, or ice. It refers also to a mass that is accumulated by any other natural agent and that forms in layers on the earth's surface, such as sand, gravel, silt, mud, fill, or loess. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed, p1689)
A body of water covering approximately one-fifth of the total ocean area of the earth, extending amidst Africa in the west, Australia in the east, Asia in the north, and Antarctica in the south. Including the Red Sea and the Persian Gulf, it constitutes the third largest ocean after the ATLANTIC OCEAN and the PACIFIC OCEAN. (New Encyclopaedia Britannica Micropaedia, 15th ed, 1990, p289)
Geographic Information Systems
The unstable triatomic form of oxygen, O3. It is a powerful oxidant that is produced for various chemical and industrial uses. Its production is also catalyzed in the ATMOSPHERE by ULTRAVIOLET RAY irradiation of oxygen or other ozone precursors such as VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS and NITROGEN OXIDES. About 90% of the ozone in the atmosphere exists in the stratosphere (STRATOSPHERIC OZONE).
A former branch of knowledge embracing the study, description, and classification of natural objects (as animals, plants, and minerals) and thus including the modern sciences of zoology, botany, and mineralogy insofar as they existed at that time. In the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries it was much used for the generalized pursuit of certain areas of science. (Webster, 3d ed; from Dr. James H. Cassedy, NLM History of Medicine Division)
A state in northeastern Australia. Its capital is Brisbane. Its coast was first visited by Captain Cook in 1770 and its first settlement (penal) was located on Moreton Bay in 1824. The name Cooksland was first proposed but honor to Queen Victoria prevailed. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p996 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p441)
An independent state consisting of three islands in the Mediterranean Sea, south of Sicily. Its capital is Valetta. The major island is Malta, the two smaller islands are Comino and Gozo. It was a Phoenician and Carthaginian colony, captured by the Romans in 218 B.C. It was overrun by Saracens in 870, taken by the Normans in 1090, and subsequently held by the French and later the British who allotted them a dominion government in 1921. It became a crown colony in 1933, achieving independence in 1964. The name possibly comes from a pre-Indoeuropean root mel, high, referring to its rocks, but a more picturesque origin derives the name from the Greek melitta or melissa, honey, with reference to its early fame for its honey production. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p719 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p330)
Maps as Topic
The largest of the continents. It was known to the Romans more specifically as what we know today as Asia Minor. The name comes from at least two possible sources: from the Assyrian asu (to rise) or from the Sanskrit usa (dawn), both with reference to its being the land of the rising sun, i.e., eastern as opposed to Europe, to the west. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p82 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p34)
A protozoan disease caused in humans by four species of the PLASMODIUM genus: PLASMODIUM FALCIPARUM; PLASMODIUM VIVAX; PLASMODIUM OVALE; and PLASMODIUM MALARIAE; and transmitted by the bite of an infected female mosquito of the genus ANOPHELES. Malaria is endemic in parts of Asia, Africa, Central and South America, Oceania, and certain Caribbean islands. It is characterized by extreme exhaustion associated with paroxysms of high FEVER; SWEATING; shaking CHILLS; and ANEMIA. Malaria in ANIMALS is caused by other species of plasmodia.
British nuclear tests at Maralinga
A tolerable climate for staff and visitors; Low rainfall; Predictable weather conditions; Winds that would carry the fallout ...
Nature Climate Change, 6(5), 526. MacDonald, A. E., Clack, C. T., Alexander, A., Dunbar, A., Wilczak, J., & Xie, Y. (2016). ... ISBN 978-0-309-05991-6. Farmer, J. Doyne; Lafond, François (2016). "How predictable is technological progress?". Research ... Nature Climate Change, 6(5), 526. "Solar Photovoltaics competing in the energy sector - On the road to competitiveness" (PDF). ... equipment must be installed according to local electrical codes and should be run in a conduit appropriate for the climate ...
... more specifically a trade-wind tropical rainforest climate. The area does not have a predictable dry season. The driest times ... Changuinola is a coastal location with a tropical climate, ...
Bocas Town, Bocas del Toro
Bocas del Toro features a tropical rainforest climate. The area does not have a predictable dry season. The driest months are ...
In these areas, there is sufficient water supplied by the climate to support all aspects of life without hardly any irrigation ... This makes harvest time and crop survival more predictable. Croplands that are sustained mainly from the local rainfall are the ... which are vegetation types like tropical rainforests and grasslands that are identified in relation to global climate patterns ...
She considered it, however, "... too ordinary and predictable." Storm Seekers dealt with global warming with a sceptical media ... reporter spouting the popular notions of climate change denial confronting a scientist. Kotsch 1983, pp. 18-19. McCright and ...
... "authorities on climate science say that the climate system is far too complex for modest reductions in one of the thousands of ... factors involved in climate change (ie. carbon emissions) to have a predictable effect in magnitude, or even direction". Dr Lea ... she argues they damage business competitiveness and suggests Britain's trust in climate change policies is unlikely to have ... argues against the ability of individual nation states doing much to combat climate change without concerted global efforts. ...
Water conflict between Ethiopia and Kenya
Turner, Angela (2016). "Climate change: Kenya". Issuu.com. Retrieved 2018-10-13. Waila, Jacinta (2018). "Outcomes of Climate ... This was because of the area's predictable rainfall and availability of land. Many people are now migrating toward the ... Before dramatic climate changes, the area inhabited by the Turkana people enabled the sustainability of livestock herds. ... In the past years the area became drier, with a hot climate and prolonged drought. Population growth aggravated the problem. ...
... these variations occur in predictable patterns called Milankovitch cycles. Milankovitch cycles dominate climate on the glacial- ... It also makes the ice sheets more sensitive to changes in climate and the ocean. Ice-sheet model Scambos, T. A.; Bohlander, J. ... The implications of the current climate change on ice sheets are difficult to ascertain. It is clear that increasing ... The North Atlantic's 1-2kyr Climate Rhythm: Relation to Heinrich Events, Dansgaard/Oeschger Cycles and the Little Ice Age. ...
... Climate Guide, 2015. Ministry of Environment, Energy and Climate Change. meteo.gov.sc Seychelles weather and climate ... Reportedly, weather patterns there are becoming less predictable. When the British gained control of the islands during the ... Their government's Seychelles Climate Guide describes the nation's climate as rainy, with a dry season with an ocean economy in ... The climate is equable although quite humid, as the islands are small, classified by Köppen-Geiger system as tropical rain ...
"Climate Change in the Arctic: Human Rights of Inuit Interconnected with the World , , Inuit Circumpolar Council Canada". ... warmer winters make travel more dangerous and less predictable as more storms form; later-forming sea ice contributes to ... The Inuit Circumpolar Council, a group representing indigenous peoples of the Arctic, has made the case that climate change ... Iñupiat people have grown more concerned in recent years that climate change is threatening their traditional lifestyle. The ...
Dynamic tidal power
This provides a predictable and fairly stable base generation to the energy grid. Dynamic tidal power doesn't require a very ... "Responding to Climate Change, 2012". Archived from the original on 2013-04-15. Benefits of Tidal Power. ... The generation of tidal power is highly predictable due to the deterministic nature of tides, and independent of weather ... conditions or climate change. Power output varies with the tidal phase (ebb & flow, neap & spring) but the shorter terms ...
Sociality and disease transmission
Humans are surprisingly predictable when it comes to the range of possible social group structures. We occupy less than half of ... 2000) would include climate change as a tremendous confounding factor. We might furthermore speculate that certainly tourism ...
The climate is subarctic (Dfc) with a significant maritime influence from the Gulf Stream. Gäddede is along with Storlien and ... Due to winter precipitation being high, Gäddede has a predictable snow cover for several months. Munsvattnet "Tätorternas ... As a result the effects on the local climate is greater than further inland or at the east coast. The maritime air often blocks ...
Études-Tableaux, Op. 33
They are thus less predictable than the preludes and compositionally mark an advance" in technique. Rachmaninoff initially ... "investigate the transformation of rather specific climates of feeling via piano textures and sonorities. ...
Population dynamics of fisheries
A population cycle occurs where populations rise and fall over a predictable period of time. There are some species where ... There are a number of factors which influence population change such as availability of food, predators, diseases and climate. ... population numbers have reasonably predictable patterns of change although the full reasons for population cycles is one of the ...
"Near-term Climate Prediction". www.wcrp-climate.org. "El Nino-Southern Oscillation". Rmets.org. Retrieved 7 July 2019. CS1 ... Many of his studies show how predictable factors affect weather from months to decades ahead. Since 2003 he has led teams of ... Scaife, Adam A.; Smith, Doug (2018). "A Signal to Noise Paradox in Climate Science". NPJ Climate and Atmospheric Science. 1. ... Scaife is also member of the Royal Meteorological Society climate communications group , regularly comments on extreme climate ...
Storage of food was important in the uncertain high altitude climate, so technologies for freeze-dried potatoes and sun-dried ... The Titicaca Basin is the most productive environment in the area, with predictable and abundant rainfall. The Tiwanaku culture ... However, this narrative has been challenged, in part because of more refined cultural and climate chronologies, which now ... Cultivated wetlands and emerging complexity in south-central Chile and long distance effects of climate change. Antiquity 81 ( ...
Climate change impacts each of these seasonal factors and in turn impacts the dispersal of mosquitos. Climatology and the study ... In Iceland however, the weather is less predictable. In mid-winter it frequently warms up suddenly, causing the ice to break, ... The absence of mosquitoes in Iceland and similar regions is probably because of quirks of their climate, which differs in some ... Bai L, Morton LC, Liu Q (March 2013). "Climate change and mosquito-borne diseases in China: a review". Globalization and Health ...
2014-15 floods in Southeast Asia and South Asia
Scientists have predicted that as climate change worsens, storm patterns will become less predictable and more severe. Massive ...
Flows are characterized by climate (snows, rain, and ice melting) and gradient. Discharge variations measured on a variety of ... Some rivers can be characterized by a predictable seasonably controlled hydrograph (reflecting snow melt or rainy season). ... Paleocurrent direction is important in reconstructing past climate and drainage patterns: sand dunes preserve the prevalent ...
"North Carolina Environment and Climate Observing Network". State Climate Office of North Carolina. Retrieved 7 February 2017. ... resolution weather station network reveal consistent but predictable bias". Int. J. Climatol. 39 (6): 3091-3103. Bibcode: ... Warren, Elliot L.; D. T. Young; L. Chapman; C. Muller; C.S.B. Grimmond; X.-M. Cai (2016). "The Birmingham Urban Climate ... Roberts, David R.; W. H, Wood; S. J. Marshall (2019). "Assessments of downscaled climate data with a high‐ ...
With the warmer climates, the sea ice became less predictable and was isolated from the High Arctic. The Dorset were highly ... Scientists have suggested that they disappeared because they were unable to adapt to climate change or that they were ... adapted to living in a very cold climate, and much of their food is thought to have been from hunting sea mammals that breathe ...
Health in Ecuador
In the low-lying coastal regions and in the Amazonian region, the predictable diseases of those climates exist. Malaria, for ... Harsh climates in each region pose a number of threats to human health. Due to the lack of oxygen in the Andes because of high ...
Since orbital variations are predictable, computer models that relate orbital variations to climate can predict future climate ... "Human-made climate change suppresses the next ice age". Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research in Germany. 2016.. ... Climate dynamics during the penultimate glacial period recorded in a speleothem from Kanaan Cave, Lebanon (central Levant) http ... A time with no glaciers on Earth is considered a greenhouse climate state. Within the Quaternary (about 2.6 Ma to present), ...
U.S.-China Strategic and Economic Dialogue
The United States and China agree on the importance of fostering an open, transparent and predictable investment climate. The ... V. Cooperation on Climate Change, Energy and Environment (Outcome 31-43) VI. Documents to be Signed and/or Renewed (Outcome 44- ... For example, for climate change, Secretary of Energy Steven Chu, science adviser John Holdren, Carol Browner, Lisa Jackson from ... Key highlights from the Strategic Track include: Climate Change, Energy, and Environment MOU, North Korea, South Asia, Sudan, ...
Perhumid climate has existed in Sundaland since the early Miocene; though there is evidence for several periods of drier ... rainfall exceeds evapotranspiration throughout the year and there are no predictable dry seasons like elsewhere in Southeast ... The climate and ecology of Sundaland throughout the Quaternary has been investigated by analyzing foraminiferal δ18O and pollen ... The population migrations were most likely to have been driven by climate change - the effects of the drowning of an ancient ...
... a basement in a temperate climate. Passive cellars may be less predictable, but cost nothing to operate and are not affected by ... In a very dry climate, it may be necessary to actively humidify the air, but in most areas this is not necessary. Passive wine ... In an active wine cellar, important factors such as temperature and humidity are maintained by a climate control system. In ... basement wine cellar, including walls, floors, climate control and an insulated door. Wine cellars protect alcoholic beverages ...
In climate. As climate change and other weather phenomenon become more common, the predictability of climate systems ... In stochastic analysis a random process is a predictable process if it is possible to know the next state from the present time ... The IPCC notes that our ability to predict future detailed climate interactions is difficult, however, long term climate ... "Climate.gov. NOAA. Retrieved 26 September 2017.. *^ Diebold, Francis X. (2001). "Measuring Predictability: Theory and ...
In cooler climates opening and closing of the flower tends to overlap making them more self-fertile. Medium-sized pear shaped ... Avocado trees are partially self-pollinating, and are often propagated through grafting to maintain predictable fruit quality ... As a subtropical species, avocados need a climate without frost and with little wind. High winds reduce the humidity, dehydrate ... Morton JF (1987). Avocado; In: Fruits of Warm Climates. Center for New Crops and Plant Products, Department of Horticulture and ...
Because North America generally has snowier winters that get below 0 °C in the winter, unlike the climate where the dog was ... Traits of puppies from crossbreedings are not as predictable as those from purebred poodle breedings, and the crosses may shed ...
This is done by breaking the stages down into smaller units separated by predictable changed in gene expression. Three ... insects instinctively know to prolong their development time in order to hatch into a more accepting and viable climate in ... In his second book he did revolutionary work on the theory of predictable waves, or successions of insects onto corpses. By ...
But Batu, ruler of the Golden Horde, refused to come to the kurultai, claiming that he was ill and that the Mongolian climate ... on Muslim and Mongol administrators and launched a series of economic reforms to make government expenses more predictable. His ...
In 2015, a study for Nature Climate Change showed that the trend has recently been reversed, leading to an "overall gain" in ... However, under some conditions, e.g. less fertile soils or less predictable drought regimes, the proportion of evergreen ... "Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 16 November 2014.. ... Therefore, they are necessary to stop Climate Change. According to the Special Report on Global Warming of 1.5 ºC of the ...
List of Ancestral Puebloan dwellings in Colorado
The light falls in a predictable pattern on interior door lintels. ... as the result of climate changes and food shortages. They are believed to have moved south and east to villages in Arizona and ...
... and the term climate change denial describes denial of the scientific consensus that the climate change of planet Earth is a ... In the context of consumer protection, denialism has been defined as "the use of rhetorical techniques and predictable tactics ... Timeline, Climate Change and its Naysayers Newsweek August 13, 2007. *^ Dickinson, Tim (2007-06-20). "The Secret Campaign of ... Kennedy, Donald (27 July 2007). "Climate: Game Over". Science. 317 (5837): 425. doi:10.1126/science.1147817. PMID 17656688.. ...
Farmer, J. Doyne; Lafond, François (2016). "How predictable is technological progress?". Research Policy. 45 (3): 647-65. doi: ... equipment must be installed according to local electrical codes and should be run in a conduit appropriate for the climate ...
Abiotic Influences and Biotic Responses to Predictable Seasonal Events". Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst. 30: 51-81. doi:10.1146/annurev. ... Köppen climate classification. Under the Köppen climate classification, "hot dry-summer" climates (classified as Csa) and ... A Mediterranean climate /ˌmɛdɪtəˈreɪniən/ or dry summer climate is characterized by rainy winters and dry summers. While the ... Under the Köppen climate system, the first letter indicates the climate group (in this case temperate climates). Temperate ...
... contributing to global warming and climate change in general (but also critically contributing to climate stability when the ... radiation spectrum incident on a real surface in a specified direction forms an irregular shape that is not easily predictable ...
A classic example is two seeds of genetically identical corn, one placed in a temperate climate and one in an arid climate ( ... Restriction enzymes are commonly used enzymes that cut DNA at specific sequences, producing predictable fragments of DNA. ... the one in the arid climate only grows to half the height of the one in the temperate climate due to lack of water and ...
The risk of flow shortage may increase as a result of climate change. One study from the Colorado River in the United ... A tidal power station makes use of the daily rise and fall of ocean water due to tides; such sources are highly predictable, ... Climate change, disasters and electricity generation Archived September 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine. London: Overseas ... Wehrli, Bernhard (1 September 2011). "Climate science: Renewable but not carbon-free". Nature Geoscience. 4 (9): 585-586. doi: ...
... as well as a redesigned center stack containing audio and climate controls. Climate control is automatic on all models except ... As a cost-saving measure, the rear brake was reverted to drum brake, with predictable criticisms. The 2008 Mazda Tribute (non- ... Compared to the base model ZC Escape, the ZD included standard side airbags, automatic climate control, 16" alloy wheels, and ... The dash was updated with a brand-new radio and automatic climate control with digital read-out, on certain models. ...
... these deposits often help to paint a picture into past Earth climates. Some particular deposits even show important tectonic ... predictable engineering and physical behaviour, and imperviousness to groundwater. ...
2011). "Impacts of climate variability and future climate change on harmful algal blooms and human health". Proceedings of the ... In other areas, HABs are a predictable seasonal occurrence resulting from coastal upwelling, a natural result of the movement ...
Wetland-hunting harriers are predictable predators, but more unusually, the rail has also been recorded as a prey item of ... modelling the relationships to land cover and climate". Journal of Biogeography. 32 (11): 1957-1970. doi:10.1111/j.1365- ...
Politics of Greece
Both are rare occurrences with usually predictable outcomes as voting outside the party line happens very seldom. ...
... and the term climate change denial describes denial of the scientific consensus that the climate change of planet Earth is a ... In the context of consumer protection, denialism has been defined as "the use of rhetorical techniques and predictable tactics ... Timeline, Climate Change and its Naysayers Newsweek August 13, 2007. *^ Dickinson, Tim (2007-06-20). "The Secret Campaign of ... Norgaard, Kari Marie (2011). Living In Denial: Climate Change, Emotions, and Everyday Life. MIT Press. ISBN 9780262515856. .. ...
That is, it predicts that one group member's behaviours will elicit a predictable set of actions from other group members. ... males defer as a parental investment because it ensures more resources in a harsh unpredictable climate for the female, and ...
... which prefers the predictable Lucilia sericata. Nonetheless, C. macellaria has been and remains a concern for farmers, ... and can last as long as three months in colder climates. Females only lay eggs once in a lifetime and can lay 100 to 400 in a ...
The predictable flooding and controlled irrigation of the fertile valley produced surplus crops, which supported a more dense ... In Predynastic and Early Dynastic times, the Egyptian climate was much less arid than it is today. Large regions of Egypt were ... By the late Paleolithic period, the arid climate of Northern Africa became increasingly hot and dry, forcing the populations of ...
Extreme weather will strike as climate change takes hold, IPCC warns *^ Semenza, J.C (2014). "Climate Change and Human Health ... Household Hunger Scale (HHS)- measures the experience of household food deprivation based on a set of predictable reactions, ... Climate changeEdit. See also: Climate change and agriculture. Extreme events, such as droughts and floods, are forecast to ... According to the Climate & Development Knowledge Network report Managing Climate Extremes and Disasters in the Agriculture ...
មូស - វិគីភីឌា
In Iceland however, the weather is less predictable. In mid-winter it frequently warms up suddenly, causing the ice to break, ... The absence of mosquitoes from Iceland and similar regions is probably because of quirks of their climate, which differs in ... mainly in polar or subpolar climates, at least some species of mosquito will be present. Iceland is such an island, being ... whereas the subsequent decline in activity is less predictable. All posterior midgut activity is restricted to the posterior ...
"In Schneider, Benjamin; Barbera, Karen M. The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture. Oxford Library of ... These organizations have consistent systems and are very predictable. This culture is often represented by a "Roman Building" ... "In Schneider, Benjamin; Barbera, Karen M. The Oxford Handbook of Organizational Climate and Culture. Oxford Library of ... Halpin, A. W., & Croft, D. B. (1963). The organizational climate of schools. Chicago: Midwest Administration Center of the ...
... as the food supply is more stable and predictable. Several species have adapted well to human modified habitats and are ... "Macroevolutionary patterns in the diversification of parrots: effects of climate change, geological events and key innovations ...
Erhardt, David; Charles S. Tumosa; Marion F. Mecklenburg (2007). "Applying science to the question of museum climate". Museum ... However, many of the sources of danger mentioned above are controllable, and others are at least predictable. Collections care ... it also helps insulate the interior climate from fluctuating atmospheric conditions and defend against pests. Packing mounts, ... responsive materials or a combination of organic and inorganic materials should ideally be in carefully controlled climates and ...
Less predictable events like tsunamis and storm surges may also cause elevation changes in large bodies of water. Elevation of ... However, large rivers may have rapid flooding events in areas with dry climate, since they may have large basins but small ... from the smallest ephemeral streams in humid zones to normally-dry channels in arid climates to the world's largest rivers. ... as well as in analysis of the effects of land use change and climate change. ...
... focussing especially upon debates about climate change, analysed in successive editions of his book The Politics of Climate ... Thus, the outcome of action is not totally predictable. Connections between micro and macro. Structuration is very useful ... Giddens, Anthony (2009) The Politics of Climate Change. Cambridge: Polity. *Giddens, Anthony (2009) Sociology (Sixth Edition). ... Climate change is one of those new risks. No other civilization before the advent of modern industrialism was able to intervene ...
Corbusier worked on the plan with two British specialists in urban design and tropical climate architecture, Maxwell Fry and ... almost hysterical onrush in recent years toward this quasi-orgy of decor is only the last spasm of a death already predictable ...
Religion in ancient Rome
Prodigies were transgressions in the natural, predictable order of the cosmos - signs of divine anger that portended conflict ...
In regions where climate conditions are less predictable, and unexpected periods of rain and drought may occur, a more flexible ... The effect of crop rotation on erosion control varies by climate. In regions under relatively consistent climate conditions, ... An opportunity cropping system promotes adequate soil cover under these erratic climate conditions. In an opportunity ... climate, soil type, growing practices, etc. Moreover, a crop rotation must consider in what condition one crop will leave ...
Weather Should Remain Predictable Despite Climate Change
... Details University of Missouri-Columbia 23 February 2018 ... Lupo and Andrew Jensen, who earned his doctorate at MU, used an existing climate model to simulate jet stream flow in the ... According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, temperatures are expected to rise between 2.5 and 10 degrees ... According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, temperatures are expected to rise between 2.5 and 10 degrees ...
A Predictable Reaction to Climate Action - CitizenVox
A Predictable Reaction to Climate Action Allison Fisher Climate Change carbon standard, clean air act, coal, EPA, make the case ... Climate Change, Energy, Environment, Regulation Mostly false: Politifact blows it on Al Gore, Trump, and the Paris climate ... Climate Change, Energy, Environment, Ethics, Regulation Not normal: Coal-industry lawyer is the "moderate" candidate for no. 2 ... More so now than ever, not curbing climate change will result in extreme global economic disruption. And at the end of the day ...
North Atlantic climate far more predictable following major scientific breakthrough | Watts Up With That?
The Guardian: "The Four Types of Climate Denier…" →. 111 thoughts on "North Atlantic climate far more predictable following ... Al Gore antarctica Arctic Australia california China climate climate change Climate model Climatic Research Unit email ... Consequently, the real world is more predictable than climate models suggest10,18 and uncertainties diagnosed from raw model ... North Atlantic climate far more predictable than models imply.. The article is quite critical of models:. "Crucially, we find ...
Predictable rules can unleash the power of the private sector, business tells climate negotiators - ICC - International Chamber...
Predictable rules can unleash the power of the private sector, business tells climate negotiators. News • Montreal, Canada, 07/ ... Home » News & Speeches » Predictable rules can unleash the power of the private sector, business tells climate negotiators ... At the UN climate talks in Montreal, business representatives have put forward their perspectives on a long-term international ... As many delegates at the 11th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change begin to look beyond ...
IRIN | Climate change on the front line, in rural Zimbabwe
The government pays lip service to the idea of resilience but is doing very little to support farmers threatened by climate ... No longer predictable. Moyo knows exactly how bad the situation is because she keeps a rain gauge in the corner of her farm, ... Climate change on the front line, in rural Zimbabwe. Two years of drought foretell worse too come. ... Agriculture here is rain-fed, but with climate change, maize is now a real gamble. The effects of El Niño are only an ...
Why Hurricane Harvey Was a Predictable Disaster - [email protected]
Hurricane Harvey was a predictable disaster, says PennDesigns Billy Fleming. He explains why in a conversation with [email protected] ... There hasnt been money put aside to deal with the reality of climate change and sea-level rise. That bill has come due for a ... Look, I grew up in rural Arkansas, so for me climate change is not a thing that was part of my childhood science education. But ... Fleming: Part of this is that we have to change the conversation about climate change from one about whether or not the science ...
Predictable and unpredictable behaviour « RealClimate
Climate is defined as the average of weather which has already occurred. Nobody can even define what the climate of California ... Climate is weather statistics. Climate can be viewed as weather statistics. Early climatological work was dedicated to survey ... A curious twist in Currys report is (a) her claim that climate models have exaggerated climate sensitivity because they did ... Statistics is surprisingly predictable even if the individual cases are not.. Just look at Las Vegas and the insurance industry ...
Predictable and unpredictable behaviour « RealClimate
Similarly, climate may be more predictable than weather despite being, in some respects, a zoomed-out view of weather. If any ... That clmate models are imperfect, and that the climate is more complicated and less predictable than some other domains, ... Since climate is a statistical characterization of weather, uncertainty is part of the package. But so long as climate is ... Climate is weather statistics. Climate can be viewed as weather statistics. Early climatological work was dedicated to survey ...
Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city | PNAS
Humans, climate, and fire regimes. A study explores historical fire activity associated with bison hunting by indigenous groups ... Predictable waves of sequential forest degradation and biodiversity loss spreading from an African city. Antje Ahrends, Neil D ... 2007) Climate change impacts on forestry. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 104:19697-19702. ... The forests were chosen to span a distance range of 10-220 km from DES and to have similar climate, topography, soils, and ...
Self-assembly of amphiphilic Janus dendrimers into uniform onion-like dendrimersomes with predictable size and number of...
Climate change and flood damage. A study examines links between climate change and rainfall-induced flood damage in the United ... Onion-like dendrimersomes with predictable size. Shaodong Zhang, Hao-Jan Sun, Andrew D. Hughes, Ralph-Olivier Moussodia, ... Onion-like dendrimersomes with predictable size. Shaodong Zhang, Hao-Jan Sun, Andrew D. Hughes, Ralph-Olivier Moussodia, ... 1) with predictable size and number of bilayers by simple injection of their solution into water or buffer. ...
Fusion Claims Multiply, Strengthen | Science News
Juno spacecraft reveals a more complex Jupiter | Science News
Elevation matters when it comes to climate change, deforestation and species survival
Lizards show evolution is predictable. July 19, 2013 If you could hit the reset button on evolution and start over, would ... Climate change may have little impact on tropical lizards. May 17, 2013 A new Dartmouth College study finds human-caused ... "Land-use and climate change are a double whammy for these species. If we cut down the mountain forests these lizards have ... "Our results help us better understand the likely consequences of climate change and how it will interact with human land-use," ...
Climate Collapse: Is AI The Antidote?
This post considers four impacts of the climate crisis on education. ... but none of them compare to the climate crisis-nothing is more important or more imminent. ... Making wind energy more predictable; *Boosting grid and storage intelligence; *Improving weather forecasts, and ... This post considers four impacts of the climate crisis on education. 1. Climate becomes an education priority. The climate ...
The predictable chaos of slow earthquakes | Science Advances
Dimension of weather and climate attractors. Nature 353, 241-244 (1991).. OpenUrlCrossRefWeb of Science ... Regular earthquakes might similarly be predictable but with a limited predictable horizon of the order of their durations. ... As SSEs might be regarded as earthquakes in slow motion (18), regular earthquakes might be similarly chaotic and predictable. ... and the predictable horizon would be only a fraction of the regular earthquakes typical duration (10 to 100 s for Mw , 6 ...
Plant flowering time now predictable
"Climate change will bring about a change in the flowering behavior of many plants. We researchers must gain a better ... Research helps estimate the ecological consequences of climate change. "Our research will help to enable the estimation of the ... Plant flowering time now predictable. 23.10.2015. Plants adapt their flowering time to the temperature in their surroundings. ... Can this factor switch flowering on or off and thus respond to changes in the climate? In a study currently published in PLOS ...
Driving Climate Action With a Future-Minded Psychology | Psychology Today UK
... and constructive action to climate change? Well reach our full potential only by becoming more future-minded. ... This pattern is not readily predictable; like so many things psychological, it depends on other factors. For instance, some " ... Diversify climate leadership and pursue climate justice. In the most climate-friendly social psychology, we vigorously ... We need more climate leaders, including unelected, informal climate champions, who create bottom-up, inter-organizational, and ...
Tomorrow's Approach: Food Production and Ecosystem Conservation in a Changing Climate | World Resources Institute
Must we fundamentally change course to conserve ecosystems in a changing climate? Do we need to adopt a fundamentally different ... approach to conserving ecosystems and their services in a changing climate? --------- ***This paper examines a triple ... Strengthened extension services, providing advice on climate change and ecosystem services. Manage for predictable output. ... Climate change Climate change affects the quantity and quality of food and other ecosystem services. Moderate warming (1-3ÂºC) ...
Climate deal 'won't be perfect': US negotiator
... global pact on climate change, the United States top negotiator cautioned Thursday against unrealistic expectations, saying ... Global warming could make El Niño events less predictable. 3 hours ago ... Climate deal wont be perfect: US negotiator. Steam rises from cooling towers at a coal power plant near Leeds, in north ... A panel of climate experts are telling the House Science Committee that politics often gets in the way of good science at the ...
Bradley Copies Fritts « Climate Audit
Bradley copied both graphics and language from Fritts 1976 textbook, Tree Rings and Climate. The USA Today article that ... In an early Deep Climate post about Wegman, DC characterized Bradley 1999, a revision of the 1985 edition of Bradleys textbook ... Latest from Deep Climate. Entirely predictable:. mondo , October 18, 2010 at 3:58 pm , Reply ... By Deep (Climate) Abstrusity « The Unbearable Nakedness of CLIMATE CHANGE on Oct 18, 2010 at 5:38 PM ...
MIT Develops Nanobionic Plants That Can Detect Explosives
Former Irish President, Climate Justice Advocate Mary Robinson Urges Divestment of Fossil Fuel Firms | Democracy Now!
But all I heard was: "Things are so much worse because of climate change. We no longer have predictable rainy seasons. Our ... Whats the connection between human rights and climate justice, climate change?. MARY ROBINSON: I came to the climate issue ... AMY GOODMAN: "Climate-displaced" means?. MARY ROBINSON: Means that it was climate that forced them to leave. We dont have a ... I began by asking her to describe climate justice.. MARY ROBINSON: Climate justice starts with the injustice of the fact that ...
FARK.com: (7458104) The scariest five charts about climate change you will see until the next hurricane, or heat wave, or...
... which could be arguably be worse than a constant predictable march to a warmer climate.. We can deal with predictable. The ... None of the climate deniers need worry. They will be dead before the worst hits.. I laugh at the "we are leaving our kids with ... God-is-a-Taco: Dow Jones and the Temple of Doom: Bottom line is that we survived drastic climate change in the past, and well ... God-is-a-Taco: Dow Jones and the Temple of Doom: Bottom line is that we survived drastic climate change in the past, and well ...
Climate Change Will Test Turtles' Mettle
... more frequent and violent storms-these predicted effects of climate change put sea turtles at risk. Can they rise to the ... Sea turtles face other, less predictable climate impacts. Increases in sea temperature and acidity might limit the growth of ... A warming climate will present new threats to these ancient reptiles. Warming may upset turtle population sex ratios. The sex ... Climate Change Will Test Turtles Mettle. Sea turtles face a raft of threats in a warming world. ...
Climate change denial: James Delingpole tells it like it isn't.
... with the advent of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report due tomorrow, the noise machine is out in full force. ... They are as predictable as, well, the climate. Tip o the thermometer to Brandon Rhea on Twitter. ... The Climate Change Denial Machine Is Going Up to 11. By Phil Plait ... As I predicted, with the advent of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report due tomorrow, the noise machine is out ...
Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education
Search Results - AccessScience from McGraw-Hill Education
British nuclear tests at Maralinga - Wikipedia
Worse than we thought: Antarctic vulnerability to climate change | Watts Up With That?
Al Gore antarctica Arctic Australia Bill McKibben california China climate climate change Climate model Climatic Research Unit ... No "Swamp" to See Here - EPA Quietly Hires Climate RICO Ringleader. Post navigation. ← Climate Persecution Theorist Peter ... the worlds most viewed climate website". - Fred Pearce The Climate Files:. The Battle for the Truth about Global Warming ... World Climate Report. Sea Ice Page. Solar Images & Data Page. ENSO/SST Page. WUWT Tag Cloud. ...
Lancet Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health & Climate Change Policy Briefs
Health benefits of a strong, predictable price on carbon;. *Trends in media coverage of climate change and health; and ... Climate Change, Governance. Contributors. James Orbinski, OC, MSC, BSC, MD, MA, MCFP, 2018 Contributing Writer + Panelist Syed ... Health Impacts of Climate Change Strikes a Chord , 12 December 2018 Launch of the 2018 Canada-specific Lancet Countdown Report ... Impact of climate change on mental health. Launch of the 2018 Canadian Policy Brief. Nat Taylor Cinema, York University. Hosted ...
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- According to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, temperatures are expected to rise between 2.5 and 10 degrees Fahrenheit over the next century. (enn.com)
- As I predicted , with the advent of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change report due tomorrow, the noise machine is out in full force. (slate.com)
- Working Group I Contribution to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Annex I, Glossary, pp. 941-954. (skepticalscience.com)
- The United Nations has also stepped in, with Rajendra Pachauri, chairman of the United Nations Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), saying he will investigate the matter. (wsws.org)
- The many hundreds of climate scientists involved in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) summarized the situation in their famous phrase: 'Global warming is unequivocal' (IPCC AR4). (nsf.gov)
- For over a decade, leading scientific organizations such as the American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS), the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the American Geophysical Union, the National Academy of Sciences (NAS), and the American Meteorological Society have sent clear signals that Earth's climate is warming and that the changes are in large part the result of anthropic activities. (plos.org)
- They are all minor, and none affects the central project of the story: to apply the best science we have today to the median and high-end "business-as-usual" warming projections produced by the U.N.'s "gold standard" Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. (nymag.com)
Integrating climate change1
- It then offers two approaches to help conserve ecosystem services in a changing climate - a tool for integrating climate change and ecosystem service risks into decision making and a framework for reconciling food production and conservation goals. (wri.org)
- CMCC scientists Panos Athanasiadis , Alessio Bellucci , Dario Nicolì and Paolo Ruggieri from CSP - Climate Simulation and Prediction Division were also involved in this study. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Part of the How to Talk to a Global Warming Skeptic guide) Objection: Even the scientists don't know that the climate is changing more than normal and if it's our fault or not. (grist.org)
- Scientists at the Alaska Climate Science Center are developing modeling tools that will be able to project the future impacts of climate change on dozens of coastal towns that are threatened by erosion, storm surges and thawing permafrost. (coloradoindependent.com)
- It's funny that all the climate scientists that get paid to provide services assume that I'm doing this for some payoff. (climateaudit.org)
- The theft and publication of emails from the Climate Research Unit (CRU) of the University of East Anglia in England, containing communications between top scientists, has been used to boost the reactionary campaign backed by major oil producers and corporate lobbyists to deny the existence of global warming. (wsws.org)
- In the run up to the Copenhagen summit, the anti-climate change lobby has seized on sentences taken out of context from private communications between Professor Phil Jones, head of the Climate Research Unit (CRU), and other scientists to attack them and undermine their work. (wsws.org)
- Leading anti-climate change campaigner Patrick J. Michaels of the right-wing Washington Cato Institute, alleged that the emails showed scientists were preventing him publishing in journals: "This is what everyone feared. (wsws.org)
- He asserted that scientists are supporting claims of climate change simply to get more research funding: "The climate comrades are trying to keep the gravy train going. (wsws.org)
- We should not be surprised that he did so, because Droz has been associated with ultra-conservative, pro-fossil-fuel organizations such as The American Tradition Institute, known for denying the reality of human-driven warming and harassing climate scientists, and The Heartland Institute, which has mailed climate disinformation to thousands of school teachers nationwide to spread confusion and doubt about the science. (adirondackalmanack.com)
- Furthermore, despite the essay's deceptive bio, he is not what most scientists would call a physicist because he lacks a Ph.D. or requisite peer-reviewed papers in physics, and he is certainly not a climate expert. (adirondackalmanack.com)
- The consensus position that global average warming during the last half-century is real and mostly caused by humans, shared by the vast majority (ca. 97%) of truly qualified climate scientists, is the result of huge amounts of peer-reviewed research from many independent branches of the sciences that have been conducted worldwide over many years. (adirondackalmanack.com)
- Others, such as those caused by changes in the jet stream, are also probably connected to global warming but the climate scientists are still arguing about the details and extent of this, a normal part of the consensus building scientific process. (scienceblogs.com)
- Using climate-change science as a case example, we reconsider the role of scientists in the information-dissemination process, our hypothesis being that important keywords used in climate science follow "boom and bust" fashion cycles in public usage. (plos.org)
- Some of this concern focuses on journalists, whose regular use of terms such as "global warming" might be perceived as biased, whereas another concern focuses on climate scientists and specialized jargon that fails to convey key concepts  . (plos.org)
- Within hours, the article spawned a fleet of commentary across newspapers, magazines, blogs, and Twitter, much of which came from climate scientists and the journalists who cover them. (nymag.com)
- I received the invitation to review this book during the same week - 16-20 November 2009 - that over 1,000 emails to and from climate scientists in the Climatic Research Unit at my university found their way into the public domain. (history.ac.uk)
- In the months since, climate science and climate scientists, and particularly these scientists who were concerned with reconstructing past climates, have been subject to phenomenal scrutiny. (history.ac.uk)
- Sponsored by the Heartland Institute, the nerve center of climate change denial, it was supposed to draw attention to the fact that "the most prominent advocates of global warming aren't scientists. (motherjones.com)
- Or consider Lubos Motl, a Czech theoretical physicist who has never published on climate change but nonetheless keeps up a steady stream of web assaults on scientists he calls "fringe kibitzers who want to become universal dictators" who should "be thinking how to undo your inexcusable behavior so that you will spend as little time in prison as possible. (motherjones.com)
- In the case of Houston, that's one of the world's most predictable disasters. (upenn.edu)
- The Lancet Countdown: Tracking Progress on Health and Climate Change is an international research collaboration dedicated to tracking the world's response to climate change and how it affects global health. (yorku.ca)
- The EU's work to build a resilient Energy Union with a forward looking climate policy, together with EU Member States efforts will contribute to ensuring the achievement of the at least 27% of renewables in 2030 target and thereby to the EU remaining the world's number one in renewable energy. (europa.eu)
- From Geneva to Rio, via Kyoto and Copenhagen, the "breakthrough" in Paris and the Trump tsunami in Marrakech , the world's climate diplomats now head to Bonn, where Monday marks the start of another fortnight-long summit . (theconversation.com)
- It will monopolize the weather, the science, and - after it becomes painfully obvious to even the climate deniers - the politics of the next 30 years. (forbes.com)
- The response of the climate change deniers was predictable. (wsws.org)
- Are the climate science deniers criminals? (scienceblogs.com)
- Climate change deniers are on the ropes-but not before they did their damage. (motherjones.com)
- This is yet another report from UN IPCC intended to empower UN bureaucrats to centrally plan our lives for no impact on the climate. (climatedepot.com)
- All IPCC definitions taken from Climate Change 2007: The Physical Science Basis. (skepticalscience.com)
- And how the IPCC institutionalizes such masking errors in climate science. (judithcurry.com)
- The whole IPCC effort, under the mandate from the UNFCCC, has been framed in terms of assessing 'dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. (judithcurry.com)
- Failure to identify a 'discernible' anthropogenic warming and dangers associated with the warming not only would have reduced the influence of the IPCC in climate policy deliberations, but in the early years would have justified its disbanding by the UNEP. (judithcurry.com)
- ClimateGate, bogus IPCC "studies" about disappearing Himalayan glaciers and Amazonian rainforests, the global economic recession, the Copenhagen disaster, soaring EU and UK energy prices, Spain's collapsing green energy industry, and eroding public belief in manmade Climate Armageddon have ushered in growing unease within the alarmist camp. (climaterealists.com)
- So a climate "crisis" generated by computer models and ClimateGate/IPCC data manipulation is now equivalent to the Great Depression and World War II. (climaterealists.com)
- Published in Nature , the study analysed six decades of climate model data and suggests decadal variations in North Atlantic atmospheric pressure patterns (known as the North Atlantic Oscillation ) are highly predictable, enabling advanced warning of whether winters in the coming decade are likely to be stormy, warm and wet or calm, cold and dry. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Understanding degradation drivers and patterns is therefore crucial to managing forests to mitigate climate change and reduce biodiversity loss. (pnas.org)
- these variations occur in predictable patterns called Milankovitch cycles . (wikipedia.org)
- Ecoregions are large areas of similar climate where ecosystems recur in predictable patterns. (fed.us)
- Divisions represent the climates within domains and are differentiated based on precipitation levels and patterns as well as temperature. (fed.us)
- New sections address how ecoregions change under the relentless influence of humans and climate change, and include discussions of the use of eco-regional patterns to transfer research results and select sites for detecting climate change effects on ecosystem distribution. (fed.us)
- Our current models capture the evolution and global patterns of climate change over the past century remarkably well, and they make credible and reproducible projections for the long-term climate outcomes of greenhouse warming. (nsf.gov)
- How has climate influenced population patterns throughout the Americas? (enotes.com)
- Climate has had a significant impact on population patterns in the Americas. (enotes.com)
- Thus, climate was once more important in determining population patterns than it is now. (enotes.com)
- As many delegates at the 11th Conference of the Parties to the UN Framework Convention on Climate Change begin to look beyond the Kyoto Protocol's targets and timetables, they are considering more flexible ways to reduce greenhouse gas emissions after 2012. (iccwbo.org)
- In particular, the policy instrument entitled "Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and forest Degradation" (REDD), which is currently being negotiated within the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change ( 2 , 13 ), focuses overwhelmingly on deforestation. (pnas.org)
- The Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC) was signed at the l 992 Earth Summit in Rio, and has since been ratified by 164 countries. (gdrc.org)
- The starting gun for the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC) was the November 1990 Second World Climate Conference. (theconversation.com)
- Let's assume that global climate change is real and anthropogenic. (fark.com)
- Otherwise, assuming that climate change is real and anthropogenic, and that CO2 is the key factor, we are all screwed, and it's gonna get a lot hotter. (fark.com)
- British-born physicist Freeman Dyson has revealed three "heresies", two of which challenge the current scientific orthodoxy that anthropogenic carbon causes climate change. (theregister.co.uk)
- If such feedbacks result in pronounced natural temperature variations, they also imply that the climate sensitivity is high. (realclimate.org)
- The largest ecosystems are domains, which are groups of related climates and which are differentiated based on precipitation and temperature. (fed.us)
- How predictable were this summer's European temperature records? (ecmwf.int)
- Coral reefs are weakened by human pollution making them susceptible to predation but are severely stressed or killed en masse by seawater temperature rising by 2C or more for 6-10 weeks. (skepticalscience.com)
- Also, in temperate and colder climates, the overwintering ability of many species is closely linked to the diapause state, which often increases cold tolerance ahead of temperature-induced seasonal acclimatisation. (biologists.org)
- A review of the likely impacts of a changing climate on the low temperature biology of insects is clearly a complex subject but there are three factors that are particularly important to consider: the cold tolerance of species under prevailing climatic conditions, the occurrence of diapause, and the direct and indirect effects of higher temperatures on one or both of these overwintering processes. (biologists.org)
- I would add…The LEFT's blind faith (there is no scientific basis) that Big Government is capable, competent, and cost-effective in regulating the climate, controlling global temperature, avoiding extreme weather, reversing climate change, and growing money on trees. (drroyspencer.com)
Impacts of climate1
- Developing countries will be particularly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change because of their limited institutional and financial capabilities. (gdrc.org)
Human-Induced climate change2
- Without globally coordinated policies to specifically address human-Induced climate change, the concentrations of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere are projected to increase significantly. (gdrc.org)
- The Morrison government has formally recognised the extinction of a tiny island rodent, the Bramble Cay melomys - the first known demise of a mammal because of human-induced climate change. (theage.com.au)
Effects of climate change2
- Even in this administration, there's a recognition that we still need to prepare for increased flooding and drought and the knock-on effects of climate change," says Bruce Stein, chief scientist of the National Wildlife Federation. (coloradoindependent.com)
- These are the direct effects of climate change on infectious diseases in humans - there is a range of indirect effects also. (bmj.com)
- The balance of scientific evidence suggests a discernible human influence on the Earth's climate. (gdrc.org)
- Earth's climate has changed many times. (nationalgeographic.org)
- The earth's climate has been changing continuously for billions of years. (freerepublic.com)
- That's because earth's climate is changing, leading to alterations and increases in the substances we breathe that can trigger or exacerbate an asthma attack. (philly.com)
- But the Trump administration didn't try to eliminate them outright as it has many other Obama climate change initiatives. (coloradoindependent.com)
- The key to their resilience is that they don't focus on the kinds of climate science that the Trump administration likes least - research into the human role in climate change and how to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. (coloradoindependent.com)
- Now supporters of the Climate Science Centers believe there's hope the centers will ride out the Trump administration. (coloradoindependent.com)
- That's why the Trump administration's budget also proposed adding the word adaptation to the centers' name: Climate Adaptation Science Centers. (coloradoindependent.com)
- They'll kill the predictable pro-business climate President Trump has carefully crafted. (realclearpolitics.com)
- Given the widespread implications, the climate collapse will become central to learning in science, math and social studies. (forbes.com)
- All of these questions, and many more, are being addressed at eight regional Climate Science Centers created during the Obama administration. (coloradoindependent.com)
- that will help the centers survive," says Robin O'Malley, who helped found the Climate Science network and this summer became the director of the North Central Climate Science Center, based at Colorado State University. (coloradoindependent.com)
- The center uniquely focus on what climate science means for the day-to-day work of land managers as they cope with melting glaciers, deeper and more frequent droughts, longer wildfire seasons, hotter air and water temperatures, rising sea levels and more intense rainstorms. (coloradoindependent.com)
- Climate change is not something in the distant future," says Scott Rupp , a University of Alaska Fairbanks professor who helps direct the Alaska Climate Science Center. (coloradoindependent.com)
- Chairman Rockefeller, Ranking Member Hutchison, and Members of the Committee, I am honored to speak with you today on the state of climate change science. (nsf.gov)
- A body of recent research compiled in the U.S. Climate Change Science Program's Synthesis and Assessment Products (SAP) has been very helpful in expanding our regional knowledge in these areas. (nsf.gov)
- Unless organized climate science denialists, right wing "morans" from the Tea Party, self interested paid-off politicians, and the likes of David and Charles Koch, get their way. (scienceblogs.com)
- Unless they get what they want, which is to interfere with the translation of climate science into science policy. (scienceblogs.com)
- What if someone other than me came along with the opinion that "There oughta be a law" or at least, a serious proposal that organized climate science denialism and obstruction against implementation of planet-saving policies and technologies should be considered an act against humanity? (scienceblogs.com)
- Anthony Watts will sneer and kvetch, and call his minion of eleven or twelve climate science denying winged monkeys (and their myriad sock puppets) to arms. (scienceblogs.com)
- We suggest that the fashions of word usage contributes an empirical, possibly regular, correlate to the impact of climate science on society. (plos.org)
- Bentley RA, Garnett P, O'Brien MJ, Brock WA (2012) Word Diffusion and Climate Science. (plos.org)
- Since climate science too is political, these dynamics matter, as certain trends of language use could lock the public into specific ways of defining, thinking, or interpreting climate change  . (plos.org)
- Our hypothesis is that certain keywords used in climate science will follow a distinct "boom and bust" fashion wave in general usage (distinct from the more specific usage in science), which can be modeled with a simple two-parameter logistic growth model. (plos.org)
- The facts, research, and science behind the climate-change article that explored our planet's worst-case scenarios. (nymag.com)
- The science says climate change threatens nearly every aspect of human life on this planet, and that inaction will hasten the problems. (nymag.com)
- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), as part of its Science to Achieve Results (STAR) program, is seeking applications for Air, Climate and Energy (ACE) Centers. (epa.gov)
- US midterm elections all but ensure a wholesale congressional reexamination of climate science and renewable energy claims … and budgets. (climaterealists.com)
- Michael Mann whined to Fortune magazine that he and climate science are under attack, and he is getting rude emails. (climaterealists.com)
- Denial that climate science has been politicized to promote a political Agenda? (drroyspencer.com)
- Lord Christopher Monckton, for instance, an English peer (who has been officially warned by the House of Lords to stop saying he's a member) began his speech at Heartland's annual conference by boasting that he had "no scientific qualification" to challenge the science of climate change. (motherjones.com)
Particularly vulnerable to the impacts1
- Due to the already extreme conditions found throughout its enormous landmass, Australia is particularly vulnerable to the impacts of a changing climate. (yahoo.com)
- and then he sojourns longer with the colder (European) climates of the early modern and Enlightenment centuries. (history.ac.uk)
- Must we fundamentally change course to conserve ecosystems in a changing climate? (wri.org)
- Do we need to adopt a fundamentally different approach to conserving ecosystems and their services in a changing climate? (wri.org)
- To conserve ecosystems in a changing climate, we must instead focus on how they are used and managed in the remaining 86% of land cover. (wri.org)
- changing climates have already significantly impacted people, infrastructure, and ecosystems throughout the globe, and these impacts will increase in extent and severity as climate changes continue. (nsf.gov)
- Despite the differences between these two types of environmental issues, co-benefits such as clean air are generally seen as a key avenue towards overcoming problems of collective action and extended time horizons related to climate change mitigation (Ürge-Vorsatz et al. (springer.com)
- While the existence of a link between local benefits and public acceptance of climate change mitigation is supported by the policy literature, there is little public opinion research to substantiate this connection. (springer.com)
- Climate change can cause droughts - which in turn result in the concentration of bacteria in fresh waters. (bmj.com)
- July 30, 2020 in Climate Models . (wattsupwiththat.com)
- But after 2020, as long as the technology had been proven, CCS would have to be retro-fitted to all new stations to cover the whole of their emissions, [Energy and Climate Change Secretary Ed] Miliband said. (scienceblogs.com)
- The climate protection goal adopted tonight would require the EU to cut emissions by a further 12 percent between 2012 and 2020, within only eight years. (ens-newswire.com)
- A quick question in regards to the 1991-2020 climate normals? (city-data.com)
- Last week, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) released a proposal for the first-ever standard to reduce carbon pollution from our existing fleet of fossil fuel-fired power plants - the largest source of U.S. climate changing emissions. (citizenvox.org)
- Executives attending under the banner of the International Chamber of Commerce (ICC) urged governments to take a long-term view of the climate challenge, saying that increased economic development in poorer countries would provide important opportunities for new technologies and new practices to curb emissions. (iccwbo.org)
- Also, since that will probably not happen, mankind being what it is - better at reaction than preparation, and since those two countries will probably realistically continue to increase emissions rapidly for years, maybe decades, I advise all of you to seek high ground in cold climates. (fark.com)
- Still, Spruiell is right in general: EPA is going to start regulating greenhouse gases, and they're going to do it because congressional conservatives unanimously rejected a climate bill that would have preempted EPA action and set up a better, more predictable 1 framework for reducing carbon emissions. (motherjones.com)
- Saudi Arabia's climate negotiator Mohammad Al-Sabban claimed that the content of the emails would derail discussion at Copenhagen on limiting greenhouse gas emissions. (wsws.org)
- Asian cities are now profoundly affecting climate, with 24 percent of global urban CO 2 emissions come from Chinese urban energy use, which is 85 percent of total energy related CO 2 emissions of China. (wilsoncenter.org)
- The continent of Europe currently generates 15 percent of the world s emissions of carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas responsible for climate change. (ens-newswire.com)
- Prioritising short term profit and ideology ahead of emissions reduction will inevitably result in an uncontrollable, unpredictable and destructive climate resulting in socio-economic collapse. (skepticalscience.com)
- The Obama administration was no different, and when it came to energy and climate change, a tangled text of sub rosa commitments - to various carbon emissions targets and timetables, to making clean energy ' the profitable kind of energy ,' to investing in clean coal, nuclear power, and solar tax credits - lay beneath the banner headlines about clean energy investments and green jobs. (foreignpolicy.com)
- It is a carbon-free source of power in an era of growing concern over climate change and other negative impacts of carbon emissions. (csmonitor.com)
Challenge of fighting clima1
- We call for a strong response from the European Council to the challenge of fighting climate change," said John Hontelez of EEB. (ens-newswire.com)
- That is, many of our climate decisions occur on autopilot. (psychologytoday.com)
- Climate changes occur over shorter periods, as well. (nationalgeographic.org)
- Most studies on the effects of a changing climate on insects have focused on processes that occur predominantly in summer (development, reproduction) and on changes in distributions rather than winter survival per se . (biologists.org)
- Negative impacts may occur if climate warming leads to a reduction or loss of winter snow cover in polar and sub-polar areas, resulting in exposure to more severe air temperatures, increasing frequency of freeze-thaw cycles and risks of ice encasement. (biologists.org)
- And rich nations are somehow supposed to fork over $100 billion annually in "climate change reparations" and "mitigation and adaptation" funds, on top of other aid, after they have shackled their economies and become "formerly developed countries. (climaterealists.com)
- For example, the fact that there is enhanced variability in the 3-7 year ENSO band is a result of climate dynamics ( Bjerkenes feedbacks ) resonating with wave propagation timescales. (realclimate.org)
- It is possible to get enhanced variability on those timescales as a result of dynamical mechanisms without needing to appeal to higher climate sensitivity. (realclimate.org)
- Results showed that temporal vulnerability increases as a result of the "narrowing" of relatively predictable surprise conditions in three interactive, dynamic systems: human meaning making, landscape change, and stochastic timing of hazard events. (ecologyandsociety.org)
- Sam was previously Co-Director of the Grantham Research Institute on Climate Change and the Environment from March 2011 until August 2017, along with Prof Simon Dietz . (lse.ac.uk)
- Now, research from the University of Missouri suggests that even as rising carbon dioxide levels in the atmosphere drive the climate toward warmer temperatures, the weather will remain predictable. (enn.com)
- The ensemble started to consistently predict warmer than average conditions 11 days before 25 July, and six days ahead most ensemble members predicted top temperatures above the 99th percentile of the local climate. (ecmwf.int)
- The ensemble started to predict above-average temperatures 10 days ahead of the event, and as early as 7 days ahead most ensemble members predicted top temperatures in excess of the 99th percentile of the local climate. (ecmwf.int)
- Although more than three days ahead the ensemble was very confident of temperatures well above the 99th percentile of the local climate, even the shortest-range ENS and HRES forecasts remained below the 46°C recorded at Vérargues. (ecmwf.int)
- Six days ahead, most ensemble members predicted top temperatures above the 99th percentile of the local climate. (ecmwf.int)
- Likewise, whilst the dominant diapause-inducing cue (photoperiod) will be unaffected by global climate change, higher temperatures may modify normal rates of development, leading to a decoupling of synchrony between diapause-sensitive life-cycle stages and critical photoperiods for diapause induction. (biologists.org)
- In terms of climate warming and potential heat stress, the most recent predictions of summer temperatures in Europe of 40°C or higher in 50-75 years, are close to the current upper lethal limit of some insects. (biologists.org)
- Improving model simulations will enhance the countries' response, resilience and security against the effects of extreme weather and climate change - influencing future policy decisions to protect people's lives, property and infrastructure. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Climate can be viewed as weather statistics. (realclimate.org)
- There are clear effects of physical factors (latitude, mountains, distance to the coast) on the statistical character of the weather and the weather statistics (climate). (realclimate.org)
- The weather statistics (eg probabilities) are predictable in spite of the chaotic and nonlinear character of weather itself. (realclimate.org)
- The weather is no longer predictable for farmers," said Shava. (irinnews.org)
- Amidst an increase in extreme weather and storms, we discuss the movement to confront climate change with Mary Robinson, former Irish president and U.N. high commissioner for human rights. (democracynow.org)
- Climate is the long-term pattern of weather in a particular area. (nationalgeographic.org)
- This video demonstrates the difference between weather and climate in a way that should be understandable to most people. (skepticalscience.com)
- Most of you have probably figured out that "klima" means climate and "vær" means weather. (skepticalscience.com)
- Our climate is changing, the weather is becoming more intense," Brown said in an airplane hangar filled with trucks, airplanes and helicopters used by the state to fight fires. (theatlantic.com)
- Some of these weather and climate problems are clearly connected to climate change such as those related to extreme heat, increased drying through evaporation, and increase water vapor. (scienceblogs.com)
- Because climates are mostly constant, living things can adapt to them. (nationalgeographic.org)
- As climates change, organisms that live in the area must adapt, relocate , or risk going extinct . (nationalgeographic.org)
- The big issue (is) how do we adapt," Brown said ,"because it doesn't look like the people who are in charge are going to do what it takes to really slow down this climate change, so we are going to have to adapt. (theatlantic.com)
- 4] In the Gulf of Mexico, nutrient runoff from farmland has created a dead zone approximately the size of New Jersey which has degraded fisheries and is expected to worsen with climate change. (wri.org)
- A study from Harvard University says that if climate change continues to worsen as projected, 18 countries may lose over 5% of their dietary protein from staple crops by 2050. (businessinsider.com)
- The analogy to a "gas skeptic" above illustrates why Curry's claim is misconceived because it is false that the climate models are unfit to make predictions about the future climate just because the atmosphere behaves in a nonlinear fashion due to the Navier-Stokes equations. (realclimate.org)
- What is surprising is the difficulty they still face in making detailed predictions about which species survive, especially in relation to other factors such as climate change and natural local conditions. (phys.org)
- More productive future-focused climate dialogue offers crucial scientific predictions plus aspirational goals such as sustainable energy sources, circular economies, and concern for social justice. (psychologytoday.com)
- and 3) the U.S. scientific and engineering, community can and must retain world leadership through our intellectual and technological capabilities to continuously improve predictions of climate changes on the temporal and spatial scales relevant to human endeavors. (nsf.gov)
- As the pace of global change has accelerated, so has the demand from the public, business leaders, resource managers, and decision makers for climate predictions, not just a century ahead but over the next five, ten, or fifteen years, and not just globally, but regionally and locally. (nsf.gov)
- Below is a complete listing of the articles in "How to Talk to a Climate Skeptic," a series by Coby Beck containing responses to the most common skeptical arguments on global warming. (grist.org)
- Part of the How to Talk to a Climate Skeptic guide) Objection: Despite what the computer models tell us, there is actually no evidence of significant global warming. (grist.org)
- Lead author Dr Doug Smith , who heads decadal climate prediction research and development at the Met Office Hadley Centre, said: "The message from this study is double-edged: climate is much more predictable than we previously thought, but there is a clear need to improve how models simulate regional changes. (wattsupwiththat.com)
- Climate Depot's Marc Morano Note: Get ready! (climatedepot.com)
- The best of them-and that would be Marc Morano, proprietor of the website Climate Depot , and Anthony Watts, of the website Watts Up With That -have fought with remarkable tenacity to stall and delay the inevitable recognition that we're in serious trouble. (motherjones.com)
- It is worse, much worse, than you think," said David Wallace-Wells, author of The Uninhabitable Earth , about the climate crisis. (forbes.com)
Time of climate change2
Posed by climate change1
- Skewed sex ratios aren't the only challenge posed by climate change. (nationalgeographic.com)
Consequences of climate change2
- Our research will help to enable the estimation of the ecological consequences of climate change," says Professor Schwechheimer. (innovations-report.com)
- T]he likely consequences of climate change, including sea-level rise and increase in the frequency and intensity of tropical storms, are unlikely to have any major impact on the survival of the Bramble Cay melomys in the life of this plan,' the five-year scheme stated. (theage.com.au)
Responsible for climate change1
- No one country is solely responsible for climate change. (yahoo.com)
- A panel Saturday morning at the opening session of the Aspen Environment Forum painted an often bleak picture of how climate change is altering the world and how humans are dealing with the challenges. (freerepublic.com)
- The climate is changing, but I don't think humans are causing it. (freerepublic.com)
- When Will Climate Change Make the Earth Too Hot For Humans? (nymag.com)
- The assumption and assertion that humans are causing a climate catastrophe must be perpetuated at all costs. (climaterealists.com)
- For supposedly being able to understand nuances, these guys can't admit that most conservatives really do believe that humans have some influence on climate. (drroyspencer.com)
- This warming is expected to contribute to rising sea levels and the melting of glaciers and permafrost, as well as other climate-related effects. (enn.com)
- Terms such as "gas skeptics" and "climate skeptics" aren't really very descriptive, but they refer to sentiments that have something in common: unpredictable behaviour. (realclimate.org)
- He is concerned to show not only the changeability of physical climate and the adaptiveness of societies to such change, but also how the ways people think about and make sense of climate and its variations - the 'behaviour' of climate we might say - are themselves mutable. (history.ac.uk)
- Action on short-lived climate pollutants, such as black carbon (also known as soot), has the potential to save millions of lives globally while also significantly slowing global warming, sea-level rise, and Arctic and glacier melt (Victor et al. (springer.com)
- The federal government is planning sweeping new climate-change regulations for Canada's electricity sector that will phase out traditional coal-fired power. (scienceblogs.com)
- President of the Confederation of European Business, Ernest-Antoine Seilli re, stressed that new climate protection regulations must not endanger the international competitiveness of companies. (ens-newswire.com)
- Another project underway will analyze how climate change will impact the flooding caused annually by lakes that form behind glaciers. (coloradoindependent.com)
- This paper examines a triple challenge: the interlinked and intensifying problems of climate change, ecosystem services degradation, and the need to double food production to sustain a growing global population. (wri.org)
- Australia today is ground zero for the climate catastrophe. (yahoo.com)
- The massive wildfires flattening thousands of acres in Southern California were predictable. (theatlantic.com)
- He joined us to talk about how climate change worsens wildfires, how controlled burns can, counterintuitively, reduce damage from fires, and why Smokey the Bear was wrong about forest fires. (ucsusa.org)
Keep changing th1
- We keep changing the climate so there is no new normal. (freerepublic.com)
- it is instead a political sugar rush, right at the inflection period during which we have a (continually diminishing) chance to stave off complete climate disaster , but only with rapid, coordinated comprehensive response. (forbes.com)
- It has been labeled an historic moment for clean air regulation but was met by a classic knee-jerk reaction from industry and the U.S. Chamber of Commerce, whose lack of credibility on the proposed rule begins with its continued refusal to acknowledge human activity as a contributor to climate change. (citizenvox.org)
- So, your reaction seemed entirely predictable. (climateaudit.org)
- Flashback: Former UN Climate Chief: Meat eaters should be banished, treated 'the same way that smokers are treated" - "How about restaurants in 10-15 years start treating carnivores the same way that smokers are treated? (climatedepot.com)
- The obvious answer is to prevent further climate change - but this will take years to happen. (bmj.com)
- Climates do change, however-they just change very slowly, over hundreds or even thousands of years. (nationalgeographic.org)
- Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles-rapid warming events with durations of approximately 1000 years, followed by a more gradual return to cold conditions-are some of the most dramatic examples of rapid climate change that occurred in the North Atlantic region over the last glacial period. (judithcurry.com)
- If we could choose between the climate of today with a dry Sahara and the climate of 6,000 years ago with a wet Sahara, should we prefer the climate of today? (theregister.co.uk)
- It says that the warm climate of 6,000 years ago with the wet Sahara is to be preferred, and that increasing carbon dioxide in the atmosphere may help to bring it back. (theregister.co.uk)
- In the 200 or so pages between these opening and closing remarks, Behringer offers an account of how changes in physical climates over 10,000 years have influenced human societies and how such changes have been understood by those societies. (history.ac.uk)
- Unlike wind and solar photovoltaics, nuclear offers a stable, predictable supply of base load electricity. (csmonitor.com)
- In this five-part series on trends in learning, we've covered 12 trends at various stages of maturity, but none of them compare to the climate crisis - nothing is more important or more imminent. (forbes.com)
- Such rings provide little or no record of variations in climate and are termed complacent. (climateaudit.org)
- Trees growing on sites where climate seldom limits growth processes produce rings that are uniformly wide (A). Such rings provide little or no record of variations in climate and are termed complacent. (climateaudit.org)
- Milankovitch cycles dominate climate on the glacial-interglacial timescale, but there exist variations in ice sheet extent that are not linked directly with insolation. (wikipedia.org)
- I searched previous Climate Etc. posts, and it seems that I have not written previously on the topic of abrupt climate change. (judithcurry.com)
- For background information, I recommend the 2002 NRC report Abrupt Climate Change: Inevitable Surprises . (judithcurry.com)
- During the last glacial period, the North Atlantic basin experienced a number of large and abrupt millennial-scale fluctuations in climate referred to as Dansgaard-Oeschger (DO) cycles. (judithcurry.com)
- At the UN climate talks in Montreal, business representatives have put forward their perspectives on a long-term international policy approach to address global climate change. (iccwbo.org)
- Driven by intense research efforts that are interdisciplinary, inter-governmental, and international, scientific understanding of global climate change is growing rapidly. (nsf.gov)
- In light of these and other inherent difficulties in the current approach, ICC has urged parties to the UN Framework Convention to pursue a fresh approach on climate change, promoting global participation, addressing climate risks in the context of development priorities, and encouraging more rapid use of existing and future technologies. (iccwbo.org)
- How do African SMEs respond to climate risks? (lse.ac.uk)
- Member of the Editorial Board of the journals Global Environmental Change , Climate Policy and Global Sustainability . (lse.ac.uk)
- Climate change policy in the UK. (lse.ac.uk)
- A pessimistic me reminds myself that there isn't a a public policy debate about climate change just now, productive or otherwise. (terrapass.com)
- People clearly share with each other their impressions of climate change and policy  . (plos.org)
- But no sooner had the president's stimulus program demonstrated that a new way forward on climate change and energy might be possible, then the new administration relinquished its climate change and energy policy to the partisans of the past. (foreignpolicy.com)
- Virtually every other key policy role was filled by environmental regulators - former Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) head Carol Browner as climate czar, former Browner aide Lisa Jackson as EPA administrator, and Nancy Sutley as chair of the White House Council on Environmental Quality. (foreignpolicy.com)
- Putting Browner, a former Al Gore aide, in charge of climate-change policy was payback to environmental groups and the green donors who had supported Obama's campaign. (foreignpolicy.com)
- The Renewable Energy Directive and its legal provisions have contributed to the overall achievement of EU's energy and climate policy goals, security of energy supply, employment, public acceptance of renewables and regional development. (europa.eu)
- It is not being regulated by any type of climate policy. (slashdot.org)
- Yet it is a narrative which, as well as being powerful, is sufficiently plastic to allow many different knowledge, policy and moral entrepreneurs to work with and exploit the idea of climate change in different ways. (history.ac.uk)
- California, the most enthusiastically green state in the country, has certainly tried to slow down climate change. (theatlantic.com)
- 1. Wu X, Lu Y, Zhou S, Chen L, Xu B. Impact of climate change on human infectious diseases: Empirical evidence and human adaptation. (bmj.com)
- Climatologist s look for evidence of past climate change in many different places. (nationalgeographic.org)
- And the condition of Lake Erie is one more piece of evidence that we must combat climate change, not deny it. (toledoblade.com)
- Evidence of a variable but progressively drying climate coincides with a major shift in stone tool-making abilities and the a. (labmanager.com)