Predatory Behavior: Instinctual behavior pattern in which food is obtained by killing and consuming other species.Ants: Insects of the family Formicidae, very common and widespread, probably the most successful of all the insect groups. All ants are social insects, and most colonies contain three castes, queens, males, and workers. Their habits are often very elaborate and a great many studies have been made of ant behavior. Ants produce a number of secretions that function in offense, defense, and communication. (From Borror, et al., An Introduction to the Study of Insects, 4th ed, p676)Amphipoda: An order of mostly marine CRUSTACEA containing more than 5500 species in over 100 families. Like ISOPODA, the other large order in the superorder Peracarida, members are shrimp-like in appearance, have sessile compound eyes, and no carapace. But unlike Isopoda, they possess thoracic gills and their bodies are laterally compressed.Cladocera: A suborder of CRUSTACEA, order Diplostraca, comprising the water fleas. They are benthic filter feeders that consume PHYTOPLANKTON. The body is laterally compressed and enclosed in a bivalved carapace, from which the head extends.Videodisc Recording: The storing of visual and usually sound signals on discs for later reproduction on a television screen or monitor.Dipteryx: A plant genus of the family FABACEAE. Members contain COUMARINS.BrazilNematoda: A class of unsegmented helminths with fundamental bilateral symmetry and secondary triradiate symmetry of the oral and esophageal structures. Many species are parasites.Genome, Helminth: The genetic complement of a helminth (HELMINTHS) as represented in its DNA.DNA, Helminth: Deoxyribonucleic acid that makes up the genetic material of helminths.Genes, Helminth: The functional hereditary units of HELMINTHS.Caenorhabditis elegans: A species of nematode that is widely used in biological, biochemical, and genetic studies.Helminth Proteins: Proteins found in any species of helminth.Vulva: The external genitalia of the female. It includes the CLITORIS, the labia, the vestibule, and its glands.Papio cynocephalus: A species of baboon in the family CERCOPITHECIDAE found in southern equatorial and east Africa. They are smaller than PAPIO ANUBIS and have a thinner mane.Papio: A genus of the subfamily CERCOPITHECINAE, family CERCOPITHECIDAE, consisting of five named species: PAPIO URSINUS (chacma baboon), PAPIO CYNOCEPHALUS (yellow baboon), PAPIO PAPIO (western baboon), PAPIO ANUBIS (or olive baboon), and PAPIO HAMADRYAS (hamadryas baboon). Members of the Papio genus inhabit open woodland, savannahs, grassland, and rocky hill country. Some authors consider MANDRILLUS a subgenus of Papio.Cercopithecus: A genus of Old World monkeys found in Africa although some species have been introduced into the West Indies. This genus is composed of at least twenty species: C. AETHIOPS, C. ascanius, C. campbelli, C. cephus, C. denti, C. diana, C. dryas, C. erythrogaster, C. erythrotis, C. hamlyni, C. lhoesti, C. mitis, C. mona, C. neglectus, C. nictitans, C. petaurista, C. pogonias, C. preussi, C. salongo, and C. wolfi.Cercopithecus aethiops: A species of CERCOPITHECUS containing three subspecies: C. tantalus, C. pygerythrus, and C. sabeus. They are found in the forests and savannah of Africa. The African green monkey (C. pygerythrus) is the natural host of SIMIAN IMMUNODEFICIENCY VIRUS and is used in AIDS research.Rain: Water particles that fall from the ATMOSPHERE.Hares: The genus Lepus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Hares are born above ground, fully furred, and with their eyes and ears open. In contrast with RABBITS, hares have 24 chromosome pairs.Bison: A genus of the family Bovidae having two species: B. bison and B. bonasus. This concept is differentiated from BUFFALOES, which refers to Bubalus arnee and Syncerus caffer.Felidae: The cat family in the order CARNIVORA comprised of muscular, deep-chested terrestrial carnivores with a highly predatory lifestyle.Lions: Large, chiefly nocturnal mammals of the cat family FELIDAE, species Panthera leo. They are found in Africa and southern Asia.Panthera: Genus in the family FELIDAE comprised of big felines including LIONS; TIGERS; jaguars; and the leopard.Encyclopedias as Topic: Works containing information articles on subjects in every field of knowledge, usually arranged in alphabetical order, or a similar work limited to a special field or subject. (From The ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)ArtiodactylaMycoplasma bovis: A species of gram-negative bacteria causing MASTITIS; ARTHRITIS; and RESPIRATORY TRACT DISEASES in CATTLE.MichiganResearch: Critical and exhaustive investigation or experimentation, having for its aim the discovery of new facts and their correct interpretation, the revision of accepted conclusions, theories, or laws in the light of newly discovered facts, or the practical application of such new or revised conclusions, theories, or laws. (Webster, 3d ed)Female Athlete Triad Syndrome: A condition of competitive female athletes in which there are interrelated problems of EATING DISORDERS; AMENORRHEA; and OSTEOPOROSIS.Athletes: Individuals who have developed skills, physical stamina and strength or participants in SPORTS or other physical activities.Sports: Activities or games, usually involving physical effort or skill. Reasons for engagement in sports include pleasure, competition, and/or financial reward.Basketball: A competitive team sport played on a rectangular court having a raised basket at each end.Track and Field: Sports performed on a track, field, or arena and including running events and other competitions, such as the pole vault, shot put, etc.Manihot: A plant genus of the family EUPHORBIACEAE that is perennial with conspicuous, almost palmate leaves like those of RICINUS but more deeply parted into five to nine lobes. It is a source of a starch after removal of the cyanogenic glucosides. The common name of Arrowroot is also used with Maranta (MARANTACEAE). The common name of yuca is also used for YUCCA.Mites: Any arthropod of the subclass ACARI except the TICKS. They are minute animals related to the spiders, usually having transparent or semitransparent bodies. They may be parasitic on humans and domestic animals, producing various irritations of the skin (MITE INFESTATIONS). Many mite species are important to human and veterinary medicine as both parasite and vector. Mites also infest plants.Volatile Organic Compounds: Organic compounds that have a relatively high VAPOR PRESSURE at room temperature.Acari: A large, subclass of arachnids comprising the MITES and TICKS, including parasites of plants, animals, and humans, as well as several important disease vectors.Tetranychidae: Family of spider MITES, in the superfamily Tetranychoidea, suborder Trombidiformes.Volatilization: A phase transition from liquid state to gas state, which is affected by Raoult's law. It can be accomplished by fractional distillation.Pan troglodytes: The common chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. It lives in Africa, primarily in the tropical rainforests. There are a number of recognized subspecies.Ape Diseases: Diseases of chimpanzees, gorillas, and orangutans.Pan paniscus: The pygmy chimpanzee, a species of the genus Pan, family HOMINIDAE. Its common name is Bonobo, which was once considered a separate genus by some; others considered it a subspecies of PAN TROGLODYTES. Its range is confined to the forests of the central Zaire basin. Despite its name, it is often of equal size to P. troglodytes.Animals, ZooGorilla gorilla: This single species of Gorilla, which is a member of the HOMINIDAE family, is the largest and most powerful of the PRIMATES. It is distributed in isolated scattered populations throughout forests of equatorial Africa.Gestures: Movement of a part of the body for the purpose of communication.Camping: Living outdoors as a recreational activity.Microclimate: The climate of a very small area.Holidays: Days commemorating events. Holidays also include vacation periods.Foxes: Any of several carnivores in the family CANIDAE, that possess erect ears and long bushy tails and are smaller than WOLVES. They are classified in several genera and found on all continents except Antarctica.Burial: The act or ceremony of putting a corpse into the ground or a vault, or into the sea; or the inurnment of CREMAINS.IsraelLiability, Legal: Accountability and responsibility to another, enforceable by civil or criminal sanctions.

Prey capture in the weakly electric fish Apteronotus albifrons: sensory acquisition strategies and electrosensory consequences. (1/1866)

Sensory systems are faced with the task of extracting behaviorally relevant information from complex sensory environments. In general, sensory acquisition involves two aspects: the control of peripheral sensory surfaces to improve signal reception and the subsequent neural filtering of incoming sensory signals to extract and enhance signals of interest. The electrosensory system of weakly electric fish provides a good model system for studying both these aspects of sensory acquisition. On the basis of infrared video recordings of black ghost knifefish (Apteronotus albifrons) feeding on small prey (Daphnia magna) in the dark, we reconstruct three-dimensional movement trajectories of the fish and prey. We combine the reconstructed trajectory information with models of peripheral electric image formation and primary electrosensory afferent response dynamics to estimate the spatiotemporal patterns of transdermal potential change and afferent activation that occur during prey-capture behavior. We characterize the behavioral strategies used by the fish, with emphasis on the functional importance of the dorsal edge in prey capture behavior, and we analyze the electrosensory consequences. In particular, we find that the high-pass filter characteristics of P-type afferent response dynamics can serve as a predictive filter for estimating the future position of the prey as the electrosensory image moves across the receptor array.  (+info)

Neuromuscular control of prey capture in frogs. (2/1866)

While retaining a feeding apparatus that is surprisingly conservative morphologically, frogs as a group exhibit great variability in the biomechanics of tongue protraction during prey capture, which in turn is related to differences in neuromuscular control. In this paper, I address the following three questions. (1) How do frog tongues differ biomechanically? (2) What anatomical and physiological differences are responsible? (3) How is biomechanics related to mechanisms of neuromuscular control? Frog species use three non-exclusive mechanisms to protract their tongues during feeding: (i) mechanical pulling, in which the tongue shortens as its muscles contract during protraction; (ii) inertial elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under inertial and muscular loading; and (iii) hydrostatic elongation, in which the tongue lengthens under constraints imposed by the constant volume of a muscular hydrostat. Major differences among these functional types include (i) the amount and orientation of collagen fibres associated with the tongue muscles and the mechanical properties that this connective tissue confers to the tongue as a whole; and (ii) the transfer of intertia from the opening jaws to the tongue, which probably involves a catch mechanism that increases the acceleration achieved during mouth opening. The mechanisms of tongue protraction differ in the types of neural mechanisms that are used to control tongue movements, particularly in the relative importance of feed-forward versus feedback control, in requirements for precise interjoint coordination, in the size and number of motor units, and in the afferent pathways that are involved in coordinating tongue and jaw movements. Evolution of biomechanics and neuromuscular control of frog tongues provides an example in which neuromuscular control is finely tuned to the biomechanical constraints and opportunities provided by differences in morphological design among species.  (+info)

Effects of size, motility and paralysation time of prey on the quantity of venom injected by the hunting spider Cupiennius salei. (3/1866)

Previous experimental studies have shown that neotropical wandering spiders (Cupiennius salei) inject more venom when attacking larger crickets. It has been postulated that this is a consequence of predator-prey interactions during envenomation, which increase in intensity with the size of a given prey species. The present study was designed to test this hypothesis using anaesthetized crickets of different sizes that were moved artificially. Cupiennius salei was found (1) to inject more venom the greater the intensity of the struggling movement of the crickets (prey size kept constant); (2) to inject more venom the longer the duration of the struggling movement of the crickets (prey size and intensity of movement kept constant); and (3) to inject equal amounts into crickets of different size (duration and intensity of movement kept constant). These results indicate that C. salei alters the amount of venom it releases according to the size and motility of its prey. Venom expenditure depends mainly on the extent of the interactions with the prey during the envenomation process, whereas prey size is of minor significance. The regulation of venom injection in concert with behavioural adaptations in response to various types of prey minimizes the energetic cost of venom production, thus increasing the profitability of a given prey item.  (+info)

Lunar cycles in diel prey migrations exert a stronger effect on the diving of juveniles than adult Galapagos fur seals. (4/1866)

In our study of the development of diving in Galapagos fur seals, we analysed changes in diving activity and body mass trends over the lunar cycle. Based on previously observed lunar cycles in colony attendance patterns, we hypothesized a greater impact of prey migrations of deep scattering layer organisms on younger fur seals. Using electronic dive recorders, we determined that seals dived less and deeper on moonlit nights than at new moon, and incurred body mass losses. These changes in foraging over the lunar cycle correlate with the suppression of the vertical migration of prey by lunar light. All effects were more pronounced in juveniles than adult females, with greater relative mass loss during full moon, which must (i) negatively affect long-term juvenile growth rates, (ii) lengthen periods of maternal dependence, and (iii) contribute to the lowest reproductive rate reported for seals. This underlines the importance of studying ontogeny in order to understand life histories, and for determining the susceptibility of animal populations to fluctuations in food availability.  (+info)

A trade-off between energy intake and exposure to parasites in oystercatchers feeding on a bivalve mollusc. (5/1866)

Models of animal dispersion between habitat patches that differ in resource density assume that animals maximize their fitness by maximizing the rate at which they consume resources. How valid is this assumption? Studies on wading birds have been central to the application of dispersion models to predator-prey systems. However, these birds do not always attempt to maximize their rate of energy intake, implying that maximization involves costs as well as benefits. Overwintering oystercatchers feeding on cockles in the Burry Inlet, South Wales, do not consume the larger more energetically profitable cockles even though consuming these prey would increase their rate of energy intake. This paper tests the hypothesis that maximizing energy intake involves a trade-off with exposure to helminth parasites. Cockles are important intermediate hosts for helminth parasites, for which oystercatchers are the definitive host. The helminth intensity of cockles increased significantly with cockle size. A functional response model was used to examine how size selection by the birds influenced energy intake and the ingestion rate of parasites. To maximize energy intake birds should selectively consume the larger size classes, but to minimize the ingestion rate of parasites they should consume the smallest size classes. In the wild, birds selectively consumed intermediate size classes, which could represent a compromise between these conflicting demands. The implications for animal dispersion models are discussed.  (+info)

Electrolocation-communication discharges of the fish Gymnotus carapo L. (Gymnotidae: Gymnotiformes) during behavioral sleep. (6/1866)

Technical problems have hampered the study of sleep in teleosts. The electrical discharges of Gymnotus carapo L. (Gymnotidae: Gymnotiformes) were monitored to evaluate their ease and reliability as parameters to study sleep. The discharges were detected by electrodes immersed in a glass aquarium and were recorded on a conventional polygraph. G. carapo showed conspicuous signs of behavioral sleep. During these periods, opercular beat rates were counted, electric discharges recorded, and the "sharp discharge increase" (SDI) of the orienting reflex was investigated. All 20 animals monitored maintained electrical discharges during behavioral sleep. The discharge frequencies during sleep (50.3 +/- 10.4 Hz) were not significantly different from those observed when the fish was awake and inactive (57.2 +/- 12.1 Hz) (Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-ranks test, P>0.05). However, the SDI, which was prevalent in the awake fish, was not observed during periods of behavioral sleep. Additional observations showed that the species had cannibalistic habits. When presented with electrical discharges from a conspecific, the sleeping fish showed an initial decrease or pause in discharge frequency, while the awake fish did not have this response. We conclude that the electrical discharges of G. carapo were not conspicuous indicators of behavioral sleep. Discharges may have been maintained during sleep for sensory purposes, i.e., conspecific detection and avoidance of cannibalistic attacks.  (+info)

Accommodation in the cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis). (7/1866)

We have studied natural accommodation in the eye of six specimens of cuttlefish (Sepia officinalis) as they were fed with fish and shrimp. Using infrared photoretinoscopy, we observed (1) that the resting refractive state of the cuttlefish was emmetropic or slightly hyperopic, (2) that accommodation took place only a fraction of a second before a strike and (3) that accommodation focused selectively only in the frontal visual field while no change in refraction could be measured in the lateral field of view. Accommodation was bilateral and amounted to approximately 5 diopters (the reciprocal of the focal length expressed in meters). Simultaneously, the eyes converged. It appears that, as in most teleost fishes, accommodation in the cuttlefish involves a movement of the crystalline lens perpendicular to the axis of the eye. In histological sections, we observed the position and arrangement of the ciliary muscles, confirming earlier anatomical descriptions, and developed a model of how accommodation could be achieved.  (+info)

Role of prey-capture experience in the development of the escape response in the squid Loligo opalescens: a physiological correlate in an identified neuron. (8/1866)

Although extensively used for biophysical studies, the squid giant axon system remains largely unexplored in regard to in vivo function and modulation in any biologically relevant context. Here we show that successful establishment of the recruitment pattern for the giant axon in the escape response elicited by a brief electrical stimulus depends on prey-capture experience early in life. Juvenile squid fed only slow-moving, easy-to-capture prey items (Artemia salina) develop deficits in coordinating activity in the giant axon system with that of a parallel set of non-giant motor axons during escape responses. These deficits are absent in cohorts fed fast-moving, challenging prey items (copepods). These results suggest that the acquisition of inhibitory control over the giant axon system is experience-dependent and that both prey-capture and escape behavior depend on this control.  (+info)

  • Young develop rapidly, and seem to act like young dogs or coyotes by fighting and seeming preparing for their predatory life style. (
  • This research, therefore, investigated the possibility of using the root extract of a common weed in southwestern Nigeria, named P. alliacea, in checkmating the predatory influence of nymphs of dragonfly which frequently attack fry of African mud catfish. (
  • This challenge to understanding the lifestyle of extinct animals is exemplified by the controversy over the feeding behavior of the Late Cretaceous theropod Tyrannosaurus rex ( 3 , 7 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 17 ). (
  • Although predation and scavenging have often been suggested as distinct feeding behavior alternatives ( 3 , 7 ⇓ - 9 , 11 ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ ⇓ - 17 ), these terms merit semantic clarification. (
  • In this study, predation is considered a subset of feeding behavior, by which any species kills what it eats. (
  • His research has included autopsying dead marine mammals, studying the feeding behavior of sharks, and trying to estimate shark population size. (
  • This indicates that the prey escaped and lived for some time after the injury, providing direct evidence of predatory behavior by T. rex . (
  • When a prey escaped, workers reacted by using a local searching or "reserve" behavior: they moved by increasing both sinuosity and speed. (
  • The details of predatory behavior for each prey species are described. (
  • My dissertation addressed predator-prey population dynamics in response to variation in four foraging traits in the predatory mite, Phytoseiulus persimilis (Acari: Phytoseiidae): consumption rate, conversion efficiency, dispersal, and olfactory response related to prey. (
  • The dispersal response and olfactory sensitivity in predatory mites is modified by prey-related cues. (
  • The olfactory response of predatory mites also increased with increasing numbers of prey per plant or with the length of time a plant was infested by prey. (
  • The existence of genetic variation and covariation among the foraging traits suggests that predatory mites must be able to adopt different foraging strategies in the evolution of prey-finding in a tritrophic system. (
  • The variability in foraging behaviors of the predatory mite affects its ability to locate patchily distributed prey, thereby influencing foraging efficiency and population dynamics. (
  • some people even enlist such non-predatory beasts, like horses, camels, and elephants in getting approaches to prey. (
  • After burrowing through the outer wall, B. bacteriovorus secretes hydrolytic enzymes to obtain energy for growth and division before lysing the prey cell host to repeat the predatory cycle. (
  • Inspired by their prey hunting behaviors and distribution mode, we abstracted three intelligent behaviors, scouting, calling, and besieging, and two intelligent rules, winner-take-all generation rule of lead wolf and stronger-survive renewing rule of wolf pack. (
  • They are coated by chemosensors that provide detection of minute chemical signals that are thought to alert the scorpions to the approach of prey and also to be of use in mating behavior. (
  • What's more, the researchers may view predatory segments on a frame-by-frame basis to identify the exact distances, movements and timing of movements of rattlesnakes and their prey during their interactions. (
  • Microinfusions of naloxone alone in similar dosage completely blocked the predatory attack response as indicated by an increase in the threshold current strength for somatomotor as well as affective display components. (
  • Microinfusions of yohimbine, an alpha-2 blocker, in 5 microg dose completely blocked the predatory attach response as indicated by an increase in the threshold current strength for the affective components. (
  • Because destructive behavior has many potential causes, a careful analysis of the dog's history and environment is necessary to help identify the cause of the problem so that effective behavior modification techniques can be recommended. (
  • Thus, anticipation of the owner's return or arrival increases the dog's anxiety level, and may result in destructive behavior to relieve the anxiety. (
  • Learning the answers to these questions can clarify the circumstances that trigger your dog's aggressive reaction and provide insight into the reasons for her behavior. (
  • In most cases, the dog's intention is not so much to harm the threat as it is to change the threat's behavior by making it go away. (
  • Was this fatal dog attack in California caused by the dog's predatory tendencies? (
  • Blackwell's Five-Minute Veterinary Consult Clinical Companion: Canine and Feline Behavior, Second Edition offers fast access to reliable, practical information on managing common behavior disorders in dogs and cats. (
  • Instead, this investigation will deal exclusively with the evolutionary history of the australopithecines: their anatomy, diet, ecology and behavior. (
  • These observations appear to outline a framework of behavior that could be employed for efficient tracking of odor trails, and which is regulated by decision mechanisms that integrate sensation, internal state and experience. (
  • Microinfusions of propranalol (beta-blocker), practalol (beta-1 blocker), prazosin (alpha-1 antagonist), propylene glycol as well as saline in similar volumes (0.5 microl) as control failed to produce any blocking effect, thus indicating the involvement of alpha-2 adrenoceptive mechanisms in the modulation of predatory attack in this region of midbrain. (
  • We'd rather they have as natural behavior as possible," said Bengt Holst, director of conservation for the Copenhagen Zoo . (
  • Unfortunately, the very presence of pets in the preserve alters the natural behavior of native wildlife. (
  • Humans and dogs make a predatory team rivaling any single predator in effectiveness. (
  • Without crafted weapons, society , or cleverness, a lone human can easily be defeated by fit predatory animals, such as wild dogs, big cats and bears (see Man-eater ). (
  • Chewing, playing, exploring, and investigating their environment are normal behaviors for dogs - especially puppies! (
  • This is one of the most common causes of destructive behavior in dogs, particularly in those obtained from shelters or found as strays. (
  • Dogs with separation anxiety tend to display behaviors which reflect a strong attachment to their owners - following owners from room to room, displaying almost frantic greeting behaviors, and reacting to owners' preparation to leaving the house. (
  • Dogs which do to receive attention and reinforcement for appropriate behavior may show destructive behavior when owners are present, as a way to attract attention - even if the attention is "negative" such as verbal scoldings. (
  • This is very common in young dogs and often occurs when the dog is unsupervised or does not have sufficient outlets for appropriate play behavior. (
  • Dogs don't always follow this sequence, and they often do several of the behaviors above simultaneously. (
  • Dogs are often valued for this level of territorial behavior. (
  • Reassessing the behavior in line with learning theory suggests in some situations, dogs that are confident and assertive are motivated by a pattern of successful encounters to continue their behavior. (
  • Note that even dogs lacking aggressive tendencies towards people may still nevertheless possess predatory tendencies. (
  • The swinging movement of a person the size of an infant on a swing has the potential to trigger a predatory reaction in some dogs. (
  • In other circumstances, some dogs may be prompted to attack for predatory reasons after hearing the noise from a hearing aid . (
  • Ancient diets can be readily reconstructed on the basis of the available evidence, although their derivation (e.g., predation or scavenging behavior) often remains elusive. (
  • Once the researchers successfully record snake predation, they simply fast-forward through the inevitably long segments showing inactivity, but replay predatory segments as many times as necessary. (
  • Dr. Douglas Long has been doing research on the ecological interactions, in particular the feeding habits and predatory behavior of great white sharks on marine mammals along the coast of central California for several years now. (
  • Despite the ecological significance of rattlesnakes, their predatory behavior has been largely understudied. (
  • Traditional ecotoxicology studies focus on the physical effects a chemical has on growth and reproduction, but this study highlights the need to evaluate behavior when assessing the effects of contaminants on wildlife populations. (
  • Stacey Robinson and her co-author Stacey Lee-Jenkins evaluated the anti-predator behavior of wood frogs after exposure to neonicotinoids. (
  • Wood frogs employ a number of strategies and behaviors to avoid being eaten: camouflage, immobility, crouching or assuming an "anti-predator" posture, but being able to flee quickly once detected is also critical to survival. (
  • analysis of modern predator behavior as well as of Smilodon ' s fossil remains could be construed to lend support to either view. (
  • This suggests that more variants of smaller effects underlie variation in aerobic performance, whereas fewer variants of larger effects underlie variation in predatory behavior. (
  • Many people who know someone with OCPD want to know how to help the OCPD sufferer from doing some of his or her repetitive or negative behaviors. (
  • Motivational and reinforcing assays reveal that ZI photoactivation is associated with a strong appetitive drive, causing repetitive self-stimulatory behaviors. (
  • Predatory fish introduction can cause cascading changes within recipient freshwater ecosystems. (
  • These interactions across multiple trophic levels both within and outside of the invaded lake highlight the potential substantial influence of an introduced predatory fish on otherwise pristine ecosystems. (
  • Here, we show how latitudinal differences in predatory fish can essentially be explained by the inflow of energy at the base of the pelagic and benthic food chain. (
  • Rumors about his behavior swirled in "whispers [that] had become so loud they were more like shouts"-and unnamed movement leaders were refusing to expose him. (
  • One of the most daunting tasks of paleontology is inferring the behavior and feeding habits of extinct organisms. (
  • In his book, Dying to Be Men , Dr. Will Courtenay describes the cultural influences of "masculinity" that lead men to reject many healthy behaviors, and simultaneously to gravitate to numerous unhealthy behaviors instead, which put them at risk of death, injury and disease. (
  • This research examines a darker side of social media that demonstrates unintended consequences that are negatively transforming and affecting lives of children who fall victim to predatory coercion. (
  • Additionally, we present a matrix of predatory coercion and victimization of children within social media that aggregates the results of all three studies. (
  • It's a pretty common thing, as any good wolf biologist will tell you, that any wolf's job in his righteous social behavior is to investigate and assault strange canines. (
  • In 1995, inspired by social behavior and movement dynamics of birds, Kennedy proposed the particle swarm optimization algorithm (PSO) [ 7 ]. (
  • In 1996, inspired by social division and foraging behavior of ant colonies, Dorigo proposed the ant colony optimization algorithm (ACO) [ 8 ]. (
  • Some kinds of scorpions show more sophisticated social behaviors, like colonial burrowing, and living in familial groups that may share burrows and food. (
  • Studies have shown that it is a systematic behavior in different populations of chimpanzees [ 8 ], which may occur either individually or cooperatively. (
  • Hunting behavior is closely related to elbow flexibility, and so the scientists looked to the parts of the humerus (upper arm bone) which articulate with the forearm to see what the thylacine's arms were capable of. (
  • His behavior has been an open secret to many in Hollywood and beyond, but previous attempts by many publications, including The New Yorker , to investigate and publish the story over the years fell short of the demands of journalistic evidence. (
  • These predatory tendencies directed towards an animal or a person, particularly the size of a newborn, have resulted in dog bite fatalities. (
  • And it was the infant's reaction, and not the coughing, which triggered a predatory bite by this dog. (
  • It would be fair to assume that in this fatal dog attack in California the parents, although nearby to supervise, were probably unaware of the speed in which a predatory reaction in a dog might happen. (
  • Until now, predatory behavior among captive chimpanzees has been poorly documented. (
  • Helping an aggressive dog become more confident by teaching him to see a perceived threat or potential loss of a valued resource in a different light is the key to successfully changing the behavior. (
  • In 2005, motivated by the intelligent foraging behavior of honeybee swarms, Karaboga proposed the artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm [ 10 ]. (