Sulfates: Inorganic salts of sulfuric acid.Chondroitin Sulfates: Derivatives of chondroitin which have a sulfate moiety esterified to the galactosamine moiety of chondroitin. Chondroitin sulfate A, or chondroitin 4-sulfate, and chondroitin sulfate C, or chondroitin 6-sulfate, have the sulfate esterified in the 4- and 6-positions, respectively. Chondroitin sulfate B (beta heparin; DERMATAN SULFATE) is a misnomer and this compound is not a true chondroitin sulfate.Protein PrecursorsHeparitin Sulfate: A heteropolysaccharide that is similar in structure to HEPARIN. It accumulates in individuals with MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS.Sulfuric Acid Esters: Organic esters of sulfuric acid.Glycosaminoglycans: Heteropolysaccharides which contain an N-acetylated hexosamine in a characteristic repeating disaccharide unit. The repeating structure of each disaccharide involves alternate 1,4- and 1,3-linkages consisting of either N-acetylglucosamine or N-acetylgalactosamine.Dermatan Sulfate: A naturally occurring glycosaminoglycan found mostly in the skin and in connective tissue. It differs from CHONDROITIN SULFATE A (see CHONDROITIN SULFATES) by containing IDURONIC ACID in place of glucuronic acid, its epimer, at carbon atom 5. (from Merck, 12th ed)Sulfuric Acids: Inorganic and organic derivatives of sulfuric acid (H2SO4). The salts and esters of sulfuric acid are known as SULFATES and SULFURIC ACID ESTERS respectively.Amyloid beta-Protein Precursor: A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.Chondroitinases and Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of glucuronate residues from chondroitin A,B, and C or which catalyze the hydrolysis of sulfate groups of the 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-galactose 6-sulfate units of chondroitin sulfate. EC 4.2.2.-.Sulfotransferases: Enzymes which transfer sulfate groups to various acceptor molecules. They are involved in posttranslational sulfation of proteins and sulfate conjugation of exogenous chemicals and bile acids. EC 2.8.2.Heparin: A highly acidic mucopolysaccharide formed of equal parts of sulfated D-glucosamine and D-glucuronic acid with sulfaminic bridges. The molecular weight ranges from six to twenty thousand. Heparin occurs in and is obtained from liver, lung, mast cells, etc., of vertebrates. Its function is unknown, but it is used to prevent blood clotting in vivo and vitro, in the form of many different salts.Chondroitin ABC Lyase: An enzyme that catalyzes the eliminative degradation of polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-D-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages to disaccharides containing 4-deoxy-beta-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups. (Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992)Disaccharides: Oligosaccharides containing two monosaccharide units linked by a glycosidic bond.Keratan Sulfate: A sulfated mucopolysaccharide initially isolated from bovine cornea. At least two types are known. Type I, found mostly in the cornea, contains D-galactose and D-glucosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit; type II, found in skeletal tissues, contains D-galactose and D-galactosamine-6-O-sulfate as the repeating unit.Steryl-Sulfatase: An arylsulfatase with high specificity towards sulfated steroids. Defects in this enzyme are the cause of ICHTHYOSIS, X-LINKED.Chondroitin: A mucopolysaccharide constituent of chondrin. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)SulfatasesIduronic Acid: Component of dermatan sulfate. Differs in configuration from glucuronic acid only at the C-5 position.Enzyme Precursors: Physiologically inactive substances that can be converted to active enzymes.Polysaccharide-Lyases: A group of carbon-oxygen lyases. These enzymes catalyze the breakage of a carbon-oxygen bond in polysaccharides leading to an unsaturated product and the elimination of an alcohol. EC 4.2.2.Heparin Lyase: An enzyme of the isomerase class that catalyzes the eliminative cleavage of polysaccharides containing 1,4-linked D-glucuronate or L-iduronate residues and 1,4-alpha-linked 2-sulfoamino-2-deoxy-6-sulfo-D-glucose residues to give oligosaccharides with terminal 4-deoxy-alpha-D-gluc-4-enuronosyl groups at their non-reducing ends. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 4.2.2.7.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.RNA Precursors: RNA transcripts of the DNA that are in some unfinished stage of post-transcriptional processing (RNA PROCESSING, POST-TRANSCRIPTIONAL) required for function. RNA precursors may undergo several steps of RNA SPLICING during which the phosphodiester bonds at exon-intron boundaries are cleaved and the introns are excised. Consequently a new bond is formed between the ends of the exons. Resulting mature RNAs can then be used; for example, mature mRNA (RNA, MESSENGER) is used as a template for protein production.Calcium Sulfate: A calcium salt that is used for a variety of purposes including: building materials, as a desiccant, in dentistry as an impression material, cast, or die, and in medicine for immobilizing casts and as a tablet excipient. It exists in various forms and states of hydration. Plaster of Paris is a mixture of powdered and heat-treated gypsum.Electrophoresis, Cellulose Acetate: Electrophoresis in which cellulose acetate is the diffusion medium.Chondroitin Lyases: Enzymes which catalyze the elimination of delta-4,5-D-glucuronate residues from polysaccharides containing 1,4-beta-hexosaminyl and 1,3-beta-D-glucuronosyl or 1,3-alpha-L-iduronosyl linkages thereby bringing about depolymerization. EC 4.2.2.4 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C as well as on dermatan sulfate and slowly on hyaluronate. EC 4.2.2.5 acts on chondroitin sulfate A and C.Mars: The fourth planet in order from the sun. Its two natural satellites are Deimos and Phobos. It is one of the four inner or terrestrial planets of the solar system.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Chlorates: Inorganic salts of chloric acid that contain the ClO3- ion.Proteoglycans: Glycoproteins which have a very high polysaccharide content.GlucosamineChromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Glucuronates: Derivatives of GLUCURONIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that include the 6-carboxy glucose structure.Nucleic Acid Precursors: Use for nucleic acid precursors in general or for which there is no specific heading.Oligosaccharides: Carbohydrates consisting of between two (DISACCHARIDES) and ten MONOSACCHARIDES connected by either an alpha- or beta-glycosidic link. They are found throughout nature in both the free and bound form.Acids, Heterocyclic: A class of acids containing a ring structure in which at least one atom other than CARBON is incorporated.Amyloid Precursor Protein Secretases: Endopeptidases that are specific for AMYLOID PROTEIN PRECURSOR. Three secretase subtypes referred to as alpha, beta, and gamma have been identified based upon the region of amyloid protein precursor they cleave.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Extraterrestrial Environment: The environment outside the earth or its atmosphere. The environment may refer to a closed cabin (such as a space shuttle or space station) or to space itself, the moon, or other planets.Carbohydrate Sequence: The sequence of carbohydrates within POLYSACCHARIDES; GLYCOPROTEINS; and GLYCOLIPIDS.Scenedesmus: A genus of GREEN ALGAE in the family Scenedesmaceae. It forms colonies of usually four or eight cylindrical cells that are widely distributed in freshwater and SOIL.Spacecraft: Devices, manned and unmanned, which are designed to be placed into an orbit about the Earth or into a trajectory to another celestial body. (NASA Thesaurus, 1988)Urochordata: A subphylum of chordates intermediate between the invertebrates and the true vertebrates. It includes the Ascidians.Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans: Ubiquitous macromolecules associated with the cell surface and extracellular matrix of a wide range of cells of vertebrate and invertebrate tissues. They are essential cofactors in cell-matrix adhesion processes, in cell-cell recognition systems, and in receptor-growth factor interactions. (From Cancer Metastasis Rev 1996; 15(2): 177-86; Hepatology 1996; 24(3): 524-32)Sulfoglycosphingolipids: GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS with a sulfate group esterified to one of the sugar groups.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans: Proteoglycans consisting of proteins linked to one or more CHONDROITIN SULFATE-containing oligosaccharide chains.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Cell Differentiation: Progressive restriction of the developmental potential and increasing specialization of function that leads to the formation of specialized cells, tissues, and organs.Molecular Weight: The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.Alkanesulfonates: Organic esters or salts of sulfonic acid derivatives containing an aliphatic hydrocarbon radical.Glycocalyx: The carbohydrate-rich zone on the cell surface. This zone can be visualized by a variety of stains as well as by its affinity for lectins. Although most of the carbohydrate is attached to intrinsic plasma membrane molecules, the glycocalyx usually also contains both glycoproteins and proteoglycans that have been secreted into the extracellular space and then adsorbed onto the cell surface. (Alberts et al., Molecular Biology of the Cell, 3d ed, p502)Protein Processing, Post-Translational: Any of various enzymatically catalyzed post-translational modifications of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS in the cell of origin. These modifications include carboxylation; HYDROXYLATION; ACETYLATION; PHOSPHORYLATION; METHYLATION; GLYCOSYLATION; ubiquitination; oxidation; proteolysis; and crosslinking and result in changes in molecular weight and electrophoretic motility.Escherichia: A genus of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria whose organisms occur in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. The species are either nonpathogenic or opportunistic pathogens.Uronic Acids: Acids derived from monosaccharides by the oxidation of the terminal (-CH2OH) group farthest removed from the carbonyl group to a (-COOH) group. (From Stedmans, 26th ed)Hyaluronic Acid: A natural high-viscosity mucopolysaccharide with alternating beta (1-3) glucuronide and beta (1-4) glucosaminidic bonds. It is found in the UMBILICAL CORD, in VITREOUS BODY and in SYNOVIAL FLUID. A high urinary level is found in PROGERIA.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Base Sequence: The sequence of PURINES and PYRIMIDINES in nucleic acids and polynucleotides. It is also called nucleotide sequence.Arylsulfatases: Enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of a phenol sulfate to yield a phenol and sulfate. Arylsulfatase A, B, and C have been separated. A deficiency of arylsulfatases is one of the causes of metachromatic leukodystrophy (LEUKODYSTROPHY, METACHROMATIC). EC 3.1.6.1.Stem Cells: Relatively undifferentiated cells that retain the ability to divide and proliferate throughout postnatal life to provide progenitor cells that can differentiate into specialized cells.Cartilage: A non-vascular form of connective tissue composed of CHONDROCYTES embedded in a matrix that includes CHONDROITIN SULFATE and various types of FIBRILLAR COLLAGEN. There are three major types: HYALINE CARTILAGE; FIBROCARTILAGE; and ELASTIC CARTILAGE.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Heparin Cofactor II: A sulfated plasma protein with a MW of approximately 66kDa that resembles ANTITHROMBIN III. The protein is an inhibitor of thrombin in plasma and is activated by dermatan sulfate or heparin. It is a member of the serpin superfamily.Bile Acids and Salts: Steroid acids and salts. The primary bile acids are derived from cholesterol in the liver and usually conjugated with glycine or taurine. The secondary bile acids are further modified by bacteria in the intestine. They play an important role in the digestion and absorption of fat. They have also been used pharmacologically, especially in the treatment of gallstones.Phosphoadenosine Phosphosulfate: 3'-Phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate. Key intermediate in the formation by living cells of sulfate esters of phenols, alcohols, steroids, sulfated polysaccharides, and simple esters, such as choline sulfate. It is formed from sulfate ion and ATP in a two-step process. This compound also is an important step in the process of sulfur fixation in plants and microorganisms.Metabolic Detoxication, Phase II: The conjugation of exogenous substances with various hydrophilic substituents to form water soluble products that are excretable in URINE. Phase II modifications include GLUTATHIONE conjugation; ACYLATION; and AMINATION. Phase II enzymes include GLUTATHIONE TRANSFERASE and GLUCURONOSYLTRANSFERASE. In a sense these reactions detoxify phase I reaction products.Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Acetylgalactosamine: The N-acetyl derivative of galactosamine.PolysaccharidesHyaluronoglucosaminidase: An enzyme that catalyzes the random hydrolysis of 1,4-linkages between N-acetyl-beta-D-glucosamine and D-glucuronate residues in hyaluronate. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) There has been use as ANTINEOPLASTIC AGENTS to limit NEOPLASM METASTASIS.Whales: Large marine mammals of the order CETACEA. In the past, they were commercially valued for whale oil, for their flesh as human food and in ANIMAL FEED and FERTILIZERS, and for baleen. Today, there is a moratorium on most commercial whaling, as all species are either listed as endangered or threatened.Glucuronides: Glycosides of GLUCURONIC ACID formed by the reaction of URIDINE DIPHOSPHATE GLUCURONIC ACID with certain endogenous and exogenous substances. Their formation is important for the detoxification of drugs, steroid excretion and BILIRUBIN metabolism to a more water-soluble compound that can be eliminated in the URINE and BILE.Antithrombins: Endogenous factors and drugs that directly inhibit the action of THROMBIN, usually by blocking its enzymatic activity. They are distinguished from INDIRECT THROMBIN INHIBITORS, such as HEPARIN, which act by enhancing the inhibitory effects of antithrombins.Glucuronic Acid: A sugar acid formed by the oxidation of the C-6 carbon of GLUCOSE. In addition to being a key intermediate metabolite of the uronic acid pathway, glucuronic acid also plays a role in the detoxification of certain drugs and toxins by conjugating with them to form GLUCURONIDES.Substrate Specificity: A characteristic feature of enzyme activity in relation to the kind of substrate on which the enzyme or catalytic molecule reacts.Sharks: A group of elongate elasmobranchs. Sharks are mostly marine fish, with certain species large and voracious.Receptor, Fibroblast Growth Factor, Type 2: A fibroblast growth factor receptor that is found in two isoforms. One receptor isoform is found in the MESENCHYME and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2. A second isoform of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 is found mainly in EPITHELIAL CELLS and is activated by FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 7 and FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 10. Mutation of the gene for fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 can result in craniosynostotic syndromes (e.g., APERT SYNDROME; and CROUZON SYNDROME).Receptors, Fibroblast Growth Factor: Specific molecular sites or structures on cell membranes that react with FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTORS (both the basic and acidic forms), their analogs, or their antagonists to elicit or to inhibit the specific response of the cell to these factors. These receptors frequently possess tyrosine kinase activity.Chromatography, Ion Exchange: Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Recombinant Proteins: Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.Chromatography, Gel: Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Electrophoresis, Polyacrylamide Gel: Electrophoresis in which a polyacrylamide gel is used as the diffusion medium.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Binding Sites: The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.Sulfonic Acids: Inorganic or organic oxy acids of sulfur which contain the RSO2(OH) radical.Anions: Negatively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the anode or positive pole during electrolysis.Mucopolysaccharidosis II: Systemic lysosomal storage disease marked by progressive physical deterioration and caused by a deficiency of L-sulfoiduronate sulfatase. This disease differs from MUCOPOLYSACCHARIDOSIS I by slower progression, lack of corneal clouding, and X-linked rather than autosomal recessive inheritance. The mild form produces near-normal intelligence and life span. The severe form usually causes death by age 15.Carbohydrate Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a carbohydrate.Chemistry: A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.Hydrolysis: The process of cleaving a chemical compound by the addition of a molecule of water.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Estrone: An aromatized C18 steroid with a 3-hydroxyl group and a 17-ketone, a major mammalian estrogen. It is converted from ANDROSTENEDIONE directly, or from TESTOSTERONE via ESTRADIOL. In humans, it is produced primarily by the cyclic ovaries, PLACENTA, and the ADIPOSE TISSUE of men and postmenopausal women.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Immunohistochemistry: Histochemical localization of immunoreactive substances using labeled antibodies as reagents.Chemical Phenomena: The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.Fibroblast Growth Factor 2: A single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. Several different forms of the human protein exist ranging from 18-24 kDa in size due to the use of alternative start sites within the fgf-2 gene. It has a 55 percent amino acid residue identity to FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1 and has potent heparin-binding activity. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages. It was originally named basic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from acidic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 1).Hexuronic Acids: Term used to designate tetrahydroxy aldehydic acids obtained by oxidation of hexose sugars, i.e. glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, etc. Historically, the name hexuronic acid was originally given to ascorbic acid.Peptide Fragments: Partial proteins formed by partial hydrolysis of complete proteins or generated through PROTEIN ENGINEERING techniques.Galactosidases: A family of galactoside hydrolases that hydrolyze compounds with an O-galactosyl linkage. EC 3.2.1.-.Precursor Cells, T-Lymphoid: Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the T lymphocyte lineage.Cell Division: The fission of a CELL. It includes CYTOKINESIS, when the CYTOPLASM of a cell is divided, and CELL NUCLEUS DIVISION.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.CHO Cells: CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.Glycoproteins: Conjugated protein-carbohydrate compounds including mucins, mucoid, and amyloid glycoproteins.Cell Lineage: The developmental history of specific differentiated cell types as traced back to the original STEM CELLS in the embryo.RNA, Messenger: RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.Fibroblast Growth Factor 1: A 17-kDa single-chain polypeptide growth factor that plays a significant role in the process of WOUND HEALING and is a potent inducer of PHYSIOLOGIC ANGIOGENESIS. It binds to HEPARIN, which potentiates its biological activity and protects it from proteolysis. The growth factor is an extremely potent inducer of DNA synthesis in a variety of cell types from mesoderm and neuroectoderm lineages, and also has chemotactic and mitogenic activities. It was originally named acidic fibroblast growth factor based upon its chemical properties and to distinguish it from basic fibroblast growth factor (FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR 2).Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Fibroblast Growth Factor 10: A fibroblast growth factor that is a mitogen for KERATINOCYTES. It activates FIBROBLAST GROWTH FACTOR RECEPTOR 2B and is involved in LUNG and limb development.EstersCloning, Molecular: The insertion of recombinant DNA molecules from prokaryotic and/or eukaryotic sources into a replicating vehicle, such as a plasmid or virus vector, and the introduction of the resultant hybrid molecules into recipient cells without altering the viability of those cells.Swine: Any of various animals that constitute the family Suidae and comprise stout-bodied, short-legged omnivorous mammals with thick skin, usually covered with coarse bristles, a rather long mobile snout, and small tail. Included are the genera Babyrousa, Phacochoerus (wart hogs), and Sus, the latter containing the domestic pig (see SUS SCROFA).GlucuronidaseLiver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.Glycosides: Any compound that contains a constituent sugar, in which the hydroxyl group attached to the first carbon is substituted by an alcoholic, phenolic, or other group. They are named specifically for the sugar contained, such as glucoside (glucose), pentoside (pentose), fructoside (fructose), etc. Upon hydrolysis, a sugar and nonsugar component (aglycone) are formed. (From Dorland, 28th ed; From Miall's Dictionary of Chemistry, 5th ed)Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases: A sub-subclass of endopeptidases that depend on an ASPARTIC ACID residue for their activity.Endopeptidases: A subclass of PEPTIDE HYDROLASES that catalyze the internal cleavage of PEPTIDES or PROTEINS.Species Specificity: The restriction of a characteristic behavior, anatomical structure or physical system, such as immune response; metabolic response, or gene or gene variant to the members of one species. It refers to that property which differentiates one species from another but it is also used for phylogenetic levels higher or lower than the species.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Dextrans: A group of glucose polymers made by certain bacteria. Dextrans are used therapeutically as plasma volume expanders and anticoagulants. They are also commonly used in biological experimentation and in industry for a wide variety of purposes.Fibroblast Growth Factors: A family of small polypeptide growth factors that share several common features including a strong affinity for HEPARIN, and a central barrel-shaped core region of 140 amino acids that is highly homologous between family members. Although originally studied as proteins that stimulate the growth of fibroblasts this distinction is no longer a requirement for membership in the fibroblast growth factor family.Dextran Sulfate: Long-chain polymer of glucose containing 17-20% sulfur. It has been used as an anticoagulant and also has been shown to inhibit the binding of HIV-1 to CD4-POSITIVE T-LYMPHOCYTES. It is commonly used as both an experimental and clinical laboratory reagent and has been investigated for use as an antiviral agent, in the treatment of hypolipidemia, and for the prevention of free radical damage, among other applications.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Precursor B-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma: A leukemia/lymphoma found predominately in children and adolescents and characterized by a high number of lymphoblasts and solid tumor lesions. Frequent sites involve LYMPH NODES, skin, and bones. It most commonly presents as leukemia.Hematopoietic Stem Cells: Progenitor cells from which all blood cells derive.Syndecan-1: A syndecan that interacts with EXTRACELLULAR MATRIX PROTEINS and plays a role CELL PROLIFERATION and CELL MIGRATION.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control of gene action during the developmental stages of an organism.Chromatography: Techniques used to separate mixtures of substances based on differences in the relative affinities of the substances for mobile and stationary phases. A mobile phase (fluid or gas) passes through a column containing a stationary phase of porous solid or liquid coated on a solid support. Usage is both analytical for small amounts and preparative for bulk amounts.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Mice, Transgenic: Laboratory mice that have been produced from a genetically manipulated EGG or EMBRYO, MAMMALIAN.Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization: A mass spectrometry technique used for analysis of nonvolatile compounds such as proteins and macromolecules. The technique involves preparing electrically charged droplets from analyte molecules dissolved in solvent. The electrically charged droplets enter a vacuum chamber where the solvent is evaporated. Evaporation of solvent reduces the droplet size, thereby increasing the coulombic repulsion within the droplet. As the charged droplets get smaller, the excess charge within them causes them to disintegrate and release analyte molecules. The volatilized analyte molecules are then analyzed by mass spectrometry.Mice, Inbred C57BLPartial Thromboplastin Time: The time required for the appearance of FIBRIN strands following the mixing of PLASMA with phospholipid platelet substitute (e.g., crude cephalins, soybean phosphatides). It is a test of the intrinsic pathway (factors VIII, IX, XI, and XII) and the common pathway (fibrinogen, prothrombin, factors V and X) of BLOOD COAGULATION. It is used as a screening test and to monitor HEPARIN therapy.Alzheimer Disease: A degenerative disease of the BRAIN characterized by the insidious onset of DEMENTIA. Impairment of MEMORY, judgment, attention span, and problem solving skills are followed by severe APRAXIAS and a global loss of cognitive abilities. The condition primarily occurs after age 60, and is marked pathologically by severe cortical atrophy and the triad of SENILE PLAQUES; NEUROFIBRILLARY TANGLES; and NEUROPIL THREADS. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, pp1049-57)Amyloid beta-Peptides: Peptides generated from AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES PRECURSOR. An amyloid fibrillar form of these peptides is the major component of amyloid plaques found in individuals with Alzheimer's disease and in aged individuals with trisomy 21 (DOWN SYNDROME). The peptide is found predominantly in the nervous system, but there have been reports of its presence in non-neural tissue.Mollusca: A phylum of the kingdom Metazoa. Mollusca have soft, unsegmented bodies with an anterior head, a dorsal visceral mass, and a ventral foot. Most are encased in a protective calcareous shell. It includes the classes GASTROPODA; BIVALVIA; CEPHALOPODA; Aplacophora; Scaphopoda; Polyplacophora; and Monoplacophora.Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Protein Biosynthesis: The biosynthesis of PEPTIDES and PROTEINS on RIBOSOMES, directed by MESSENGER RNA, via TRANSFER RNA that is charged with standard proteinogenic AMINO ACIDS.Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, Biomolecular: NMR spectroscopy on small- to medium-size biological macromolecules. This is often used for structural investigation of proteins and nucleic acids, and often involves more than one isotope.Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Tissue Distribution: Accumulation of a drug or chemical substance in various organs (including those not relevant to its pharmacologic or therapeutic action). This distribution depends on the blood flow or perfusion rate of the organ, the ability of the drug to penetrate organ membranes, tissue specificity, protein binding. The distribution is usually expressed as tissue to plasma ratios.Oligodendroglia: A class of large neuroglial (macroglial) cells in the central nervous system. Oligodendroglia may be called interfascicular, perivascular, or perineuronal (not the same as SATELLITE CELLS, PERINEURONAL of GANGLIA) according to their location. They form the insulating MYELIN SHEATH of axons in the central nervous system.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Extracellular Matrix Proteins: Macromolecular organic compounds that contain carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, and usually, sulfur. These macromolecules (proteins) form an intricate meshwork in which cells are embedded to construct tissues. Variations in the relative types of macromolecules and their organization determine the type of extracellular matrix, each adapted to the functional requirements of the tissue. The two main classes of macromolecules that form the extracellular matrix are: glycosaminoglycans, usually linked to proteins (proteoglycans), and fibrous proteins (e.g., COLLAGEN; ELASTIN; FIBRONECTINS; and LAMININ).Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Bone Marrow Cells: Cells contained in the bone marrow including fat cells (see ADIPOCYTES); STROMAL CELLS; MEGAKARYOCYTES; and the immediate precursors of most blood cells.Bile: An emulsifying agent produced in the LIVER and secreted into the DUODENUM. Its composition includes BILE ACIDS AND SALTS; CHOLESTEROL; and ELECTROLYTES. It aids DIGESTION of fats in the duodenum.Binding, Competitive: The interaction of two or more substrates or ligands with the same binding site. The displacement of one by the other is used in quantitative and selective affinity measurements.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Fibroblasts: Connective tissue cells which secrete an extracellular matrix rich in collagen and other macromolecules.Cornea: The transparent anterior portion of the fibrous coat of the eye consisting of five layers: stratified squamous CORNEAL EPITHELIUM; BOWMAN MEMBRANE; CORNEAL STROMA; DESCEMET MEMBRANE; and mesenchymal CORNEAL ENDOTHELIUM. It serves as the first refracting medium of the eye. It is structurally continuous with the SCLERA, avascular, receiving its nourishment by permeation through spaces between the lamellae, and is innervated by the ophthalmic division of the TRIGEMINAL NERVE via the ciliary nerves and those of the surrounding conjunctiva which together form plexuses. (Cline et al., Dictionary of Visual Science, 4th ed)Chromatography, Affinity: A chromatographic technique that utilizes the ability of biological molecules to bind to certain ligands specifically and reversibly. It is used in protein biochemistry. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Protein Sorting Signals: Amino acid sequences found in transported proteins that selectively guide the distribution of the proteins to specific cellular compartments.Erythroid Precursor Cells: The cells in the erythroid series derived from MYELOID PROGENITOR CELLS or from the bi-potential MEGAKARYOCYTE-ERYTHROID PROGENITOR CELLS which eventually give rise to mature RED BLOOD CELLS. The erythroid progenitor cells develop in two phases: erythroid burst-forming units (BFU-E) followed by erythroid colony-forming units (CFU-E); BFU-E differentiate into CFU-E on stimulation by ERYTHROPOIETIN, and then further differentiate into ERYTHROBLASTS when stimulated by other factors.Cell Adhesion: Adherence of cells to surfaces or to other cells.Sequence Homology, Amino Acid: The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.Nerve Tissue ProteinsLigands: A molecule that binds to another molecule, used especially to refer to a small molecule that binds specifically to a larger molecule, e.g., an antigen binding to an antibody, a hormone or neurotransmitter binding to a receptor, or a substrate or allosteric effector binding to an enzyme. Ligands are also molecules that donate or accept a pair of electrons to form a coordinate covalent bond with the central metal atom of a coordination complex. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Air Pollutants: Any substance in the air which could, if present in high enough concentration, harm humans, animals, vegetation or material. Substances include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; and volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.RNA Processing, Post-Transcriptional: Post-transcriptional biological modification of messenger, transfer, or ribosomal RNAs or their precursors. It includes cleavage, methylation, thiolation, isopentenylation, pseudouridine formation, conformational changes, and association with ribosomal protein.Transcription, Genetic: The biosynthesis of RNA carried out on a template of DNA. The biosynthesis of DNA from an RNA template is called REVERSE TRANSCRIPTION.DNA: A deoxyribonucleotide polymer that is the primary genetic material of all cells. Eukaryotic and prokaryotic organisms normally contain DNA in a double-stranded state, yet several important biological processes transiently involve single-stranded regions. DNA, which consists of a polysugar-phosphate backbone possessing projections of purines (adenine and guanine) and pyrimidines (thymine and cytosine), forms a double helix that is held together by hydrogen bonds between these purines and pyrimidines (adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine).Epitopes: Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.Transcription Factors: Endogenous substances, usually proteins, which are effective in the initiation, stimulation, or termination of the genetic transcription process.Brain: The part of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM that is contained within the skull (CRANIUM). Arising from the NEURAL TUBE, the embryonic brain is comprised of three major parts including PROSENCEPHALON (the forebrain); MESENCEPHALON (the midbrain); and RHOMBENCEPHALON (the hindbrain). The developed brain consists of CEREBRUM; CEREBELLUM; and other structures in the BRAIN STEM.Air Pollution: The presence of contaminants or pollutant substances in the air (AIR POLLUTANTS) that interfere with human health or welfare, or produce other harmful environmental effects. The substances may include GASES; PARTICULATE MATTER; or volatile ORGANIC CHEMICALS.Phenotype: The outward appearance of the individual. It is the product of interactions between genes, and between the GENOTYPE and the environment.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Neurophysins: Carrier proteins for OXYTOCIN and VASOPRESSIN. They are polypeptides of about 10-kDa, synthesized in the HYPOTHALAMUS. Neurophysin I is associated with oxytocin and neurophysin II is associated with vasopressin in their respective precursors and during transportation down the axons to the neurohypophysis (PITUITARY GLAND, POSTERIOR).Precursor Cells, B-Lymphoid: Lymphocyte progenitor cells that are restricted in their differentiation potential to the B lymphocyte lineage. The pro-B cell stage of B lymphocyte development precedes the pre-B cell stage.Neural Stem Cells: Self-renewing cells that generate the main phenotypes of the nervous system in both the embryo and adult. Neural stem cells are precursors to both NEURONS and NEUROGLIA.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Saccharomyces cerevisiae: A species of the genus SACCHAROMYCES, family Saccharomycetaceae, order Saccharomycetales, known as "baker's" or "brewer's" yeast. The dried form is used as a dietary supplement.DNA, Complementary: Single-stranded complementary DNA synthesized from an RNA template by the action of RNA-dependent DNA polymerase. cDNA (i.e., complementary DNA, not circular DNA, not C-DNA) is used in a variety of molecular cloning experiments as well as serving as a specific hybridization probe.Presenilin-1: Integral membrane protein of Golgi and endoplasmic reticulum. Its homodimer is an essential component of the gamma-secretase complex that catalyzes the cleavage of membrane proteins such as NOTCH RECEPTORS and AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES precursors. PSEN1 mutations cause early-onset ALZHEIMER DISEASE type 3 that may occur as early as 30 years of age in humans.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Mitochondria: Semiautonomous, self-reproducing organelles that occur in the cytoplasm of all cells of most, but not all, eukaryotes. Each mitochondrion is surrounded by a double limiting membrane. The inner membrane is highly invaginated, and its projections are called cristae. Mitochondria are the sites of the reactions of oxidative phosphorylation, which result in the formation of ATP. They contain distinctive RIBOSOMES, transfer RNAs (RNA, TRANSFER); AMINO ACYL T RNA SYNTHETASES; and elongation and termination factors. Mitochondria depend upon genes within the nucleus of the cells in which they reside for many essential messenger RNAs (RNA, MESSENGER). Mitochondria are believed to have arisen from aerobic bacteria that established a symbiotic relationship with primitive protoeukaryotes. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Gene Expression: The phenotypic manifestation of a gene or genes by the processes of GENETIC TRANSCRIPTION and GENETIC TRANSLATION.Estradiol: The 17-beta-isomer of estradiol, an aromatized C18 steroid with hydroxyl group at 3-beta- and 17-beta-position. Estradiol-17-beta is the most potent form of mammalian estrogenic steroids.Plasmids: Extrachromosomal, usually CIRCULAR DNA molecules that are self-replicating and transferable from one organism to another. They are found in a variety of bacterial, archaeal, fungal, algal, and plant species. They are used in GENETIC ENGINEERING as CLONING VECTORS.Thymus Gland: A single, unpaired primary lymphoid organ situated in the MEDIASTINUM, extending superiorly into the neck to the lower edge of the THYROID GLAND and inferiorly to the fourth costal cartilage. It is necessary for normal development of immunologic function early in life. By puberty, it begins to involute and much of the tissue is replaced by fat.Chloroplasts: Plant cell inclusion bodies that contain the photosynthetic pigment CHLOROPHYLL, which is associated with the membrane of THYLAKOIDS. Chloroplasts occur in cells of leaves and young stems of plants. They are also found in some forms of PHYTOPLANKTON such as HAPTOPHYTA; DINOFLAGELLATES; DIATOMS; and CRYPTOPHYTA.Recombinant Fusion Proteins: Recombinant proteins produced by the GENETIC TRANSLATION of fused genes formed by the combination of NUCLEIC ACID REGULATORY SEQUENCES of one or more genes with the protein coding sequences of one or more genes.Gene Expression Regulation: Any of the processes by which nuclear, cytoplasmic, or intercellular factors influence the differential control (induction or repression) of gene action at the level of transcription or translation.DNA Primers: Short sequences (generally about 10 base pairs) of DNA that are complementary to sequences of messenger RNA and allow reverse transcriptases to start copying the adjacent sequences of mRNA. Primers are used extensively in genetic and molecular biology techniques.Bone Marrow: The soft tissue filling the cavities of bones. Bone marrow exists in two types, yellow and red. Yellow marrow is found in the large cavities of large bones and consists mostly of fat cells and a few primitive blood cells. Red marrow is a hematopoietic tissue and is the site of production of erythrocytes and granular leukocytes. Bone marrow is made up of a framework of connective tissue containing branching fibers with the frame being filled with marrow cells.Subtilisins: A family of SERINE ENDOPEPTIDASES isolated from Bacillus subtilis. EC 3.4.21.-Receptors, Notch: A family of conserved cell surface receptors that contain EPIDERMAL GROWTH FACTOR repeats in their extracellular domain and ANKYRIN repeats in their cytoplasmic domains. The cytoplasmic domain of notch receptors is released upon ligand binding and translocates to the CELL NUCLEUS where it acts as transcription factor.In Situ Hybridization: A technique that localizes specific nucleic acid sequences within intact chromosomes, eukaryotic cells, or bacterial cells through the use of specific nucleic acid-labeled probes.
It is the precursor to the pH indicator Quinaldine Red. Quinaldine sulfate is an anaesthetic used in fish transportation. In ... 1977). "Quinaldine sulphate, a new anaesthetic formulation for tropical marine fishes". Journal of Fish Biology. 10 (2): 113- ...
DHEA is further converted to DHEA-sulfate via a sulfotransferase, SULT2A1. These precursors are not further converted in the ... Cells in the zona reticularis produce precursor androgens including dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and androstenedione from ...
Industrially, barium hydroxide is used as the precursor to other barium compounds. The monohydrate is used to dehydrate and ... This application exploits the very low solubility of barium sulfate. This industrial application is also applied to laboratory ... Thus, it forms barium sulfate and barium phosphate with sulfuric and phosphoric acids, respectively. Reaction with hydrogen ...
... (II) sulfate is used as a precursor to other iron compounds. It is also used to reduce chromate in cement. It is used to ... Iron(III) sulfate is used in settling minute sewage particles in tank water. Iron(II) chloride is used as a reducing ... The iron compounds produced on the largest scale in industry are iron(II) sulfate (FeSO4·7H2O) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl3). ... Iron provided by dietary supplements is often found as iron(II) fumarate, although iron(II) sulfate is cheaper and is absorbed ...
A typical precursor is zirconium oxychloride. Chen, Fang Ren; Coudurier, Gisele; Joly, Jean Francois; Vedrine, Jacques C. " ... "Superacid and catalytic properties of sulfated zirconia". Journal of Catalysis 1993. 143: 616-26. doi:10.1006/jcat.1993.1304. " ...
Potassium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, asparagine and urea can also be used by the fungus. Madurella mycetomatis produces 1,8- ... dihydroxynapthalene a precursor to melanin - a protein extracellularly attached to proteins. Both molecules are responsible for ...
It was initially marketed in the US by the Bristol-Myers Squibb precursor, Bristol Laboratories, under the brand name Blenoxane ... Flagellate pigmentation from bleomycin Pingyangmycin (Bleomycin A5) "Bleomycin Sulfate". The American Society of Health-System ...
The precursor polysaccharide is a component of mucus, and fragments are proposed to be produced during injury. Like ... Schreckstoff is a mixture, and fragments of a glycosaminoglycan, chondroitin sulfate, are able to trigger fear responses. ... schreckstoff obtained from skin extract, chondroitin sulfate activates a subset of olfactory sensory neurons. Production of and ...
These proteins are used for ethylene signaling again certain stress conditions, such as salt and the ethylene precursor ACC is ... The original method entailed its conversion to diethyl sulfate, followed by hydrolysis. The main method practiced since the mid ... The hydroformylation (oxo reaction) of ethylene results in propionaldehyde, a precursor to propionic acid and n-propyl alcohol ... Stimulation of Arabidopsis hypocotyl elongation In pollination, when the pollen reaches the stigma, the precursor of the ethene ...
Salmon WD, Daughaday WH (1957). "A hormonally controlled serum factor which stimulates sulfate incorporation by cartilage in ... "Sequence of cDNA encoding human insulin-like growth factor I precursor". Nature. 306 (5943): 609-11. doi:10.1038/306609a0. PMID ...
Adenylyl-sulfate reductase, an enzyme of the sulfur assimilation pathway, uses glutathione as an electron donor. Other enzymes ... It is the precursor of phytochelatins, glutathione oligomers that chelate heavy metals such as cadmium. Glutathione is required ... Direct delivery of the GSH precursor GCC to brain has been reported to effectively replenish levels of GSH in the brain. Most ... It inhibits melanin synthesis by means of stopping the neurotransmitter precursor L-DOPA's ability to interact with tyrosinase ...
It is interpreted to have formed due to interaction of a precursor assemblage with sulfate-rich melt. Nabimusaite is potassium ... Nabimusaite is suggested to result from interaction of a melt, rich in potassium and sulfate, with earlier minerals ( ...
"Glypican-4 is an FGF2-binding heparan sulfate proteoglycan expressed in neural precursor cells". Dev. Dyn. 219 (3): 353-67. doi ... Cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycans are composed of a membrane-associated protein core substituted with a variable ... Watanabe K, Yamada H, Yamaguchi Y (1995). "K-glypican: a novel GPI-anchored heparan sulfate proteoglycan that is highly ... number of heparan sulfate chains. Members of the glypican-related integral membrane proteoglycan family (GRIPS) contain a core ...
Sulfate-reducing (resp. sulfur-reducing) bacteria generate usable energy under low-oxygen conditions by using sulfates (resp. ... The main use of hydrogen sulfide is as a precursor to elemental sulfur. Several organosulfur compounds are produced using ... sulfate-reducing bacteria will use the sulfates present in the water to oxidize the organic matter, producing hydrogen sulfide ... and the sulfite is further oxidized to thiosulfate and sulfate by sulfite oxidase. The sulfates are excreted in the urine. ...
DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (the precursor to testosterone) in humans. All adrenocortical steroid hormones are ... The reticularis also produces DHEA-sulfate due to the actions of a sulfotransferase, SULT2A1. Adrenal insufficiency (e.g. due ... Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA): It is the primary precursor of natural estrogens. DHEA is also called dehydroisoandrosterone or ...
MnO 2 is also used as a pigment and as a precursor to other manganese compounds, such as KMnO 4. It is used as a reagent in ... Hot concentrated sulfuric acid reduces the MnO 2 to manganese(II) sulfate: 2 MnO 2 + 2 H 2SO 4 → 2 MnSO 4 + O 2 + 2 H 2O The ... The MnO2 dissolves, enters solution as the sulfate, and is deposited on the anode. The important reactions of MnO 2 are ... MnO 2 is the principal precursor to ferromanganese and related alloys, which are widely used in the steel industry. The ...
... can be obtained via various synthetic routes and precursors. Notable examples include: Isomerization of ... sulfate. Strecker degradation of phenylalanine. Phenylacetaldehyde is often contaminated with polystyrene oxide polymer because ...
It produces androgens, mainly dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), DHEA sulfate (DHEA-S), and androstenedione (the precursor to ... Formation All corticosteroid hormones share cholesterol as a common precursor. Therefore, the first step in steroidogenesis is ... These tissues come from different embryological precursors and have distinct prenatal development paths. The cortex of the ... an androgen and precursor of both androgens and estrogens (female sex hormones). Adrenal hormones, especially glucocorticoids ...
NG2 is another type of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan that is expressed by oligodendrocyte precursor cells. Oligodendrocyte ... Glial scar tissue demonstrated an up regulation of chondroitin-4,6-sulfate, chondroitin-2-sulfate, and chondroitin-6-sulfate. ... It is also 6-sulfated. This sulfation is crucial to the elongation of the keratan sulfate chain. A study was done using N- ... Like the chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans, keratan sulfate proteoglycan (KSPG) production is up regulated in reactive ...
It is also used to prepare N,N-Diisopropylethylamine (Hünig's base) by alkylation with diethyl sulfate. The bromide salt of ... Diisopropylamine is primarily used as a precursor to two herbicides, diallate and triallate, as well as certain sulfenamides ...
... and its 3β-sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, like DHEA, DHEA sulfate, and progesterone, belong to the group of ... Pregnenolone (P5), or pregn-5-en-3β-ol-20-one, is an endogenous steroid and precursor/metabolic intermediate in the ... The sulfated derivative, pregnenolone sulfate, is water-soluble. 3β-Dihydroprogesterone (pregn-4-en-3β-ol-20-one) is an isomer ... In addition, pregnenolone sulfate has been shown to activate the transient receptor potential M3 (TRPM3) ion channel in ...
The sulfate particles or sulfuric acid droplets in the atmosphere are about 0.1 to 1.0 micrometer (a millionth of a meter) in ... Delivery of precursor gases such as H2S and SO2 by artillery, aircraft and balloons has been proposed.[citation needed] ... "Sulfate Aerosols". Mathera, T.A., C. Oppenheimer, A.G. Allen and A.J.S. McGonigle (2004). "Aerosol chemistry of emissions from ... 2003). "Effect of sulfate aerosol on tropospheric NOx and ozone budgets: Model simulations and TOPSE evidence". J. Geophys. Res ...
McElnea, A. E. (2002) 'Assessing the Ability of Acid Sulfate Soil Laboratory Tests to Predict Environmental Risk and Lime ... Greigite is considered an essential precursor of framboidal pyrite formation. ...
The protein encoded by this gene catalyzes the conversion of sulfated steroid precursors to the free steroid. This includes ... DHEA sulfate, estrone sulfate, pregnenolone sulfate, and cholesterol sulfate, all to their unconjugated forms (DHEA, estrone, ... The excessive skin scaling or hyperkeratosis is caused by a lack of breakdown and thus accumulation of cholesterol sulfate, a ...
Adding ethanol to the solution precipitates out potassium sulfate.[citation needed] Potassium bisulfate is commonly used to ... Potassium bisulfate is also used as a disintegrating agent in analytical chemistry or as a precursor to prepare potassium ... H2O Potassium bisulfate is also formed by the union of sulfuric acid with potassium sulfate: H2SO4 + K2SO4 → 2 KHSO4 Potassium ... C further decompose potassium bisulfate to potassium sulfate and sulfur trioxide: 2 KHSO4 → K2SO4 + SO3 + H2O Aqueous solutions ...
Estradiol 3-glucuronide 17β-sulfate. *Estradiol sulfate. *Estradiol 17β-sulfate ... Precursors. *Cholesterol. *22R-Hydroxycholesterol. *20α,22R-Dihydroxycholesterol. *Pregnenolone. *11β-Hydroxypregnenolone ...
Human homologue of the rat chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan, NG2, detected by monoclonal antibody 7.1, identifies childhood ... B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) is a heterogeneous disease that can be subdivided according to primary ... A novel recurrent EP300-ZNF384 gene fusion in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Leukemia. 2015;29(12):2445-2448. ... PAX5-ESRRB is a recurrent fusion gene in B-cell precursor pediatric acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Haematologica. 2016;101(1): ...
Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan 4Add BLAST. 2297. Amino acid modifications. Feature key. Position(s). DescriptionActions. ... "Interaction of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with type VI collagen.". Stallcup W.B., Dahlin K., Healy P.. J. Cell ... "Interaction of the NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan with type VI collagen.". Stallcup W.B., Dahlin K., Healy P.. J. Cell ... S → A: No effect on chondroitin sulfate attachment. 1 Publication. ,p>Manually curated information for which there is published ...
A light and electron microscopic study of NG2 chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells in the ... The adult brain contains a large population of oligodendrocyte precursor cells that can be identified using antibodies against ... To begin to elucidate these functions, we have examined the morphology and distribution of oligodendrocyte precursor cells in ... Large numbers of oligodendrocyte precursor cells were present in all layers of the neocortex and hippocampus. These cells ...
... two possible precursors of choline, as osmoprotectants. In a wild-type background (Fig. 3A), choline-O-sulfate is capable of ... O-sulfate + MgSO4 (■), or choline-O-sulfate (□), and of strain UNA208 in the same M9 medium supplemented with choline-O-sulfate ... Choline-O-sulfate also was assayed as a potential sole sulfur source for growth. While 102F34R required sulfate in the medium ... Competition assay mixture (200 μl) contained [1,2-14C]choline-O-sulfate (105 dpm), 0.1 mM choline-O-sulfate, 100 mM Tris⋅HCl, ...
Vincristine Sulfate Precursor products, Vincristine Sulfate Downstream products ect. ... Current Page: Home › Chemical Dictionary › 2068-78-2 › Vincristine Sulfate 2068-78-2 Precursor and Products ...
It is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone. It is also used as an electrolyte for zinc electroplating, as a mordant in ... Zinc sulphate monohydrate", Feb 2012 [4] "Zinc Sulphate Zinc Sulfate MSDS Sheet of Manufacturers". Mubychem.com. 2013-05-05. ... Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs. Zinc sulfate can be used to supplement ... Zinc sulfate is an inorganic compound and dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat zinc deficiency and to ...
Hydrazine sulfate is used as a precursor to hydrazine. This salt is sometimes preferred over pure hydrazine because it is ... The salt is prepared by oxidation of ammonium sulfate with bleach. Hydrazine sulfate is purified by recrystallization from ... Hydrazine sulphate British Columbia Cancer Agency What is rocket fuel treatment? Cancer Research UK Hydrazine Sulfate American ... "Hydrazine sulfate: is it an anticancer agent?", Scientific Review of Alternative Medicine, 1: 19-21 Hydrazine sulfate / ...
Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma. Precursor T-Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma. Lymphoma. Leukemia. Lymphoma ... Drugs used in chemotherapy, such as dexamethasone, mitoxantrone hydrochloride, vincristine sulfate, and pegaspargase work in ... Temsirolimus, Dexamethasone, Mitoxantrone Hydrochloride, Vincristine Sulfate, and Pegaspargase in Treating Young Patients With ... vincristine sulfate IV on days 1, 8, 15, and 22; and pegaspargase IV over 1 hour on days 3 and 17. Some patients may also ...
Buy Ergometrine hydrogen maleate DRUG PRECURSOR - CAS Number 129-51-1 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view ... Abacavir sulfate for system suitability. 10 mg. ICRS1552. Add to basket Acetanilide (116°C) Melting Point Standard. 1 g. ... Abacavir sulfate. 100 mg. ICRS1422. Add to basket ... Atazanavir sulfate. 150 mg. ICRS60024. Add to basket Atenolol. ...
Buy Ergotamine tartrate DRUG PRECURSOR - CAS Number 379-79-3 from LGC Standards. Please login or register to view prices, check ... Abacavir sulfate for system suitability. 10 mg. ICRS1552. Add to basket Acetanilide (116°C) Melting Point Standard. 1 g. ... Abacavir sulfate. 100 mg. ICRS1422. Add to basket ... Atazanavir sulfate. 150 mg. ICRS60024. Add to basket Atenolol. ...
A) Tandem MS/MS spectrum derived from precursor ions at m/z = 515, which was generated by the removal of a sulfate group at C3 ... In addition, the 3 and 26 positions of the sulfate esters are also unique among sulfated polyhydroxysterols of marine origin. ... A chemoattractant for ascidian spermatozoa is a sulfated steroid. Manabu Yoshida, Michio Murata, Kazuo Inaba, Masaaki Morisawa ... A chemoattractant for ascidian spermatozoa is a sulfated steroid. Manabu Yoshida, Michio Murata, Kazuo Inaba, Masaaki Morisawa ...
"Sulfate precursor. Geoengineering stockpile. Not a weapon of war." Technically.. "Yes sir," she says unhappily. ...
Amyloid beta protein precursor is possibly a heparan sulfate proteoglycan core protein ...
N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfatase precursor. *N-acetylgalactosamine-6-sulfate sulfatase. Additional Information & Resources. ... Specifically, this enzyme removes a chemical group known as a sulfate from a GAG called keratan sulfate. Keratan sulfate is ... Because keratan sulfate is predominantly found in cartilage and the cornea, the buildup of this substance causes skeletal ... The lack of N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulfatase activity leads to the accumulation of keratan sulfate within lysosomes. ...
EDD mass spectrum of the [M-4H]4− precursor ion of DS dp8, 3. The mass scale was divided into three regions for clarity. (A) m/ ... EDD mass spectrum of the [M-3H]3− precursor ion of DS dp6, 2. Inset: Observed product ions from the EDD and IRMPD MS/MS data of ... MS/MS of [M-2H]2− precursor ion DS dp4, 1, with (A) EDD and (B) IRMPD. Insets; product ions observed by the fragmentation ... EDD mass spectrum of the [M-5H]5− precursor ion of DS dp10, 4. The mass scale was divided into three different regions for ...
Protein Precursors / blood, metabolism*. Pyloric Antrum / metabolism. Radioimmunoassay. Sheep. Sulfates / metabolism. Chemical ... 0/Gastrins; 0/Protein Precursors; 0/Sulfates; 53988-98-0/big gastrin; 60748-06-3/gastrin 17 ...
Azidopropyl-modified precursors of chondroitin sulfate (CS) tetrasaccharides have been synthesized, which, after facile ... Artur » Lista över publikationer » Synthesis of Azide-Modified Chondroitin Sulfate Precursors: Substrates for Click- ... Synthesis of Azide-Modified Chondroitin Sulfate Precursors: Substrates for "Click"- Conjugation with Fluorescent Labels and ... converted the precursors to final CS structures. The azidopropyl group was exposed to a strain-promoted azide-alkyne ...
HPV Infection and Cervical/Anal Precursor Lesions in the HAART Era. http://www.medscape.com/viewarticle/440151 ... A Study of Indinavir Sulfate Plus Zidovudine (AZT) Plus Lamivudine in HIV-Infected Patients Who Have Taken AZT for Six or More ...
1987) Bipotential glial precursor cells of the optic nerve express the NG2 proteoglycan. J Neurosci 7:2737-2744. ... 1995) Chondroitin sulfate and chondroitin/keratan sulfate proteoglycans of nervous tissue: developmental changes of neurocan ... 1990b) Sulfated proteoglycans in astroglial barriers inhibit neurite outgrowth in vitro. Exp Neurol 109:111-130. ... Chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CS-PGs) are present in areas of reactive gliosis after CNS injury to adult animals (McKeon ...
Using automated glycan assembly (AGA) for the practical synthesis of heparan sulfate oligosaccharide precursors Darshita ... Herein we report synthesis of complex heparan sulfate oligosaccharide precursors by automated glycan assembly using ...
In solution, the sulfate ion dissociates rapidly. Being widely available, vanadyl sulfate is a common precursor to other ... Vanadyl sulfate exhibits insulin-like effects.[11] Vanadyl sulfate has been extensively studied in the field of diabetes ... Like most water-soluble sulfates, vanadyl sulfate is only rarely found in nature. Anhydrous form is pauflerite,[8] a mineral of ... Vanadyl sulfate is most commonly obtained by reduction of vanadium pentoxide with sulfur dioxide: V2O5 + 7 H2O + SO2 + H2SO4 → ...
... an oligodendroglial precursor cell line. We found that CG-4 cells expressed a non-proteoglycan form of neuroglycan ... Chondroitin Sulfates / chemistry. Cytokines / metabolism. Epidermal Growth Factor / chemistry. Humans. Mice. Neuregulins / ... Neuroglycan C lacking chondroitin sulfate chains was eluted with 0.5 m NaCl as a major fraction from the column. We confirmed ... Among three functional domains of the extracellular part of neuroglycan C, the chondroitin sulfate attachment domain and acidic ...
Exporter, Manufacturer and Distributor of Zinc Sulphate Heptahydrate in Ghatlodiya, Ahmedabad, Gujarat, India. Get deals on ... It is also a precursor to the pigment lithopone. Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, and ... Zinc sulfate, like many zinc compounds, can be used to control moss growth on roofs. It is used as in electrolytes for zinc ... Zinc Sulphate 33%. â ¢ Purity 98 % â ¢ Zinc - Zn - 34 %. â ¢ Sulphur - S - 16 %. â ¢ Arsenic( As) - 1 ppm â ¢ Mercury (Hg) - 1 ...
Find patient medical information for E-Z-CAT DRYBARIUM SULFATE FOR SUSPENSION (2% w/w After Mixing) , E-Z-Cat Dry [E-Z-EM ... Biosynthesis, structure, and folding of the insulin precursor protein.. Insulin synthesis in pancreatic β-cells is initiated as ... 460 mL of a 2% w/w barium sulfate suspension.. Administer 300 mL (10 fl oz) CT barium sulfate suspension 30 minutes before scan ... CAT DRY Barium Sulfate For Suspension (2% w/w After Mixing) is for oral administration. Each 100 g contains 41 g barium sulfate ...
Heparan sulfates (HS) are N,O-sulfated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) present on the cell surface and extracellular matrix as HS ... Vitreous humor and albumin augment the proliferation of cultured retinal precursor cells. J Neurosci Res 2009;87:495-502pmid: ... Furthermore, in all these assays, K5-N,OS(H) was more active than the low sulfated derivatives K5-N,OS(L) and K5-NS whereas K5 ... On this basis, different K5 derivatives chemically sulfated in the N position or N,O positions (Table 2) were investigated for ...
  • 8 ] GAGs are long polymers of repeating two-sugar units, usually with sulfate groups on one type of sugar. (chiro.org)
  • 26335717 ). Acts in conjunction with RTN4 and LINGO1 in regulating neuronal precursor cell motility during cortical development. (uniprot.org)
  • Astrocytes and oligodendrocytes develop from a multipotent stem cell that prior to this has produced primarily neuronal precursor cells. (frontiersin.org)
  • Determination of the molecular structure by NMR and MS/MS analysis revealed that SAAF is a previously uncharacterized sulfated steroid: 3,4,7,26-tetrahydroxycholestane-3,26-disulfate. (pnas.org)
  • Purification and structural analysis showed that SAAF is a previously uncharacterized sulfated steroid: 3,4,7,26-tetrahydroxycholestane-3,26-disulfate. (pnas.org)
  • These are sterol lipids containing a sulfate group attached to the steroid skeleton. (hmdb.ca)
  • We investigated the hypothesis that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) as a glutathione (GSH) precursor attenuates disease progression in a murine dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model. (nih.gov)
  • it is the precursor of the peptide pancreastatin which strongly inhibits glucose- induced insulin release from the pancreas. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Maryam Hajjami, Arash Ghorbani-Choghamarani and Zahra Khani, "L-Pyrrolidine-2-Carboxylic Acid-4-Hydrogen Sulfate (Supported on Silica Gel) as a New and Efficient Catalyst for Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols and Amines Under Solvent-Free Conditions", Letters in Organic Chemistry (2013) 10: 324. (eurekaselect.com)
  • in addition to a water-insoluble fraction resulting from the association of the trona with shale stringers or beds in the trona deposits, organic matter in the order of about 0.3 percent is present which would contaminate the desired product, e.g., sodium carbonate precursor crystals, unless it is removed. (google.com)
  • In addition to its role in providing precursors for placental estrogen formation, the fetal adrenal cortex may participate in the events that lead to the initiation of labor and to maturation of the fetal lungs. (medscape.com)
  • Distinct chemical differences were found between the total fractions of chondroitin sulfate from the three tissues. (lu.se)
  • In collaboration with the California Institute of Technology, a research team led by Prof. YU Jianzhen, Professor at HKUST's Department of Chemistry and Division of Environment and Sustainability, identified three formation mechanism regimes, corresponding to the three distinct roles that nitrogen oxides play in sulfate production depending on the chemical surroundings. (eurasiareview.com)
  • This article focuses on the types of chemical precursors and processing techniques employed in the manufacture of all advanced ceramic products. (britannica.com)
  • Choline sulfatase activity was absent from betC but not from betB mutants and was shown to be induced indifferently by choline or choline- O -sulfate as were the other enzymes of the pathway. (pnas.org)
  • Commercial preparations of CS, CS-B and CS-E, also promote FGF-2-mediated neural stem cell growth, suggesting that an iduronic acid-containing structure (B-structure) and an over sulfated structure formed by GalNAc-4,6-disulfate (E-structure) in the CS polysaccharides are involved in this promotion of neural stem cell growth. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Zinc sulfate is used to supply zinc in animal feeds, fertilizers, toothpaste, and agricultural sprays. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc sulfate can be used to supplement zinc in the brewing process. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc sulfate powder is an eye irritant. (wikipedia.org)
  • Ingestion of trace amounts is considered safe, and zinc sulfate is added to animal feed as a source of essential zinc, at rates of up to several hundred milligrams per kilogram of feed. (wikipedia.org)
  • Zinc sulfate is produced by treating virtually any zinc-containing material (metal, minerals, oxides) with sulfuric acid. (wikipedia.org)
  • 7H2O In aqueous solution, all forms of zinc sulfate behave identically. (wikipedia.org)
  • When heated above 680 °C, zinc sulfate decomposes into sulfur dioxide gas and zinc oxide fume, both of which are hazardous. (wikipedia.org)
  • The objective of this study was to determine intake, nutrient availability, and animal selection of major forage species by sheep supplemented with zinc sulfate or propylene glycol in Caatinga -native pastures during the rainy season. (mdpi.com)
  • These TiO 2 -POEM brush nanoparticles were used to template the formation of Ag nanoparticles by introduction of a AgCF 3 SO 3 precursor and a NaBH 4 aqueous solution for reduction process. (chemweb.com)
  • RP HPLC was used for the monitoring of the key reaction steps (protecting group manipulation and sulfation) and purification of the CS precursors (as partially protected form, bearing the O-Lev, O-benzoyl, and N-trichloroacetyl groups and methyl esters). (abo.fi)
  • A novel, high-yielding method for sulfation of alcohols proceeds via sulfite- and sulfate diester intermediates. (organic-chemistry.org)
  • Keeton (until her death in 1997) and other supporters of hydrazine sulfate treatment accused the U.S. National Cancer Institute (NCI) of deliberately hiding the beneficial effects of the compound, and threatened to launch a class action lawsuit. (wikipedia.org)