A 34-amino acid polypeptide antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis. It has been used as a food preservative in canned fruits and vegetables, and cheese.
Enzymes of the isomerase class that catalyze reactions in which a group can be regarded as eliminated from one part of a molecule, leaving a double bond, while remaining covalently attached to the molecule. (From Enzyme Nomenclature, 1992) EC 5.5.
Substances capable of inhibiting, retarding or arresting the process of fermentation, acidification or other deterioration of foods.
A non-pathogenic species of LACTOCOCCUS found in DAIRY PRODUCTS and responsible for the souring of MILK and the production of LACTIC ACID.
A single-pass type I membrane protein. It is cleaved by AMYLOID PRECURSOR PROTEIN SECRETASES to produce peptides of varying amino acid lengths. A 39-42 amino acid peptide, AMYLOID BETA-PEPTIDES is a principal component of the extracellular amyloid in SENILE PLAQUES.
All of the divisions of the natural sciences dealing with the various aspects of the phenomena of life and vital processes. The concept includes anatomy and physiology, biochemistry and biophysics, and the biology of animals, plants, and microorganisms. It should be differentiated from BIOLOGY, one of its subdivisions, concerned specifically with the origin and life processes of living organisms.
A publication issued at stated, more or less regular, intervals.
A species of gram-positive bacteria that is a common soil and water saprophyte.
A bibliographic database that includes MEDLINE as its primary subset. It is produced by the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), part of the NATIONAL LIBRARY OF MEDICINE. PubMed, which is searchable through NLM's Web site, also includes access to additional citations to selected life sciences journals not in MEDLINE, and links to other resources such as the full-text of articles at participating publishers' Web sites, NCBI's molecular biology databases, and PubMed Central.
Lists of persons or organizations, systematically arranged, usually in alphabetic or classed order, giving address, affiliations, etc., for individuals, and giving address, officers, functions, and similar data for organizations. (ALA Glossary of Library and Information Science, 1983)
Substances elaborated by specific strains of bacteria that are lethal against other strains of the same or related species. They are protein or lipopolysaccharide-protein complexes used in taxonomy studies of bacteria.
A family of neurotransmitter transporter proteins that facilitate NEUROTRANSMITTER reuptake into PRESYNAPTIC TERMINALS. They may play a role in regulating the intensity and duration of neurotransmission.
Amino acid transporter systems capable of transporting neutral amino acids (AMINO ACIDS, NEUTRAL).
A nucleoside diphosphate sugar which is formed from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine and phosphoenolpyruvate. It serves as the building block upon which peptidoglycan is formed.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Dissertations embodying results of original research and especially substantiating a specific view, e.g., substantial papers written by candidates for an academic degree under the individual direction of a professor or papers written by undergraduates desirous of achieving honors or distinction.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A field of biology concerned with the development of techniques for the collection and manipulation of biological data, and the use of such data to make biological discoveries or predictions. This field encompasses all computational methods and theories for solving biological problems including manipulation of models and datasets.
Libraries in which a major proportion of the resources are available in machine-readable format, rather than on paper or MICROFORM.
Research carried out by nurses, generally in clinical settings, in the areas of clinical practice, evaluation, nursing education, nursing administration, and methodology.
"Aggregates of nisin with various bactoprenol-containing cell wall precursors differ in size and membrane permeation capacity". ... Schneider T, Sahl HG (February 2010). "Lipid II and other bactoprenol-bound cell wall precursors as drug targets". Current ... including nisin and lantibiotics such as NAI-107. Thorne KJ, Kodicek E (April 1966). "The structure of bactoprenol, a lipid ... "The lantibiotic NAI-107 binds to bactoprenol-bound cell wall precursors and impairs membrane functions". The Journal of ...
Nisin A inhibits methicillin-resistant S. aureus by binding to the precursor to bacterial cell wall synthesis, lipid II. This ... For example, in vitro growth of methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was inhibited by the bacteriocin nisin A, produced by ... "The nisin-lipid II complex reveals a pyrophosphate cage that provides a blueprint for novel antibiotics". Nature Structural & ... "A comparison of the activities of lacticin 3147 and nisin against drug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus species ...
She discovered, for example, that nisin and other lantibiotics use the cell wall precursor lipid II as a docking molecule to ... "Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics." Molecular ... "Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics". Mol. ...
Nisin and epidermin are members of a family of lantibiotics that bind to lipid II, a cell wall precursor lipid component of ... Since then, lantibiotics such as nisin have been used auspiciously for food preservation and have yet to encounter significant ... Type A lantibiotics are long flexible molecules - e.g., nisin, bisin, subtilin, epidermin, gallidermin Subgroup AI includes ... Siegers K, Heinzmann S, Entian KD (May 1996). "Biosynthesis of lantibiotic nisin. Posttranslational modification of its ...
... and evolution of a gene encoding the precursor of nisin, a small protein antibiotic". J Biol Chem. 263 (31): 16260-6. PMID ... Nisin A Nisin Z Nisin Q Nisin F Nisin U. ... Nisin is soluble in water and can be effective at levels ... Nisin has also been used in food packaging applications and can serve as a preservative by controlled release onto the food ... Nisin is a polycyclic antibacterial peptide produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis that is used as a food preservative. ...
The required precursors are serine or cysteine residues, which undergo enzyme-mediated loss of water and hydrogen sulfide, ... The dehydroalanine residue was first detected in nisin, a cyclic peptide with antimicrobial activity. Dehydroalanine is also ...
... is a precursor molecule in the synthesis of the cell wall of bacteria. It is a peptidoglycan, which is amphipathic and ... t Hart P, Oppedijk S, Breukink E, Martin NI (2016). "New Insights into Nisin's Antibacterial Mechanism Revealed by Binding ... 11 July 2014). "MurJ is the flippase of lipid-linked precursors for peptidoglycan biogenesis". Science. 345 (6193): 220-222. ... Significant quantities of the important peptidoglycan precursor have also be isolated, following accumulation in bacterial ...
The use of nitrite's precursor nitrate is now limited to a few products such as dry sausage, prosciutto or parma ham. ... or bacteriocins such as nisin. Antioxidants include a wide range of chemicals that limit lipid oxidation, which creates an ...
The precursor peptide of the cyanobactin family is traditionally designated the "E" gene, whereas precursor peptides are ... The founding member of the lanthipeptide family, nisin, is a lantibiotic that has been used to prevent the growth of food-born ... Rather, the precursor peptide has a C-terminal extension of 35-37 amino acids, hypothesized to act as a recognition sequence ... Thiazol(in)es are the result of cyclization of Cys residues in the precursor peptide, while (methyl)oxazol(in)es are formed ...
Alternatively, purified bacteriocins such as nisin can be added directly to food products. Finally, bacteriophages, viruses ... 2009). Microbial Production of Biopolymers and Polymer Precursors: Applications and Perspectives. Caister Academic Press. ISBN ... Microbial Production of Biopolymers and Polymer Precursors. Caister Academic Press. ISBN 978-1-904455-36-3. Shih & Wu (2009). " ... "Biosynthesis and Application of Poly(gamma-glutamic acid)". Microbial Production of Biopolymers and Polymer Precursors. Caister ...
2011). "Various mechanisms in cyclopeptide production from precursors synthesized independently of non-ribosomal peptide ... Amanitins Bacitracin Colistin Ciclosporin Dactinomycin Daptomycin Gramicidin S Hymenistatin Microcystins Nisin Nodularin ... "The Two-step Biosynthesis of Cyclic Peptides from Linear Precursors in a Member of the Plant Family Caryophyllaceae Involves ...
... glucagon precursors MeSH D12.644.400.340.500 - glucagon MeSH D12.644.400.350 - gonadorelin MeSH D12.644.400.450 - motilin MeSH ... nisin MeSH D12.644.641.650 - octreotide MeSH D12.644.641.735 - phalloidine MeSH D12.644.641.780 - polymyxins MeSH D12.644. ... glucagon precursors MeSH D12.644.548.343.249 - enteroglucagons MeSH D12.644.548.343.249.500 - glucagon-like peptide 1 MeSH ...
... A is a small, 41 amino acid (the precursor is 90 aa), heat-stable polypeptide. It has been characterized genetically. ... "Interactions of the bacteriocins sakacin P and nisin with food constituents". Int. J. Food Microbiol. 87 (1-2): 35-43. doi: ...
"The human gene FALL39 and processing of the cathelin precursor to the antibacterial peptide LL-37 in granulocytes". European ...
... nisin, dimethyl dicarbonate (Velcorin), and fumaric acid, though some (like Verlcorin) are restricted in winemaking countries ... buchneri have been known to produce carbamyl phosphate and citrulline which can be precursors to ethyl carbamate formation. L. ...
The C-termial precursor DCD-1L is a 48 residue peptide that shows partial helicity in solution, as evidenced by the ... The full length precursor is processed by undetermined proteases present in human sweat, to form several shorter peptides that ...
In addition, winemakers can use chemical and biological inhibitors such as lysozyme, nisin, dimethyl dicarbonate (Velcorin), ... buchneri have been known to produce carbamyl phosphate and citrulline which can be precursors to ethyl carbamate formation. L. ...
... creating the first defined mutation in a nisin biosynthetic gene. The mutant strain secreted fully modified nisin with the N- ... Nisin Lactococcus lactis nisin immunity gene mutation This work was supported by the University of Helsinki and Valio Ltd and ... Buchman W B, Banerjee S, Hansen J N. Structure, expression and evolution of a gene encoding the precursor of nisin, a small ... The dehydration and lanthiomne formation of the precursor were already completed as active nisin could be formed by cleaving ...
Specifically, nisin physically interacts with lipid II, which is a peptidoglycan precursor, and initiates the formation of a ... The existence of a nisI promoter would help to explain how nisin immunity could be established in the cell before nisin is ... While L. lactis ATCC 11454 is a nisin producer, it has been observed to switch off nisin production during prolonged growth at ... While the antimicrobial action of nisin has been extensively studied, it is still unclear as to how the nisin immunity system ...
... and evolution of a gene encoding the precursor of nisin, a small protein antibiotic". J Biol Chem. 263 (31): 16260-6. PMID ... Nisin A Nisin Z Nisin Q Nisin F Nisin U. ... Nisin is soluble in water and can be effective at levels ... Nisin has also been used in food packaging applications and can serve as a preservative by controlled release onto the food ... Nisin is a polycyclic antibacterial peptide produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis that is used as a food preservative. ...
We demonstrated that Lsp could cleave signal peptide of NisI precursor in vitro. Moreover, diacylglyceryl modification of NisI ... Nisin is produced by certain L. lactis strains. The nisin immunity protein NisI, a membrane-bound lipoprotein, is expressed by ... NisI confers immunity against nisin, with high substrate specificity to prevent a suicidal effect in nisin-producing ... in NisI maturation and nisin resistance of L. lactis F44. We found that the resistance of nisin of an Lsp-deficient mutant ...
Class I lantibiotic bacteriocin Nisin precursor (has a mersacidin-like Lipid II domain, and forms Lipid II-dependent pores) ( ... Mutacin 1140 precursor (homologous to several lantibiotics but does not form pores (Smith et al., 2008)) ... Class I lantibiotic bacteriocin, Epidermin precursor (has a mersacidin-like Lipid II domain, and forms Lipid II-dependent pores ... Class I lantibiotic bacteriocin Gallidermin precursor (has a mersacidin-like Lipid II domain, and forms Lipid II-dependent ...
"Aggregates of nisin with various bactoprenol-containing cell wall precursors differ in size and membrane permeation capacity". ... Schneider T, Sahl HG (February 2010). "Lipid II and other bactoprenol-bound cell wall precursors as drug targets". Current ... including nisin and lantibiotics such as NAI-107. Thorne KJ, Kodicek E (April 1966). "The structure of bactoprenol, a lipid ... "The lantibiotic NAI-107 binds to bactoprenol-bound cell wall precursors and impairs membrane functions". The Journal of ...
Use of the cell wall precursor lipid II by a pore-forming peptide antibiotic. Science 286:2361-2364. ... The nisin MICs for the three insertion mutants of strain 412 were unaltered, except for slightly increased nisin sensitivity in ... Cell wall changes in nisin-resistant variants of Listeria innocua grown in the presence of high nisin concentrations. FEMS ... We determined the role in the nisin resistance mechanism of the three genes that showed increased expression in certain nisin- ...
Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall ... The C-terminal region of nisin is responsible for the initial interaction of nisin with the target membrane. Biochemistry 36: ... Cell wall changes in nisin-resistant variants of Listeria innocua grown in the presence of high nisin concentrations. FEMS ... For induction with nisin cultures were grown to an OD600 of 0.2 and preinduced with 4.5 μg of nisin powder/ml for 1 h, followed ...
The Presence of Modifiable Residues in the Core Peptide Part of Precursor Nisin Is Not Crucial for Precursor Nisin Interactions ... Kuipers, O. P., Rollema, H. S., Vos, W. M. D., & Siezen, R. J. (1993). Biosynthesis and secretion of a precursor of nisin Z by ... Demel, R. A., Peelen, T., Siezen, R. J., Kruijff, B. D., & Kuipers, O. P. (1996). Nisin Z, mutant nisin Z and lacticin 481 ... Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall ...
... nisin is synthesized as an inactive precursor peptide (prenisin) that undergoes several steps of processing. Mature nisin is an ... Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall ... lactis is nisin (4).. Nisin is a small, antibacterial peptide that belongs to the group A lantibiotics, with activity against a ... Nisin production levels are thus dependent on the growth rate and cell density, both of which are comparatively low for nisin- ...
... simultaneous treatment of HPCD and nisin, HPCD + nisin), HPCD→nisin (HPCD was followed by nisin), and nisin→HPCD (nisin was ... simultaneous treatment of HPCD and nisin, HPCD + nisin), HPCD→nisin (HPCD was followed by nisin), and nisin→HPCD (nisin was ... nisin > HPCD→nisin or nisin→HPCD. Moreover, HPCD + nisin caused higher IM permeability and DPA release of the spores than HPCD ... nisin , HPCD→nisin or nisin→HPCD. Moreover, HPCD + nisin caused higher IM permeability and DPA release of the spores than HPCD ...
Role of lipid‐bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics. H Br tz, M ...
These data are in good agreement with those obtained formerly with nisin A, whose antibacterial activity was connected to ... containing membrane active peptides characterized by the presence of a Gly-Gly processing site in the bacteriocins precursor, ... Nisin is the most characterized of the class I bacteriocins. Class II is defined as small heat-stable nonlanthionine ... K. Naghmouchi, D. Drider, R. Hammami, and I. Fliss, "Effect of antimicrobial peptides divergicin M35 and nisin A on Listeria ...
Model TIGR03731 represents the family of all lantibiotics related to gallidermin, including epidermin, mutatin, and nisin. This ... but also occurs in orphan transporter cassettes in species that lack candidate lantibiotic precursor and synthetase genes. ...
The presence of modifiable residues in the core peptide part of precursor nisin is not crucial for precursor nisin interactions ... As illustrated for nisin in Figure 1B, RiPPs are initially produced as linear precursors composed of a leader and a core ... FIGURE 2. Modification of nisin with ncAAs. (A) Antimicrobial activity assay using novel nisin variants produced by recombinant ... For the class I model lantibiotic nisin, we targeted the core peptide proline for replacement by ncAAs. Also found in nisin Z ...
Structure, expression, and evolution of a gene encoding the precursor of nisin, a small protein antibiotic. Buchman, G.W., ... Small nuclear ribonucleoprotein particle assembly in vivo: demonstration of a 6S RNA-free core precursor and posttranslational ... The structural region contains serines, threonines, and cysteines at exactly the positions required to give mature nisin by a ...
"Theres a part of the nisin precursor peptide that is held steady, and theres a part that is flexible. And the flexible part ... The most famous of these is nisin, a natural product in milk that can be synthesized in the lab and is added to foods as a ... For nisin, an enzyme called a dehydratase removes water to help give the antibiotic its final, three-dimensional shape. This is ... "One is that it added glutamate (to the nisin peptide), and the second thing it did was it eliminated glutamate. But how does ...
Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall ... While LiaFSR in S. mutans responded to a variety of cell envelope active antimicrobials (e.g., bacitracin, vancomycin, nisin, ... While the expression levels of liaR remained elevated at high concentrations of vancomycin and nisin, its transcription was ... Of the antimicrobial agents tested, vancomycin, bacitracin, nisin, and chlorhexidine acted as liaR inducers in a concentration- ...
Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis nisin A operon genes nisP, encoding a subtilisin-like serine protease involved in ... precursor processing, and nisR, encoding a regulatory protein involved in nisin biosynthesis.. J. Bacteriol. 175 2578-88 1993 ... Serine protease EpiP from Staphylococcus epidermidis catalyzes the processing of the epidermin precursor peptide.. J. Bacteriol ... cleaves nisin [PMID: 8478324]. MutP (MEROPS identifier S08.065) is highly similar to epiP and nisP and is thought to process ...
The lantibiotic nisin is a 34-residue bacteriocin produced by the Gram-positive bacteria Lactococcus lactis spp. It is first ... ribosomally synthesized as an inactive precursor which is then post-translationally modified into ... ...
Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall ... Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics. Mol. ... especially early in the interaction of nisin with susceptible cells. Hasper et al. (24) have proposed that nisin kills bacteria ... Nisin had much less dramatic effects on gene expression than CCCP. A number of genes encoding nitrate and nitrite reductase ( ...
The biosynthesis of nisin occurs in two steps: a precursor peptide (prenisin) is synthesised ribosomally followed by post- ... is that nisin diffusion agar media is proportional to the concentration of nisin only over a limited linear range and nisin ... Nisin standard: 0.05 g of nisin (2.5%) was dissolved in 50 ml 0.01 N HCl and further dilutions were made in order to obtain a ... Nowadays, production of highly purified nisin preparations and enhancement by chelators has led to interest in the use of nisin ...
The best-known lanthipeptide is the pentacyclic lantibiotic nisin [25] which is produced by L. lactis. The nisin precursor ... which was totally unrelated to nisin, was modified by the nisin dehydratase and exported out of L. lactis by the nisin ... The membrane-bound leader peptidase NisP appears to be highly specific for lanthionine-containing precursor nisin [31]. In ... In Lactococcus lactis, the leader peptide allows the export of the modified precursor peptide out of the cell. These leader ...
... encoding a subtilisin-like serine protease involved in precursor processing, and nisR, encoding a regulatory protein involved ... Hurst, A., 1981, Nisin, Adv. Appl. Microbiol., 27, 85-123.. Ingram, L., 1969, Synthesis of the antibiotic nisin: Fermation of ... Daeschel, M. A., Jung, D. S. and Watson, B. T., 1991, Controlling wine malolactic fermentation with nisin and nisin-resistant ... Empolying CM-cellulose or diatomaceous earth as nisin adsorbent in the culture medium could protect nisin from degradation by ...
where to buy 1414-45-5(Nisin).Also offer free database of 1414-45-5(Nisin) including MSDS sheet(poisoning, toxicity, hazards ... As a leading chemical manufacturer and supplier in China.DAS authentication is passed.We can provide the popular precursor ... food grade Nisin powder cas:1414-45-5 Product detals: food grade Nisin powder cas:1414-45-5 Product Name Nisin ... Nisin Basic information Product Name: Nisin Synonyms: L-Isoleucyl-(Z)-2,3-didehydro-2-aminobutanoyl-D-cysteinyl-L-isoleucyl-2,3 ...
Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics. Mol. ... empedopeptin inhibits cell wall biosynthesis through Ca2+-dependent complex formation with peptidoglycan precursors. J Biol ...
Role of lipid-bound peptidoglycan precursors in the formation of pores by nisin, epidermin and other lantibiotics. Mol ... In: Nisin and novel lantibiotics. G. Jung & H.-G. Sahl (eds). Leiden: ESCOM, pp. 277-286. ... In: Nisin and novel lantibiotics. G. Jung & H.-G. Sahl (eds). Leiden: ESCOM, pp. 269-276. ... Kupke, T. & F. Götz, (1997b) In vivo reaction of affinity-tag-labelled epidermin precursor peptide with flavoenzyme EpiD. FEMS ...
Precursor lipid Ii. en. dc.subject. Lantibiotic nisin. en. dc.subject. Listeria monocytogenes. en. ... Nisin is gene-encoded and, as such, is amenable to peptide bioengineering, facilitating the generation of novel derivatives ... It was to this end that we used a site-saturation mutagenesis approach to create a bank of producers of nisin A derivatives ... The most intensively studied bacteriocin is nisin, a broad spectrum lantibiotic that inhibits Gram-positive bacteria including ...
2). Nisin inhibits cell wall biosynthesis by binding to the cell wall precursor lipid II and disrupting peptidoglycan synthesis ... Specific binding of nisin to the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II combines pore formation and inhibition of cell wall ... In vivo activity of nisin A and nisin V against Listeria monocytogenes in mice. BMC Microbiol 13:23. doi:10.1186/1471-2180-13- ... Nisin induces changes in membrane fatty acid composition of Listeria monocytogenes nisin-resistant strains at 10°C and 30°C. J ...
OAS, the direct precursor of cysteine, prevents CymR-dependent binding to DNA. This study has allowed us to predict sulphur ... Bacitracin and Nisin Resistance in Staphylococcus Aureus: a Novel Pathway Involving the BraS/BraR Two-component System (SA2417/ ... We have shown that the BraSR/BraDE module is a key bacitracin and nisin resistance determinant in S. aureus. In the presence of ... whereas VraDE acts specifically as a detoxification module and is sufficient to confer bacitracin and nisin resistance when ...
  • Characterization of the Lactococcus lactis nisin A operon genes nisP, encoding a subtilisin-like serine protease involved in precursor processing, and nisR, encoding a regulatory protein involved in nisin biosynthesis. (springer.com)
  • Certain strains of Lactococcus lactis produce the broad-spectrum bacteriocin nisin, which belongs to the lantibiotic class of antimicrobial peptides. (asm.org)
  • The bacteriocin nisin is naturally produced by some strains of Lactococcus lactis and is able to inhibit most gram-positive bacteria ( 27 ). (asm.org)
  • Nisin is a polycyclic antibacterial peptide produced by the bacterium Lactococcus lactis that is used as a food preservative. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nisin is a natural bacteriocin produced commercially by Lactococcus lactis and widely used in the food industry as a preservative because of its broad host spectrum. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Many of these so-called 'pathogenicity islands' have been characterised, including the epidermin (epi) cluster in Staphylococcus epidermis, and the nisin (nis) cluster in Lactococcus lactis [ PMID: 11133423 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • NsuP, a dehydratase from Streptococcus and NisP (MEROPS identifier S08.059), a membrane-anchored protease from Lactococcus, cleaves nisin [ PMID: 8478324 ]. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • The lantibiotic nisin is a 34-residue bacteriocin produced by the Gram-positive bacteria Lactococcus lactis spp. (illinois.edu)
  • Nisin is an antibacterial peptide produced by Lactococcus lactis subsp. (scielo.br)
  • Nisin is a bacteriocin of the lantibiotic type produced by certain strains of Lactococcus lactis subsp. (scielo.br)
  • Nisin (2.5%) was obtained from Sigma and stored at 4° C. Lactococcus lactis subsp. (scielo.br)
  • Subsequent investigations with the purified antimicrobial highlighted the enhanced specific activity of this modified nisin against representative target strains from the genera Streptococcus, Bacillus, Lactococcus, Enterococcus and Staphylococcus. (ucc.ie)
  • LAB also produce natural antibiotic-like substances called bacteriocins that act as natural preservatives, such as the nisin produced by Lactococcus lactis, which prevent spoilage from yeasts and moulds, as well as other bacteria [7][9]. (kenyon.edu)
  • Nisin Z, a post-translationally modified antimicrobial peptide of Lactococcus lactis , is positively autoregulated by extracellular nisin via the two-component regulatory proteins NisRK. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Nisin independent induction of the nisA promoter in Lactococcus lactis during growth in lactose or galactose. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Characterization of the structural gene encoding nisin F, a new lantibiotic produced by a Lactococcus lactis subsp. (sun.ac.za)
  • This strategy was first identified by studying the antibiotic mechanism of friulimicin B. Since then, other antibiotics that make use of a similar mechanism have been identified, including nisin and lantibiotics such as NAI-107. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nisin is a small, antibacterial peptide that belongs to the group A lantibiotics, with activity against a wide variety of gram-positive pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Like other lantibiotics, nisin is synthesized as an inactive precursor peptide (prenisin) that undergoes several steps of processing. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Model TIGR03731 represents the family of all lantibiotics related to gallidermin, including epidermin, mutatin, and nisin. (jcvi.org)
  • Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized as precursor peptides (prepeptides) that are subjected to posttranslational modifications to produce the active, mature compounds ( 2 , 3 ). (pnas.org)
  • While in general most bacteriocins inhibit only closely related species, nisin is a rare example of a "broad-spectrum" bacteriocin effective against many Gram-positive organisms, including lactic acid bacteria (commonly associated to avoid food spoilage), Listeria monocytogenes (a known pathogen), Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, Clostridium botulinum, etc. (wikipedia.org)
  • We also found a degree of cross-protection between nisin and class IIa bacteriocins and investigated possible mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • Nisin and the class IIa bacteriocins (also called pediocin-like bacteriocins) are antimicrobial peptides that are produced by lactic acid bacteria and that have the greatest potential as biopreservatives for food. (asm.org)
  • A preventative measure that has frequently been suggested for avoiding bacteriocin resistance problems is the simultaneous use of two bacteriocins with different specific pore-forming mechanisms, e.g., nisin and a class IIa bacteriocin. (asm.org)
  • Cross-resistance between nisin and IIa bacteriocins is not apparent in wild-type L. monocytogenes isolates ( 34 ). (asm.org)
  • Nisin is the most characterized of the class I bacteriocins. (hindawi.com)
  • Class II is defined as small heat-stable nonlanthionine containing membrane active peptides characterized by the presence of a Gly-Gly processing site in the bacteriocins precursor, the presence of amphiphilic helices with varying amounts of hydrophobicity and moderate to high-heat stability. (hindawi.com)
  • This is despite the fact that the activity of Nisin against several food spoilage and pathogenic bacteria is poor and the availability of many other bacteriocins with significant potential in this regard. (biomedsearch.com)
  • Enzymatic modification of bacteriocins as well as their export is achieved by proteins whose genes are often located in a discrete gene cluster proximal to the bacteriocin precursor gene, referred to as context genes in this study. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Interestingly, many bacteriocins are synthesized ribosomally as precursor peptides and are subsequently modified post-translationally to yield their biologically active forms. (biomedcentral.com)
  • It was previously shown that enhanced nisin resistance in some mutants was associated with increased expression of three genes, pbp2229 , hpk1021 , and lmo2487 , encoding a penicillin-binding protein, a histidine kinase, and a protein of unknown function, respectively. (asm.org)
  • Enhanced nisin resistance in L. monocytogenes generally constitutes less than a 10-fold increase in the MIC. (asm.org)
  • In this study, fully modified nisin precursor was produced in the in vitro RTS by using gene expression templates nisA, nisB, and nisC. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • The isolated cytoplasm of a non-nisin producer could also cleave the leader from the nisin precursor, showing that the cytoplasm of L. lactis cells does contain proteolytic activity capable of cleaving the leader from fully modified nisin precursor. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The dehydration and lanthiomne formation of the precursor were already completed as active nisin could be formed by cleaving the leader from the inactive precursor by a trypsin treatment or by incubation with wild type cells. (springer.com)
  • The biosynthesis of nisin occurs in two steps: a precursor peptide (prenisin) is synthesised ribosomally followed by post-translational enzymatic modifications converting the inactive precursor into a mature bioactive peptide. (scielo.br)
  • The mechanism of the ABC transporter NisFEG in protecting the producer cell from nisin was suggested from in vivo studies, where the presence of NisFEG in Bacillus subtilis causes a decrease in the amount of nisin within the cell and an increase of nisin in the supernatant ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Bacillus subtilis had been suggested as a potential host for the biosynthesis of nisin but was discarded due to its sensitivity to the lethal action of nisin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The inactivation effects of high pressure CO 2 + nisin (simultaneous treatment of HPCD and nisin, HPCD + nisin), HPCD→nisin (HPCD was followed by nisin), and nisin→HPCD (nisin was followed by HPCD) treatments on Bacillus subtilis spores in aqueous solutions were compared. (frontiersin.org)
  • Antimicrobially active nisin was obtained from the RTS mixture by trypsin treatment. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • This study showed that when secretion of nisin was blocked, intracellular proteolytic activity could cleave the N-terminal leader peptide of nisin precursor, resulting in active nisin. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • The results suggest that when active nisin is accumulated in the cytoplasm, it can insert into the membrane and from there extrude parts of the molecule into the pseudoperiplasmic space to interact with the signal-recognition domain of the histidine kinase NisK. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • In L. lactis , protection against the dual killing action of nisin is produced by four self-protection peptides, NisFEG (ABC transporter complex) and NisI (transmembrane protein) ( 36 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • We show that heterologously expressed and purified precursor peptides HalA1 and HalA2 are processed by the purified modification enzymes HalM1 and HalM2 in an in vitro reconstitution of the biosynthesis of a two-component lantibiotic. (pnas.org)
  • 2015. Structural variations of the cell wall precursor lipid II in Gram-positive bacteria - Impact on binding and efficacy of antimicrobial peptides. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Nisin belongs to a class of natural antimicrobial peptides, and has a unique mode of action: its AB(C)-ring system binds to the pyrophosphate moiety of lipid II. (uu.nl)
  • was the rationale for the design of smaller nisin-derived peptides to obtain novel potential antibiotics. (uu.nl)
  • AMPs are generated by proteolytic processing of one or more precursor peptides ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • Interruption of pbp2229 and hpk1021 eliminated the nisin resistance phenotype. (asm.org)
  • In this study, a plasmid was integrated into nisP, creating the first defined mutation in a nisin biosynthetic gene. (springer.com)
  • Buchman W B, Banerjee S, Hansen J N. Structure, expression and evolution of a gene encoding the precursor of nisin, a small protein antibiotic. (springer.com)
  • The existence of this nisI promoter is likely an evolutionary adaptation of the nisin gene cluster to enable its successful establishment in other cells following horizontal transfer. (asm.org)
  • The gene encoding the lantibiotic is flanked by 3 regulatory genes: 2 that are usually involved in a 2-component regulatory system, and another that cleaves the signal peptide from the precursor to produce the mature lantibiotic. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Researchers have long known the sequence of the nisin gene, and they can assemble the chain of amino acids (called a peptide) that are encoded by this gene. (nanowerk.com)
  • Nisin is gene-encoded and, as such, is amenable to peptide bioengineering, facilitating the generation of novel derivatives that can be screened for desirable properties. (ucc.ie)
  • The structural gene encodes a ribosomally synthesised precursor prepeptide which is generically named LanA. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Resistance to the lantibiotic nisin (NIS) arises readily in Staphylococcus aureus as a consequence of mutations in the nsaS gene, which encodes the sensor kinase of the NsaRS two-component regulatory system. (asm.org)
  • Nisin could not be detected in the growth supernatant of the NisT mutant strain with a nisin-sensing strain (sensitivity 10 pg ml −1 ), which has a green fluorescent protein gene connected to the nisin-inducible nisA promoter and a functional nisin signal transduction circuit. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Characterization of the promoter regions involved in galactose- and nisin-mediated induction of the nisA gene in Lactoccocus lactis ATCC11454. (microbiologyresearch.org)
  • Gene expression of rmHO-1, which was conjugated to a lactococcal signal peptide and a 6 × histidine (His) tag, was controlled by a nisin-inducible promoter (P nis ) (Fig. 1 a). (biomedcentral.com)
  • A new versatile and tightly controlled gene expression system, based on the auto-regulation mechanism of the bacteriocin nisin, was developed 10 years ago-the NIsin Controlled gene Expression system, called NICE. (saladgaffe.cf)
  • 1994). Acute transcriptional response of the honeybee peptide-antibiotics gene repertoire and required post-translational conversion of the precursor structures. (geneticsmr.com)
  • Subtilin and epidermin are related to nisin. (wikipedia.org)
  • Serine protease EpiP from Staphylococcus epidermidis catalyzes the processing of the epidermin precursor peptide. (ebi.ac.uk)
  • Dodd H M, Horn N, Gasson M J. Analysis of the genetic determinant for production of the peptide antibiotic nisin. (springer.com)
  • Recently, nisin has been proposed as a potential alternative antibiotic and also as a good model system for developing peptide antibiotics ( 6 , 25 , 38 ). (asm.org)
  • For nisin, an enzyme called a dehydratase removes water to help give the antibiotic its final, three-dimensional shape. (nanowerk.com)
  • The most intensively studied bacteriocin is nisin, a broad spectrum lantibiotic that inhibits Gram-positive bacteria including important food pathogens and clinically relevant antibiotic resistant bacteria. (ucc.ie)
  • Inactivation of the two-component regulatory system encoded by lisRK resulted in decreased nisin sensitivity ( 10 ). (asm.org)
  • It is now known that nisin functions, at least in part, by the formation of pores in the bacterial cell membrane, with the interaction being largely dependent on the type of lipids present and, most importantly, the charge carried by those lipids ( 2 , 11 , 26 ). (asm.org)
  • The nisin mode of action involves the formation of pores in the cytoplasmic membranes of sensitive bacteria, as well as the inhibition of cell wall synthesis, and this dual killing mode makes nisin an effective preservative ( 11 , 12 , 19 , 21 , 45 , 48 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nisin concentration can be measured using various techniques such as chromatography or by a simple agar diffusion bioassay. (wikipedia.org)
  • M. luteus A1 NCIMB86166 National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria was used as the indicator bacteria in agar diffusion bioassay of nisin. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • Although it is not fully clear how the lipoprotein NisI is involved in protection of the producer cell from the action of nisin, some in vitro evidence has suggested that NisI can trap nisin. (asm.org)
  • The results revealed that all modifications of nisin precursor can take place in vitro without membrane association and the transporter protein NisT. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • In the present study, nisin, a known antimicrobial peptide, was evaluated for safety and contraceptive potential in vitro and in vivo in the rabbit. (bioscientifica.com)
  • A concentration of 400 μg nisin per ml was found to be spermicidal in vitro , and the effect was dose and time dependent. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Nisin is an antimicrobial peptide that is commonly used as a food preservative and capable of inhibiting the pathogen Listeria monocytogenes. (bvsalud.org)
  • In the present work, we determined the direct role of the three genes in nisin resistance. (asm.org)
  • While the antimicrobial action of nisin has been extensively studied, it is still unclear as to how the nisin immunity system functions to protect the producer cell, especially when it first receives the nisin genes. (asm.org)
  • Our understanding of the mode of action of nisin, the only lantibiotic approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for use as a food grade inhibitor, is increasing ( 3 ). (asm.org)
  • The affinity studies of nisin revealed that spermatozoa are more susceptible to nisin than red blood cells and vaginal epithelial cells. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Under these conditions we observed a reversion of the Δ lisK mutant to wild-type growth kinetics in the presence of nisin. (asm.org)
  • We applied transcriptome and proteome analyses of B. subtilis and identified eight genes upregulated in the presence of nisin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • In this study, we have reevaluated the potential of B. subtilis as a host organism for the heterologous production of nisin. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Industrial-scale production of nisin is carried out in batch fermentations where synthesis of nisin starts in the mid-exponential growth phase, reaches a maximum in late exponential phase, and stops once the cells go into stationary phase. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Repeated application of nisin (50 mg/animal per day) in rabbits for 14 consecutive days did not cause local inflammation or damage to the vaginal epithelium. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Gram-negative bacteria are protected by their outer membrane but may become susceptible to nisin action after a heat shock or when this is coupled with the chelator EDTA. (wikipedia.org)
  • 2017. The cell wall precursor lipid II acts as a molecular signal for the Ser/Thr kinase PknB of Staphylococcus aureus . (uni-bonn.de)
  • Its main antimicrobial mechanism is based in forming a cell membrane pore creator complex, which coupled with a cell wall precursor (lipid II), leads to the leakage of essential cell life compounds and the loss of electrolytic stability, causing the cell death. (ufrgs.br)
  • This thesis describes the development and application of novel techniques to gain more insight into peptidoglycan metabolism and the enzymes involved herein with an emphasis on the role of the cell wall precursor Lipid II in the targeting of transglycosylases. (uu.nl)
  • Since the growth of the test microorganism reached the stationary phase in six hours of incubation, it was defined as the incubation time to draw the standard curve of nisin as well as to determine nisin concentration in other solutions. (scielo.br)
  • Nisin standard: 0.05 g of nisin (2.5%) was dissolved in 50 ml 0.01 N HCl and further dilutions were made in order to obtain a standard concentration in the range of 0.2 to 1.0 µg/ml. (scielo.br)
  • Controlling the fermentation pH at pH 6.5 resulted in a higher nisin concentration. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Areation would not impede the nisin production but reduced the lactate concentration. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • The nisin produced by calcium-alginate immobilized cell during the five repeated batches fermentation and continuous culture could be maintained at concentration of 900 ~ 1000 IU/mL. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • Nisin Z was functionalized onto the unmodified and chemically altered fibers at an average concentration of 178 µg/mL. (bvsalud.org)
  • The L. monocytogenes cells were treated with a sublethal concentration of nisin and the protein extracts were ran through a tandem mass spectrometry attached to a liquid chromatography system (LC-MS/MS). The results showed differential expression of some agents against oxidative stress such as catalase and ferrous ions storage proteins. (ufrgs.br)
  • Handwerger S, Pucci MJ, Volk KJ, Liu J, Lee MS. Vancomycin-resistant Leuconostoc mesenteroides and Lactobacillus casei synthesize cytoplasmic peptidoglycan precursors that terminate in lactate. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Bioassay of nisin: One tube of the test microorganism pre-cultured was diluted with 300 ml of free basic medium with the following composition (w/v): sucrose 10, peptone 10, yeast extract 10, KH 2 PO 4 10, NaCl 2 and Mg 2 SO 4 . (scielo.br)
  • The results indicate that this nisin resistance mechanism is caused directly by the increase in pbp2229 expression, which in turn is brought about by the increase in hpk1021 expression. (asm.org)
  • Nisin resistance in several, but not all, spontaneous mutants of L. monocytogenes was associated with increased expression of three genes, encoding a putative penicillin-binding protein ( pbp2229 ), a histidine protein kinase ( hpk1021 ), and a protein of unknown function ( lmo2487 ) ( 15 ). (asm.org)
  • A Δ lisK mutant (lacking the LisK histidine kinase sensor component) displays significantly enhanced resistance to the lantibiotic nisin, a greatly enhanced sensitivity to the cephalosporins, and a large reduction in the expression of three genes thought to encode a penicillin-binding protein, another histidine kinase (other than LisK), and a protein of unknown function. (asm.org)
  • Despite the extent of this knowledge the role of host genes in determining nisin sensitivity and resistance is less clear. (asm.org)
  • We also attempted to overcome the nisin sensitivity of B. subtilis by introducing the nisin resistance genes nisFEG and nisI from L. lactis under the control of a synthetic promoter library. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Purified NisI was shown to bind nisin, but not subtilin, which is a closely related lantibiotic, suggesting that NisI acts as a specific nisin-sequestering protein ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • Ortega also made another a surprising discovery: transfer-RNA, a molecule best known for its role in protein production, supplies the glutamate that allows the dehydratase to help shape the nisin into its final, active form. (nanowerk.com)
  • Specifically, nisin physically interacts with lipid II, which is a peptidoglycan precursor, and initiates the formation of a pore structure ( 5 , 6 ). (asm.org)
  • Class I lantibiotic bacteriocin Gallidermin precursor (has a mersacidin-like Lipid II domain, and forms Lipid II-dependent pores) ( Sahl and Bierbaum, 1998 ). (tcdb.org)
  • Nisin exerts its antimicrobial action by forming pores in the cytoplasmic membrane through an interaction with the peptidoglycan precursor lipid II (for a recent review, see reference 17 ). (asm.org)
  • Pore formation is facilitated by the binding of nisin to lipid II, a membrane-bound peptidoglycan precursor, which is thought to function as a docking molecule rather than as a receptor. (asm.org)
  • In addition, the binding of nisin to lipid II is responsible for a secondary mode of action, i.e., inhibition of cell wall synthesis ( 45 ). (asm.org)
  • The molecule "flips" between the cytoplasmic and extracellular faces of the cell membrane in a dynamic process (referred to as the lipid II cycle) essential for translocating PG precursors for cell wall biosynthesis ( 36 , 60 ). (asm.org)
  • Lipid II is an essential precursor in the formation of bacterial cell walls and is an example of a viable alternative target for next-generation antibiotics. (asm.org)
  • GlcNAc and MurNAc are synthesized inside the cell and incorporated, together with a pentapeptide side chain, into the lipid-linked PG precursor designated lipid II. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The lantibiotic nisin recognizes the diphospho-sugar portion of lipid II ( 17 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • These compounds were tested for their binding affinity toward lipid II by evaluation of their potency to inhibit nisin-induced carboxyfluorescein release from large unilamellar vesicles. (uu.nl)
  • C55-PP is an essential precursor for the lipid I and lipid II species needed for bacterial cell wall biosynthesis, both of which contain C55-P lipid anchors (Valvano, 2008). (cdkkinase.com)
  • Ltnα first binds to the precursor of peptidoglycan production, lipid II, with Ltnβ subsequently interacting with this complex. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Moreover, nisin-Lipid II pore formation in model membranes was inhibited by 5b, which was reduced by an excess presence of undecaprenylpyrophosphate. (uu.nl)
  • Ribosomally synthesized precursor peptide, NukA undergoes introduction of unusual amino acids by a single modification enzyme, NukM, and the leader sequence is removed and the mature peptide is secreted by ABC transporter NukT. (nii.ac.jp)
  • Specifically, metabolism of galactose via the Leloir pathway results in an inducer that can initiate nisA transcription from precisely the same start site as transcription initiated by signal transduction with nisin ( 11 ). (asm.org)
  • Here, we report the modification of sodium alginate (SA) and gelatin (GN) blended microfibers, produced via the wet-spinning technique, with Nisin Z, with the purpose of eradicating Staphylococcus aureus-induced infections. (bvsalud.org)
  • It is largely restricted to gallidermin-family lantibiotic biosynthesis and export cassettes, but also occurs in orphan transporter cassettes in species that lack candidate lantibiotic precursor and synthetase genes. (jcvi.org)
  • The mutant strain secreted fully modified nisin with the N-terminal leader still attached. (springer.com)
  • Nisin immunity of the NisP mutant strain was lowered to about 10% of the wild type immunity. (springer.com)
  • The expression of virulence genes in one nisin-resistant mutant and two class IIa bacteriocin-resistant mutants of the same wild-type strain was analyzed, and each mutant consistently showed either an increase or a decrease in the expression of virulence genes ( prfA -regulated as well as prfA -independent genes). (asm.org)
  • Nisin production by strain Lactoccus lactis ssp. (ncl.edu.tw)
  • L. lactis LAC240 34 was used as the indicator strain in nisin detection by nisin-inducible GFP fluorescence. (americorpshealth.biz)
  • For isolation of membranes, cells were grown in a 10-liter pH-regulated fermentor to an OD 660 of 2, after which transcription from the nisA promoter was switched on by addition of 0.2% (vol/vol) culture supernatant of the nisin A-producing strain NZ9700 ( 5 ). (pnas.org)
  • Daptomycin has been proposed to cause membrane depolarization, and the transcriptional responses to carbonyl cyanide m -chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) and nisin were determined. (asm.org)
  • 2016. Daptomycin inhibits cell envelope synthesis by interfering with fluid membrane microdomains.precursors. (uni-bonn.de)
  • Helander IM, Mattila-Sandholm T. Permeability barrier of the Gram-negative bacterial outer membrane with special reference to nisin. (koreascience.or.kr)
  • Deletion of the glycosyltransferase bgsA in Enterococcus faecalis leads to loss of diglucosyldiacylglycerol from the cell membrane and accumulation of its precursor monoglucosyldiacylglycerol, associated with impaired biofilm formation and reduced virulence in vivo. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Bacteria elimination was consistent with the release kinetics of Nisin Z from the fibers. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nisin molecules enter into a susceptible organism and congregate in groups and then form pores. (hizb-ut-tahrir.info)
  • Mature nisin is an extracellular peptide that contains modified amino acid residues resulting in highly stable thioether bridges ( 7 , 13 , 23 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • Nisin has long been used as a food preservative because of its antimicrobial properties ( 14 ). (asm.org)
  • We suggest that nisin with spermicidal and antimicrobial properties could serve as a safe vaginal contraceptive for future therapeutic interventions in STIs. (bioscientifica.com)
  • Thus nisin inhibits bacterial growth by a combination of these two mechanisms. (asm.org)
  • In addition, consumers who are moderately lactose-intolerant can consume yoghurt without ill symptoms, because much of the lactose in the milk precursor is converted to lactic acid by the bacterial culture [2] . (igem.org)
  • In order to achieve higher productivity and avoid the troublesome fermentation of L. lactis , the engineering of alternative cost-effective nisin-producing strains is an option. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • This report describes the design, synthesis, and biochemical evaluation of alkene- and alkane-bridged AB(C)-ring mimics of the lantibiotic nisin. (uu.nl)
  • Since 1988, nisin has been approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and results from toxicity studies carried out with nisin levels in excess of those used in foods show that it can be considered nontoxic and safe ( 15 , 16 , 18 , 39 ). (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
  • The leader peptide also guides the export of the formed lanthionine-containing precursor peptide out of Gram-positive bacteria via a lanthipeptide transporter. (portlandpress.com)
  • Nisin Z, an amphipathic peptide, with a significant antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria and low toxicity in humans, has been studied for food preservation applications. (bvsalud.org)
  • Nisin is used in processed cheese, meats, beverages, etc. during production to extend shelf life by suppressing Gram-positive spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. (wikipedia.org)
  • Nisin has also been used in food packaging applications and can serve as a preservative by controlled release onto the food surface from the polymer packaging. (wikipedia.org)
  • The most famous of these is nisin, a natural product in milk that can be synthesized in the lab and is added to foods as a preservative. (nanowerk.com)
  • Nisin was first introduced as a food preservative in the U.K. approximately 30 years ago. (scielo.br)
  • While the bacteriocin Nisin has been employed by the food industry for 60 y, it remains the only bacteriocin to be extensively employed as a food preservative. (biomedsearch.com)
  • The nisin-like group is named for nisin A, which is the most extensively studied bacteriocin and is currently sold in more than 50 countries as a food preservative [ 7 ]. (biomedcentral.com)
  • NisK is the transmembrane histidine kinase that senses nisin and activates NisR by phosphorylation to enable it to induce transcription ( 31 ). (asm.org)