Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e., ANTIBODIES that can form a precipitate.
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled antigens associated with farm environment. Antigens in the farm dust are commonly from bacteria actinomycetes (SACCHAROPOLYSPORA and THERMOACTINOMYCES), fungi, and animal proteins in the soil, straw, crops, pelts, serum, and excreta.
Technique involving the diffusion of antigen or antibody through a semisolid medium, usually agar or agarose gel, with the result being a precipitin reaction.
Antibodies which elicit IMMUNOPRECIPITATION when combined with antigen.
Serologic tests based on inactivation of complement by the antigen-antibody complex (stage 1). Binding of free complement can be visualized by addition of a second antigen-antibody system such as red cells and appropriate red cell antibody (hemolysin) requiring complement for its completion (stage 2). Failure of the red cells to lyse indicates that a specific antigen-antibody reaction has taken place in stage 1. If red cells lyse, free complement is present indicating no antigen-antibody reaction occurred in stage 1.
A technique that combines protein electrophoresis and double immunodiffusion. In this procedure proteins are first separated by gel electrophoresis (usually agarose), then made visible by immunodiffusion of specific antibodies. A distinct elliptical precipitin arc results for each protein detectable by the antisera.
Serum that contains antibodies. It is obtained from an animal that has been immunized either by ANTIGEN injection or infection with microorganisms containing the antigen.
A genus of gram-positive, coccoid bacteria whose organisms occur in pairs or chains. No endospores are produced. Many species exist as commensals or parasites on man or animals with some being highly pathogenic. A few species are saprophytes and occur in the natural environment.
Substances that are recognized by the immune system and induce an immune reaction.
Process of determining and distinguishing species of bacteria or viruses based on antigens they share.
Substances elaborated by bacteria that have antigenic activity.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which immunoprecipitation occurs when antigen at the cathode is caused to migrate in an electric field through a suitable medium of diffusion against a stream of antibody migrating from the anode as a result of endosmotic flow.
A mitosporic fungal genus which causes COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
Substances of fungal origin that have antigenic activity.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to FUNGAL ANTIGENS.
Infection with a fungus of the genus COCCIDIOIDES, endemic to the SOUTHWESTERN UNITED STATES. It is sometimes called valley fever but should not be confused with RIFT VALLEY FEVER. Infection is caused by inhalation of airborne, fungal particles known as arthroconidia, a form of FUNGAL SPORES. A primary form is an acute, benign, self-limited respiratory infection. A secondary form is a virulent, severe, chronic, progressive granulomatous disease with systemic involvement. It can be detected by use of COCCIDIOIDIN.
The processes triggered by interactions of ANTIBODIES with their ANTIGENS.
A common interstitial lung disease caused by hypersensitivity reactions of PULMONARY ALVEOLI after inhalation of and sensitization to environmental antigens of microbial, animal, or chemical sources. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic alveolitis and granulomatous pneumonitis.
A sterile solution containing the by-products of growth products of COCCIDIOIDES IMMITIS, injected intracutaneously as a test for COCCIDIOIDOMYCOSIS.
Immunoelectrophoresis in which a second electrophoretic transport is performed on the initially separated antigen fragments into an antibody-containing medium in a direction perpendicular to the first electrophoresis.
Serological reactions in which an antiserum against one antigen reacts with a non-identical but closely related antigen.
Hypersensitivity reaction (ALLERGIC REACTION) to fungus ASPERGILLUS in an individual with long-standing BRONCHIAL ASTHMA. It is characterized by pulmonary infiltrates, EOSINOPHILIA, elevated serum IMMUNOGLOBULIN E, and skin reactivity to Aspergillus antigen.
A family of gram-positive, saprophytic bacteria occurring in soil and aquatic environments.
Field of chemistry that pertains to immunological phenomena and the study of chemical reactions related to antigen stimulation of tissues. It includes physicochemical interactions between antigens and antibodies.
Infections of the brain caused by arthropod-borne viruses (i.e., arboviruses) primarily from the families TOGAVIRIDAE; FLAVIVIRIDAE; BUNYAVIRIDAE; REOVIRIDAE; and RHABDOVIRIDAE. Life cycles of these viruses are characterized by ZOONOSES, with birds and lower mammals serving as intermediate hosts. The virus is transmitted to humans by the bite of mosquitoes (CULICIDAE) or TICKS. Clinical manifestations include fever, headache, alterations of mentation, focal neurologic deficits, and COMA. (From Clin Microbiol Rev 1994 Jan;7(1):89-116; Walton, Brain's Diseases of the Nervous System, 10th ed, p321)
The formation of a solid in a solution as a result of a chemical reaction or the aggregation of soluble substances into complexes large enough to fall out of solution.
Substances, usually of biological origin, that cause cells or other organic particles to aggregate and stick to each other. They include those ANTIBODIES which cause aggregation or agglutination of particulate or insoluble ANTIGENS.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
Histoplasmin is an antigen extracted from the histoplasmoma fungus (Histoplasma capsulatum), used in skin tests to detect previous exposure or infection to this pathogen that causes histoplasmosis.
Immunoglobulin molecules having a specific amino acid sequence by virtue of which they interact only with the ANTIGEN (or a very similar shape) that induced their synthesis in cells of the lymphoid series (especially PLASMA CELLS).
The period of recovery following an illness.
A collection of single-stranded RNA viruses scattered across the Bunyaviridae, Flaviviridae, and Togaviridae families whose common property is the ability to induce encephalitic conditions in infected hosts.
A strong acid used as a protein precipitant in clinical chemistry and also as a caustic for removing warts.
A form of alveolitis or pneumonitis due to an acquired hypersensitivity to inhaled avian antigens, usually proteins in the dust of bird feathers and droppings.
Sensitive tests to measure certain antigens, antibodies, or viruses, using their ability to agglutinate certain erythrocytes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
Tests that are dependent on the clumping of cells, microorganisms, or particles when mixed with specific antiserum. (From Stedman, 26th ed)
A methylpentose whose L- isomer is found naturally in many plant glycosides and some gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharides.
Polysaccharides found in bacteria and in capsules thereof.
Serum globulins that migrate to the gamma region (most positively charged) upon ELECTROPHORESIS. At one time, gamma-globulins came to be used as a synonym for immunoglobulins since most immunoglobulins are gamma globulins and conversely most gamma globulins are immunoglobulins. But since some immunoglobulins exhibit an alpha or beta electrophoretic mobility, that usage is in decline.
Normal human serum albumin mildly iodinated with radioactive iodine (131-I) which has a half-life of 8 days, and emits beta and gamma rays. It is used as a diagnostic aid in blood volume determination. (from Merck Index, 11th ed)
Mannosides formed by the reaction of the hydroxyl group on the anomeric carbon atom of mannose with methyl alcohol. They include both alpha- and beta-methylmannosides.
Sites on an antigen that interact with specific antibodies.
The largest class of organic compounds, including STARCH; GLYCOGEN; CELLULOSE; POLYSACCHARIDES; and simple MONOSACCHARIDES. Carbohydrates are composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen in a ratio of Cn(H2O)n.
A series of steps taken in order to conduct research.
Chromatography on non-ionic gels without regard to the mechanism of solute discrimination.
A species of imperfect fungi from which the antibiotic fumigatin is obtained. Its spores may cause respiratory infection in birds and mammals.
Diseases in persons engaged in cultivating and tilling soil, growing plants, harvesting crops, raising livestock, or otherwise engaged in husbandry and farming. The diseases are not restricted to farmers in the sense of those who perform conventional farm chores: the heading applies also to those engaged in the individual activities named above, as in those only gathering harvest or in those only dusting crops.
Infections with bacteria of the genus ACTINOMYCES.
The sum of the weight of all the atoms in a molecule.
Fleshy and reddish outgrowth of skin tissue found on top of the head, attached to the sides of the head, and hanging from the mandible of birds such as turkeys and chickens.
A complex sulfated polymer of galactose units, extracted from Gelidium cartilagineum, Gracilaria confervoides, and related red algae. It is used as a gel in the preparation of solid culture media for microorganisms, as a bulk laxative, in making emulsions, and as a supporting medium for immunodiffusion and immunoelectrophoresis.
A fungal infection that may appear in two forms: 1, a primary lesion characterized by the formation of a small cutaneous nodule and small nodules along the lymphatics that may heal within several months; and 2, chronic granulomatous lesions characterized by thick crusts, warty growths, and unusual vascularity and infection in the middle or upper lobes of the lung.
The industry concerned with processing, preparing, preserving, distributing, and serving of foods and beverages.
Organic compounds that generally contain an amino (-NH2) and a carboxyl (-COOH) group. Twenty alpha-amino acids are the subunits which are polymerized to form proteins.
Sensitive assay using radiolabeled ANTIGENS to detect specific ANTIBODIES in SERUM. The antigens are allowed to react with the serum and then precipitated using a special reagent such as PROTEIN A sepharose beads. The bound radiolabeled immunoprecipitate is then commonly analyzed by gel electrophoresis.
Studies determining the effectiveness or value of processes, personnel, and equipment, or the material on conducting such studies. For drugs and devices, CLINICAL TRIALS AS TOPIC; DRUG EVALUATION; and DRUG EVALUATION, PRECLINICAL are available.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Separation technique in which the stationary phase consists of ion exchange resins. The resins contain loosely held small ions that easily exchange places with other small ions of like charge present in solutions washed over the resins.
Epicutaneous or intradermal application of a sensitizer for demonstration of either delayed or immediate hypersensitivity. Used in diagnosis of hypersensitivity or as a test for cellular immunity.
A basic science concerned with the composition, structure, and properties of matter; and the reactions that occur between substances and the associated energy exchange.
The composition, conformation, and properties of atoms and molecules, and their reaction and interaction processes.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to BACTERIAL ANTIGENS.
Serologic tests in which a known quantity of antigen is added to the serum prior to the addition of a red cell suspension. Reaction result is expressed as the smallest amount of antigen which causes complete inhibition of hemagglutination.
The complex formed by the binding of antigen and antibody molecules. The deposition of large antigen-antibody complexes leading to tissue damage causes IMMUNE COMPLEX DISEASES.
The pH in solutions of proteins and related compounds at which the dipolar ions are at a maximum.
An electrochemical process in which macromolecules or colloidal particles with a net electric charge migrate in a solution under the influence of an electric current.

Role of alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. (1/10558)

Interaction between integrin alphavbeta3 and extracellular matrix is crucial for endothelial cells sprouting from capillaries and for angiogenesis. Furthermore, integrin-mediated outside-in signals co-operate with growth factor receptors to promote cell proliferation and motility. To determine a potential regulation of angiogenic inducer receptors by the integrin system, we investigated the interaction between alphavbeta3 integrin and tyrosine kinase vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2 (VEGFR-2) in human endothelial cells. We report that tyrosine-phosphorylated VEGFR-2 co-immunoprecipitated with beta3 integrin subunit, but not with beta1 or beta5, from cells stimulated with VEGF-A165. VEGFR-2 phosphorylation and mitogenicity induced by VEGF-A165 were enhanced in cells plated on the alphavbeta3 ligand, vitronectin, compared with cells plated on the alpha5beta1 ligand, fibronectin or the alpha2beta1 ligand, collagen. BV4 anti-beta3 integrin mAb, which does not interfere with endothelial cell adhesion to vitronectin, reduced (i) the tyrosine phosphorylation of VEGFR-2; (ii) the activation of downstream transductor phosphoinositide 3-OH kinase; and (iii) biological effects triggered by VEGF-A165. These results indicate a new role for alphavbeta3 integrin in the activation of an in vitro angiogenic program in endothelial cells. Besides being the most important survival system for nascent vessels by regulating cell adhesion to matrix, alphavbeta3 integrin participates in the full activation of VEGFR-2 triggered by VEGF-A, which is an important angiogenic inducer in tumors, inflammation and tissue regeneration.  (+info)

The exocyst is an effector for Sec4p, targeting secretory vesicles to sites of exocytosis. (2/10558)

Polarized secretion requires proper targeting of secretory vesicles to specific sites on the plasma membrane. Here we report that the exocyst complex plays a key role in vesicle targeting. Sec15p, an exocyst component, can associate with secretory vesicles and interact specifically with the rab GTPase, Sec4p, in its GTP-bound form. A chain of protein-protein interactions leads from Sec4p and Sec15p on the vesicle, through various subunits of the exocyst, to Sec3p, which marks the sites of exocytosis on the plasma membrane. Sec4p may control the assembly of the exocyst. The exocyst may therefore function as a rab effector system for targeted secretion.  (+info)

Rpp14 and Rpp29, two protein subunits of human ribonuclease P. (3/10558)

In HeLa cells, the tRNA processing enzyme ribonuclease P (RNase P) consists of an RNA molecule associated with at least eight protein subunits, hPop1, Rpp14, Rpp20, Rpp25, Rpp29, Rpp30, Rpp38, and Rpp40. Five of these proteins (hPop1p, Rpp20, Rpp30, Rpp38, and Rpp40) have been partially characterized. Here we report on the cDNA cloning and immunobiochemical analysis of Rpp14 and Rpp29. Polyclonal rabbit antibodies raised against recombinant Rpp14 and Rpp29 recognize their corresponding antigens in HeLa cells and precipitate catalytically active RNase P. Rpp29 shows 23% identity with Pop4p, a subunit of yeast nuclear RNase P and the ribosomal RNA processing enzyme RNase MRP. Rpp14, by contrast, exhibits no significant homology to any known yeast gene. Thus, human RNase P differs in the details of its protein composition, and perhaps in the functions of some of these proteins, from the yeast enzyme.  (+info)

Autoantibodies to RNA polymerases recognize multiple subunits and demonstrate cross-reactivity with RNA polymerase complexes. (4/10558)

OBJECTIVE: To determine the subunit specificity of autoantibody directed to RNA polymerases (RNAP) I, II, and III, which is one of the major autoantibody responses in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). METHODS: Thirty-two SSc sera with anti-RNAP antibodies (23 with anti-RNAP I/III, 5 with anti-RNAP I/III and II, and 4 with anti-RNAP II alone) were analyzed by immunoblotting using affinity-purified RNAP and by immunoprecipitation using 35S-labeled cell extracts in which RNAP complexes were dissociated. Antibodies bound to individual RNAP subunits were eluted from preparative immunoblots and were further analyzed by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. RESULTS: At least 15 different proteins were bound by antibodies in anti-RNAP-positive SSc sera in various combinations. All 9 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP II and all 28 sera immunoprecipitating RNAP I/III recognized the large subunit proteins of RNAP II and III, respectively. Reactivity to RNAP I large subunits was strongly associated with bright nucleolar staining by indirect immunofluorescence. Affinity-purified antibodies that recognized a 62-kd subunit protein cross-reacted with a 43-kd subunit protein and immunoprecipitated both RNAP I and RNAP III. Antibodies that recognized a 21-kd subunit protein obtained from sera that were positive for anti-RNAP I/III and II antibodies immunoprecipitated both RNAP II and RNAP III. CONCLUSION: Anti-RNAP antibodies recognize multiple subunits of RNAP I, II, and III. Moreover, the results of this study provide the first direct evidence that antibodies that recognize shared subunits of human RNAPs or epitopes present on different human RNAP subunits are responsible for the recognition of multiple RNAPs by SSc sera.  (+info)

AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase. (5/10558)

The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle is activated by vigorous exercise and ischaemic stress. Under these conditions AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase causing increased oxidation of fatty acids. Here we show that AMPK co-immunoprecipitates with cardiac endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylates Ser-1177 in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) to activate eNOS both in vitro and during ischaemia in rat hearts. In the absence of Ca2+-calmodulin, AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS at Thr-495 in the CaM-binding sequence, resulting in inhibition of eNOS activity but Thr-495 phosphorylation is unchanged during ischaemia. Phosphorylation of eNOS by the AMPK in endothelial cells and myocytes provides a further regulatory link between metabolic stress and cardiovascular function.  (+info)

Receptor activator of NF-kappaB recruits multiple TRAF family adaptors and activates c-Jun N-terminal kinase. (6/10558)

Receptor activator of NF-kappaB (RANK) is a recently cloned member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) superfamily, and its function has been implicated in osteoclast differentiation and dendritic cell survival. Many of the TNFR family receptors recruit various members of the TNF receptor-associated factor (TRAF) family for transduction of their signals to NF-kappaB and c-Jun N-terminal kinase. In this study, the involvement of TRAF family members and the activation of the JNK pathway in signal transduction by RANK were investigated. TRAF1, 2, 3, 5, and 6 were found to bind RANK in vitro. Association of RANK with each of these TRAF proteins was also detected in vivo. Expression of RANK in cultured cells also induced the activation of JNK, which was blocked by a dominant-negative form of JNK. Furthermore, by employing various C-terminal deletion mutants of RANK, the regions responsible for TRAF interaction and JNK activation were identified. TRAF5 was determined to bind to the C-terminal 11 amino acids and the other TRAF members to a region N-terminal to the TRAF5 binding site. The domain responsible for JNK activation was localized to the same region where TRAF1, 2, 3, and 6 bound, which suggests that these TRAF molecules might mediate the RANK-induced JNK activation.  (+info)

A novel interaction mechanism accounting for different acylphosphatase effects on cardiac and fast twitch skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pumps. (7/10558)

In cardiac and skeletal muscle Ca2+ translocation from cytoplasm into sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) is accomplished by different Ca2+-ATPases whose functioning involves the formation and decomposition of an acylphosphorylated phosphoenzyme intermediate (EP). In this study we found that acylphosphatase, an enzyme well represented in muscular tissues and which actively hydrolyzes EP, had different effects on heart (SERCA2a) and fast twitch skeletal muscle SR Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA1). With physiological acylphosphatase concentrations SERCA2a exhibited a parallel increase in the rates of both ATP hydrolysis and Ca2+ transport; in contrast, SERCA1 appeared to be uncoupled since the stimulation of ATP hydrolysis matched an inhibition of Ca2+ pump. These different effects probably depend on phospholamban, which is associated with SERCA2a but not SERCA1. Consistent with this view, the present study suggests that acylphosphatase-induced stimulation of SERCA2a, in addition to an enhanced EP hydrolysis, may be due to a displacement of phospholamban, thus to a removal of its inhibitory effect.  (+info)

Purification and identification of a novel subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4. (8/10558)

The catalytic subunit of protein serine/threonine phosphatase 4 (PP4C) has greater than 65% amino acid identity to the catalytic subunit of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2AC). Despite this high homology, PP4 does not appear to associate with known PP2A regulatory subunits. As a first step toward characterization of PP4 holoenzymes and identification of putative PP4 regulatory subunits, PP4 was purified from bovine testis soluble extracts. PP4 existed in two complexes of approximately 270-300 and 400-450 kDa as determined by gel filtration chromatography. The smaller PP4 complex was purified by sequential phenyl-Sepharose, Source 15Q, DEAE2, and Superdex 200 gel filtration chromatographies. The final product contained two major proteins: the PP4 catalytic subunit plus a protein that migrated as a doublet of 120-125 kDa on SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The associated protein, termed PP4R1, and PP4C also bound to microcystin-Sepharose. Mass spectrometry analysis of the purified complex revealed two major peaks, at 35 (PP4C) and 105 kDa (PP4R1). Amino acid sequence information of several peptides derived from the 105 kDa protein was utilized to isolate a human cDNA clone. Analysis of the predicted amino acid sequence revealed 13 nonidentical repeats similar to repeats found in the A subunit of PP2A (PP2AA). The PP4R1 cDNA clone engineered with an N-terminal Myc tag was expressed in COS M6 cells and PP4C co-immunoprecipitated with Myc-tagged PP4R1. These data indicate that one form of PP4 is similar to the core complex of PP2A in that it consists of a catalytic subunit and a "PP2AA-like" structural subunit.  (+info)

A precipitin test is a type of immunodiagnostic test used to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a patient's serum. The test is based on the principle of antigen-antibody interaction, where the addition of an antigen to a solution containing its corresponding antibody results in the formation of an insoluble immune complex known as a precipitin.

In this test, a small amount of the patient's serum is added to a solution containing a known antigen or antibody. If the patient has antibodies or antigens that correspond to the added reagent, they will bind and form a visible precipitate. The size and density of the precipitate can be used to quantify the amount of antibody or antigen present in the sample.

Precipitin tests are commonly used in the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies. They can also be used in forensic science to identify biological samples. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern immunological techniques such as enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and radioimmunoassays (RIAs).

Farmer's lung is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, which is a lung inflammation caused by an allergic reaction to inhaled organic dusts. It is commonly associated with farmers and agricultural workers who are exposed to moldy hay, straw, or grain. When these materials are disturbed, such as during farming activities like harvesting, baling, or cleaning, the mold spores become airborne and can be inhaled, leading to an immune response in susceptible individuals.

The symptoms of Farmer's lung typically include cough, shortness of breath, fever, fatigue, and chest tightness, which usually occur within 4-6 hours after exposure. The condition can cause permanent lung damage if not properly diagnosed and managed with avoidance of exposures and/or medication. It is important for farmers and agricultural workers to use appropriate personal protective equipment, such as masks, and to ensure that their work environments are well-ventilated to reduce the risk of developing Farmer's lung.

Immunodiffusion is a laboratory technique used in immunology to detect and measure the presence of specific antibodies or antigens in a sample. It is based on the principle of diffusion, where molecules move from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration until they reach equilibrium. In this technique, a sample containing an unknown quantity of antigen or antibody is placed in a gel or agar medium that contains a known quantity of antibody or antigen, respectively.

The two substances then diffuse towards each other and form a visible precipitate at the point where they meet and reach equivalence, which indicates the presence and quantity of the specific antigen or antibody in the sample. There are several types of immunodiffusion techniques, including radial immunodiffusion (RID) and double immunodiffusion (Ouchterlony technique). These techniques are widely used in diagnostic laboratories to identify and measure various antigens and antibodies, such as those found in infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergic reactions.

Precipitins are antibodies (usually of the IgG class) that, when combined with their respective antigens in vitro, result in the formation of a visible precipitate. They are typically produced in response to the presence of insoluble antigens, such as bacterial or fungal cell wall components, and can be detected through various immunological techniques such as precipitation tests (e.g., Ouchterlony double diffusion, radial immunodiffusion).

Precipitins are often used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and allergies to identify the presence and specificity of antibodies produced against certain antigens. However, it's worth noting that the term "precipitin" is not commonly used in modern medical literature, and the more general term "antibody" is often preferred.

Complement fixation tests are a type of laboratory test used in immunology and serology to detect the presence of antibodies in a patient's serum. These tests are based on the principle of complement activation, which is a part of the immune response. The complement system consists of a group of proteins that work together to help eliminate pathogens from the body.

In a complement fixation test, the patient's serum is mixed with a known antigen and complement proteins. If the patient has antibodies against the antigen, they will bind to it and activate the complement system. This results in the consumption or "fixation" of the complement proteins, which are no longer available to participate in a secondary reaction.

A second step involves adding a fresh source of complement proteins and a dye-labeled antibody that recognizes a specific component of the complement system. If complement was fixed during the first step, it will not be available for this secondary reaction, and the dye-labeled antibody will remain unbound. Conversely, if no antibodies were present in the patient's serum, the complement proteins would still be available for the second reaction, leading to the binding of the dye-labeled antibody.

The mixture is then examined under a microscope or using a spectrophotometer to determine whether the dye-labeled antibody has bound. If it has not, this indicates that the patient's serum contains antibodies specific to the antigen used in the test, and a positive result is recorded.

Complement fixation tests have been widely used for the diagnosis of various infectious diseases, such as syphilis, measles, and influenza. However, they have largely been replaced by more modern serological techniques, like enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) and nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs), due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, and ease of use.

Immunoelectrophoresis (IEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of clinical pathology and immunology. It is a method for separating and identifying proteins, particularly immunoglobulins or antibodies, in a sample. This technique combines the principles of electrophoresis, which separates proteins based on their electric charge and size, with immunological reactions, which detect specific proteins using antigen-antibody interactions.

In IEP, a protein sample is first separated by electrophoresis in an agarose or agar gel matrix on a glass slide or in a test tube. After separation, an antibody specific to the protein of interest is layered on top of the gel and allowed to diffuse towards the separated proteins. This creates a reaction between the antigen (protein) and the antibody, forming a visible precipitate at the point where they meet. The precipitate line's position and intensity can then be analyzed to identify and quantify the protein of interest.

Immunoelectrophoresis is particularly useful in diagnosing various medical conditions, such as immunodeficiency disorders, monoclonal gammopathies (like multiple myeloma), and other plasma cell dyscrasias. It can help detect abnormal protein patterns, quantify specific immunoglobulins, and identify the presence of M-proteins or Bence Jones proteins, which are indicative of monoclonal gammopathies.

'Immune sera' refers to the serum fraction of blood that contains antibodies produced in response to an antigenic stimulus, such as a vaccine or an infection. These antibodies are proteins known as immunoglobulins, which are secreted by B cells (a type of white blood cell) and can recognize and bind to specific antigens. Immune sera can be collected from an immunized individual and used as a source of passive immunity to protect against infection or disease. It is often used in research and diagnostic settings to identify or measure the presence of specific antigens or antibodies.

Streptococcus is a genus of Gram-positive, spherical bacteria that typically form pairs or chains when clustered together. These bacteria are facultative anaerobes, meaning they can grow in the presence or absence of oxygen. They are non-motile and do not produce spores.

Streptococcus species are commonly found on the skin and mucous membranes of humans and animals. Some strains are part of the normal flora of the body, while others can cause a variety of infections, ranging from mild skin infections to severe and life-threatening diseases such as sepsis, meningitis, and toxic shock syndrome.

The pathogenicity of Streptococcus species depends on various virulence factors, including the production of enzymes and toxins that damage tissues and evade the host's immune response. One of the most well-known Streptococcus species is Streptococcus pyogenes, also known as group A streptococcus (GAS), which is responsible for a wide range of clinical manifestations, including pharyngitis (strep throat), impetigo, cellulitis, necrotizing fasciitis, and rheumatic fever.

It's important to note that the classification of Streptococcus species has evolved over time, with many former members now classified as different genera within the family Streptococcaceae. The current classification system is based on a combination of phenotypic characteristics (such as hemolysis patterns and sugar fermentation) and genotypic methods (such as 16S rRNA sequencing and multilocus sequence typing).

An antigen is a substance (usually a protein) that is recognized as foreign by the immune system and stimulates an immune response, leading to the production of antibodies or activation of T-cells. Antigens can be derived from various sources, including bacteria, viruses, fungi, parasites, and tumor cells. They can also come from non-living substances such as pollen, dust mites, or chemicals.

Antigens contain epitopes, which are specific regions on the antigen molecule that are recognized by the immune system. The immune system's response to an antigen depends on several factors, including the type of antigen, its size, and its location in the body.

In general, antigens can be classified into two main categories:

1. T-dependent antigens: These require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are typically larger, more complex molecules that contain multiple epitopes capable of binding to both MHC class II molecules on antigen-presenting cells and T-cell receptors on CD4+ T-cells.
2. T-independent antigens: These do not require the help of T-cells to stimulate an immune response. They are usually smaller, simpler molecules that contain repetitive epitopes capable of cross-linking B-cell receptors and activating them directly.

Understanding antigens and their properties is crucial for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Serotyping is a laboratory technique used to classify microorganisms, such as bacteria and viruses, based on the specific antigens or proteins present on their surface. It involves treating the microorganism with different types of antibodies and observing which ones bind to its surface. Each distinct set of antigens corresponds to a specific serotype, allowing for precise identification and characterization of the microorganism. This technique is particularly useful in epidemiology, vaccine development, and infection control.

Bacterial antigens are substances found on the surface or produced by bacteria that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. These antigens can be proteins, polysaccharides, teichoic acids, lipopolysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system.

When a bacterial antigen is encountered by the host's immune system, it triggers a series of responses aimed at eliminating the bacteria and preventing infection. The host's immune system recognizes the antigen as foreign through the use of specialized receptors called pattern recognition receptors (PRRs), which are found on various immune cells such as macrophages, dendritic cells, and neutrophils.

Once a bacterial antigen is recognized by the host's immune system, it can stimulate both the innate and adaptive immune responses. The innate immune response involves the activation of inflammatory pathways, the recruitment of immune cells to the site of infection, and the production of antimicrobial peptides.

The adaptive immune response, on the other hand, involves the activation of T cells and B cells, which are specific to the bacterial antigen. These cells can recognize and remember the antigen, allowing for a more rapid and effective response upon subsequent exposures.

Bacterial antigens are important in the development of vaccines, as they can be used to stimulate an immune response without causing disease. By identifying specific bacterial antigens that are associated with virulence or pathogenicity, researchers can develop vaccines that target these antigens and provide protection against infection.

Counterimmunoelectrophoresis (CIEP) is a laboratory technique used in the field of immunology and serology for the identification and detection of antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is a type of electrophoretic technique that involves the migration of antigens and antibodies in an electric field towards each other, resulting in the formation of a precipitin line at the point where they meet and react.

In CIEP, the antigen is placed in the gel matrix in a trough or well, while the antibody is placed in a separate trough located perpendicularly to the antigen trough. An electric current is then applied, causing both the antigens and antibodies to migrate towards each other through the gel matrix. When they meet, they form a precipitin line, which can be visualized as a white band or line in the gel.

CIEP is a rapid and sensitive technique that can be used to detect and identify specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. It is often used in the diagnosis of infectious diseases, autoimmune disorders, and other medical conditions where the presence of specific antigens or antibodies needs to be detected.

It's important to note that CIEP has been largely replaced by more modern techniques such as ELISA and Western blotting, which offer greater sensitivity and specificity. However, it is still used in some research and diagnostic settings due to its simplicity and cost-effectiveness.

'Coccidioides' is a genus of fungi that are commonly found in the soil in certain geographical areas, including the southwestern United States and parts of Mexico and Central and South America. The two species of this genus, C. immitis and C. posadasii, can cause a serious infection known as coccidioidomycosis (also called Valley Fever) in humans and animals who inhale the spores of the fungi.

The infection typically begins in the lungs and can cause symptoms such as cough, fever, chest pain, fatigue, and weight loss. In some cases, the infection can spread to other parts of the body, leading to more severe and potentially life-threatening complications. People with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or who are receiving immunosuppressive therapy, are at higher risk for developing severe coccidioidomycosis.

Fungal antigens are substances found on or produced by fungi that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. They can be proteins, polysaccharides, or other molecules that are recognized as foreign by the host's immune system. Fungal antigens can be used in diagnostic tests to identify fungal infections, and they can also be targets of immune responses during fungal infections. In some cases, fungal antigens may contribute to the pathogenesis of fungal diseases by inducing inflammatory or allergic reactions. Examples of fungal antigens include the cell wall components of Candida albicans and the extracellular polysaccharide galactomannan produced by Aspergillus fumigatus.

Fungal antibodies are a type of protein called immunoglobulins that are produced by the immune system in response to the presence of fungi in the body. These antibodies are specifically designed to recognize and bind to antigens on the surface of fungal cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

There are several types of fungal antibodies, including IgA, IgG, IgM, and IgE, each with a specific role in the immune response. For example, IgG antibodies are the most common type of antibody found in the blood and provide long-term immunity to fungi, while IgE antibodies are associated with allergic reactions to fungi.

Fungal antibodies can be measured in the blood or other bodily fluids to help diagnose fungal infections, monitor the effectiveness of treatment, or assess immune function in individuals who are at risk for fungal infections, such as those with weakened immune systems due to HIV/AIDS, cancer, or organ transplantation.

Coccidioidomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the inhalation of spores of the Coccidioides species, mainly C. immitis and C. posadasii. These fungi are commonly found in the soil of dry regions such as the southwestern United States, Mexico, and Central and South America.

The infection often begins when a person inhales the microscopic spores, which can lead to respiratory symptoms resembling a common cold or pneumonia. Some people may develop more severe symptoms, especially those with weakened immune systems. The infection can disseminate to other parts of the body, causing skin lesions, bone and joint inflammation, meningitis, or other complications in rare cases.

Diagnosis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies, and laboratory tests such as fungal cultures, histopathological examination, or serological tests to detect antibodies against Coccidioides antigens. Treatment depends on the severity of the infection and the patient's immune status. Antifungal medications like fluconazole, itraconazole, or amphotericin B are commonly used for treating coccidioidomycosis. Preventive measures include avoiding inhaling dust in endemic areas, especially during excavation or construction activities.

An antigen-antibody reaction is a specific immune response that occurs when an antigen (a foreign substance, such as a protein or polysaccharide on the surface of a bacterium or virus) comes into contact with a corresponding antibody (a protective protein produced by the immune system in response to the antigen). The antigen and antibody bind together, forming an antigen-antibody complex. This interaction can neutralize the harmful effects of the antigen, mark it for destruction by other immune cells, or activate complement proteins to help eliminate the antigen from the body. Antigen-antibody reactions are a crucial part of the adaptive immune response and play a key role in the body's defense against infection and disease.

Extrinsic allergic alveolitis is a type of lung inflammation that occurs in response to inhaling organic dusts or mold spores that contain allergens. It is also known as hypersensitivity pneumonitis. This condition typically affects people who have been repeatedly exposed to the allergen over a period of time, such as farmers, bird fanciers, and workers in certain industries.

The symptoms of extrinsic allergic alveolitis can vary but often include cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. These symptoms may develop gradually or suddenly, depending on the frequency and intensity of exposure to the allergen. In some cases, the condition may progress to cause permanent lung damage if it is not treated promptly.

Diagnosis of extrinsic allergic alveolitis typically involves a combination of medical history, physical examination, imaging studies such as chest X-rays or CT scans, and pulmonary function tests. In some cases, blood tests or bronchoscopy with lavage may also be used to help confirm the diagnosis.

Treatment for extrinsic allergic alveolitis typically involves avoiding further exposure to the allergen, as well as using medications such as corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and relieve symptoms. In severe cases, hospitalization and oxygen therapy may be necessary. With prompt and appropriate treatment, most people with extrinsic allergic alveolitis can recover fully and avoid long-term lung damage.

Coccidioidin is a preparation derived from the filtrate of a culture of Coccidioides immitis, a fungus that is the causative agent of coccidioidomycosis, also known as Valley Fever. It is used in skin tests to diagnose coccidioidomycosis infection and determine if a person has developed immunity to the disease.

When Coccidioidin is injected into the skin, a positive reaction (induration or swelling) may indicate a current or past infection with Coccidioides immitis. However, it's important to note that a negative result does not necessarily rule out an infection, and further diagnostic tests may be needed for confirmation.

It's also worth noting that skin testing with coccidioidin can have false-positive results in people who have been vaccinated against other types of fungal infections or have certain medical conditions. Therefore, the test should be interpreted carefully and used in conjunction with other clinical findings and diagnostic tests.

Two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis (2DE) is a specialized laboratory technique used in the field of clinical pathology and immunology. This technique is a refined version of traditional immunoelectrophoresis that adds an additional electrophoretic separation step, enhancing its resolution and allowing for more detailed analysis of complex protein mixtures.

In two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis, proteins are first separated based on their isoelectric points (pI) in the initial dimension using isoelectric focusing (IEF). This process involves applying an electric field to a protein mixture contained within a gel matrix, where proteins will migrate and stop migrating once they reach the pH that matches their own isoelectric point.

Following IEF, the separated proteins are then subjected to a second electrophoretic separation in the perpendicular direction (second dimension) based on their molecular weights using sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). SDS is a negatively charged molecule that binds to proteins, giving them a uniform negative charge and allowing for separation based solely on size.

Once the two-dimensional separation is complete, the gel is then overlaid with specific antisera to detect and identify proteins of interest. The resulting precipitin arcs formed at the intersection of the antibody and antigen are compared to known standards or patterns to determine the identity and quantity of the separated proteins.

Two-dimensional immunoelectrophoresis is particularly useful in identifying and quantifying proteins in complex mixtures, such as those found in body fluids like serum, urine, or cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). It can be applied to various clinical scenarios, including diagnosis and monitoring of monoclonal gammopathies, autoimmune disorders, and certain infectious diseases.

Cross reactions, in the context of medical diagnostics and immunology, refer to a situation where an antibody or a immune response directed against one antigen also reacts with a different antigen due to similarities in their molecular structure. This can occur in allergy testing, where a person who is allergic to a particular substance may have a positive test result for a different but related substance because of cross-reactivity between them. For example, some individuals who are allergic to birch pollen may also have symptoms when eating certain fruits, such as apples, due to cross-reactive proteins present in both.

Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) is a medical condition characterized by an hypersensitivity reaction to the fungus Aspergillus species, most commonly A. fumigatus. It primarily affects the airways and lung tissue. The immune system overreacts to the presence of the fungus, leading to inflammation and damage in the lungs.

The main symptoms of ABPA include wheezing, coughing, production of thick mucus, shortness of breath, and chest tightness. These symptoms are similar to those seen in asthma and other respiratory conditions. Some people with ABPA may also experience fever, weight loss, and fatigue.

Diagnosis of ABPA typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as chest X-rays or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as blood tests or sputum cultures) to detect the presence of Aspergillus species and elevated levels of certain antibodies.

Treatment for ABPA usually involves a combination of corticosteroids to reduce inflammation and antifungal medications to eradicate the Aspergillus infection. In some cases, immunomodulatory therapies may also be used to help regulate the immune system's response to the fungus.

It is important to note that ABPA can lead to serious complications if left untreated, including bronchiectasis (permanent enlargement of the airways), pulmonary fibrosis (scarring of the lung tissue), and respiratory failure. Therefore, prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for managing this condition.

Micromonosporaceae is a family of actinobacteria that are gram-positive, aerobic, and have high guanine-cytosine content in their DNA. These bacteria are typically found in soil and aquatic environments. They are known for producing a wide range of bioactive compounds with potential applications in medicine, agriculture, and industry. The cells of Micromonosporaceae are usually rod-shaped and may form branching filaments or remain as single cells. Some members of this family can form spores, which are often resistant to heat, drying, and chemicals.

It's worth noting that the medical significance of Micromonosporaceae is not well established, but some species have been found to produce antibiotics and other bioactive compounds with potential therapeutic applications. For example, the genus Micromonospora includes several species that are known to produce various antibiotics, such as micromonosporin, xanthomycin, and gentamicin C1A. However, further research is needed to fully understand the medical relevance of this family of bacteria.

Immunochemistry is a branch of biochemistry and immunology that deals with the chemical basis of antigen-antibody interactions. It involves the application of chemical techniques and principles to the study of immune system components, particularly antibodies and antigens. Immunochemical methods are widely used in various fields such as clinical diagnostics, research, and forensic science for the detection, quantification, and characterization of different molecules, cells, and microorganisms. These methods include techniques like ELISA (Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay), Western blotting, immunoprecipitation, and immunohistochemistry.

Arbovirus encephalitis is a type of encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) caused by a group of viruses that are transmitted through the bite of infected arthropods, such as mosquitoes or ticks. The term "arbovirus" stands for "arthropod-borne virus."

There are many different types of arboviruses that can cause encephalitis, including:

* La Crosse virus
* St. Louis encephalitis virus
* West Nile virus
* Eastern equine encephalitis virus
* Western equine encephalitis virus
* Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus

The symptoms of arbovirus encephalitis can vary, but may include fever, headache, stiff neck, seizures, confusion, and weakness. In severe cases, it can lead to coma or death. Treatment typically involves supportive care to manage symptoms, as there is no specific antiviral treatment for most types of arbovirus encephalitis. Prevention measures include avoiding mosquito and tick bites, using insect repellent, and eliminating standing water where mosquitoes breed.

Chemical precipitation is a process in which a chemical compound becomes a solid, insoluble form, known as a precipitate, from a liquid solution. This occurs when the concentration of the compound in the solution exceeds its solubility limit and forms a separate phase. The reaction that causes the formation of the precipitate can be a result of various factors such as changes in temperature, pH, or the addition of another chemical reagent.

In the medical field, chemical precipitation is used in diagnostic tests to detect and measure the presence of certain substances in body fluids, such as blood or urine. For example, a common test for kidney function involves adding a chemical reagent to a urine sample, which causes the excess protein in the urine to precipitate out of solution. The amount of precipitate formed can then be measured and used to diagnose and monitor kidney disease.

Chemical precipitation is also used in the treatment of certain medical conditions, such as heavy metal poisoning. In this case, a chelating agent is administered to bind with the toxic metal ions in the body, forming an insoluble compound that can be excreted through the urine or feces. This process helps to reduce the amount of toxic metals in the body and alleviate symptoms associated with poisoning.

Agglutinins are antibodies that cause the particles (such as red blood cells, bacteria, or viruses) to clump together. They recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of these particles, forming a bridge between them and causing them to agglutinate or clump. Agglutinins are an important part of the immune system's response to infection and help to eliminate pathogens from the body.

There are two main types of agglutinins:

1. Naturally occurring agglutinins: These are present in the blood serum of most individuals, even before exposure to an antigen. They can agglutinate some bacteria and red blood cells without prior sensitization. For example, anti-A and anti-B agglutinins are naturally occurring antibodies found in people with different blood groups (A, B, AB, or O).
2. Immune agglutinins: These are produced by the immune system after exposure to an antigen. They develop as part of the adaptive immune response and target specific antigens that the body has encountered before. Immunization with vaccines often leads to the production of immune agglutinins, which can provide protection against future infections.

Agglutination reactions are widely used in laboratory tests for various diagnostic purposes, such as blood typing, detecting bacterial or viral infections, and monitoring immune responses.

I believe there may be some confusion in your question. "Rabbits" is a common name used to refer to the Lagomorpha species, particularly members of the family Leporidae. They are small mammals known for their long ears, strong legs, and quick reproduction.

However, if you're referring to "rabbits" in a medical context, there is a term called "rabbit syndrome," which is a rare movement disorder characterized by repetitive, involuntary movements of the fingers, resembling those of a rabbit chewing. It is also known as "finger-chewing chorea." This condition is usually associated with certain medications, particularly antipsychotics, and typically resolves when the medication is stopped or adjusted.

Histoplasmin is not a medical condition or diagnosis itself, but it's a term related to a skin test used in medicine. Histoplasmin is an antigen extract derived from the histoplasmoma (a form of the fungus Histoplasma capsulatum) used in the histoplasmin skin test. This test is utilized to determine whether a person has been infected with the histoplasmosis fungus, which causes the disease histoplasmosis.

The histoplasmin skin test involves injecting a small amount of histoplasmin under the surface of the skin, usually on the forearm. If the person has previously been exposed to Histoplasma capsulatum, their immune system will recognize the antigen and produce a reaction (a hard, red, swollen area) at the injection site within 24-72 hours. The size of this reaction helps healthcare professionals determine if the person has developed an immune response to the fungus, indicating past or current infection with histoplasmosis.

It's important to note that a positive histoplasmin skin test does not necessarily mean that the person is currently sick with histoplasmosis. Instead, it shows that they have been exposed to the fungus at some point in their life and have developed an immune response to it.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, such as a bacterium or virus. They are capable of identifying and binding to specific antigens (foreign substances) on the surface of these invaders, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Antibodies are also known as immunoglobulins and come in several different types, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM, each with a unique function in the immune response. They are composed of four polypeptide chains, two heavy chains and two light chains, that are held together by disulfide bonds. The variable regions of the heavy and light chains form the antigen-binding site, which is specific to a particular antigen.

Convalescence is the period of recovery following a serious illness, injury, or medical treatment. During this time, the body gradually returns to its normal state of health and functioning. The length and intensity of the convalescent period can vary widely depending on the individual and the severity of the condition that required treatment.

During convalescence, it is important for individuals to take care of themselves and allow their bodies to heal properly. This may involve getting plenty of rest, eating a healthy diet, engaging in gentle exercise or physical therapy as recommended by a healthcare provider, and avoiding strenuous activities or stressors that could hinder recovery.

Convalescence is an essential part of the healing process, and it is important to allow oneself enough time to fully recover before returning to normal activities. Rushing the convalescent period can lead to setbacks, complications, or a prolonged recovery time. By taking the time to focus on self-care and healing during convalescence, individuals can help ensure a full and speedy recovery.

Encephalitis viruses are a group of viruses that can cause encephalitis, which is an inflammation of the brain. Some of the most common encephalitis viruses include:

1. Herpes simplex virus (HSV) type 1 and 2: These viruses are best known for causing cold sores and genital herpes, but they can also cause encephalitis, particularly in newborns and individuals with weakened immune systems.
2. Varicella-zoster virus (VZV): This virus causes chickenpox and shingles, and it can also lead to encephalitis, especially in people who have had chickenpox.
3. Enteroviruses: These viruses are often responsible for summertime meningitis outbreaks and can occasionally cause encephalitis.
4. Arboviruses: These viruses are transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes, ticks, or other insects. Examples include West Nile virus, St. Louis encephalitis virus, Eastern equine encephalitis virus, and Western equine encephalitis virus.
5. Rabies virus: This virus is transmitted through the bite of an infected animal and can cause encephalitis in its later stages.
6. Measles virus: Although rare in developed countries due to vaccination, measles can still cause encephalitis as a complication of the infection.
7. Mumps virus: Like measles, mumps is preventable through vaccination, but it can also lead to encephalitis as a rare complication.
8. Cytomegalovirus (CMV): This virus is a member of the herpesvirus family and can cause encephalitis in people with weakened immune systems, such as those with HIV/AIDS or organ transplant recipients.
9. La Crosse virus: This arbovirus is primarily transmitted through the bites of infected eastern treehole mosquitoes and mainly affects children.
10. Powassan virus: Another arbovirus, Powassan virus is transmitted through the bites of infected black-legged ticks (also known as deer ticks) and can cause severe encephalitis.

It's important to note that many of these viruses are preventable through vaccination or by avoiding exposure to infected animals or mosquitoes. If you suspect you may have been exposed to one of these viruses, consult a healthcare professional for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Trichloroacetic Acid (TCA) is not typically defined in the context of medical terminology, but rather it is a chemical compound used in various medical and cosmetic applications.

Medically, TCA is often used as a chemical agent for peels to treat various skin conditions such as acne, sun damage, age spots, fine lines, and wrinkles. It works by causing the top layers of the skin to dry up and peel off, revealing smoother, more even-toned skin underneath.

The medical definition of Trichloroacetic Acid is:
A colorless crystalline compound, used as a chemical peel in dermatology for various skin conditions, that works by causing the top layers of the skin to dry up and peel off. It is also used as a fixative in histological preparations and as an antiseptic and disinfectant. The chemical formula for TCA is C2HCl3O2.

"Bird Fancier's Lung" is a type of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, which is a lung disease that results from an immune system reaction to inhaled dust particles. In the case of Bird Fancier's Lung, the dust particles come from bird droppings or feathers and are inhaled by people who keep birds as pets or work with them in aviaries or breeding facilities.

The immune system of susceptible individuals mounts an inflammatory response to the inhaled antigens, leading to symptoms such as cough, shortness of breath, fever, and fatigue. Over time, repeated exposure can lead to scarring and thickening of the lung tissue, which can impair lung function and cause irreversible damage.

The medical definition of Bird Fancier's Lung is: "A hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by inhalation of antigens derived from avian proteins, most commonly found in people who keep birds as pets or work with them in aviaries or breeding facilities."

Hemagglutination tests are laboratory procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, typically in blood serum. These tests rely on the ability of certain substances, such as viruses or bacteria, to agglutinate (clump together) red blood cells.

In a hemagglutination test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of red blood cells that have been treated with a specific antigen. If the patient has antibodies against that antigen in their serum, they will bind to the antigens on the red blood cells and cause them to agglutinate. This clumping can be observed visually, indicating a positive test result.

Hemagglutination tests are commonly used to diagnose infectious diseases caused by viruses or bacteria that have hemagglutinating properties, such as influenza, parainfluenza, and HIV. They can also be used in blood typing and cross-matching before transfusions.

Agglutination tests are laboratory diagnostic procedures used to detect the presence of antibodies or antigens in a sample, such as blood or serum. These tests work by observing the clumping (agglutination) of particles, like red blood cells or bacteriophages, coated with specific antigens or antibodies when mixed with a patient's sample.

In an agglutination test, the sample is typically combined with a reagent containing known antigens or antibodies on the surface of particles, such as latex beads, red blood cells, or bacteriophages. If the sample contains the corresponding antibodies or antigens, they will bind to the particles, forming visible clumps or agglutinates. The presence and strength of agglutination are then assessed visually or with automated equipment to determine the presence and quantity of the target antigen or antibody in the sample.

Agglutination tests are widely used in medical diagnostics for various applications, including:

1. Bacterial and viral infections: To identify specific bacterial or viral antigens in a patient's sample, such as group A Streptococcus, Legionella pneumophila, or HIV.
2. Blood typing: To determine the ABO blood group and Rh type of a donor or recipient before a blood transfusion or organ transplantation.
3. Autoimmune diseases: To detect autoantibodies in patients with suspected autoimmune disorders, such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, or Hashimoto's thyroiditis.
4. Allergies: To identify specific IgE antibodies in a patient's sample to determine allergic reactions to various substances, such as pollen, food, or venom.
5. Drug monitoring: To detect and quantify the presence of drug-induced antibodies, such as those developed in response to penicillin or hydralazine therapy.

Agglutination tests are simple, rapid, and cost-effective diagnostic tools that provide valuable information for clinical decision-making and patient management. However, they may have limitations, including potential cross-reactivity with other antigens, false-positive results due to rheumatoid factors or heterophile antibodies, and false-negative results due to the prozone effect or insufficient sensitivity. Therefore, it is essential to interpret agglutination test results in conjunction with clinical findings and other laboratory data.

Rhamnose is a naturally occurring sugar or monosaccharide, that is commonly found in various plants and some fruits. It is a type of deoxy sugar, which means it lacks one hydroxyl group (-OH) compared to a regular hexose sugar. Specifically, rhamnose has a hydrogen atom instead of a hydroxyl group at the 6-position of its structure.

Rhamnose is an essential component of various complex carbohydrates and glycoconjugates found in plant cell walls, such as pectins and glycoproteins. It also plays a role in bacterial cell wall biosynthesis and is used in the production of some antibiotics.

In medical contexts, rhamnose may be relevant to research on bacterial infections, plant-derived medicines, or the metabolism of certain sugars. However, it is not a commonly used term in clinical medicine.

Bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that consist of long chains of sugar molecules (monosaccharides) linked together by glycosidic bonds. They are produced and used by bacteria for various purposes such as:

1. Structural components: Bacterial polysaccharides, such as peptidoglycan and lipopolysaccharide (LPS), play a crucial role in maintaining the structural integrity of bacterial cells. Peptidoglycan is a major component of the bacterial cell wall, while LPS forms the outer layer of the outer membrane in gram-negative bacteria.
2. Nutrient storage: Some bacteria synthesize and store polysaccharides as an energy reserve, similar to how plants store starch. These polysaccharides can be broken down and utilized by the bacterium when needed.
3. Virulence factors: Bacterial polysaccharides can also function as virulence factors, contributing to the pathogenesis of bacterial infections. For example, certain bacteria produce capsular polysaccharides (CPS) that surround and protect the bacterial cells from host immune defenses, allowing them to evade phagocytosis and persist within the host.
4. Adhesins: Some polysaccharides act as adhesins, facilitating the attachment of bacteria to surfaces or host cells. This is important for biofilm formation, which helps bacteria resist environmental stresses and antibiotic treatments.
5. Antigenic properties: Bacterial polysaccharides can be highly antigenic, eliciting an immune response in the host. The antigenicity of these molecules can vary between different bacterial species or even strains within a species, making them useful as targets for vaccines and diagnostic tests.

In summary, bacterial polysaccharides are complex carbohydrates that serve various functions in bacteria, including structural support, nutrient storage, virulence factor production, adhesion, and antigenicity.

Gamma-globulins are a type of protein found in the blood serum, specifically a class of immunoglobulins (antibodies) known as IgG. They are the most abundant type of antibody and provide long-term defense against bacterial and viral infections. Gamma-globulins can also be referred to as "gamma globulin" or "gamma immune globulins."

These proteins are produced by B cells, a type of white blood cell, in response to an antigen (a foreign substance that triggers an immune response). IgG gamma-globulins have the ability to cross the placenta and provide passive immunity to the fetus. They can be measured through various medical tests such as serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) or immunoelectrophoresis, which are used to diagnose and monitor conditions related to immune system disorders, such as multiple myeloma or primary immunodeficiency diseases.

In addition, gamma-globulins can be administered therapeutically in the form of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) to provide passive immunity for patients with immunodeficiencies, autoimmune disorders, or infectious diseases.

Radio-iodinated serum albumin refers to human serum albumin that has been chemically bonded with radioactive iodine isotopes, typically I-125 or I-131. This results in a radiolabeled protein that can be used in medical imaging and research to track the distribution and movement of the protein in the body.

In human physiology, serum albumin is the most abundant protein in plasma, synthesized by the liver, and it plays a crucial role in maintaining oncotic pressure and transporting various molecules in the bloodstream. Radio-iodination of serum albumin allows for non-invasive monitoring of its behavior in vivo, which can be useful in evaluating conditions such as protein losing enteropathies, nephrotic syndrome, or liver dysfunction.

It is essential to handle and dispose of radio-iodinated serum albumin with proper radiation safety protocols due to its radioactive nature.

Methylmannosides are not a recognized medical term or a specific medical condition. However, in biochemistry, methylmannosides refer to a type of glycosylation pattern where a methyl group (-CH3) is attached to a mannose sugar molecule. Mannose is a type of monosaccharide or simple sugar that is commonly found in various glycoproteins and glycolipids in the human body.

Methylmannosides can be formed through the enzymatic transfer of a methyl group from a donor molecule, such as S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), to the mannose sugar by methyltransferase enzymes. These modifications can play important roles in various biological processes, including protein folding, trafficking, and quality control, as well as cell-cell recognition and signaling.

It's worth noting that while methylmannosides have significant biochemical importance, they are not typically referred to in medical contexts unless discussing specific biochemical or molecular research studies.

An epitope is a specific region on the surface of an antigen (a molecule that can trigger an immune response) that is recognized by an antibody, B-cell receptor, or T-cell receptor. It is also commonly referred to as an antigenic determinant. Epitopes are typically composed of linear amino acid sequences or conformational structures made up of discontinuous amino acids in the antigen. They play a crucial role in the immune system's ability to differentiate between self and non-self molecules, leading to the targeted destruction of foreign substances like viruses and bacteria. Understanding epitopes is essential for developing vaccines, diagnostic tests, and immunotherapies.

Carbohydrates are a major nutrient class consisting of organic compounds that primarily contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms. They are classified as saccharides, which include monosaccharides (simple sugars), disaccharides (double sugars), oligosaccharides (short-chain sugars), and polysaccharides (complex carbohydrates).

Monosaccharides, such as glucose, fructose, and galactose, are the simplest form of carbohydrates. They consist of a single sugar molecule that cannot be broken down further by hydrolysis. Disaccharides, like sucrose (table sugar), lactose (milk sugar), and maltose (malt sugar), are formed from two monosaccharide units joined together.

Oligosaccharides contain a small number of monosaccharide units, typically less than 20, while polysaccharides consist of long chains of hundreds to thousands of monosaccharide units. Polysaccharides can be further classified into starch (found in plants), glycogen (found in animals), and non-starchy polysaccharides like cellulose, chitin, and pectin.

Carbohydrates play a crucial role in providing energy to the body, with glucose being the primary source of energy for most cells. They also serve as structural components in plants (cellulose) and animals (chitin), participate in various metabolic processes, and contribute to the taste, texture, and preservation of foods.

In the context of medical research, "methods" refers to the specific procedures or techniques used in conducting a study or experiment. This includes details on how data was collected, what measurements were taken, and what statistical analyses were performed. The methods section of a medical paper allows other researchers to replicate the study if they choose to do so. It is considered one of the key components of a well-written research article, as it provides transparency and helps establish the validity of the findings.

Gel chromatography is a type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on their size or molecular weight. It uses a stationary phase that consists of a gel matrix made up of cross-linked polymers, such as dextran, agarose, or polyacrylamide. The gel matrix contains pores of various sizes, which allow smaller molecules to penetrate deeper into the matrix while larger molecules are excluded.

In gel chromatography, a mixture of molecules is loaded onto the top of the gel column and eluted with a solvent that moves down the column by gravity or pressure. As the sample components move down the column, they interact with the gel matrix and get separated based on their size. Smaller molecules can enter the pores of the gel and take longer to elute, while larger molecules are excluded from the pores and elute more quickly.

Gel chromatography is commonly used to separate and purify proteins, nucleic acids, and other biomolecules based on their size and molecular weight. It is also used in the analysis of polymers, colloids, and other materials with a wide range of applications in chemistry, biology, and medicine.

'Aspergillus fumigatus' is a species of fungi that belongs to the genus Aspergillus. It is a ubiquitous mold that is commonly found in decaying organic matter, such as leaf litter, compost, and rotting vegetation. This fungus is also known to be present in indoor environments, including air conditioning systems, dust, and water-damaged buildings.

Aspergillus fumigatus is an opportunistic pathogen, which means that it can cause infections in people with weakened immune systems. It can lead to a range of conditions known as aspergillosis, including allergic reactions, lung infections, and invasive infections that can spread to other parts of the body.

The fungus produces small, airborne spores that can be inhaled into the lungs, where they can cause infection. In healthy individuals, the immune system is usually able to eliminate the spores before they can cause harm. However, in people with weakened immune systems, such as those undergoing chemotherapy or organ transplantation, or those with certain underlying medical conditions like asthma or cystic fibrosis, the fungus can establish an infection.

Infections caused by Aspergillus fumigatus can be difficult to treat, and treatment options may include antifungal medications, surgery, or a combination of both. Prompt diagnosis and treatment are essential for improving outcomes in people with aspergillosis.

"Agricultural Workers' Diseases" is a term used to describe a variety of health conditions and illnesses that are associated with agricultural work. These can include both acute and chronic conditions, and can be caused by a range of factors including exposure to chemicals, dusts, allergens, physical injuries, and biological agents such as bacteria and viruses.

Some common examples of Agricultural Workers' Diseases include:

1. Pesticide poisoning: This can occur when agricultural workers are exposed to high levels of pesticides or other chemicals used in farming. Symptoms can range from mild skin irritation to severe neurological damage, depending on the type and amount of chemical exposure.
2. Respiratory diseases: Agricultural workers can be exposed to a variety of dusts and allergens that can cause respiratory problems such as asthma, bronchitis, and farmer's lung. These conditions are often caused by prolonged exposure to moldy hay, grain dust, or other organic materials.
3. Musculoskeletal injuries: Agricultural workers are at risk of developing musculoskeletal injuries due to the physical demands of their job. This can include back pain, repetitive strain injuries, and sprains and strains from lifting heavy objects.
4. Zoonotic diseases: Agricultural workers who come into contact with animals are at risk of contracting zoonotic diseases, which are illnesses that can be transmitted between animals and humans. Examples include Q fever, brucellosis, and leptospirosis.
5. Heat-related illnesses: Agricultural workers who work outside in hot weather are at risk of heat-related illnesses such as heat exhaustion and heat stroke.

Prevention of Agricultural Workers' Diseases involves a combination of engineering controls, personal protective equipment, and training to help workers understand the risks associated with their job and how to minimize exposure to hazards.

Actinomycosis is a type of infection caused by bacteria that are normally found in the mouth, intestines, and female genital tract. These bacteria can cause abscesses or chronic inflammation if they infect body tissues, often after trauma or surgery. The infection typically affects the face, neck, or chest, and can spread to other parts of the body over time. Symptoms may include swelling, redness, pain, and the formation of pus-filled abscesses that may discharge a characteristic yellowish granular material called "sulfur granules." Treatment typically involves long-term antibiotic therapy, often requiring high doses and intravenous administration. Surgical drainage or removal of infected tissue may also be necessary in some cases.

Molecular weight, also known as molecular mass, is the mass of a molecule. It is expressed in units of atomic mass units (amu) or daltons (Da). Molecular weight is calculated by adding up the atomic weights of each atom in a molecule. It is a useful property in chemistry and biology, as it can be used to determine the concentration of a substance in a solution, or to calculate the amount of a substance that will react with another in a chemical reaction.

"Comb" and "wattles" are terms used to describe fleshy appendages found in some animals, particularly birds. They are composed of skin and connective tissue, and are often brightly colored. While they don't have a direct medical definition, I can provide you with their general definitions:

1. Comb: In animals such as chickens, roosters, and other fowl, the comb is the fleshy, usually red, crown-like structure on top of the head. It varies in size and shape among different breeds and serves as a secondary sexual characteristic in males. The comb helps regulate body temperature and plays a role in courtship displays.

2. Wattles: These are the long, fleshy appendages that hang from either side of an animal's face or throat, often seen in conjunction with combs. Like combs, wattles are more prominent in males than females and serve as secondary sexual characteristics. They also play a role in thermoregulation and courtship displays.

While these structures are not typically associated with medical definitions, they can be subject to various health issues, such as frostbite, injuries, or infections. In those cases, veterinary medicine would address the specific health concerns related to combs and wattles.

Agar is a substance derived from red algae, specifically from the genera Gelidium and Gracilaria. It is commonly used in microbiology as a solidifying agent for culture media. Agar forms a gel at relatively low temperatures (around 40-45°C) and remains stable at higher temperatures (up to 100°C), making it ideal for preparing various types of culture media.

In addition to its use in microbiology, agar is also used in other scientific research, food industry, and even in some artistic applications due to its unique gelling properties. It is important to note that although agar is often used in the preparation of food, it is not typically consumed as a standalone ingredient by humans or animals.

Blastomycosis is a fungal infection caused by the inhalation of spores of the fungus Blastomyces dermatitidis. It primarily affects the lungs but can also spread to other parts of the body, such as the skin, bones, and central nervous system. The initial symptoms of blastomycosis may include cough, fever, chest pain, and difficulty breathing. If left untreated, the infection can become severe and potentially life-threatening. Treatment typically involves antifungal medications, such as itraconazole or amphotericin B.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Industry" is not a term that has a medical definition. The food industry is a broad category that includes businesses involved in the production, processing, packaging, distribution, and sale of food products. This can include farms, fisheries, manufacturers of food products, grocery stores, restaurants, and more.

If you have any questions related to nutrition or dietary habits and their impact on health, I would be happy to help provide information based on medical knowledge.

Amino acids are organic compounds that serve as the building blocks of proteins. They consist of a central carbon atom, also known as the alpha carbon, which is bonded to an amino group (-NH2), a carboxyl group (-COOH), a hydrogen atom (H), and a variable side chain (R group). The R group can be composed of various combinations of atoms such as hydrogen, oxygen, sulfur, nitrogen, and carbon, which determine the unique properties of each amino acid.

There are 20 standard amino acids that are encoded by the genetic code and incorporated into proteins during translation. These include:

1. Alanine (Ala)
2. Arginine (Arg)
3. Asparagine (Asn)
4. Aspartic acid (Asp)
5. Cysteine (Cys)
6. Glutamine (Gln)
7. Glutamic acid (Glu)
8. Glycine (Gly)
9. Histidine (His)
10. Isoleucine (Ile)
11. Leucine (Leu)
12. Lysine (Lys)
13. Methionine (Met)
14. Phenylalanine (Phe)
15. Proline (Pro)
16. Serine (Ser)
17. Threonine (Thr)
18. Tryptophan (Trp)
19. Tyrosine (Tyr)
20. Valine (Val)

Additionally, there are several non-standard or modified amino acids that can be incorporated into proteins through post-translational modifications, such as hydroxylation, methylation, and phosphorylation. These modifications expand the functional diversity of proteins and play crucial roles in various cellular processes.

Amino acids are essential for numerous biological functions, including protein synthesis, enzyme catalysis, neurotransmitter production, energy metabolism, and immune response regulation. Some amino acids can be synthesized by the human body (non-essential), while others must be obtained through dietary sources (essential).

A Radioimmunoprecipitation Assay (RIA) is a highly sensitive laboratory technique used to measure the presence and concentration of specific antigens or antibodies in a sample. This technique combines the use of radioisotopes, immunochemistry, and precipitation reactions.

In an RIA, a known quantity of a radioactively labeled antigen (or hapten) is incubated with a sample containing an unknown amount of antibody (or vice versa). If the specific antigen-antibody pair is present in the sample, they will bind together to form an immune complex. This complex can then be selectively precipitated from the solution using a second antibody that recognizes and binds to the first antibody, thus forming an insoluble immune precipitate.

The amount of radioactivity present in the precipitate is directly proportional to the concentration of antigen or antibody in the sample. By comparing this value to a standard curve generated with known concentrations of antigen or antibody, the unknown concentration can be accurately determined. RIAs have been widely used in research and clinical settings for the quantification of various hormones, drugs, vitamins, and other biomolecules. However, due to safety concerns and regulatory restrictions associated with radioisotopes, non-radioactive alternatives like Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assays (ELISAs) have become more popular in recent years.

"Evaluation studies" is a broad term that refers to the systematic assessment or examination of a program, project, policy, intervention, or product. The goal of an evaluation study is to determine its merits, worth, and value by measuring its effects, efficiency, and impact. There are different types of evaluation studies, including formative evaluations (conducted during the development or implementation of a program to provide feedback for improvement), summative evaluations (conducted at the end of a program to determine its overall effectiveness), process evaluations (focusing on how a program is implemented and delivered), outcome evaluations (assessing the short-term and intermediate effects of a program), and impact evaluations (measuring the long-term and broad consequences of a program).

In medical contexts, evaluation studies are often used to assess the safety, efficacy, and cost-effectiveness of new treatments, interventions, or technologies. These studies can help healthcare providers make informed decisions about patient care, guide policymakers in developing evidence-based policies, and promote accountability and transparency in healthcare systems. Examples of evaluation studies in medicine include randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compare the outcomes of a new treatment to those of a standard or placebo treatment, observational studies that examine the real-world effectiveness and safety of interventions, and economic evaluations that assess the costs and benefits of different healthcare options.

Potassium iodide is an inorganic, non-radioactive salt of iodine. Medically, it is used as a thyroid blocking agent to prevent the absorption of radioactive iodine in the event of a nuclear accident or radiation exposure. It works by saturating the thyroid gland with stable iodide, which then prevents the uptake of radioactive iodine. This can help reduce the risk of thyroid cancer and other thyroid related issues that may arise from exposure to radioactive materials. Potassium iodide is also used in the treatment of iodine deficiency disorders.

Ion exchange chromatography is a type of chromatography technique used to separate and analyze charged molecules (ions) based on their ability to exchange bound ions in a solid resin or gel with ions of similar charge in the mobile phase. The stationary phase, often called an ion exchanger, contains fixed ated functional groups that can attract counter-ions of opposite charge from the sample mixture.

In this technique, the sample is loaded onto an ion exchange column containing the charged resin or gel. As the sample moves through the column, ions in the sample compete for binding sites on the stationary phase with ions already present in the column. The ions that bind most strongly to the stationary phase will elute (come off) slower than those that bind more weakly.

Ion exchange chromatography can be performed using either cation exchangers, which exchange positive ions (cations), or anion exchangers, which exchange negative ions (anions). The pH and ionic strength of the mobile phase can be adjusted to control the binding and elution of specific ions.

Ion exchange chromatography is widely used in various applications such as water treatment, protein purification, and chemical analysis.

Skin tests are medical diagnostic procedures that involve the application of a small amount of a substance to the skin, usually through a scratch, prick, or injection, to determine if the body has an allergic reaction to it. The most common type of skin test is the patch test, which involves applying a patch containing a small amount of the suspected allergen to the skin and observing the area for signs of a reaction, such as redness, swelling, or itching, over a period of several days. Another type of skin test is the intradermal test, in which a small amount of the substance is injected just beneath the surface of the skin. Skin tests are used to help diagnose allergies, including those to pollen, mold, pets, and foods, as well as to identify sensitivities to medications, chemicals, and other substances.

In the context of medicine, "chemistry" often refers to the field of study concerned with the properties, composition, and structure of elements and compounds, as well as their reactions with one another. It is a fundamental science that underlies much of modern medicine, including pharmacology (the study of drugs), toxicology (the study of poisons), and biochemistry (the study of the chemical processes that occur within living organisms).

In addition to its role as a basic science, chemistry is also used in medical testing and diagnosis. For example, clinical chemistry involves the analysis of bodily fluids such as blood and urine to detect and measure various substances, such as glucose, cholesterol, and electrolytes, that can provide important information about a person's health status.

Overall, chemistry plays a critical role in understanding the mechanisms of diseases, developing new treatments, and improving diagnostic tests and techniques.

Chemical phenomena refer to the changes and interactions that occur at the molecular or atomic level when chemicals are involved. These phenomena can include chemical reactions, in which one or more substances (reactants) are converted into different substances (products), as well as physical properties that change as a result of chemical interactions, such as color, state of matter, and solubility. Chemical phenomena can be studied through various scientific disciplines, including chemistry, biochemistry, and physics.

Bacterial antibodies are a type of antibodies produced by the immune system in response to an infection caused by bacteria. These antibodies are proteins that recognize and bind to specific antigens on the surface of the bacterial cells, marking them for destruction by other immune cells. Bacterial antibodies can be classified into several types based on their structure and function, including IgG, IgM, IgA, and IgE. They play a crucial role in the body's defense against bacterial infections and provide immunity to future infections with the same bacteria.

Hemagglutination inhibition (HI) tests are a type of serological assay used in medical laboratories to detect and measure the amount of antibodies present in a patient's serum. These tests are commonly used to diagnose viral infections, such as influenza or HIV, by identifying the presence of antibodies that bind to specific viral antigens and prevent hemagglutination (the agglutination or clumping together of red blood cells).

In an HI test, a small amount of the patient's serum is mixed with a known quantity of the viral antigen, which has been treated to attach to red blood cells. If the patient's serum contains antibodies that bind to the viral antigen, they will prevent the antigen from attaching to the red blood cells and inhibit hemagglutination. The degree of hemagglutination inhibition can be measured and used to estimate the amount of antibody present in the patient's serum.

HI tests are relatively simple and inexpensive to perform, but they have some limitations. For example, they may not detect early-stage infections before the body has had a chance to produce antibodies, and they may not be able to distinguish between different strains of the same virus. Nonetheless, HI tests remain an important tool for diagnosing viral infections and monitoring immune responses to vaccination or infection.

An antigen-antibody complex is a type of immune complex that forms when an antibody binds to a specific antigen. An antigen is any substance that triggers an immune response, while an antibody is a protein produced by the immune system to neutralize or destroy foreign substances like antigens.

When an antibody binds to an antigen, it forms a complex that can be either soluble or insoluble. Soluble complexes are formed when the antigen is small and can move freely through the bloodstream. Insoluble complexes, on the other hand, are formed when the antigen is too large to move freely, such as when it is part of a bacterium or virus.

The formation of antigen-antibody complexes plays an important role in the immune response. Once formed, these complexes can be recognized and cleared by other components of the immune system, such as phagocytes, which help to prevent further damage to the body. However, in some cases, the formation of large numbers of antigen-antibody complexes can lead to inflammation and tissue damage, contributing to the development of certain autoimmune diseases.

The isoelectric point (pI) is a term used in biochemistry and molecular biology to describe the pH at which a molecule, such as a protein or peptide, carries no net electrical charge. At this pH, the positive and negative charges on the molecule are equal and balanced. The pI of a protein can be calculated based on its amino acid sequence and is an important property that affects its behavior in various chemical and biological environments. Proteins with different pIs may have different solubilities, stabilities, and interactions with other molecules, which can impact their function and role in the body.

Electrophoresis is a laboratory technique used in the field of molecular biology and chemistry to separate charged particles, such as DNA, RNA, or proteins, based on their size and charge. This technique uses an electric field to drive the movement of these charged particles through a medium, such as gel or liquid.

In electrophoresis, the sample containing the particles to be separated is placed in a matrix, such as a gel or a capillary tube, and an electric current is applied. The particles in the sample have a net charge, either positive or negative, which causes them to move through the matrix towards the oppositely charged electrode.

The rate at which the particles move through the matrix depends on their size and charge. Larger particles move more slowly than smaller ones, and particles with a higher charge-to-mass ratio move faster than those with a lower charge-to-mass ratio. By comparing the distance that each particle travels in the matrix, researchers can identify and quantify the different components of a mixture.

Electrophoresis has many applications in molecular biology and medicine, including DNA sequencing, genetic fingerprinting, protein analysis, and diagnosis of genetic disorders.

"Precipitin Test". Retrieved 30 October 2018. Evans, Colin (1996). The Casebook of Forensic Detection: ... This forensic testing ultimately proved Tessnow's guilt.: 202 The tests conducted by biologist Paul Uhlenhuth upon Tessnow's ... the precipitin test. Uhlenhuth had been an assistant since 1899 at the Hygiene Institute of the University of Greifswald. ... pioneering precipitin testing enabled investigators to prove his clothing had been extensively stained with both human and ...
They traveled three times to Panama to study malaria and on other trips they worked on a precipitin test for malaria and tests ... A precipitin test in malaria. J. Prev. Med., 1:343-57. Trypanosomiasis. In: A Textbook of Medicine, 2d ed., ed. R. L. Cecil, pp ... A precipitin test in malaria; Second report. J. Prev. Med., 2:147-67. 1929 With W. H. Taliaferro. Acquired immunity in avian ... Complement fixation, precipitin, adhesion, mercuric chloride and Wassermann tests in equine trypanosomiasis of Panama (murrina ...
doi:10.1078/S0031-4056(04)70029-3. S. L. Sutton (1970). "Predation on woodlice; an investigation using the precipitin test". ...
Guinan, M. E.; Portas, M. R.; Hill, H. R. (1979). "The candida precipitin test in an immunosuppressed population". Cancer. 43 ( ... A current study tested the relation of adolescent smoking to rules regulating where adults are allowed to smoke in the home. ...
The available tests include the tube-precipitin (TP) assays, complement fixation assays, and enzyme immunoassays. TP antibody ... and a serum precipitin test was developed by Charles E. Smith that was able to detect an acute form of the infection. In ... Inmates Should Be Tested for Valley Fever Immunity". California HealthLine. July 28, 2014. Shehab, Ziad M. (2010). " ... Presently, Meridian Bioscience manufactures the so-called EIA test to diagnose the Valley fever, which however is known for ...
... a demonstration of certain blood-relationships amongst animals by means of the precipitin test for blood. Cambrisge: The ... He emphasised the importance of testing the virulence of the bacilli found, as well as identification based on morphology and ... He describes the measures taken to deal with the outbreak, which included treatment with antitoxin, bacteriological testing of ... a finding that supported a policy based on isolating and testing diphtheria contacts. During this period, Graham-Smith ...
Hattie noted that those with a positive precipitin test result had a higher rate of mortality than those with a negative result ... was able to successfully identify in one of her early studies the prognostic ability of cerebrospinal fluid in precipitin tests ...
... a demonstration of certain blood-relationships amongst animals by means of the precipitin test for blood. Cambbridge University ... In a major work Blood immunity and blood relationship Nuttall and his colleagues presented the data from over 16,000 tests with ... Boyden, A.A. (1926). "The precipitin reaction in the study of animal relationships". The Biological Bulletin. 50 (2): 73-107. ... Nuttall, George Henry Falkiner (1902). "The new biological test for blood in relation to zoological classification". ...
Precipitins at the U.S. National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) Precipitin+tests at the U.S. National ... A precipitin is an antibody which can precipitate out of a solution upon antigen binding. The precipitin reaction provided the ... To produce a precipitin reaction, varying amounts of soluble antigen are added to a fixed amount of serum containing antibody. ... The precipitin reaction is based upon the interaction of antigen with antibody leading to the production of antigen-antibody ...
The Uhlenhuth test, also referred to as the antigen-antibody precipitin test for species, is a test which can determine the ... "The Precipitin Test". Retrieved 2017-12-17. (Articles with short description, Short description matches Wikidata, ... The test represented a major breakthrough and came to have tremendous importance in forensic science in the 20th century. The ... test was further refined for forensic use by the Swiss chemist Maurice Müller in the 1960s. Michael Kurland, Irrefutable ...
IgG antibody precipitin testing from serum is useful, as positive results are found in between 69 and 90% of patients, though ... The test should be performed first by skin prick testing, and if negative followed with an intradermal injection. The overall ... Culturing fungi from sputum is a supportive test in the diagnosis of ABPA, but is not 100% specific for ABPA as A. fumigatus is ... Minimal criteria include five factors: the presence of asthma and/or cystic fibrosis, a positive skin test to Aspergillus sp., ...
... precipitin tests MeSH E05.478.605.492.300 - flocculation tests MeSH E05.478.605.492.350 - immunodiffusion MeSH E05.478.605.492. ... neutralization tests MeSH E05.196.922.750 - potentiometry MeSH E05.196.922.875 - skin test end-point titration MeSH E05.196. ... limulus test MeSH E05.200.875.220 - colony count, microbial MeSH E05.200.875.595 - microbial sensitivity tests MeSH E05.200. ... serum bactericidal test MeSH E05.337.550.600 - parasitic sensitivity tests MeSH E05.337.800.120 - adverse drug reaction ...
He is famous in the annals of forensic science for developing the species precipitin test, known as the Uhlenhuth test, which ... Those experiments involved immunisation trials and blood tests on members of other than white ethnic groups. The latest ... These defensive substances were named precipitins. Other scientists principally Jules Bordet tried devising serums against ... other infectious agents; They found that the precipitins were specific to the antagonist injected. In 1900, building off ...
The Uhlenhuth test, or the antigen-antibody precipitin test for species, was invented by Paul Uhlenhuth in 1901 and could ... So sensitive was the test, known formally as the Marsh test, that it could detect as little as one-fiftieth of a milligram of ... The test represented a major breakthrough and came to have tremendous importance in forensic science. The test was further ... It is thought that these tests had some validity since a guilty person would produce less saliva and thus have a drier mouth; ...
... to measure the growth of microorganisms and to test drug solubility. Nephelometer Precipitin reaction Turbidimetry MedlinePlus ... In the Immunology Medical Lab, two types of tests can be run: "end point nephelometry" and "kinetic (rate) nephelometry". End ... Immunologic tests, Aerosol measurement, All stub articles, Immunology stubs). ... point nephelometry tests are run by allowing the antibody/antigen reaction to run through to completion (until all of the ...
... neutralization tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.550.750 - skin test end-point titration MeSH E01.450.495.735.645 - precipitin tests ... intradermal tests MeSH E01.370.750.300.400 - kveim test MeSH E01.370.750.300.750 - skin test end-point titration MeSH E01.370. ... intradermal tests MeSH E01.450.495.750.300.540 - kveim test MeSH E01.450.495.750.300.750 - skin test end-point titration MeSH ... hemagglutination tests MeSH E01.450.495.735.050.375.150 - coombs test MeSH E01.450.495.735.050.450 - latex fixation tests MeSH ...
The antigen is quantitated by measuring the diameter of the precipitin circle and comparing it with the diameters of precipitin ... The immunoglobulin levels in this test serum lay in the middle range of the calibration lines. The accuracy of the method ... diameters of precipitin circles on a best-fit semi-logarithmic plot. Measuring circles after all reach their end points ( ... Photograph of precipitin circles in a Petri dish during radial immunodiffusion. (CS1 errors: periodical ignored, Articles with ...
The presence of precipitin lines indicates that the strain produced toxin that reacted with the antitoxin. The test was ... Elek's test or the Elek plate test is an in vitro test of virulence performed on specimens of Corynebacterium diphtheriae, the ... diphtheriae specimens compared with previous tests. It also allowed an in vitro test to replace a clinical test on laboratory ... It is used to test for toxigenicity of C. diphtheriae strains. The test uses immunodiffusion. A strip of filter paper ...
... is a diagnostic test which involves diffusion through a substance such as agar which is generally soft gel agar ... Photograph of precipitin circles in a Petri dish during radial immunodiffusion. "Diffusion Patterns". Immunodiffusion ... Photographs of Ouchterlony immunodiffusion patterns showing stained precipitin lines of full identity, partial identity and non ... "Use of the Immunodiffusion Test in the Serodiagnosis of Aspergillosis". Applied Microbiology. 23 (2): 301-308. doi:10.1128/am. ...
The immune complex precipitates in the gel to give a thin white line (precipitin line), which is a visual signature of antigen ... The technique is named after Örjan Ouchterlony, the Swedish physician who developed the test in 1948 to evaluate the production ... ISBN 978-0-89603-338-2. Ouchterlony, Örjan (1948). "In vitro method for testing the toxin-producing capacity of diphtheria ... Photographs of Ouchterlony immunodiffusion patterns showing stained precipitin lines of full identity, partial identity and non ...
He and his collaborators Forrest E. Kendall (1899-1987) and Elvin A. Kabat formulated a quantitative theory of precipitin and ... which was successfully tested among Army Air Force recruits in 1944. Upon his retirement from Columbia in 1954, Heidelberger ... in particular the precipitin reaction, for isolating pure antibodies, which he proved were protein and which he measured in ... Heidelberger quickly realized that Meltzer was testing his commitment to science, and he insisted that he wanted to become a ...
The test greatly reduces false-positive diagnoses of syphilis. Nelson and Mayer also developed Nelson-Mayer basal medium for ... Mayer published several papers on precipitin reactions and the cross-reactivity of various polysaccharides in the envelope of ... Robert Armstrong Nelson and Mayer developed the eponymous Nelson-Mayer test, which enables diagnosis of syphilis based on the ...
However, proper laboratory testing is still needed to eliminate doubts for a definitive diagnosis. Serological testing can ... 1976). "Dropped Egg Production, Soft Shelled and Shell-less Eggs Associated with Appearance of Precipitins to Adenovirus in ... The use of sentinel birds (non-vaccinated susceptible birds) in the flocks is also useful for early detection and tested for ... Identification of the virus can also be detected by Polymerase Chain Reaction-based test. There is no treatment for EDS '76, ...
... caseosa Viral phylodynamics Virus quantification Voltage-gated proton channel Wheat germ agglutinin White blood cell Widal test ... 13 Platelet factor 4 Pleocytosis Polyclonal antibodies Polyclonal B cell response Polymersome Pox party Precipitin Premunition ...
Immunologic tests, Blood tests, All stub articles, Immunology stubs). ... or a precipitin line, indicating binding. Electrophoresis Immunoelectrophoresis Ling IT.; Cooksley S.; Bates PA.; Hempelmann E ...
Coccidioides precipitin is a blood test that looks for infections due to a fungus called Coccidioides, which causes the disease ... Coccidioides precipitin is a blood test that looks for infections due to a fungus called Coccidioides, which causes the disease ... The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with Coccidioides, which causes ... The precipitin test helps check if the body has produced antibodies to a specific antigen, in this case, the Coccidioides ...
Herndon, John F. and Schubert, Joseph H. "Dyes as an aid in the precipitin test for host blood meals of mosquitoes" 1951, no. 5 ... Herndon, John F. and Schubert, Joseph H. "Dyes as an aid in the precipitin test for host blood meals of mosquitoes" vol. 1951, ... Title : Dyes as an aid in the precipitin test for host blood meals of mosquitoes Personal Author(s) : Herndon, John F.;Schubert ... Herndon, John F. and Schubert, Joseph H. (1951). Dyes as an aid in the precipitin test for host blood meals of mosquitoes. 1951 ...
"Precipitin Test". Retrieved 30 October 2018. Evans, Colin (1996). The Casebook of Forensic Detection: ... This forensic testing ultimately proved Tessnows guilt.: 202 The tests conducted by biologist Paul Uhlenhuth upon Tessnows ... the precipitin test. Uhlenhuth had been an assistant since 1899 at the Hygiene Institute of the University of Greifswald. ... pioneering precipitin testing enabled investigators to prove his clothing had been extensively stained with both human and ...
Clear precipitin lines in immunodiffusion tests [3] . Results of cross-neutralization testing of Simbu group viruses have ... Cross-reacts in CF test with immune mouse ascitic fluid for Akabane [2] . Significant cross-CF reactions with Sabo, Sango, ...
Positive test results for Aspergillus precipitins (primarily IgG but also IgA and IgM) ... Although allergy to Aspergillus, as manifested by a positive skin test reaction to Aspergillus antigen, is present in ... Positive Aspergillus serology (Aspergillus precipitins or Aspergillus -specific IgG or IgE) [3] ... Comparison of an Aspergillus real-time polymerase chain reaction assay with galactomannan testing of bronchoalvelolar lavage ...
Categories: Precipitin Tests Image Types: Photo, Illustrations, Video, Color, Black&White, PublicDomain, CopyrightRestricted 2 ...
Serum precipitin tests were negative in both workers tested. An editorial note qualified the presented findings on the basis of ... Pulmonary-function-tests; Occupational-exposure; Pulmonary-system-disorders; Immunological-tests; Respiratory-hypersensitivity ... A case report of one worker, including clinical symptoms, work history, pulmonary function tests, and treatment was presented. ... Work related symptoms, initial pulmonary function tests and biopsy results were reported. Pulmonary function improved in all ...
A positive immunodiffusion (ID) test, showing a precipitin band with the Blastomyces A antigen, is highly specific for the ... Testing is usually done by in vitro tests for serum specific IgE, or by skin prick or puncture tests. Detection of ... Environmental sampling for the presence of microorganisms known to cause HP and serologic testing for circulating precipitins ... However, testing for IgE sensitization to molds has important limitations. Allergens used in these tests are often poorly ...
Heddleston KL, Gallagher JE, Rebers PA (1972): Fowl cholera: Gel diffusion precipitin test for serotyping Pasteurella multocida ... Antimicrobial testing of P. multocida isolates originating from each farm based on the determination of minimal inhibitory ... In antimicrobial susceptibility testing, P. multocida isolates originating from all four farms were sensitive to ampicillin, ... Additional testing on the capsular type confirmed that all isolates belong to capsular type B. ...
Observations on the Possible Usefulness of the Complement-Fixation Test in the Early Diagnosis of Yellow Fever published on ... The complement-fixation test was chosen in preference to the precipitin test since in our experience it proved to be the more ... Observations on the Possible Usefulness of the Complement-Fixation Test in the Early Diagnosis of Yellow Fever ... Ethanol Extracts of Various Helminths in a Complement Fixation Test for Eosinophilic Lung (Tropical Eosinophilia) ...
Serologic tests include agar gel precipitin and hemagglutination‑inhibition. It simulates many respiratory problems, fowl pox ( ...
Allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) and allergic bronchopulmonary mycosis (ABPM) - Precipitin test. Precipitin test ... Extrinsic allergic alveolitis - Precipitin test. This test reveals positive IgG antibody against Ags of the offending fungi. ... Allergic fungal sinusitis (AFS) - Precipitin test. The presence of immunoglobulin G (IgG) in blood against the offending fungi ... This test may be used to reproduce symptoms. It should be performed only in a pulmonary function testing center with personnel ...
A Preliminary Study of Tobacco Mosaic Virus by the Gel Diffusion Precipitin Tests A. Kleczkowski ... The serological tests for a specific organism in rumen contents of a number of calves agree with the isolations of this ... Enzymic tests, reported elsewhere, indicate that the two classes of mutants affect the enzymes which control the two reactions ... Crosses between the five group I mutants produced no arg+ progeny, and separate mapping tests on four of them indicate that ...
Precipitin Test. Test, Precipitin. Tests, Precipitin. Tree number(s):. E01.370.225.812.735.645. E05.196.150.639.500. E05.200. ... Precipitin Tests - Preferred Concept UI. M0017453. Scope note. Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by ... tests de precipitinas Scope note:. Pruebas serológicas en las que la reacción positiva se manifiesta por una PRECIPITACIÓN ... Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts ...
Wolf, K; Fischer, E; Mead, D; Zhong, G; Peeling, R; Whitmire, B; Caldwell, HD; (2001) Chlamydia pneumoniae major outer membrane protein is a surface-exposed antigen that elicits antibodies primarily directed against conformation-dependent determinants. Infection and immunity, 69 (5). pp. 3082-91. ISSN 0019-9567 DOI: Full text not available from this repository ...
Precipitin Tests E5.478.594.760.645. Prefrontal Cortex A8.186.211.730.885.213.270.700 A8.186.211.730.885.287.500.270.700. ... Hemadsorption Inhibition Tests E5.478.594.760.360. Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests E5.478.594.760.370. Hemagglutination Tests ... Skin Test End-Point Titration E5.478.594.760.550.750. E5.478.594.800.300.750. Skin Tests E5.478.594.800. Smith-Lemli-Opitz ... Kveim Test E5.478.594.800.300.540. Labetalol D2.65.793.324. Labyrinthitis C9.218.568.315 C9.218.568.558. C9.218.705.371. ...
6 Ab Precipitin 3.Aureobasidium pullulans Ab Precipitin 4.Pigeon serum Ab Precipitin 5.Micropolyspora faeni Ab Precipitin 6. ... 6 Ab Precipitin 3.Aureobasidium pullulans Ab Precipitin 4.Pigeon serum Ab Precipitin 5.Micropolyspora faeni Ab Precipitin 6. ... For Outpatients, test should only be drawn in outpatient locations within a Hospital (Akron or Beeghly). ... For Outpatients, test should only be drawn in outpatient locations within a Hospital (Akron or Beeghly). ...
Fowl cholera: gel diffusion precipitin test for serotyping Pasteurella multocidafrom avian species. Avian Dis 1972; 16(4): 925- ... I. A hemagglutination test for the identification of serological types. Am J Vet Res 1955; 16(60): 481-484. ...
In addition, agar-gel precipitin tests showed that lipopolysaccharide binds to antisera of multiple serotypes, while the ... Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4.1, and publication bias was assessed using Begg test and Egger test in the ... Results of MIC test showed drug resistance rates in the intensive breeding mode: 100.00% for cephalothin, 38.75% for cefoxitin ... The performance of the DL model remained strong in the external test set. In the prospective cohort, the AUC was 0.91, and the ...
... or a coccidioidal skin test conversion from negative to positive after the onset of clinical signs and symptoms. POINT OF ... or tube precipitin or 2) detection of rising titer of coccidioidal immunoglobulin G by immunodiffusion, EIA, or complement ... a positive serologic test for coccidioidal antibodies in serum or cerebrospinal fluid by 1) detection of coccidioidal ...
... but serologic testing for Aspergillus precipitins may be a more practical initial test. An immediate wheal-and-flare reaction ... Diagnosis is suspected based on history and imaging tests and confirmed by Aspergillus skin testing and measurement of IgE ... Begin testing with a skin prick using Aspergillus antigen, followed usually by serologic testing. ... Whenever test results diverge, such as when serum IgE is elevated but no A. fumigatus-specific immunoglobulins are found, ...
Tested in Western Blot (WB), Immunoprecipitation (IP) and ELISA (ELISA) applications. This antibody reacts with Human samples. ... Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Rabbit Serum. This antibody is specific for ... Cross-reactivity against RON from other species may occur but has not yet been tested. ...
... skin test conversion or demonstration of presence of coccidioidal antibody). The results of these immunologic tests must be ... or tube precipitin, OR ... Serologic (testing of serum, cerebrospinal fluid, or other body ... Coccidioidal skin test conversion from negative to positive after the onset of clinical signs and symptoms. ...
Complement fixation tests may be of value; a titer greater than 1:32 indicates infection, but several other serological tests ... Estimations of serum precipitin and immunoglobulin E-specific antibody levels may support the diagnosis. ... capsular polysaccharide antigen testing). However, serodiagnosis is not adequate without the other tests mentioned, which are ... General laboratory testing can include the following:. * Comprehensive metabolic panel (eg, to evaluate for diabetes or ...
Anti-Mouse IgG Antibody has been tested by ELISA and is ideal for Western Blotting, Immunohistochemistry, ELISA as well as ... Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Rabbit Serum, Mouse IgG and Mouse Serum. ...
A purified recombinant La fusion protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate anti-La responses. ... and it accurately distinguished anti-La precipitin positive sera from normal sera. ...
Evaluation of a Rapid Molecular Drug-Susceptibility Test for Tuberculosis. Xie Yingda L et al. The New England journal of ... Comparison of whole genome sequencing to restriction endonuclease analysis and gel diffusion precipitin-based serotyping of ...
Group A mice were control animals; Group B mice were test animals treated with MDT. ... A quantitative precipitin curve was constructed using 125 I-HSA and anti-HSA antibody. IC at five times HSA excess as compared ... and kept in separate test tubes. The radioactivity of the whole organs was counted in a gamma counter. The radioactive counts ...
  • Serum precipitin tests were negative in both workers tested. (
  • either (a) the serum specimens tested were not taken at the appropriate intervals, or (b) the antigen was present in concentrations too small to be detected by the technique used. (
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Rabbit Serum. (
  • In immunoelectrophoresis against fresh mouse serum, a single precipitin line is obtained in the beta-1 region representing native C3. (
  • Against serum containing partly activated C3, a precipitin line is obtained which extends from the beta-1 into the alpha-2 region, demonstrating a gradient. (
  • In old serum containing totally activated C3 a single precipitin line in the alpha-2 region is obtained. (
  • Assay by immunoelectrophoresis resulted in a single precipitin arc against anti-Peroxidase, anti-Goat Serum, Cat IgG and Cat Serum. (
  • Serologic tests include agar gel precipitin and hemagglutination‑inhibition. (
  • In addition, agar-gel precipitin tests showed that lipopolysaccharide binds to antisera of multiple serotypes, while the capsular polysaccharide only binds to the corresponding antisera. (
  • Aspergillus precipitin antibody test results (ie, for IgG) are usually positive. (
  • Diagnosis is suspected based on history and imaging tests and confirmed by Aspergillus skin testing and measurement of IgE levels, circulating precipitins, and A. fumigatus -specific antibodies. (
  • There, it is examined for bands called precipitin that form when specific antibodies are present. (
  • The precipitin test helps check if the body has produced antibodies to a specific antigen, in this case, the Coccidioides fungus. (
  • It was pointed out that the cases of HP were not systematically identified, that MWF exposure was not measured, that HP prevalences and incidences were not estimated, and that no precipitating antibodies were found in the tested workers. (
  • A purified recombinant La fusion protein was tested in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to quantitate anti-La responses. (
  • The recombinant-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay proved to be a sensitive method for the detection of anti-La binding, and it accurately distinguished anti-La precipitin positive sera from normal sera. (
  • In medical literature, ristocetin is also known for its use in the laboratory setting as a reagent for the platelet function test, called the ristocetin-induced platelet aggregation (RIPA) assay. (
  • Serologic tests in which a positive reaction manifested by visible CHEMICAL PRECIPITATION occurs when a soluble ANTIGEN reacts with its precipitins, i.e. (
  • I. A hemagglutination test for the identification of serological types. (
  • The complement-fixation test was chosen in preference to the precipitin test since in our experience it proved to be the more reliable, and the presence of the complement-fixing antigen could be readily demonstrated in sera apparently devoid of the precipitinogen. (
  • or Volcanes jungle strains of the virus, and their sera were tested for the presence of complement-fixing antigen on one or more occasions after inoculation of the virus. (
  • The diagnosis is made based on laboratory tests that assess VWF antigen levels, VWF activity, and Factor VIII coagulant activity. (
  • [ 21 ] They found a statistically significant correlation in specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels to both Ags by using skin test and immunoblotting/inhibition analysis. (
  • Fowl cholera: gel diffusion precipitin test for serotyping Pasteurella multocida from avian species. (
  • A case report of one worker, including clinical symptoms, work history, pulmonary function tests, and treatment was presented. (
  • Work related symptoms, initial pulmonary function tests and biopsy results were reported. (
  • Analysis of pulmonary function tests (PFTs) is an area where machine learning (ML) may benefit clinicians, researchers, and the patients. (
  • Cross-reactivity against RON from other species may occur but has not yet been tested. (
  • The diagnosis of fungal sensitivity heavily depends on skin tests with fungal allergens. (
  • This test is most critical for establishing the diagnosis. (
  • Therefore, the use of recombinant Ag may help in reducing the inconsistency of test results with the use of natural Ags. (
  • Results are recorded 15 minutes after the test is performed. (
  • The results of these immunologic tests must be interpreted in the context of the varied clinical presentations and the duration and clinical type of coccidioidomycosis. (
  • none of the strains required serine (reported essential for strain BP6K of Boyd, Logan & Tytell, 1948 b ), whereas aspartic acid was essential for all strains tested but not for BP 6 K. Riboflavine, an essential growth factor in BP6K, had no effect on growth of the strains tested. (
  • Coccidioidal skin test conversion from negative to positive after the onset of clinical signs and symptoms. (
  • In this case, another test is done to confirm that you have an infection. (
  • Mold allergen extracts used for the skin test depend on the prevalence of various molds in the region, as identified with annual atmospheric sampling. (
  • But in the case of change occurring in the composition of the final phase, the process will be controlled by diffusion and a clear example is the precipitin reactions by saturated solutions, requiring this process transport of atoms to long range, which is: entering and leaving the atoms of the growing region, allowing segregation of some element. (
  • Coccidioides precipitin is a blood test that looks for infections due to a fungus called Coccidioides, which causes the disease coccidioidomycosis or valley fever. (
  • This means the blood test did not detect the antibody to Coccidioides. (
  • Title : Dyes as an aid in the precipitin test for host blood meals of mosquitoes Personal Author(s) : Herndon, John F.;Schubert, Joseph H. (
  • 51-52 Consequently, although investigators had been unable to prove extensive staining found upon Tessnow's clothing following his 1898 murders were wood dye, as he had claimed, or human blood, by the time he committed his 1901 murders, pioneering precipitin testing enabled investigators to prove his clothing had been extensively stained with both human and animal blood, despite his claims to the contrary. (
  • and/or demonstration of a specific immunologic response (i.e., skin test conversion or demonstration of presence of coccidioidal antibody). (
  • Hurdles notwithstanding, the new developments would represent significant advances that could be the future of PFT, the oldest test still in use in clinical medicine. (
  • Immediate hypersensitivity skin testing is the most useful method to detect IgE antibody against mold allergens. (
  • A sensitivity test can help in choosing an antifungal agent should such treatment be indicated. (
  • To ensure the existence of the phase transformation in the sample, phase transition tests are performed by changes in: Reflection Optics, Electrical Resistivity and X-Ray Diffraction, showing clearly the presence of such a transformation. (
  • The test is indicated in individuals who have clinically significant dermatographism or extensive skin disease, those who cannot discontinue antihistamines or other medications with antihistamine actions (eg, tricyclic antidepressants), or those who have a history of anaphylactic reaction (because direct application of the suspected allergen may precipitate recurrent anaphylaxis). (
  • The precipitin test is one of several tests that can be done to determine if you are infected with Coccidioides, which causes the disease coccidioidomycosis. (
  • 202 The tests conducted by biologist Paul Uhlenhuth upon Tessnow's clothing proved to be the first instance in which the forensic analysis of bloodstains was used in the conviction of a criminal. (
  • Meta-analysis was performed using Review Manager 5.4.1, and publication bias was assessed using Begg test and Egger test in the Stata SE 12.0 software. (