An anthelmintic used in most schistosome and many cestode infestations.
Agents destructive to parasitic worms. They are used therapeutically in the treatment of HELMINTHIASIS in man and animal.
Agents that act systemically to kill adult schistosomes.
Determination of parasite eggs in feces.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It is endemic in Africa, the Middle East, South America, and the Caribbean and affects mainly the bowel, spleen, and liver.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae which occurs at different stages in development in veins of the pulmonary and hepatic system and finally the bladder lumen. This parasite causes urinary schistosomiasis.
A human disease caused by the infection of parasitic worms SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM. It is endemic in AFRICA and parts of the MIDDLE EAST. Tissue damages most often occur in the URINARY TRACT, specifically the URINARY BLADDER.
A species of trematode blood flukes of the family Schistosomatidae. It is common in the Nile delta. The intermediate host is the planorbid snail. This parasite causes schistosomiasis mansoni and intestinal bilharziasis.
Infection of the biliary passages with CLONORCHIS SINENSIS, also called Opisthorchis sinensis. It may lead to inflammation of the biliary tract, proliferation of biliary epithelium, progressive portal fibrosis, and sometimes bile duct carcinoma. Extension to the liver may lead to fatty changes and cirrhosis. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
An anthelmintic with schistosomicidal activity against Schistosoma mansoni, but not against other Schistosoma spp. Oxamniquine causes worms to shift from the mesenteric veins to the liver where the male worms are retained; the female worms return to the mesentery, but can no longer release eggs. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed, p121)
Infection with flukes (trematodes) of the genus SCHISTOSOMA. Three species produce the most frequent clinical diseases: SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM (endemic in Africa and the Middle East), SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI (in Egypt, northern and southern Africa, some West Indies islands, northern 2/3 of South America), and SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM (in Japan, China, the Philippines, Celebes, Thailand, Laos). S. mansoni is often seen in Puerto Ricans living in the United States.
A benzimidazole broad-spectrum anthelmintic structurally related to MEBENDAZOLE that is effective against many diseases. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p38)
Infections caused by infestation with worms of the class Trematoda.
A phylum of acoelomate, bilaterally symmetrical flatworms, without a definite anus. It includes three classes: Cestoda, Turbellaria, and Trematoda.
Schistosomiasis caused by Schistosoma japonicum. It is endemic in the Far East and affects the bowel, liver, and spleen.
A species of trematode blood flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae whose distribution is confined to areas of the Far East. The intermediate host is a snail. It occurs in man and other mammals.
A genus of trematode flukes belonging to the family Schistosomatidae. There are over a dozen species. These parasites are found in man and other mammals. Snails are the intermediate hosts.
Juvenile hormone analog and insect growth regulator used to control insects by disrupting metamorphosis. Has been effective in controlling mosquito larvae.
Drugs used to treat or prevent parasitic infections.
Infections with true tapeworms of the helminth subclass CESTODA.
A species of trematode flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. Many authorities consider this genus belonging to Opisthorchis. It is common in China and other Asiatic countries. Snails and fish are the intermediate hosts.
Agents used to treat tapeworm infestations in man or animals.
Infection with TREMATODA of the genus PARAGONIMUS.
A genus of tapeworm containing several species which occurs in the intestine of fish, birds, and mammals including man. Infection in humans is usually by eating uncooked fish. The larval stage is known as SPARGANUM.
A mixture of mostly avermectin H2B1a (RN 71827-03-7) with some avermectin H2B1b (RN 70209-81-3), which are macrolides from STREPTOMYCES avermitilis. It binds glutamate-gated chloride channel to cause increased permeability and hyperpolarization of nerve and muscle cells. It also interacts with other CHLORIDE CHANNELS. It is a broad spectrum antiparasitic that is active against microfilariae of ONCHOCERCA VOLVULUS but not the adult form.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Diphyllobothrium.
A genus of lung flukes of the family Troglotrematidae infecting humans and animals. This genus consists of several species one of which is PARAGONIMUS WESTERMANI, a common lung fluke in humans.
A family of intestinal flukes of the class Trematoda which occurs in animals and man. Some of the genera are Heterophyes, Metagonimus, Cryptocotyle, Stellantchasmus, and Euryhelmis.
Infection with flukes of the genus Opisthorchis.
Immunoglobulins produced in a response to HELMINTH ANTIGENS.
An infection caused by the infestation of the larval form of tapeworms of the genus Echinococcus. The liver, lungs, and kidney are the most common areas of infestation.
Infection with CYSTICERCUS, the larval form of the various tapeworms of the genus Taenia (usually T. solium in man). In humans they penetrate the intestinal wall and invade subcutaneous tissue, brain, eye, muscle, heart, liver, lung, and peritoneum. Brain involvement results in NEUROCYSTICERCOSIS.
A subclass of segmented worms comprising the tapeworms.
Any part or derivative of a helminth that elicits an immune reaction. The most commonly seen helminth antigens are those of the schistosomes.
A genus of trematode liver flukes of the family Opisthorchidae. It consists of the following species: O. felineus, O. noverca (Amphimerus noverca), and O. viverrini. The intermediate hosts are snails, fish, and AMPHIBIANS.
Infection by flukes of the genus Echinostoma.
Excrement from the INTESTINES, containing unabsorbed solids, waste products, secretions, and BACTERIA of the DIGESTIVE SYSTEM.
Infections or infestations with parasitic organisms. The infestation may be experimental or veterinary.
Diseases of the domestic cat (Felis catus or F. domesticus). This term does not include diseases of the so-called big cats such as CHEETAHS; LIONS; tigers, cougars, panthers, leopards, and other Felidae for which the heading CARNIVORA is used.
Class of parasitic flukes consisting of three subclasses, Monogenea, Aspidogastrea, and Digenea. The digenetic trematodes are the only ones found in man. They are endoparasites and require two hosts to complete their life cycle.
A genus of large tapeworms.
Infections with nematodes of the genus TOXASCARIS.
A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.
An ascarid nematode found primarily in the small intestine of the larger Felidae as well as dogs and cats. It differs from TOXOCARA in that the larvae do not migrate through the lungs. It does occasionally produce visceral larva migrans (LARVA MIGRANS, VISCERAL) in man, although more rarely than does Toxocara.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term; it is the name of a country located in Southeast Asia, officially known as the Lao People's Democratic Republic. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help with those!
A group of SESQUITERPENES and their analogs that contain a peroxide group (PEROXIDES) within an oxepin ring (OXEPINS).
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Taenia.
Infestation with parasitic worms of the helminth class.
A superfamily of nematodes of the order STRONGYLIDA. Characteristics include a fluid-filled outer layer of cuticle and a reduced mouth and bursa.
Infections of the INTESTINES with PARASITES, commonly involving PARASITIC WORMS. Infections with roundworms (NEMATODE INFECTIONS) and tapeworms (CESTODE INFECTIONS) are also known as HELMINTHIASIS.
A species of hydatid tapeworm (class CESTODA) in the family Taeniidae, whose adult form infects the DIGESTIVE TRACT of DOGS, other canines, and CATS. The larval form infects SHEEP; PIGS; HORSES; and may infect humans, where it migrates to various organs and forms permanent HYDATID CYSTS.
A republic in eastern Africa, south of SUDAN and west of KENYA. Its capital is Kampala.
Infection with tapeworms of the genus Hymenolepis.
A genus of intestinal flukes of the family Echinostomatidae which consists of many species. They occur in man and other vertebrates. The intermediate hosts are frequently mollusks.
SCHISTOSOMIASIS of the brain, spinal cord, or meninges caused by infections with trematodes of the genus SCHISTOSOMA (primarily SCHISTOSOMA JAPONICUM; SCHISTOSOMA MANSONI; and SCHISTOSOMA HAEMATOBIUM in humans). S. japonicum infections of the nervous system may cause an acute meningoencephalitis or a chronic encephalopathy. S. mansoni and S. haematobium nervous system infections are associated with acute transverse myelitis involving the lower portions of the spinal cord. (From Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1998, Ch27, pp61-2)
Potentially toxic, but effective antischistosomal agent, it is a metabolite of LUCANTHONE.
A republic in western Africa, south of MALI and BURKINA FASO, bordered by GHANA on the east. Its administrative capital is Abidjan and Yamoussoukro has been the official capital since 1983. The country was formerly called Ivory Coast.
Species of tapeworm in the genus TAENIA, that infects swine. It is acquired by humans through the ingestion of cured or undercooked pork.

Double-blind placebo-controlled study of concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel in schoolchildren with schistosomiasis and geohelminths. (1/532)

A double-blind placebo-controlled study of the concurrent administration of albendazole and praziquantel was conducted in>1500 children with high prevalences of geohelminths and schistosomiasis. The study sites were in China and the Philippines, including 2 strains of Schistosoma japonicum, and 2 different regions of Kenya, 1 each with endemic Schistosoma mansoni or Schistosoma haematobium. Neither medication affected the cure rate of the other. There was no difference between the side effect rate from albendazole or the double placebo. Praziquantel-treated children had more nausea, abdominal pain, and headache but these side effects were statistically more common in children with schistosomiasis, suggesting a strong influence of dying parasites. The subjects were followed for 6 months for changes in infection status, growth parameters, hemoglobin, and schistosomiasis morbidity. In all 4 sites, a significant 6-month increase in serum hemoglobin was observed in children who received praziquantel, strongly supporting population-based mass treatment.  (+info)

Effect of mebendazole and praziquantel on glucosephosphate isomerase and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall harbored in mice. (2/532)

AIM: To study effects of antihydatid drugs on glucosephosphate isomerase (GPI) and glyceraldehydephosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) in Echinococcus granulosus cyst wall. METHODS: Mice infected with the parasite for 8-10 months were treated i.g. with mebendazole (Meb) or praziquantel (Pra). The activities of GPI and GAPDH in the cysts were measured by the formation of NADH or NADPH. RESULTS: GPI activity in the cyst wall was 197 +/- 103 U, while that of GAPDH was 25 +/- 13 U. When infected mice were treated i.g. with Meb 25-50 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 7-14 d, no apparent effect on the GAPDH activity in the cyst was found. In mice treated i.g. with praziquantel (Pra) 500 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d, the GAPDH activity in the cyst wall was inhibited by 26.5%. As to GPI activity only the group treated i.g. with Meb 25 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 14 d showed 33.2% inhibition of the enzyme in the collapsed cyst wall. CONCLUSION: GPI and GAPDH are not the major targets attacked by the antihydatid drug.  (+info)

Resolution and resurgence of schistosoma haematobium-induced pathology after community-based chemotherapy in ghana, as detected by ultrasound. (3/532)

Community-based treatment is recommended for endemic populations with urinary schistosomiasis; however, the optimal target group for treatment and retreatment interval have not been established. Using ultrasound, this study identified subpopulations whose lesions were most likely to respond to treatment and characterized resurgence of pathology. Ultrasound examination of 1202 infected patients was followed by chemotherapy with praziquantel. A sample of 698 patients was followed for 18 months after treatment. Nearly all types of bladder pathologies resolved after treatment, regardless of patient's age or intensity of initial infection. However, many patients' upper urinary tract pathologies (62.5%) did not resolve. During the 18-month follow-up period, reappearance of severe bladder pathologies was rare, and <10% of persons had resurgence of mild bladder pathologies. For this population, retreatment is not needed annually but might be cost effective if given several years later. Confirmation from other areas is required before general policies can be formed.  (+info)

Seroepidemiology of schistosomiasis in Puerto Rico: evidence for vanishing endemicity. (4/532)

The current study summarizes our findings of anti-schistosome egg antibody by the circumoval precipitin test for two different populations in Puerto Rico. One group, exclusively males more than 40 years of age and from all municipalities on the island, was from the Veterans Administration Hospital for the period 1988-1997. The second group resided southeast of San Juan, around the municipality of Caguas and adjacent municipalities east of Caguas, was of both sexes and mostly until 1997 of undetermined ages for the period 1993-1997. Results reveal a yearly decrease in testing requests from the Veterans Administration Hospital from 148 in 1988 and 1989 with 16% positive to three in 1996 through 1998 with none positive. This decrease in testing requests was because of a decrease of suspicion of schistosomiasis in this group. The other patient population from the Caguas region showed a gradual but continuous decrease in seropositive individuals from 21% in 1993 to 12% in 1996, with precipitous decrease to 5% in 1997 and only 1% in 1998. Moreover, there were four patients from which at least two serum samples were obtained one or two years apart and tested. In each instance the more recently obtained sample had lower antibody reactions than the first as reflected in lower percentages of positive egg reactors. The fact that they were treated with praziquantel after the first testing also suggests that the infected population was being eliminated through chemotherapy. These combined results suggest the elimination of infections with Schistosoma mansoni in the traditionally high prevalence regions east of San Juan in the absence of any proactive control efforts in Puerto Rico. Because of the rapid urbanizing of Puerto Rico, the one identifiable control effort is economic development and well being.  (+info)

Cost of school-based drug treatment in Tanzania. The Partnership for Child Development. (5/532)

It has been argued that targeting delivery of anthelmintics to school-children by taking advantage of the existing education infrastructure and administrative system can be one of the most cost-effective approaches in minimizing the intensity of infections with both schistosomiasis and major intestinal nematodes in many developing countries. The study was conducted in January 1997, shortly after the completion of the drug intervention programme. This paper provides an analysis of the costs of providing age-targeted treatment of school-children for urinary schistosomiasis using praziquantel and for intestinal nematodes using albendazole as an integral part of the School Health Programme in Tanga Region, Tanzania. The analysis shows that the total financial cost of the intervention programme in 1996 prices was US$54 252.28 (exchange rate: TSH 573 = US$1). Of this amount, the cost of drugs constitutes 80.6%, while the delivery cost appears relatively low, representing just below 20%. Even when the opportunity cost of unpaid days of labour input is included, the cost of drugs still remains the highest cost component of the intervention (55.8%). In the current epidemiological and logistic setting of Tanzania, the financial cost per child treated using praziquantel, which involved prior screening at the school level, was US$0.79, while treatment using albendazole was as low as US$0.23, of which US$0.20 was drug purchase cost. It is concluded that the base cost of delivering a universal, standard, school-based health intervention such as albendazole can be as low as US$0.03 per child tested, but even a very slight increase in the complexity of delivery can have a very significant impact on the cost of intervention.  (+info)

Evidence for an improvement in cognitive function following treatment of Schistosoma japonicum infection in Chinese primary schoolchildren. (6/532)

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, treatment trial was conducted in Sichuan, China to investigate the unique and combined effects on the cognitive function (working memory) of children after treating geohelminth infections with albendazole and treating Schistosoma japonicum infection with praziquantel. One hundred eighty-one children 5-16 years of age participated. At baseline, the praziquantel and placebo groups were similar in all background characteristics. Three months after praziquantel treatment, there was a significant reduction in the prevalence and intensity of S. japonicum infection. There were significant age group by praziquantel treatment interaction effects in three of the five cognitive tests, Fluency, Picture Search, and Free Recall, with effects being strongest in the youngest children (5-7 years old). Exploratory analysis within the youngest children showed a significant positive main effect of treatment on Fluency (P < 0.001), after controlling for sex, anthropometric, and parasitic and iron status. There was also a treatment by height-for-age interaction (P = 0.03) and a treatment by iron status interaction (P = 0.024) on Fluency. There was a treatment by S. japonicum intensity interaction (P < 0.001) on Free Recall, but the main effect of treatment on Picture Search was not significant (P = 0.058). Younger children and those who are physically the most vulnerable are likely to benefit the most from the treatment of S. japonicum infection in terms of improved performance on tests of working memory.  (+info)

Relationships between several markers of extracellular matrix turn-over and ultrasonography in human Schistosomiasis mansoni. (7/532)

We measured the concentrations of several serum and urinary fibrosis markers, which are metabolites of extracellular matrix, in schistosomiasis patients to investigate their relationship with the ultrasonographic scoring system and with parasitologic data. This study was conducted in patients with various stages of the disease evaluated by ultrasonography (intestinal disease with no organ involvement, with minor hepatosplenic involvement and with severe disease) and in endemic controls. The level of hyaluronan, which were increased in infected patients compared with controls (P < 0.01), was the only fibrosis marker that correlated with the ultrasonographic score (P = 0.003) and is thus a potential serum marker of schistosomiasis-associated morbidity. Urinary free pyridinoline levels were lower (P < 0.001) in infected patients with fibrosis (score > or = 1) than in nonfibrotic patients. A two-year follow-up of the patients treated with praziquantel showed that type I collagen and hyaluronan decreased during the first year post-treatment, whereas free pyridinolines peaked after 12 months and decreased thereafter.  (+info)

Long-lasting sonographic and histopathological findings in cured clonorchiasis of rabbits. (8/532)

To ascertain residual sonographic and histopathological findings of clonorchiasis after treatment, the present study evaluated sonographic findings in rabbits which were infected with 500 metacercariae of C. sinensis every 6 months for 18 months after treatment with praziquantel. The sonographic findings were analyzed in terms of intrahepatic bile duct dilatation and periductal echogenicity, and histopathological findings were observed after the last sonographic examination. Compared with the sonographic findings before treatment, dilatation of the intrahepatic bile ducts became mild to some degree in four of the seven cases and increased periductal echogenicity resolved in four of them. The histopathological specimens after 18 months showed that periductal inflammation has almost resolved but moderate dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts and mucosal hyperplasia persisted. The periductal fibrosis minimally resolved. The long-lasting sonographic findings in cured clonorchiasis make sonography less specific.  (+info)

Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication, which is used to treat and prevent trematode (fluke) infections, including schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever), clonorchiasis, opisthorchiasis, paragonimiasis, and fasciolopsiasis. It works by causing severe spasms in the muscle cells of the parasites, ultimately leading to their death. Praziquantel is available in tablet form and is typically taken orally in a single dose, although the dosage may vary depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated.

It's important to note that praziquantel is not effective against tapeworm infections, and other medications such as niclosamide or albendazole are used instead for those infections. Also, Praziquantel should be taken under medical supervision, as it may have some side effects, including abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache.

It's important to consult a healthcare professional before taking any medication.

Anthelmintics are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by parasitic worms, also known as helminths. These medications work by either stunting the growth of the worms, paralyzing them, or killing them outright, allowing the body to expel the worms through normal bodily functions. Anthelmintics are commonly used to treat infections caused by roundworms, tapeworms, flukeworms, and hookworms. Examples of anthelmintic drugs include albendazole, mebendazole, praziquantel, and ivermectin.

Schistosomicides are medications specifically used to treat Schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever or bilharzia. This is a parasitic disease caused by several species of flatworms belonging to the genus Schistosoma. The drugs that act against these parasites are called schistosomicides.

The most common schistosomicides include:

1. Praziquantel: This is the first-line treatment for all forms of Schistosomiasis. It works by causing paralysis of the worms, which then detach from the host's tissues and are swept out of the body.

2. Oxamniquine (Mansil): Primarily used to treat infections caused by Schistosoma mansoni. It works by causing the worms to lose their grip on the blood vessels, leading to their death and elimination from the body.

3. Triclabendazole: Used for the treatment of liver fluke infections, but it has also shown efficacy against some Schistosoma species, particularly Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma japonicum.

It is important to note that while these medications are effective at killing the adult worms, they do not prevent reinfection. Therefore, measures should be taken to avoid contact with contaminated water where the parasites are present.

A "Parasite Egg Count" is a laboratory measurement used to estimate the number of parasitic eggs present in a fecal sample. It is commonly used in veterinary and human medicine to diagnose and monitor parasitic infections, such as those caused by roundworms, hookworms, tapeworms, and other intestinal helminths (parasitic worms).

The most common method for measuring parasite egg counts is the McMaster technique. This involves mixing a known volume of feces with a flotation solution, which causes the eggs to float to the top of the mixture. A small sample of this mixture is then placed on a special counting chamber and examined under a microscope. The number of eggs present in the sample is then multiplied by a dilution factor to estimate the total number of eggs per gram (EPG) of feces.

Parasite egg counts can provide valuable information about the severity of an infection, as well as the effectiveness of treatment. However, it is important to note that not all parasitic infections produce visible eggs in the feces, and some parasites may only shed eggs intermittently. Therefore, a negative egg count does not always rule out the presence of a parasitic infection.

Schistosomiasis mansoni is a parasitic infection caused by the trematode flatworm Schistosoma mansoni. The disease cycle begins when human hosts come into contact with fresh water contaminated with the parasite's larvae, called cercariae, which are released from infected snail intermediate hosts.

Once the cercariae penetrate the skin of a human host, they transform into schistosomula and migrate through various tissues before reaching the hepatic portal system. Here, the parasites mature into adult worms, mate, and produce eggs that can cause inflammation and damage to the intestinal wall, liver, spleen, and other organs.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis mansoni may include fever, chills, cough, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and blood in stool or urine. Chronic infection can lead to severe complications such as fibrosis of the liver, kidney damage, bladder cancer, and neurological disorders.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, proper sanitation, and access to safe drinking water. Treatment typically involves administering a single dose of the drug praziquantel, which is effective in eliminating the adult worms and reducing egg production. However, it does not prevent reinfection.

"Schistosoma haematobium" is a species of parasitic flatworm, also known as a blood fluke, that causes the disease schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia). This specific species is the most common cause of urogenital schistosomiasis.

The life cycle of Schistosoma haematobium involves freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. The parasite's eggs are released in the urine of an infected person and hatch in fresh water, releasing miracidia that infect the snail. After several developmental stages, the parasites emerge from the snail as free-swimming cercariae, which then infect the human host by penetrating the skin during contact with infested water.

Once inside the human body, the cercariae transform into schistosomula and migrate to the venous plexus around the bladder, where they mature into adult worms. The female worms lay eggs that can cause inflammation and damage to the urinary tract and, in some cases, other organs. Symptoms of infection can include blood in the urine, frequent urination, and pain during urination. Chronic infection can lead to more serious complications, such as bladder cancer and kidney damage.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Schistosomiasis haematobia" is not a recognized medical term. Schistosomiasis is a parasitic disease caused by several species of blood flukes (schistosomes). The two main forms that affect humans are Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium, but the term "haematobia" itself refers to the presence of blood in urine.

So, when we talk about Schistosoma haematobium, it's a specific species of schistosome that causes an infection known as urogenital schistosomiasis, which is characterized by the presence of blood in the urine (haematuria) and other symptoms.

If you have any questions about tropical diseases or parasitic infections, feel free to ask!

"Schistosoma mansoni" is a specific species of parasitic flatworm, also known as a blood fluke, that causes the disease schistosomiasis (also known as snail fever). This trematode has a complex life cycle involving both freshwater snails and humans. The adult worms live in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly in the venous plexus of the intestines, where they lay eggs that are excreted through feces. These eggs can hatch in fresh water and infect specific snail species, which then release a free-swimming form called cercariae. These cercariae can penetrate the skin of humans who come into contact with infested water, leading to infection and subsequent health complications if left untreated.

The medical definition of "Schistosoma mansoni" is: A species of trematode parasitic flatworm that causes schistosomiasis in humans through its complex life cycle involving freshwater snails as an intermediate host. Adult worms reside in the blood vessels of the human host, particularly those surrounding the intestines, and release eggs that are excreted through feces. Infection occurs when cercariae, released by infected snails, penetrate human skin during contact with infested water.

Clonorchiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the trematode worm Clonorchis sinensis, also known as the Chinese liver fluke. This flatworm infects the bile ducts and liver of humans and other animals, leading to inflammation, obstruction, and potential complications such as cholangitis, cirrhosis, and cholangiocarcinoma (bile duct cancer).

Humans become infected with Clonorchis sinensis by consuming raw or undercooked freshwater fish that contain metacercariae, the infective larval stage of the parasite. The larvae excyst in the small intestine and migrate to the bile ducts, where they mature into adult worms and reproduce. Eggs are released into the stool and can contaminate water sources if proper sanitation is not maintained.

Symptoms of clonorchiasis may include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, and liver enlargement. In severe cases, patients may experience jaundice, ascites (fluid accumulation in the abdomen), and weight loss. Diagnosis is typically made by detecting eggs in stool samples or identifying the parasite in biopsied tissue. Treatment involves administering anthelmintic drugs such as praziquantel to eliminate the infection. Preventive measures include avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish and maintaining good hygiene practices.

Oxamniquine is an antiparasitic medication used to treat infections caused by certain types of intestinal worms, specifically the parasite called *Strongyloides stercoralis*. It works by inhibiting the motility and reproduction of the parasites, leading to their eventual elimination from the body.

It is important to note that oxamniquine is not commonly used in clinical practice due to the availability of other effective antiparasitic agents and its potential for causing adverse effects such as nausea, vomiting, dizziness, and headache. Additionally, it should only be administered under the supervision of a healthcare professional and according to approved guidelines, as improper use can lead to treatment failure or the development of drug-resistant parasites.

Schistosomiasis, also known as bilharzia or snail fever, is a parasitic infection caused by several species of the trematode flatworm Schistosoma. The infection occurs when people come into contact with freshwater contaminated with the parasite's larvae, which are released by infected freshwater snails.

The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and mature into adult worms in the blood vessels of the urinary tract or intestines. The female worms lay eggs, which can cause inflammation and scarring in various organs, including the liver, lungs, and brain.

Symptoms of schistosomiasis may include fever, chills, cough, muscle aches, and diarrhea. In chronic cases, the infection can lead to serious complications such as kidney damage, bladder cancer, and seizures. Schistosomiasis is prevalent in tropical and subtropical regions with poor sanitation and lack of access to safe drinking water. It is preventable through improved water supply, sanitation, and snail control measures. Treatment typically involves the use of a medication called praziquantel, which kills the adult worms.

Albendazole is an antiparasitic medication used to treat a variety of parasitic infections, including neurocysticercosis (a tapeworm infection that affects the brain), hydatid disease (a parasitic infection that can affect various organs), and other types of worm infestations such as pinworm, roundworm, hookworm, and whipworm infections.

Albendazole works by inhibiting the polymerization of beta-tubulin, a protein found in the microtubules of parasitic cells, which disrupts the parasite's ability to maintain its shape and move. This leads to the death of the parasite and elimination of the infection.

Albendazole is available in oral form and is typically taken two to three times a day with meals for several days or weeks, depending on the type and severity of the infection being treated. Common side effects of albendazole include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, abdominal pain, and headache. Rare but serious side effects may include liver damage, bone marrow suppression, and neurological problems.

It is important to note that albendazole should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare provider, as it can have serious side effects and interactions with other medications. Additionally, it is not effective against all types of parasitic infections, so proper diagnosis is essential before starting treatment.

Trematode infections, also known as trematodiasis or fluke infections, are parasitic diseases caused by various species of flatworms called trematodes. These parasites have an indirect life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts (such as snails or fish) and a definitive host (usually a mammal or bird).

Humans can become accidentally infected when they consume raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, or contaminated water that contains the larval stages of these parasites. The most common trematode infections affecting humans include:

1. Schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia): Caused by several species of blood flukes (Schistosoma spp.). Adult worms live in the blood vessels, and their eggs can cause inflammation and damage to various organs, such as the liver, intestines, bladder, or lungs.
2. Liver flukes: Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica are common liver fluke species that infect humans through contaminated watercress or other aquatic plants. These parasites can cause liver damage, abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia (elevated eosinophil count in the blood).
3. Lung flukes: Paragonimus spp. are lung fluke species that infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked crustaceans. These parasites can cause coughing, chest pain, and bloody sputum.
4. Intestinal flukes: Various species of intestinal flukes (e.g., Haplorchis spp., Metagonimus yokogawai) infect humans through consumption of raw or undercooked fish. These parasites can cause abdominal pain, diarrhea, and eosinophilia.
5. Eye fluke: The oriental eye fluke (Drepanotrema spp.) can infect the human eye through contaminated water. It can cause eye inflammation, corneal ulcers, and vision loss.

Prevention measures include avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked aquatic plants, animals, and their products; practicing good hygiene; and treating drinking water to kill parasites. Treatment typically involves administering anthelmintic drugs such as praziquantel, albendazole, or mebendazole, depending on the specific fluke species involved.

Platyhelminths, also known as flatworms, are a phylum of invertebrate animals that includes free-living and parasitic forms. They are characterized by their soft, flat bodies, which lack a body cavity or circulatory system. The phylum Platyhelminthes is divided into several classes, including Turbellaria (free-living flatworms), Monogenea (ectoparasites on fish gills and skin), Trematoda (flukes, parasites in mollusks and vertebrates), and Cestoda (tapeworms, intestinal parasites of vertebrates). Platyhelminths are bilaterally symmetrical, triploblastic, and unsegmented. They have a simple digestive system that consists of a mouth and a gut, but no anus. The nervous system is characterized by a brain and a ladder-like series of nerve cords running along the length of the body. Reproduction in platyhelminths can be either sexual or asexual, depending on the species.

Schistosomiasis japonica is a specific form of schistosomiasis, which is also known as snail fever. It is caused by the parasitic flatworm Schistosoma japonicum. This disease is prevalent in East Asian countries like China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

The life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum involves freshwater-dwelling snails as an intermediate host. Humans get infected through direct contact with contaminated water, where the parasite's larvae are released from the snails. The larvae penetrate the skin, enter the bloodstream, and migrate to the liver. Here, they mature into adult worms and start producing eggs, which are excreted through feces or urine.

The symptoms of Schistosomiasis japonica can vary depending on the stage and severity of the infection. In the early stages, individuals might experience skin rashes, fever, chills, and muscle aches. As the parasite eggs travel through the body, they can cause inflammation and damage to various organs, including the liver, intestines, and lungs. Chronic infections can lead to severe complications such as fibrosis, scarring, and increased risk of bladder cancer.

Preventive measures include avoiding contact with contaminated water sources, proper sanitation, and snail control. Treatment typically involves administering the drug praziquantel, which is effective against Schistosoma japonicum and other schistosome species.

"Schistosoma japonicum" is a species of parasitic flatworms (trematodes) that causes schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever, in humans. This disease is prevalent in East Asian countries such as China, Indonesia, and the Philippines.

The life cycle of Schistosoma japonicum involves freshwater snails as intermediate hosts. The parasites lay eggs in the blood vessels of the human host, which then pass through the body and are excreted into water. When the eggs hatch, they release miracidia that infect specific species of freshwater snails. After several developmental stages within the snail, the parasite releases cercariae, which can infect humans by penetrating the skin during contact with infested water.

Once inside the human host, the cercariae transform into schistosomula and migrate to the lungs, then to the liver, where they mature into adult worms. The adult worms pair up, mate, and produce eggs that can cause inflammation, granulomas, and fibrosis in various organs, depending on their location.

Schistosoma japonicum is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas, with symptoms ranging from fever, rash, and diarrhea to more severe complications such as liver damage, bladder cancer, and kidney failure. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with infested water, treating infected individuals, and improving sanitation and hygiene practices.

Schistosoma is a genus of flatworms that cause the disease schistosomiasis, also known as snail fever. These parasitic worms infect freshwater snails and then release a form of the parasite that can penetrate the skin of humans when they come into contact with contaminated water. The larvae mature into adult worms in the human body, living in the blood vessels of the bladder, intestines or other organs, where they lay eggs. These eggs can cause serious damage to internal organs and lead to a range of symptoms including fever, chills, diarrhea, and anemia. Schistosomiasis is a significant public health problem in many tropical and subtropical regions around the world.

Methoprene is an insect growth regulator (IGR) that disrupts the developmental process in insects, preventing them from reaching maturity and reproducing. It works by mimicking the natural hormones found in insects, specifically juvenile hormone, which regulates their molting and metamorphosis. By interfering with this process, methoprene causes immature insects to continue molting without ever becoming adults, or it prevents larvae from transforming into pupae or adults.

Methoprene is commonly used in pest control applications, including public health, agriculture, and household settings, to control a wide range of insect pests, such as mosquitoes, fleas, ticks, ants, cockroaches, and stored product pests. It has low toxicity to non-target organisms, including mammals, making it a relatively safe option for use in sensitive environments. However, like any pesticide, methoprene should be used responsibly and according to label instructions to minimize potential risks to human health and the environment.

Antiparasitic agents are a type of medication used to treat parasitic infections. These agents include a wide range of drugs that work to destroy, inhibit the growth of, or otherwise eliminate parasites from the body. Parasites are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive nutrients at the host's expense.

Antiparasitic agents can be divided into several categories based on the type of parasite they target. Some examples include:

* Antimalarial agents: These drugs are used to treat and prevent malaria, which is caused by a parasite that is transmitted through the bites of infected mosquitoes.
* Antiprotozoal agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by protozoa, which are single-celled organisms that can cause diseases such as giardiasis, amoebic dysentery, and sleeping sickness.
* Antihelminthic agents: These drugs are used to treat infections caused by helminths, which are parasitic worms that can infect various organs of the body, including the intestines, lungs, and skin. Examples include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes.

Antiparasitic agents work in different ways to target parasites. Some disrupt the parasite's metabolism or interfere with its ability to reproduce. Others damage the parasite's membrane or exoskeleton, leading to its death. The specific mechanism of action depends on the type of antiparasitic agent and the parasite it is targeting.

It is important to note that while antiparasitic agents can be effective in treating parasitic infections, they can also have side effects and potential risks. Therefore, it is essential to consult with a healthcare provider before starting any antiparasitic medication to ensure safe and appropriate use.

Cestode infections, also known as tapeworm infections, are caused by the ingestion of larval cestodes (tapeworms) present in undercooked meat or contaminated water. The most common types of cestode infections in humans include:

1. Taeniasis: This is an infection with the adult tapeworm of the genus Taenia, such as Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm). Humans become infected by consuming undercooked beef or pork that contains viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae then mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can live for several years, producing eggs that are passed in the feces.
2. Hydatid disease: This is a zoonotic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm Echinococcus granulosus, which is commonly found in dogs and other carnivores. Humans become infected by accidentally ingesting eggs present in dog feces or contaminated food or water. The eggs hatch in the human intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs, such as the liver or lungs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and cause symptoms depending on their location and size.
3. Diphyllobothriasis: This is an infection with the fish tapeworm Diphyllobothrium latum, which is found in freshwater fish. Humans become infected by consuming raw or undercooked fish that contain viable tapeworm larvae. The larvae mature into adult tapeworms in the human intestine and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, and vitamin B12 deficiency.

Preventing cestode infections involves practicing good hygiene, cooking meat thoroughly, avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked fish, and washing fruits and vegetables carefully before eating. In some cases, treatment with antiparasitic drugs may be necessary to eliminate the tapeworms from the body.

Clonorchis sinensis is a tiny parasitic flatworm, also known as the Chinese liver fluke. It belongs to the class Trematoda and the family Opisthorchiidae. This parasite infects the bile ducts of humans and other animals, causing a disease called clonorchiasis.

Humans become infected with C. sinensis by consuming raw or undercooked freshwater fish that carry the parasite's larvae. Once inside the human body, the larvae migrate to the bile ducts and mature into adult flukes, which can live for several years. The presence of these flukes in the bile ducts can cause inflammation, obstruction, and scarring, leading to symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, jaundice, and liver damage.

Preventing clonorchiasis involves avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, particularly in areas where the parasite is endemic. Proper cooking and freezing of fish can kill the larvae and prevent infection. In addition, improving sanitation and hygiene practices can help reduce the spread of the parasite from infected individuals to others.

Anticestodal agents are a type of medication used to treat infections caused by tapeworms (cestodes) and other related parasites. These agents work by either stunting the growth or killing the parasites, which allows the body to expel them naturally. Common anticestodal agents include niclosamide, praziquantel, and albendazole. It is important to note that proper diagnosis of the specific type of tapeworm infection is necessary for effective treatment, as different medications may be more or less effective against certain species.

Paragonimiasis is a tropical pulmonary disease caused by the infection of Paragonimus species, a type of lung fluke. The disease cycle begins when humans consume undercooked or raw crustaceans (such as crabs or crayfish) that contain the larval form of the parasite. Once ingested, the larvae penetrate the intestinal wall and migrate to the lungs, where they develop into adult worms and produce eggs.

Symptoms of paragonimiasis can vary depending on the severity of the infection and the location of the worms in the body. Common symptoms include coughing up blood (hemoptysis), chest pain, difficulty breathing, fever, and diarrhea. In some cases, the parasites may migrate to other organs such as the brain or liver, causing additional complications.

Diagnosis of paragonimiasis typically involves a combination of clinical symptoms, imaging studies (such as chest X-rays), and laboratory tests (such as stool or sputum analysis for parasite eggs). Treatment usually involves administration of antihelminthic drugs such as praziquantel or triclabendazole to kill the adult worms. Preventive measures include cooking crustaceans thoroughly before consumption, avoiding raw or undercooked seafood, and practicing good personal hygiene.

Diphyllobothrium is a genus of tapeworms that are commonly known as fish tapeworms or broad tapeworms. These parasites infect various species of freshwater and marine fish, and can also infect humans and other animals who consume raw or undercooked infected fish.

Humans can become infected with Diphyllobothrium by consuming fish that contain larval stages of the tapeworm. Once inside the human body, the larvae attach to the wall of the small intestine and begin to grow into adult tapeworms, which can reach lengths of several meters.

Symptoms of Diphyllobothrium infection may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, vitamin B12 deficiency, and in severe cases, anemia. Treatment typically involves administration of a medication called niclosamide, which kills the tapeworms and allows them to be passed out of the body. Prevention measures include cooking fish thoroughly before eating it, freezing fish at temperatures below -4°F (-20°C) for at least 7 days, or practicing good hygiene and sanitation practices when handling and preparing raw fish.

Ivermectin is an anti-parasitic drug that is used to treat a variety of infections caused by parasites such as roundworms, threadworms, and lice. It works by paralyzing and killing the parasites, thereby eliminating the infection. Ivermectin is available in various forms, including tablets, creams, and solutions for topical use, as well as injections for veterinary use.

Ivermectin has been shown to be effective against a wide range of parasitic infections, including onchocerciasis (river blindness), strongyloidiasis, scabies, and lice infestations. It is also being studied as a potential treatment for other conditions, such as COVID-19, although its effectiveness for this use has not been proven.

Ivermectin is generally considered safe when used as directed, but it can cause side effects in some people, including skin rashes, nausea, and diarrhea. It should be used with caution in pregnant women and people with certain medical conditions, such as liver or kidney disease.

Diphyllobothriasis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm of the genus Diphyllobothrium. The most common species to infect humans is Diphyllobothrium latum, which is found in freshwater fish. Humans can become infected with this tapeworm by consuming raw or undercooked fish that contain larval stages of the parasite.

The infection can cause a variety of symptoms, including abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, vomiting, and weight loss. In some cases, vitamin B12 deficiency may also occur, leading to neurological symptoms such as numbness, tingling, or weakness in the legs.

Treatment for diphyllobothriasis typically involves administration of a medication called niclosamide, which is an anthelmintic drug that kills the tapeworm. Prevention measures include cooking fish thoroughly before eating it and practicing good hygiene after handling raw fish.

"Paragonimus" is a genus of lung flukes, which are parasitic flatworms that infect the lungs of humans and other mammals. The most common species that infect humans is Paragonimus westermani, also known as the oriental lung fluke.

Humans become infected with these parasites by eating raw or undercooked freshwater crustaceans (such as crabs or crayfish) that harbor the larval stage of the fluke. Once ingested, the larvae migrate from the intestines to the lungs, where they develop into adults and produce eggs. These eggs are coughed up and swallowed, and then passed in the feces. If the eggs reach fresh water, they hatch into miracidia, which infect snails, the first intermediate host.

Inside the snail, the parasites multiply asexually, and then emerge as cercariae, which encyst on the surface of crustaceans. When a human or another mammalian host eats the infected crustacean, the life cycle continues.

Paragonimiasis, the disease caused by Paragonimus infection, can lead to symptoms such as cough, chest pain, fever, and shortness of breath. In severe cases, it can cause lung damage and other complications.

Heterophyidae is a family of small intestinal fluke parasites, which are trematodes. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts, usually snails and fish, before infecting the definitive host - a mammal, bird, or reptile. The most common species that infect humans include Heterophyes heterophyes, Metagonimus yokogawai, and Haplorchis taichui.

Human infection typically occurs through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish containing metacercariae (the infective stage). Once ingested, the metacercariae excyst in the small intestine, where they mature into adults and attach to the intestinal wall. The adult flukes are relatively small, usually less than 2 mm in length, and feed on blood and tissue fluids from the host's intestinal mucosa.

Light infections may be asymptomatic or cause mild gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, or vomiting. Heavy infections can lead to more severe complications, including intestinal obstruction, malabsorption, and anemia due to blood loss. In some cases, the infection may disseminate to other organs, causing extraintestinal manifestations such as hepatomegaly (enlarged liver), splenomegaly (enlarged spleen), or pulmonary symptoms if larvae migrate to the lungs.

Prevention of heterophyidiasis involves avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, especially in endemic areas. Proper cooking and freezing techniques can effectively kill metacercariae and prevent infection. Infected individuals should receive appropriate medical treatment with anti-parasitic drugs such as praziquantel to eliminate the parasites and alleviate symptoms.

Opisthorchiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the trematode flatworms of the genus Opisthorchiidae, specifically Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus. These flatworms are transmitted to humans through the consumption of raw or undercooked fish that contain the infective larval stage (metacercariae) of the parasite.

Once ingested, the metacercariae excyst in the small intestine and migrate to the bile ducts of the liver, where they mature into adult worms and reside. The adults can live for several years in the host's body, producing eggs that are released into the bile and then passed through the stool.

The infection can cause a range of symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, liver enlargement, and bile duct inflammation. Chronic opisthorchiasis can lead to more severe complications such as cholangitis, cholecystitis, gallstones, and liver cirrhosis. In some cases, it may also increase the risk of developing cholangiocarcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of bile duct cancer.

Preventive measures include avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, particularly in areas where the infection is endemic, and practicing good personal hygiene to prevent fecal-oral transmission. Treatment typically involves the use of anti-parasitic drugs such as praziquantel or albendazole to kill the adult worms and prevent further complications.

Antibodies are proteins produced by the immune system in response to the presence of a foreign substance, known as an antigen. They are capable of recognizing and binding to specific antigens, neutralizing or marking them for destruction by other immune cells.

Helminths are parasitic worms that can infect humans and animals. They include roundworms, tapeworms, and flukes, among others. Helminth infections can cause a range of symptoms, depending on the type of worm and the location of the infection.

Antibodies to helminths are produced by the immune system in response to an infection with one of these parasitic worms. These antibodies can be detected in the blood and serve as evidence of a current or past infection. They may also play a role in protecting against future infections with the same type of worm.

There are several different classes of antibodies, including IgA, IgD, IgE, IgG, and IgM. Antibodies to helminths are typically of the IgE class, which are associated with allergic reactions and the defense against parasites. IgE antibodies can bind to mast cells and basophils, triggering the release of histamine and other inflammatory mediators that help to protect against the worm.

In addition to IgE, other classes of antibodies may also be produced in response to a helminth infection. For example, IgG antibodies may be produced later in the course of the infection and can provide long-term immunity to reinfection. IgA antibodies may also be produced and can help to prevent the attachment and entry of the worm into the body.

Overall, the production of antibodies to helminths is an important part of the immune response to these parasitic worms. However, in some cases, the presence of these antibodies may also be associated with allergic reactions or other immunological disorders.

Echinococcosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of tapeworms belonging to the genus Echinococcus. There are several species of Echinococcus that can cause disease in humans, but the most common ones are Echinococcus granulosus (causing cystic echinococcosis) and Echinococcus multilocularis (causing alveolar echinococcosis).

Humans typically become infected with echinococcosis by accidentally ingesting eggs of the tapeworm, which are shed in the feces of infected animals such as dogs, foxes, and wolves. The eggs hatch in the small intestine and release larvae that migrate to various organs in the body, where they form cysts or hydatids.

The symptoms of echinococcosis depend on the location and size of the cysts. Cystic echinococcosis often affects the liver and lungs, causing symptoms such as abdominal pain, cough, and shortness of breath. Alveolar echinococcosis typically involves the liver and can cause chronic liver disease, abdominal pain, and jaundice.

Treatment of echinococcosis may involve surgery to remove the cysts, medication to kill the parasites, or both. Preventive measures include avoiding contact with dogs and other animals that may be infected with Echinococcus, practicing good hygiene, and cooking meat thoroughly before eating it.

Cysticercosis is a parasitic infection caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm *Taenia solium*. The infection occurs when humans ingest eggs of this tapeworm, usually through contaminated food or water. Once inside the human body, these eggs hatch and release larvae that can invade various tissues, including muscles, brain, and eyes, forming cysts known as "cysticerci." Symptoms depend on the location and number of cysts but may include seizures, headaches, vision problems, or muscle weakness. Prevention measures include proper cooking of pork, improved sanitation, and personal hygiene.

Cestoda is a class of parasitic worms belonging to the phylum Platyhelminthes, also known as flatworms. Cestodes are commonly known as tapeworms and have a long, flat, segmented body that can grow to considerable length in their adult form. They lack a digestive system and absorb nutrients through their body surface.

Cestodes have a complex life cycle involving one or two intermediate hosts, usually insects or crustaceans, and a definitive host, which is typically a mammal, including humans. The tapeworm's larval stage develops in the intermediate host, and when the definitive host consumes the infected intermediate host, the larvae mature into adults in the host's intestine.

Humans can become infected with tapeworms by eating raw or undercooked meat from infected animals or through accidental ingestion of contaminated water or food containing tapeworm eggs or larvae. Infection with tapeworms can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and vitamin deficiencies.

Helminth antigens refer to the proteins or other molecules found on the surface or within helminth parasites that can stimulate an immune response in a host organism. Helminths are large, multicellular parasitic worms that can infect various tissues and organs in humans and animals, causing diseases such as schistosomiasis, lymphatic filariasis, and soil-transmitted helminthiases.

Helminth antigens can be recognized by the host's immune system as foreign invaders, leading to the activation of various immune cells and the production of antibodies. However, many helminths have evolved mechanisms to evade or suppress the host's immune response, allowing them to establish long-term infections.

Studying helminth antigens is important for understanding the immunology of helminth infections and developing new strategies for diagnosis, treatment, and prevention. Some researchers have also explored the potential therapeutic use of helminth antigens or whole helminths as a way to modulate the immune system and treat autoimmune diseases or allergies. However, more research is needed to determine the safety and efficacy of these approaches.

Opisthorchis is a genus of trematode flatworms that are commonly known as liver flukes. These parasites primarily infect the bile ducts and liver of various mammals, including humans. The most common species that infect humans are Opisthorchis viverrini and Opisthorchis felineus.

Humans become infected with these parasites by consuming raw or undercooked fish that contain the larval stage of the fluke (metacercariae). Once ingested, the metacercariae excyst in the small intestine and migrate to the bile ducts, where they mature into adults. Adult Opisthorchis worms are thin and elongated, with a length of 7-15 mm and a width of 1-3 mm. They have a characteristic brownish color due to their diet, which consists mainly of blood and bile.

Infection with Opisthorchis can lead to chronic inflammation of the bile ducts and liver, which may result in symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, weight loss, and fatigue. Long-term infection has been linked to an increased risk of cholangiocarcinoma, a rare but aggressive form of liver cancer.

Prevention of Opisthorchis infection involves avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked fish, particularly in areas where the parasite is endemic. Infection can also be treated with anti-parasitic drugs such as praziquantel.

Echinostomiasis is a type of foodborne parasitic infection caused by eating raw or undercooked freshwater fish, snails, or aquatic plants contaminated with certain species of trematode flatworms in the family Echinostomatidae. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving several intermediate hosts, such as snails and fish, before they can infect humans.

Infection with echinostomes can cause various symptoms, including abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, and malnutrition. In severe cases, it may lead to liver damage or other complications. The diagnosis of echinostomiasis is usually made by identifying eggs or adult worms in the stool or through imaging techniques such as endoscopy.

Treatment for echinostomiasis typically involves administering anthelmintic drugs, such as praziquantel or albendazole, to kill the parasites. Preventive measures include cooking food thoroughly and avoiding the consumption of raw or undercooked freshwater fish, snails, or aquatic plants in areas where echinostomiasis is common.

Feces are the solid or semisolid remains of food that could not be digested or absorbed in the small intestine, along with bacteria and other waste products. After being stored in the colon, feces are eliminated from the body through the rectum and anus during defecation. Feces can vary in color, consistency, and odor depending on a person's diet, health status, and other factors.

Parasitic diseases, animal, refer to conditions in animals that are caused by parasites, which are organisms that live on or inside a host and derive benefits from the host at its expense. Parasites can be classified into different groups such as protozoa, helminths (worms), and arthropods (e.g., ticks, fleas).

Parasitic diseases in animals can cause a wide range of clinical signs depending on the type of parasite, the animal species affected, and the location and extent of infection. Some common examples of parasitic diseases in animals include:

* Heartworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Dirofilaria immitis
* Coccidiosis in various animals caused by different species of Eimeria
* Toxoplasmosis in cats and other animals caused by Toxoplasma gondii
* Giardiasis in many animal species caused by Giardia spp.
* Lungworm disease in dogs and cats caused by Angiostrongylus vasorum or Aelurostrongylus abstrusus
* Tapeworm infection in dogs, cats, and other animals caused by different species of Taenia or Dipylidium caninum

Prevention and control of parasitic diseases in animals typically involve a combination of strategies such as regular veterinary care, appropriate use of medications, environmental management, and good hygiene practices.

There are many diseases that can affect cats, and the specific medical definitions for these conditions can be quite detailed and complex. However, here are some common categories of feline diseases and examples of each:

1. Infectious diseases: These are caused by viruses, bacteria, fungi, or parasites. Examples include:
* Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as feline parvovirus, which can cause severe gastrointestinal symptoms and death in kittens.
* Feline calicivirus (FCV), which can cause upper respiratory symptoms such as sneezing and nasal discharge.
* Feline leukemia virus (FeLV), which can suppress the immune system and lead to a variety of secondary infections and diseases.
* Bacterial infections, such as those caused by Pasteurella multocida or Bartonella henselae, which can cause abscesses or other symptoms.
2. Neoplastic diseases: These are cancerous conditions that can affect various organs and tissues in cats. Examples include:
* Lymphoma, which is a common type of cancer in cats that can affect the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other organs.
* Fibrosarcoma, which is a type of soft tissue cancer that can arise from fibrous connective tissue.
* Squamous cell carcinoma, which is a type of skin cancer that can be caused by exposure to sunlight or tobacco smoke.
3. Degenerative diseases: These are conditions that result from the normal wear and tear of aging or other factors. Examples include:
* Osteoarthritis, which is a degenerative joint disease that can cause pain and stiffness in older cats.
* Dental disease, which is a common condition in cats that can lead to tooth loss, gum inflammation, and other problems.
* Heart disease, such as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which is a thickening of the heart muscle that can lead to congestive heart failure.
4. Hereditary diseases: These are conditions that are inherited from a cat's parents and are present at birth or develop early in life. Examples include:
* Polycystic kidney disease (PKD), which is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and can lead to kidney failure.
* Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM), which can be inherited as an autosomal dominant trait in some cats.
* Progressive retinal atrophy (PRA), which is a group of genetic disorders that cause degeneration of the retina and can lead to blindness.

Trematoda is a class of parasitic flatworms, also known as flukes. They have a complex life cycle involving one or more intermediate hosts and a definitive host. Adult trematodes are typically leaf-shaped and range in size from a few millimeters to several centimeters.

They have a characteristic oral sucker surrounding the mouth and a ventral sucker, which they use for locomotion and attachment to their host's tissues. Trematodes infect various organs of their hosts, including the liver, lungs, blood vessels, and intestines, causing a range of diseases in humans and animals.

Examples of human-infecting trematodes include Schistosoma spp., which cause schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia), and Fasciola hepatica, which causes fascioliasis (liver fluke disease). Trematode infections are typically treated with antiparasitic drugs.

"Taenia" is a genus of tapeworms that are known to infect humans and animals. The most common species that affect humans are Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).

Humans can become infected with these tapeworms by consuming raw or undercooked meat from infected animals. Once inside the human body, the larvae can mature into adult tapeworms in the intestines, leading to a condition called taeniasis. Symptoms of taeniasis may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, and weight loss.

Ingesting eggs of Taenia solium, through contact with feces from an infected person or contaminated food, can lead to a more serious condition called cysticercosis, where larvae form cysts in various tissues throughout the body, including muscles, brain, and eyes. Cysticercosis can cause a range of symptoms depending on the location of the cysts, and it can be life-threatening if left untreated.

Preventive measures include cooking meat thoroughly, practicing good hygiene, and washing hands and food properly before eating.

Toxocariasis is a parasitic infection caused by the roundworms Toxocara canis or Toxocara cati, which are found in the intestines of dogs and cats. Humans become infected through the accidental ingestion of infective eggs from contaminated soil, water, or food. The larvae hatch in the small intestine and migrate to various tissues, including the liver, lungs, eyes, and brain, where they can cause inflammation and damage.

The symptoms of toxocariasis depend on the organs involved and may include fever, cough, wheezing, rash, abdominal pain, or eye inflammation. In severe cases, it can lead to blindness or neurological problems. The diagnosis is usually made based on clinical signs, epidemiological data, and laboratory tests such as serology or biopsy. Treatment typically involves anti-parasitic medications such as albendazole or mebendazole, along with supportive care for any organ involvement. Prevention measures include good hygiene practices, avoiding contact with dog and cat feces, and washing fruits and vegetables before eating.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Zimbabwe" is not a medical term. It's a country located in the southern part of Africa. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I'd be happy to help answer those for you!

"Toxascaris" is a genus of parasitic roundworms that can infect the intestines of various animals, including cats and dogs. The two species that commonly affect these pets are Toxascaris leonina and Toxascaris canis. These worms can cause symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, and weight loss in infected animals. They are transmitted through the ingestion of infective eggs, which can be found in contaminated soil or feces. It is important to note that human infections with Toxascaris are rare but can occur, particularly in children who may accidentally ingest contaminated soil. Proper hygiene and sanitation practices can help prevent the spread of these parasites.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Laos" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country, the Lao People's Democratic Republic, located in Southeast Asia. If you have any questions about medical terms or health-related topics, I'd be happy to try and help answer them!

Artemisinins are a class of antimalarial drugs derived from the sweet wormwood plant (Artemisia annua). They are highly effective against Plasmodium falciparum, the most deadly species of malaria parasite. Artemisinins have become an essential component in the treatment of malaria and are often used in combination therapy regimens to reduce the risk of drug resistance.

The artemisinin compounds contain a unique peroxide bridge that is responsible for their antimalarial activity. They work by generating free radicals that can damage the parasite's membranes, leading to its rapid death. Artemisinins have a fast action and can significantly reduce the parasite biomass in the first few days of treatment.

Some commonly used artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) include:

* Artemether-lumefantrine (Coartem)
* Artesunate-amodiaquine (Coarsucam)
* Artesunate-mefloquine (Artequin)
* Dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine (Eurartesim, Duo-Cotecxin)

Artemisinins have also shown potential in treating other conditions, such as certain types of cancer and viral infections. However, more research is needed to establish their safety and efficacy for these indications.

Taeniasis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworm of the genus Taenia. The two most common species that infect humans are Taenia saginata (beef tapeworm) and Taenia solium (pork tapeworm).

Humans get infected with T. saginata by consuming raw or undercooked beef from cattle that carry the larval form of the tapeworm, called cysticercus. In contrast, humans acquire T. solium through the consumption of contaminated pork or, more commonly, by accidentally ingesting T. solium eggs due to poor hygiene practices, leading to a more severe infection known as cysticercosis.

After ingestion, the larvae develop into adult tapeworms in the human intestine, where they can grow up to 8-12 meters long for T. saginata and 2-3 meters for T. solium. Adult tapeworms consist of a head (scolex) with hooks and suckers that attach to the intestinal wall, a neck region where new segments called proglottids are continuously formed, and a chain of mature proglottids containing male and female reproductive organs.

Symptoms of taeniasis can be mild or even absent, but they may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, nausea, weight loss, and the presence of proglottids or tapeworm segments in stools or, rarely, outside the body (e.g., around the anus). In cases of T. solium infection, accidental ingestion of eggs can lead to cysticercosis, which is a more severe condition involving the formation of larval cysts in various tissues, including muscles, brain, and eyes, causing neurological symptoms and potentially life-threatening complications.

Diagnosis of taeniasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify tapeworm eggs or proglottids. In some cases, molecular techniques like PCR may be used for species identification. Treatment usually consists of a single oral dose of anthelmintic medication such as praziquantel or niclosamide, which eliminates the adult tapeworm from the intestine. Proper sanitation and hygiene measures are crucial to prevent transmission and reinfection.

Helminthiasis is a medical condition characterized by the infection and infestation of body tissues and organs by helminths, which are parasitic worms. These worms can be classified into three main groups: nematodes (roundworms), cestodes (tapeworms), and trematodes (flukes).

Helminthiasis infections can occur through various modes of transmission, such as ingestion of contaminated food or water, skin contact with contaminated soil, or direct contact with an infected person or animal. The severity of the infection depends on several factors, including the type and number of worms involved, the duration of the infestation, and the overall health status of the host.

Common symptoms of helminthiasis include abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, vomiting, weight loss, anemia, and nutritional deficiencies. In severe cases, the infection can lead to organ damage or failure, impaired growth and development in children, and even death.

Diagnosis of helminthiasis typically involves microscopic examination of stool samples to identify the presence and type of worms. Treatment usually consists of administering anthelmintic drugs that are effective against specific types of worms. Preventive measures include improving sanitation and hygiene, avoiding contact with contaminated soil or water, and practicing safe food handling and preparation.

Metastrongyloidea is a superfamily of nematode (roundworm) parasites that have complex life cycles involving intermediate hosts such as mollusks or arthropods. The adult worms typically reside in the respiratory system, lungs, or other tissues of various mammalian hosts, including humans.

The Metastrongyloidea superfamily includes several medically and veterinarily important genera such as:

* Metastrongylus (e.g., M. pudendotectus, M. salmi) - found in the lungs of suids (pigs, wild boars, warthogs)
* Angiostrongylus (e.g., A. cantonensis, A. costaricensis) - parasites of rodents and other mammals, with zoonotic potential
* Crenosoma (e.g., C. vulpis, C. striatum) - found in the respiratory tracts of canids (dogs, wolves, foxes) and mustelids (otters, weasels)
* Varestrongylus (e.g., V. capreoli, V. alces) - parasites of cervids (deer, elk, moose)

These nematodes are often associated with respiratory and pulmonary diseases in their respective hosts, causing conditions such as pneumonia, bronchitis, or granulomatous inflammation. In humans, angiostrongyliasis can lead to eosinophilic meningitis, a severe neurological condition caused by the migration of larvae through the central nervous system.

Parasitic intestinal diseases are disorders caused by microscopic parasites that invade the gastrointestinal tract, specifically the small intestine. These parasites include protozoa (single-celled organisms) and helminths (parasitic worms). The most common protozoan parasites that cause intestinal disease are Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, and Entamoeba histolytica. Common helminthic parasites include roundworms (Ascaris lumbricoides), tapeworms (Taenia saginata and Taenia solium), hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus), and pinworms (Enterobius vermicularis).

Parasitic intestinal diseases can cause a variety of symptoms, including diarrhea, abdominal pain, bloating, nausea, vomiting, fatigue, and weight loss. The severity and duration of the symptoms depend on the type of parasite, the number of organisms present, and the immune status of the host.

Transmission of these parasites can occur through various routes, including contaminated food and water, person-to-person contact, and contact with contaminated soil or feces. Preventive measures include practicing good hygiene, washing hands thoroughly after using the toilet and before handling food, cooking food thoroughly, and avoiding consumption of raw or undercooked meat, poultry, or seafood.

Treatment of parasitic intestinal diseases typically involves the use of antiparasitic medications that target the specific parasite causing the infection. In some cases, supportive care such as fluid replacement and symptom management may also be necessary.

'Echinococcus granulosus' is a species of tapeworm that causes hydatid disease or echinococcosis in humans and other animals. The adult worms are small, typically less than 1 cm in length, and live in the intestines of their definitive hosts, which are usually dogs or other canids.

The life cycle of 'Echinococcus granulosus' involves the shedding of eggs in the feces of the definitive host, which are then ingested by an intermediate host, such as a sheep or a human. Once inside the intermediate host, the eggs hatch and release larvae that migrate to various organs, where they form hydatid cysts. These cysts can grow slowly over several years and may cause significant damage to the affected organ.

Humans can become accidentally infected with 'Echinococcus granulosus' by ingesting contaminated food or water, or through direct contact with infected dogs. The treatment of hydatid disease typically involves surgical removal of the cysts, followed by anti-parasitic medication to kill any remaining parasites. Prevention measures include proper hygiene and sanitation practices, as well as regular deworming of dogs and other definitive hosts.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Uganda" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known officially as the Republic of Uganda. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Hymenolepiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the tapeworms Hymenolepis nana (dwarf tapeworm) or Hymenolepis diminuta (rat tapeworm).

The dwarf tapeworm, H. nana, is the most common cause of hymenolepiasis and can complete its life cycle within a single host, making human-to-human transmission possible through the fecal-oral route. This means that eggs are ingested, often through contaminated food or water, and then hatched in the small intestine, where they develop into adult tapeworms.

On the other hand, H. diminuta requires an intermediate host, usually a rat or beetle, to complete its life cycle. Humans can become infected by ingesting the infected insect or contaminated food.

Symptoms of hymenolepiasis may include abdominal discomfort, diarrhea, loss of appetite, and weight loss. In severe cases, anemia and intestinal inflammation can occur. The infection is typically diagnosed through the identification of eggs or tapeworm segments in stool samples. Treatment usually involves administering a course of medication that targets the parasite, such as praziquantel or niclosamide.

Echinostoma is a genus of parasitic flatworms, specifically trematodes, that are known to infect various species of birds and mammals, including humans. These parasites have a complex life cycle involving multiple hosts, typically snails as the intermediate host and aquatic animals (such as fish or amphibians) as the secondary host. Humans can become infected by consuming raw or undercooked infected secondary hosts.

Echinostoma species are characterized by having a distinctive oral sucker surrounded by a collar of spines, which gives them their name (echinos means "spiny" in Greek). The adult worms live in the intestines of their definitive host and can cause symptoms such as abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting. In severe cases, infection with Echinostoma species can lead to weight loss, malnutrition, and other complications.

It's worth noting that while human infections with Echinostoma species are relatively rare in developed countries, they can be more common in areas where raw or undercooked aquatic animals are consumed as part of traditional diets. Proper cooking and hygiene practices can help prevent infection with these parasites.

Neuroschistosomiasis is a form of schistosomiasis, which is a parasitic infection caused by Schistosoma species. It is characterized by the invasion and inflammation of the central nervous system (CNS) by the parasite's eggs or larvae. This can lead to various neurological symptoms such as seizures, headaches, visual disturbances, and motor or sensory deficits. Neuroschistosomiasis is a serious and potentially life-threatening condition that requires prompt diagnosis and treatment.

The two Schistosoma species most commonly associated with neuroschistosomiasis are S. japonicum and S. mansoni. The parasites typically enter the human body through skin contact with contaminated water, where they mature into adult worms in the bloodstream. Female worms then lay eggs, some of which may be carried to the CNS by the circulatory system.

Neuroschistosomiasis can occur in both acute and chronic forms. Acute neuroschistosomiasis is characterized by an inflammatory response to the parasite's eggs or larvae, which can cause eosinophilic meningitis or encephalitis. Chronic neuroschistosomiasis may result in the formation of granulomas around the eggs, leading to various neurological symptoms depending on the location and extent of the damage.

Diagnosis of neuroschistosomiasis typically involves a combination of clinical evaluation, imaging studies (such as MRI or CT scans), and laboratory tests (such as serology or CSF analysis). Treatment usually consists of anti-parasitic drugs such as praziquantel, combined with corticosteroids to manage the inflammatory response. In severe cases, surgical intervention may be necessary to alleviate symptoms or prevent further damage.

Hycanthone is not generally considered a medical term, but it is a chemical compound that has been used in medical research and treatment. Hycanthone is a synthetic anti-schistosomal drug, which means it was developed to treat Schistosoma parasitic worm infections, such as schistosomiasis (also known as bilharzia or snail fever).

The substance works by inhibiting the DNA synthesis of the parasite, ultimately leading to its death. However, due to its toxicity and limited therapeutic window, hycanthone is no longer used in clinical settings. It is primarily mentioned in scientific literature related to parasitology and drug development.

To the best of my knowledge, "Côte d'Ivoire" is not a medical term or concept. It is the name of a country, which is officially known as the Republic of Côte d'Ivoire. The country is located in West Africa and is bordered by countries such as Ghana, Mali, Burkina Faso, and Liberia.

Côte d'Ivoire was once a French colony and gained its independence in 1960. The country has a diverse population and a developing economy, with agriculture being a major contributor to its GDP. The capital city of Côte d'Ivoire is Yamoussoukro, while the largest city is Abidjan.

It's important to note that medical terminology and concepts are typically related to anatomy, physiology, diseases, treatments, and other health-related topics. Therefore, it's unlikely that a country name like Côte d'Ivoire would have a direct medical definition or application.

"Taenia solium" is a medical term that refers to a type of tapeworm that infects the human intestines. This parasitic worm is acquired by ingesting undercooked pork containing larval cysts (cysticerci) of the parasite. Once inside the human body, these cysts develop into adult tapeworms, which can grow up to 8 meters in length and live for several years.

The infection caused by T. solium is called taeniasis when it affects the intestines, and cysticercosis when the larval cysts infect other parts of the body, such as muscles, eyes, or the brain. Cysticercosis can cause serious health complications, including seizures, neurological disorders, and even death in some cases.

Preventing taeniasis and cysticercosis involves practicing good hygiene, cooking pork thoroughly before eating it, and avoiding contact with human feces. In areas where T. solium is endemic, public health interventions such as mass deworming campaigns and improvements in sanitation and hygiene can help reduce the burden of infection.

... is effective in reducing schistosomiasis during pregnancy. Another trial found that treatment with praziquantel ... Look up praziquantel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. "Praziquantel (Rx) Biltricide". Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 2015-11-01 ... Praziquantel is on the World Health Organization's List of Essential Medicines. Praziquantel is not licensed for use in humans ... "Praziquantel is active against cestodes (tapeworms). Praziquantel is absorbed, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the ...
"Praziquantel". The American Society of Health-System Pharmacists. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 8 ... Praziquantel is effective in the treatment of all diseases caused by flukes (clonorchiasis, dicrocoeliasis, echinostomiasis, ...
Praziquantel is effective against various helminthic and protozoan infections. The few studies about the use of praziquantel ... Other drugs such as ivermectin and praziquantel have been tried, but are neither reliable nor rapidly effective. Mebendazole ... Davis A (1996). "Schistosomiasis treatment - praziquantel". In Cook GC (ed.). Manson's Tropical Diseases (twentieth ed.). ...
Additionally her research has a focus on developing a formulation of praziquantel, the only drug effective against ... "The African-led TIBA partnership: tackling neglected diseases , Pediatric Praziquantel Consortium". www. ...
"Resolution of Praziquantel". PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases. 5 (9): e1260. doi:10.1371/journal.pntd.0001260. PMC 3176743. ...
Praziquantel "Schistosomiasis Fact Sheet". World Health Organization. Retrieved 10 August 2011. "Schistosomiasis". Centers for ...
Praziquantel is not effective, and older drugs such as bithionol are moderately effective but also cause more side effects. ... Praziquantel treatment is ineffective. There are case reports of nitazoxanide being successfully used in human fasciolosis ... Schubert S, Phetsouvanh R (1990). "Praziquantel weitgehend unwirksam: Behandlung des Fasciola-hepatica-Befalles (grosser ...
... as an alternative to praziquantel or niclosamide for adult beef tapewormss and as an alternative to praziquantel for pork ... Though praziquantel is often better at treating tapeworm infections, albendazole is used more often in endemic countries due to ... The anti-parasitic praziquantel increases the maximum plasma concentration of albendazole sulfoxide by 50%, and the anti- ... Dayan AD (May 2003). "Albendazole, mebendazole and praziquantel. Review of non-clinical toxicity and pharmacokinetics". Acta ...
The effect of praziquantel on H. heterophyes causes deep lesions on their teguments, and when exposed to praziquantel over a ... Taraschewski, H., Mehlhorn, H., Bunnag, D., Andrews, P., & Thomas, H. (1986). Effects of praziquantel on human intestinal ...
Praziquantel is not FDA-approved for this indication. Praziquantel has few side effects, many of which are similar to the ... Praziquantel The standard treatment for diphyllobothriasis (as well as many other tapeworm infections) is a single dose of ... "Helminths: Cestode (tapeworm) infection: Praziquantel". WHO Model Prescribing Information: Drugs Used in Parasitic Diseases - ... praziquantel, 5-10 mg/kg orally once for both adults and children. ...
Praziquantel, 20 mg/kg body weight, three times a day. Praziquantel causes immobilized contraction of the worm, such that it ... This time, praziquantel was the effective treatment of choice. In 1990, the first case of human infection with N. salmincola ... Treatment with praziquantel was effective.[citation needed] None of the human cases of infection with either the North American ... Three 2-g doses of niclosamide or two 50 mg/kg doses of bithionol have also been effective when praziquantel was either not ...
Albendazole is not effective in treating this condition; praziquantel is the preferred agent. "Genus Bertiella Stiles & Hassall ...
According to the CDC, praziquantel is the drug of choice to treat paragonimiasis. The recommended dosage of 75 mg/kg per day, ... Pachucki CT, Levandowski RA, Brown VA, Sonnenkalb BH, Vruno MJ (1984). "American Paragonimiasis treated with praziquantel". N ... "American paragonimiasis treated with Praziquantel". N Engl J Med. 311 (9): 582-3. doi:10.1056/nejm198408303110906. PMID 6749230 ... "American Paragonimiasis treated with praziquantel". N Engl J Med. 311 (9): 582-583. doi:10.1056/nejm198408303110906. PMID ...
The standard drug for S. mansoni infection is praziquantel at a dose of 40 mg/kg. Oxamniquine is also used. As of WHO report in ... Infection is treated with praziquantel. S. mansoni was first noted by Theodor Maximillian Bilharz in Egypt in 1851, while ...
"Pediatric Praziquantel Consortium - Pediatric Praziquantel Consortium". www.pediatricpraziquantelconsortium.org. "The GHIT Fund ... One of the products in the pipeline and among the closest to hitting the market is a pediatric formulation of praziquantel, a ... This study provides clinical data and support for registration of a new praziquantel (PZQ) tablet formulation to treat ... which is sponsored by Merck KGaA and conducted by the Pediatric Praziquantel Consortium. ...
Praziquantel is the drug of choice, although its efficacy is unknown and surgical removal of the sparganum is generally the ... One treatment for sparganosis is praziquantel, administered at a dose of 120 to 150 mg/kg body weight over 2 days; however, ... praziquantel has had limited success. In general, infestation by one or a few sparganum larvae is often best treated by ...
It was subsequently replaced by praziquantel. Antimony and its compounds are used in several veterinary preparations, such as ...
Praziquantel, Niclosamide, and Albendazole are the anthelminthics that are commonly used to treat coenurosis. Praziquantel ... The man was treated with praziquantel. The drug successfully killed the larvae and his infection never returned. The most ... While operating, coenuri were found and the patient was immediately given chemotherapy with praziquantel. Unfortunately, the ... Chai, Jong-Yil (2013). "Praziquantel Treatment in Trematode and Cestode Infections: An Update". Infection & Chemotherapy. 45 (1 ...
Praziquantel, however, is often the preferred treatment. It is given by mouth and used as a single dose. Common side effects ... Like praziquantel, it promotes more severe damage of the dorsal tegument than of the ventral surface. The drug causes the male ... It is more expensive than praziquantel. Oxamniquine is used for treatment of schistosomiasis. According to one systematic ... 026: Chapter 2: Bayer & E. Merck: Discovery and development of praziquantel*: Competing drugs for schistosomiasis treatment". ...
Oxfendazole Nocodazole Praziquantel Plumb DC (2005). Plumb's veterinary drug handbook (Fifth ed.). Stockholm, Wis.: PhrmaVet. ...
Praziquantel is the treatment of choice. Usual treatments are with praziquantel (5-10 mg/kg, single-administration) or ... Treatment is generally with praziquantel, though niclosamide may also be used. Together with cysticercosis, infections affect ...
"Praziquantel: a new schistosomicide against Schistosoma haematobium". Br Med J. 2 (6202): 1396-8. doi:10.1136/bmj.2.6202.1396. ... amoscanate arteether artemether chloroxylenol hycanthone lucanthone metrifonate niridazole oltipraz oxamniquine praziquantel ...
This infection can be treated with praziquantel. It's been noted that another possible treatment is with fenbendazole. Alaria ...
Praziquantel proved better than any other drug. Recently, Dr. M. C. Agrawal has successfully treated cases of nasal ...
Inexpensive praziquantel can be used to treat individuals with schistosomiasis, but it cannot prevent reinfection. The cost of ... Mass deworming treatment with praziquantel, better access to safe water, sanitation, and health education can all be used to ... Merck KGaA pledged to give 200 million tablets of praziquantel, the only cure for schistosomiasis, over 10 years. ... Burns M (3 October 2010). "Lifesaving Drug Praziquantel Too Expensive for Africa". Pacific Standard. The Miller-McCune Center ...
These treatments include albendazole, niclosamide, and praziquantel. Prevalence of Hymenolepis infections in endemic areas can ...
The therapy of choice is praziquantel, a quinolone derivative. Praziquantel is generally administered in an oral form in one or ... If both praziquantel and artemether can be used together, the entire lifespan of S. japonicum would be covered in the ... Praziquantel is most active against adult worms. However, it has been found that artemether prevents the development of adult ...
Praziquantel is widely used and preferred due to its high efficacy. Research has shown that the cysticercoid phase of H.nana's ... Praziquantel: A Major Advance in Anthelminthic Therapy. Ann Intern Med, August 1, 1983; 99(2): 195-198. World Health ... This research fully indicated the paralyzing and deadly nature of Praziquantel on H. nana, H. diminuta, H. microstoma. In 1887 ... In 1980, research proved that Praziquantel had morphological effects on H.nana and other similar cestodes. Following ten ...
... for which praziquantel is commonly used in conjunction for mass dewormings Diethylcarbamazine - effective against Wuchereria ... Praziquantel - effective against flatworms (e.g., tapeworms and schistosoma) Octadepsipeptides (e.g. Emodepside) - effective ... for schistosomiasis and tapeworms it is praziquantel. Antiparasitics that specifically target worms of the genus Ascaris are ...
Treatment of opisthorchiasis is usually accomplished with praziquantel. A single dose of praziquantel of 40 mg/kg is effective ... In addition, under experimental conditions, the treatment of Opisthorchis viverrini-infected hamsters with praziquantel induced ... and praziquantel in patients with Opisthorchis viverrini: A randomised, exploratory, open-label, phase 2 trial" (PDF). The ... appears to be at least as efficacious as praziquantel. Artemisinin was also found to have anthelmintic activity against ...
Praziquantel is effective in reducing schistosomiasis during pregnancy. Another trial found that treatment with praziquantel ... Look up praziquantel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. "Praziquantel (Rx) Biltricide". Medscape. WebMD. Retrieved 2015-11-01 ... Praziquantel is on the World Health Organizations List of Essential Medicines. Praziquantel is not licensed for use in humans ... "Praziquantel is active against cestodes (tapeworms). Praziquantel is absorbed, metabolized in the liver, and excreted in the ...
Praziquantel: learn about side effects, dosage, special precautions, and more on MedlinePlus ... Before taking praziquantel,. *tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to praziquantel, any other medications, or ... you should know that praziquantel may make you drowsy. Do not drive a car or operate machinery on the day you take praziquantel ... If you become pregnant while taking praziquantel, call your doctor.. *do not breastfeed on the day you take praziquantel and ...
Comprehensive disease interaction information for praziquantel systemic. Includes Praziquantel - cysticercosis. ... Praziquantel Disease Interactions. There are 4 disease interactions with praziquantel.. Major Praziquantel (applies to ... Praziquantel drug interactions. There are 100 drug interactions with praziquantel.. Praziquantel alcohol/food interactions. ... Praziquantel (applies to praziquantel) epilepsy. Major Potential Hazard, Moderate plausibility. Applicable conditions: Seizures ...
Praziquantel) may treat, side effects, dosage, drug interactions, warnings, patient labeling, reviews, and related medications ... The half-life of praziquantel in serum is 0.8-1.5 hours.. Special Populations. The pharmacokinetics of praziquantel were ... Plasma praziquantel concentrations were undetectable in 7 out of 10 subjects. When a single 40 mg/kg dose of praziquantel was ... of praziquantel. Treatment with rifampin can then be restarted one day after completion of praziquantel treatment. ...
Flatworms and Tapeworms Praziquantel is known to be one of the safest most effective pond fish medications available for ... Praziquantel is known to be one of the safest most effective pond fish medications available for treating a vast array of ...
The reduction in the cytokine levels can be directly related to the influence of the drug praziquantel, modulating the cytokine ... The administration of praziquantel altered the cellular response as indicated by the downregulation of the Th1 and Th2 ... However, this contrasts with a previous study [31], which showed that one month after treatment with praziquantel there was an ... P. Martins-Leite, G. Gazzinelli, L. F. Alves-Oliveira et al., "Effect of chemotherapy with praziquantel on the production of ...
A significant amount of praziquantel, to treat more than 100 million children globally of the school age every year, has been ... Working with partners including the private sector, WHO continues to advocate for increased access to praziquantel and test ... today donated 2,512,000 tablets of praziquantel and 12,450 testing strips for Filariasis to the Ministry of Health in Liberia. ... receives 2,512,000 tablets of Praziquantel and 12,450 test strips for Filariasis 23 June 2022. ...
... emodepside and praziquantel: emodepside comes from a new class of active anthelmintic substances, while praziquantel, a ... Emodepside and Praziquantel. Since the 1960s, there have predominantly been three classes of broad-spectrum anthelmintic drugs ... Praziquantel is a broad-spectrum anthelmintic drug used in human and veterinary medicine; it ensures reliable control of ... The anthelminthic activity of praziquantel was discovered in 1972 in the laboratories of Bayer AG and was followed up at the ...
Comparative palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of Praziquantel (L-PZQ and Rac-PZQ) versus current PZQ tablet ... Comparative palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of Praziquantel (L-PZQ and Rac-PZQ) versus current PZQ tablet ... Comparative palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of Praziquantel (L-PZQ and Rac-PZQ) versus current PZQ tablet ... Comparative palatability of orally disintegrating tablets (ODTs) of Praziquantel (L-PZQ and Rac-PZQ) versus current PZQ tablet ...
Be the first to review "Biltree 600 (Praziquantel 600mg)" Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Required ...
Praziquantel. Note on Treatment in Pregnancy Praziquantel is pregnancy category B. There are no adequate and well-controlled ... The safety of praziquantel in children aged less than 4 years has not been established. Many children younger than 4 years old ... Praziquantel , adults, 75 mg/kg/day orally in three divided doses for 1 day; the dosage for children is the same. ... Praziquantel is excreted in low concentrations in human milk. According to WHO guidelines for mass prevention campaigns, the ...
Topical praziquantel as a new treatment for perioral dermatitis: results of a randomized vehicle-controlled pilot study.. M R ... AIM: To evaluate the safety, efficacy and tolerability of praziquantel 3% ointment as monotherapy.. METHODS: This was a single- ... RESULTS: PODSI was significantly lower in the praziquantel group than in the placebo (vehicle) group, both during treatment and ... Mean IGA score showed a statistically significant therapeutic advantage of praziquantel over placebo at week 4 (P , 0.001). The ...
Praziquantel is primarily used against parasites known as Cestodes (tapeworms). It is also effective against flukes. ... Praziquantel is felt to be safe for use in pregnant patients.. Praziquantel should not be used in puppies under age 4 weeks or ... Praziquantel is also effective against flukes.. A single treatment of praziquantel should clear a Dipylidium caninum infection ... Fasting is not necessary prior to praziquantel use and oral praziquantel can be given with or without food. ...
Praziquantel is rapidly and nearly completely absorbed after oral administration, but there is a significant first-pass effect ... The acute toxicity of praziquantel is relatively low. Storage/Stability: Unless otherwise instructed by the manufacturer, ... praziquantel tablets should be stored in tight containers at room temperature. Protect from light. ... Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections such as trematodes (lung, liver ...
Praziquantel-Shaoxing Minsheng Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. -Praziquantel ...
Get relief from common parasitic worms with PRAZIQUANTEL 600 MG ZENTOZIDE. Relieve symptoms quickly and easily with this ... PRAZIQUANTEL 600 MG ZENTOZIDE. December 10, 2022. December 10, 2022. Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide is a medication used to ... I should take praziquantel for how many days?. Praziquantel is typically administered as a single dosage. Your doctor can ... Uses of Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide. Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide is used to treat a variety of parasitic infections. ...
Praziquantel (Biltiricide Generic) Tablets 100s. Praziquantel (Biltiricide Generic) Tablets 100s. Buy 2 and get 5% Off [Nett= ... Praziquantel (Biltiricide Generic) Tablets 100s. Buy 2 and get 5% Off [Nett=1387.00]. Buy 4 and get 10% Off [Nett=1314.00]. Buy ...
Praziquantel Flukes, Praziquantel For Fish Flukes, praziquantel for flukes, Praziquantel For Gill Flukes, Praziquantel For ... lab grade praziquantel dosing, Praziquantel Dosage For Flukes, Praziquantel Fluke Solve, Praziquantel Fluke Treatment, ... Praziquantel for Flukes Praziquantel - (branded Droncit) (Now available for fish as PraziPro) What it is: Praziquantel… ... Fish, Freshwater Tropical, Koi & Pond Fish, Parasites, Treatments dose of praziquantel, ...
Praziquantel. (R)-Praziquantel is the active enantiomer of Praziquantel, is a partial the human 5-HT2B receptor agonist ... R)-Praziquantel D11 is the deuterium labeled (R)- ... R)-Praziquantel is the active enantiomer of Praziquantel, is a ... R)-Praziquantel D11 is the deuterium labeled (R)-Praziquantel. (R)-Praziquantel is the active enantiomer of Praziquantel, is a ... R)-Praziquantel-d11 1399880-38-6 GPCR/G Protein Neuroscience 5-HT Receptor (R)-Praziquantel D11 (R) Praziquantel d11 (R) ...
Casa central : Luis A. de Herrera 1601 Esq. Feliciano Rodríguez, ...
China Praziquantel CAS 55268-74-1 - manufacturer, supplier. Quality assured with certificates and reports. Sample available. ... Praziquantel Usage. Broad-spectrum antiparasitic drugs. For the treatment and prevention of schistosomiasis, cysticercosis, ...
MoxiVet Plus contains Moxidectin and Praziquantel which kills and controls internal and external parasites. Order one of the ... Contains Moxidectin and Praziquantel which together, form the most effective anti-parasitic product available ...
7.10 Praziquantel. Chloroquine has been reported to reduce the bioavailability of praziquantel. Interaction of praziquantel ... 7.10 Praziquantel 7.11 Antacids and kaolin 7.12 Ampicillin 8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS 8.1 Pregnancy 8.2 Lactation 8.4 ...
Effect of praziquantel on the tegument and digestive epithelium ultrastructure of Brachylaima sp. metacercariae parasitizing ... Praziquantel efficacy against Brachylaima sp. metacercariae (Trematoda:Brachylaimidae) parasitizing the edible landsnail Cornu ...
... off Praziquantel at the pharmacy. Coupons, discounts, and promos updated 2023. ... Get Praziquantel Coupon Card by print, email or text and save up to 75% ... Praziquantel Coupon & Discounts. Save on Praziquantel at your pharmacy with the free discount below.. Praziquantel is a ... Claim your free Praziquantel discount. Click the "Get free coupon" button to receive your free Praziquantel discount ...
Studies on the resistance of Schistosoma to praziquantel, an anti-schistosomal drug / by Yousheng Liang. by Liang, Yousheng , ...
Buy Prazinec Praziquantel 600 mg tablets SALE 20% OFF , Side Effects, Over The Counter, tapeworm, Dosage For Humans, Cats, Dogs ...
... eprinomectin and praziquantel and is labeled by Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc. ... PRAZIQUANTEL. Labeler Name: Boehringer Ingelheim Animal Health USA Inc.. Product Type: PRESCRIPTION ANIMAL DRUG. Marketing ... Non Proprietary Name: EPRINOMECTIN AND PRAZIQUANTEL. Ingredient(s) List: *EPRINOMECTIN;. * ...
Each tablet contains 23mg of the active ingredient praziquantel. No prescription required. ...
  • Schistosomiasis caused by trematodes of the genus Schistosoma: As of 2005, praziquantel is the primary treatment for human schistosomiasis, for which it is usually effective in a single dose. (wikipedia.org)
  • Praziquantel is effective in reducing schistosomiasis during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Praziquantel can exacerbate central nervous system pathology due to schistosomiasis. (drugs.com)
  • In continued efforts to ensure the government of Liberia is prepared to respond to vector borne infections such as Schistosomiasis and lymphatic filariasis, the World Health Organization (WHO) in Liberia with support from the WHO African Regional Office and HQ, today donated 2,512,000 tablets of praziquantel and 12,450 testing strips for Filariasis to the Ministry of Health in Liberia. (who.int)
  • Praziquantel is the only drug recommended by the World Health Organization to treat both urogenital and intestinal schistosomiasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • This systematic review was conducted to identify gaps and recent progress on the efficacy of different regimens of praziquantel in treating schistosomiasis among children in sub-Saharan Africa where Schistosoma mansoni and S. haematobium are endemic. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The review indicates that further investigations are necessary to conclusively determine efficacy of praziquantel on coinfection of S. haematobium and S. mansoni to formulate concrete guidelines on the use of repeated doses at 40 or 60 mg/kg for treating schistosomiasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • In sub-Saharan Africa, studies have shown that praziquantel drastically reduces morbidity and transmission of schistosomiasis. (biomedcentral.com)
  • For quite a long time, praziquantel (PZQ) was widely used for the treatment of schistosomiasis and has shown benefit in treating liver fibrosis. (nih.gov)
  • To treat schistosomiasis, the recommended dose of praziquantel is 20 milligrams per kilogram of body weight, taken 3 times a day, for one day. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Praziquantel tablets are marked with 3 notches so that they can easily be split. (medlineplus.gov)
  • tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to praziquantel, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in praziquantel tablets. (medlineplus.gov)
  • BILTRICIDE tablets contain 600 mg of praziquantel. (rxlist.com)
  • Plain praziquantel is available in non-prescription tablets that may be purchased at pet supply stores. (vin.com)
  • Praziquantel is available in non-prescription tablets that may be purchased at pet supply stores. (vin.com)
  • Unless otherwise instructed by the manufacturer, praziquantel tablets should be stored in tight containers at room temperature. (poultrydvm.com)
  • Praziquantel is in the anthelmintic class of medications. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biltricide (praziquantel) is an anthelmintic, or anti-worm, medication used to treat infections caused by Schistosoma worms, which enter the body through skin that has come into contact with contaminated water. (rxlist.com)
  • 10 Marketed under the tradename Profender®, this preparation is a unique combination of two active substances, emodepside and praziquantel: emodepside comes from a new class of active anthelmintic substances, while praziquantel, a convenient spot-on formulation for cats, controls cestodes. (vin.com)
  • Praziquantel is an anthelmintic medication used to treat a number of parasitic worm infections such as trematodes (lung, liver, intestinal flukes) and tapeworms. (poultrydvm.com)
  • The important anthelmintic is supported by a broad, cross species polypharmacology with (R)-Praziquantel modulating signaling events in both host and parasite. (targetmol.com)
  • The anthelmintic praziquantel is a human serotoninergic G-protein-coupled receptor ligand. (targetmol.com)
  • Since praziquantel was first introduced as a broadspectrum anthelmintic in 1975, innumerable articles describing its successful use in the treatment of the majority of human-infecting trematodes and cestodes have been published. (qxmd.com)
  • Praziquantel is used to treat schistosoma (infection with a type of worm that lives in the bloodstream) and liver fluke (infection with a type of worm that lives in or near the liver). (medlineplus.gov)
  • BILTRICIDE (praziquantel) is indicated for the treatment of infections due to: all species of schistosoma (for example, Schistosoma mekongi, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma hematobium ), and infections due to the liver flukes, Clonorchis sinensis/Opisthorchis viverrini (approval of this indication was based on studies in which the two species were not differentiated). (rxlist.com)
  • Studies on the resistance of Schistosoma to praziquantel, an anti-schistosomal drug / by Yousheng Liang. (who.int)
  • There are also emerging problems with praziquantel treatment, which include the appearance of drug resistance in the treatment of Schistosoma mansoni and possibly Schistosoma japonicum, along with allergic or hypersensitivity reactions against praziquantel treatment. (qxmd.com)
  • This study aimed to evaluate the role of praziquantel (PZQ) and artemether (ART) as anti-angiogenic and anti-lymphangiogenic drugs in Schistosoma mansoni induced experimental hepatic model through immunohistochemical and serological studies, this can be used as a potential novel prophylactic approach in hepatic malignancy prevention and possible management. (degruyter.com)
  • 200 mcg ivermectin /kg bw (=91 mcg ivermectin per lb), and 1,5 mg/kg praziquantel /kg bw (0.68 mg praziquantel per lb) corresponding to 1.07g of gel per 100kg bodyweight in a single administration. (parasitipedia.net)
  • Read the articles on ivermectin safety and/or praziquantel safety in this site. (parasitipedia.net)
  • You could worm orally with Equimax (ivermectin/praziquantel). (backyardchickens.com)
  • Praziquantel is primarily used against parasites known as cestodes (tapeworms). (vin.com)
  • The common tapeworm of dogs and cats, Dipylidium caninum , is the usual target of this medication although praziquantel is also effective against less common types of tapeworms such as Taenia species and the more dangerous Mesocestoides species and Echinococcus species. (vin.com)
  • Praziquantel is a medication primarily prescribed for pets who have tapeworms. (helprx.info)
  • The praziquantel drug causes tapeworms to disintegrate and be absorbed into the pet's body. (helprx.info)
  • There are so far no reports on resistance of horse tapeworms to praziquantel . (parasitipedia.net)
  • Seth O'Neal] Well, the risk of presumptive treatment for adult intestinal tapeworms comes from the fact that one of the drugs, praziquantel, can potentially damage any larvae that might be in the brain. (cdc.gov)
  • It is important to take the correct dosage of Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide. (simpldos.com)
  • Praziquantel is typically administered as a single dosage. (simpldos.com)
  • Ask your doctor what you should do if you miss a dose of praziquantel. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Praziquantel 600 mg is usually taken as a single dose. (simpldos.com)
  • Praziquantel administrated at 60 mg/kg was slightly more efficacious than the 40 mg/kg standard dose. (biomedcentral.com)
  • However, failure/resistant cases have been reported after the use of a single standard dose of praziquantel at 40 mg/kg body weight. (biomedcentral.com)
  • The dose of praziquantel is based on body weight and the parasite that is being treated. (medbroadcast.com)
  • To treat clonorchiasis and opisthorchiasis, the recommended dose of praziquantel is 25 milligrams per kilogram of body weight , taken 3 times a day, for one day. (medbroadcast.com)
  • The most common praziquantel dose is 4.54 mg per pound and repeat in ten days. (backyardchickens.com)
  • 3 women were treated with praziquantel, single dose, 40 mg/kg body weight. (who.int)
  • Trois autres femmes ont été traitées au praziquantel en dose unique de 40 mg/kg de poids corporel. (who.int)
  • Praziquantel (PZQ), sold under the brandname Biltricide among others, is a medication used to treat a number of types of parasitic worm infections in mammals, birds, amphibians, reptiles, and fish. (wikipedia.org)
  • Biltricide (praziquantel). (drugs.com)
  • Our Biltricide (praziquantel) Side Effects Drug Center provides a comprehensive view of available drug information on the potential side effects when taking this medication. (rxlist.com)
  • BILTRICIDE® (praziquantel) is a trematodicide provided in tablet form for the oral treatment of schistosome infections and infections due to liver fluke. (rxlist.com)
  • It is combined with eprinomectin and praziquantel, nematodicidal and cestodicidal compounds, in a novel topical endectoparasiticide formulation for cats. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Praziquantel is also effective against flukes. (vin.com)
  • Take praziquantel exactly as directed. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Your doctor will probably tell you not to take praziquantel if you are taking this medication. (medlineplus.gov)
  • do not breastfeed on the day you take praziquantel and for 72 hours (3 days) after you take praziquantel. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Do not drive a car or operate machinery on the day you take praziquantel and the day after you take praziquantel. (medlineplus.gov)
  • How do you take praziquantel 600 mg? (simpldos.com)
  • What happens when you take praziquantel? (simpldos.com)
  • I should take praziquantel for how many days? (simpldos.com)
  • Praziquantel comes as a tablet to take by mouth with water and a meal. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Each white, film-coated, oblong tablet with 3 scores on each side, engraved "BAYER" on one side and "LG" on the other, contains 600 mg of praziquantel. (medbroadcast.com)
  • Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide is a medication used to treat various parasitic infections. (simpldos.com)
  • If you need this medication for your pet, you can reduce the cost with praziquantel coupons. (helprx.info)
  • To evaluate the safety, efficacy and tolerability of praziquantel 3% ointment as monotherapy. (qxmd.com)
  • Praziquantel efficacy against Brachylaima sp. (ub.edu)
  • The search included studies published from 2008 to 2017 (August) with emphasis on the efficacy of praziquantel on S. haematobium and S. mansoni infections among preschool and school children. (biomedcentral.com)
  • We recommend the use of the egg reduction rate (ERR) formula recommended by the WHO for assessing praziquantel efficacy in order for the results to be comparable for different regions. (biomedcentral.com)
  • Special Issue - NexGard ® Combo (esafoxolaner, eprinomectin, praziquantel): A new endectocide spot-on formulation for cats. (parasite-journal.org)
  • Another trial found that treatment with praziquantel did not increase the rates of low birthweight, fetal death, or congenital anomalies. (wikipedia.org)
  • Your doctor will probably tell you to stop taking rifampin four weeks before beginning treatment with praziquantel, and will tell you to start taking rifampin again one day after finishing treatment with praziquantel. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Bada JL, Trevino B, Cabezos J "Convulsive seizures after treatment with praziquantel. (drugs.com)
  • Patients suffering from cardiac irregularities such as arrhythmias should be monitored during treatment with praziquantel. (drugs.com)
  • Recently, a combination of emodepside and praziquantel (Profender®, Bayer Health Care group, Leverkusen, Germany) for topical application may be a promising alternative treatment option for the veterinarian. (vin.com)
  • In mass prevention campaigns for which the World Health Organization (WHO) has determined that the benefit of treatment outweighs the risk, WHO encourages the use of praziquantel in any stage of pregnancy. (cdc.gov)
  • For individual patients in clinical settings, praziquantel should be used in breast-feeding women only when the risk to the infant is outweighed by the risk of disease progress in the mother in the absence of treatment. (cdc.gov)
  • A single treatment of praziquantel should clear a Dipylidium caninum infection although a second treatment is sometimes recommended if it is felt that immediate re-infection is likely. (vin.com)
  • Topical praziquantel as a new treatment for perioral dermatitis: results of a randomized vehicle-controlled pilot study. (qxmd.com)
  • PODSI was significantly lower in the praziquantel group than in the placebo (vehicle) group, both during treatment and period. (qxmd.com)
  • Praziquantel treatment in trematode and cestode infections: an update. (qxmd.com)
  • Status and emerging issues in the use of praziquantel for treatment of human trematode and cestode infections are briefly reviewed. (qxmd.com)
  • Praziquantel is also sometimes used to treat certain other worm infestations, including tapeworm (a type of worm that may attach to the wall of the intestine or may move to different parts of the body). (medlineplus.gov)
  • Praziquantel is also available in combination with other single use oral dewormers as well as with more comprehensive monthly worm protection products. (vin.com)
  • Praziquantel is known to be one of the safest most effective pond fish medications available for treating a vast array of external and internal parasites. (macarthurwatergardens.com)
  • R)-Praziquantel modulation of serotoninergic signaling occurs over a concentration range sufficient to regulate vascular tone of the mesenteric blood vessels where the adult parasites reside within their host. (targetmol.com)
  • There are 4 disease interactions with praziquantel. (drugs.com)
  • There are 100 drug interactions with praziquantel. (drugs.com)
  • Working with partners including the private sector, WHO continues to advocate for increased access to praziquantel and test kits to curb such infections. (who.int)
  • Praziquantel is used to treat tapeworm, fluke, and other parasitic infections. (simpldos.com)
  • Following these instructions, Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide can be used safely and effectively to treat parasitic infections. (simpldos.com)
  • However, Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica infections are refractory to praziquantel, for which triclabendazole, an alternative drug, is necessary. (qxmd.com)
  • In addition, larval cestode infections, particularly hydatid disease and sparganosis, are not successfully treated by praziquantel. (qxmd.com)
  • Praziquantel is in a class of medications called anthelmintics. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The drug cimetidine heightens praziquantel bioavailability. (wikipedia.org)
  • The antibiotic rifampicin decreases plasma concentrations of praziquantel. (wikipedia.org)
  • Caution should be exercised when administering praziquantel at the usual recommended doses in patients with moderate to severe liver impairment (Child Pugh class B and C). Reduced metabolism of praziquantel may lead to considerably higher and longer lasting plasma concentrations of the unmetabolized drug. (drugs.com)
  • Praziquantel is excreted in low concentrations in human milk. (cdc.gov)
  • Curcumin: The metabolism of Praziquantel can be decreased when combined with Curcumin. (poultrydvm.com)
  • As of late 2007, praziquantel is also available in a topical combination with the anti-parasite drug emodepside. (vin.com)
  • It has been reported that approximately one cat in ten will experience weakness, salivation, or nausea after a tapeworm injection with praziquantel, but such reactions have been seen far less frequently. (vin.com)
  • Praziquantel is also effective against Echinococcus multilocularis. (wikipedia.org)
  • In this essay, I will discuss the uses, side effects, and precautions of Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide . (simpldos.com)
  • It is important to take precautions when taking Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide. (simpldos.com)
  • Degradation rate of praziquantel and fenbendazole in rainbow trout following oral administration. (nel.edu)
  • The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the rate of degradation and elimination of praziquantel and fenbendazole ant. (nel.edu)
  • Praziquantel belongs to the class of medications called anthelminthics . (medbroadcast.com)
  • Sensitivity reactions: Urticaria, rash, pruritus and eosinophilia in white blood cell counts Other locations/body as a whole: Lower back pain, myalgia, arthralgia, fever, sweating, various cardiac arrhythmias, and hypotension The WHO states praziquantel is safe during pregnancy. (wikipedia.org)
  • The reduction in the cytokine levels can be directly related to the influence of the drug praziquantel, modulating the cytokine response by elimination of adult worms, decline in parasitic load, and reduction of morbidity. (hindawi.com)
  • Use of the Combination Emodepside/Praziquantel in Reptiles: A New Drug for Endoparasite Management? (vin.com)
  • Further, there are concerns about the extent to which populations are either under treated or over treated with donated praziquantel where data are not adequate or appropriately used to determine focal endemic areas for mass drug administration (MDA) targeting. (who.int)
  • Oral praziquantel is available for human use in the United States. (cdc.gov)
  • The oral form of praziquantel tastes bitter and approximately 5% of patients taking it experience nausea. (vin.com)
  • Fasting is not necessary prior to praziquantel use and oral praziquantel can be given with or without food. (vin.com)
  • Praziquantel is rapidly and nearly completely absorbed after oral administration, but there is a significant first-pass effect after oral administration. (poultrydvm.com)
  • Praziquantel may cause side effects. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Like all medications, Praziquantel 600 mg of Zentozide can cause side effects. (simpldos.com)
  • Certain medications may increase the risk of side effects when taken with Praziquantel 600 mg Zentozide. (simpldos.com)
  • Since parasite destruction within the eye can cause irreparable lesions, ocular cysticercosis should not be treated with praziquantel. (drugs.com)
  • Integumental lesions are likely the result of the interaction of praziquantel with cutaneous phospholipids and proteins. (vin.com)
  • Praziquantel ointment 3% effectively improves POD symptoms and QOL. (qxmd.com)
  • There are some studies that show Safeguard and Valbazen will treat some species of tapes, but the most effective way to treat them is with praziquantel. (backyardchickens.com)
  • praziquantel is also often used in fixed combination with pyrantel embonate against the roundworms (ascarids): Toxocara cati and Toxascaris leonina. (wikipedia.org)
  • The anthelminthic activity of praziquantel was discovered in 1972 in the laboratories of Bayer AG and was followed up at the German pharmaceutical manufacturer E. Merck. (vin.com)
  • The drug's mode of action is not exactly known at present, but experimental evidence indicates praziquantel increases the permeability of the membranes of schistosome cells towards calcium ions. (wikipedia.org)
  • To cope with and overcome these problems, combined use of drugs, i.e., praziquantel and other newly introduced compounds such as triclabendazole, artemisinins, and tribendimidine, is being tried. (qxmd.com)
  • If you become pregnant while taking praziquantel, call your doctor. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Praziquantel is pregnancy category B. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. (cdc.gov)
  • Praziquantel is felt to be safe for use in pregnant patients. (vin.com)