Infant, Premature: A human infant born before 37 weeks of GESTATION.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Family Practice: A medical specialty concerned with the provision of continuing, comprehensive primary health care for the entire family.Infant Care: Care of infants in the home or institution.Infant, Premature, DiseasesInfant Food: Food processed and manufactured for the nutritional health of children in their first year of life.Infant Formula: Liquid formulations for the nutrition of infants that can substitute for BREAST MILK.Infant Behavior: Any observable response or action of a neonate or infant up through the age of 23 months.Physician's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice related to diagnosis and treatment as especially influenced by cost of the service requested and provided.Practice Guidelines as Topic: Directions or principles presenting current or future rules of policy for assisting health care practitioners in patient care decisions regarding diagnosis, therapy, or related clinical circumstances. The guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by the convening of expert panels. The guidelines form a basis for the evaluation of all aspects of health care and delivery.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Sudden Infant Death: The abrupt and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant under one year of age, remaining unexplained after a thorough case investigation, including performance of a complete autopsy, examination of the death scene, and review of the clinical history. (Pediatr Pathol 1991 Sep-Oct;11(5):677-84)Infant, Newborn, Diseases: Diseases of newborn infants present at birth (congenital) or developing within the first month of birth. It does not include hereditary diseases not manifesting at birth or within the first 30 days of life nor does it include inborn errors of metabolism. Both HEREDITARY DISEASES and METABOLISM, INBORN ERRORS are available as general concepts.Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena: Nutritional physiology of children from birth to 2 years of age.General Practice: Patient-based medical care provided across age and gender or specialty boundaries.Professional Practice: The use of one's knowledge in a particular profession. It includes, in the case of the field of biomedicine, professional activities related to health care and the actual performance of the duties related to the provision of health care.Infant, Very Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1500 grams (3.3 lbs), regardless of gestational age.Practice Management, Medical: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a physician's practice.Infant, Low Birth Weight: An infant having a birth weight of 2500 gm. (5.5 lb.) or less but INFANT, VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT is available for infants having a birth weight of 1500 grams (3.3 lb.) or less.Private Practice: Practice of a health profession by an individual, offering services on a person-to-person basis, as opposed to group or partnership practice.Breast Feeding: The nursing of an infant at the breast.Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice: Knowledge, attitudes, and associated behaviors which pertain to health-related topics such as PATHOLOGIC PROCESSES or diseases, their prevention, and treatment. This term refers to non-health workers and health workers (HEALTH PERSONNEL).Infant Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of infants.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Practice (Psychology): Performance of an act one or more times, with a view to its fixation or improvement; any performance of an act or behavior that leads to learning.Infant, Extremely Low Birth Weight: An infant whose weight at birth is less than 1000 grams (2.2 lbs), regardless of GESTATIONAL AGE.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Milk, HumanGestational Age: The age of the conceptus, beginning from the time of FERTILIZATION. In clinical obstetrics, the gestational age is often estimated as the time from the last day of the last MENSTRUATION which is about 2 weeks before OVULATION and fertilization.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Bottle Feeding: Use of nursing bottles for feeding. Applies to humans and animals.Evidence-Based Practice: A way of providing health care that is guided by a thoughtful integration of the best available scientific knowledge with clinical expertise. This approach allows the practitioner to critically assess research data, clinical guidelines, and other information resources in order to correctly identify the clinical problem, apply the most high-quality intervention, and re-evaluate the outcome for future improvement.Attitude of Health Personnel: Attitudes of personnel toward their patients, other professionals, toward the medical care system, etc.United StatesInfant, Extremely Premature: A human infant born before 28 weeks of GESTATION.Professional Practice Location: Geographic area in which a professional person practices; includes primarily physicians and dentists.Infant, Small for Gestational Age: An infant having a birth weight lower than expected for its gestational age.EnglandIntensive Care Units, Neonatal: Hospital units providing continuing surveillance and care to acutely ill newborn infants.Primary Health Care: Care which provides integrated, accessible health care services by clinicians who are accountable for addressing a large majority of personal health care needs, developing a sustained partnership with patients, and practicing in the context of family and community. (JAMA 1995;273(3):192)Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Birth Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual at BIRTH. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Partnership Practice: A voluntary contract between two or more doctors who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Great BritainPractice Management: Business management of medical, dental and veterinary practices that may include capital financing, utilization management, and arrangement of capitation agreements with other parties.Crying: To utter an inarticulate, characteristic sound in order to communicate or express a feeling, or desire for attention.Guideline Adherence: Conformity in fulfilling or following official, recognized, or institutional requirements, guidelines, recommendations, protocols, pathways, or other standards.Prospective Studies: Observation of a population for a sufficient number of persons over a sufficient number of years to generate incidence or mortality rates subsequent to the selection of the study group.Evidence-Based Medicine: An approach of practicing medicine with the goal to improve and evaluate patient care. It requires the judicious integration of best research evidence with the patient's values to make decisions about medical care. This method is to help physicians make proper diagnosis, devise best testing plan, choose best treatment and methods of disease prevention, as well as develop guidelines for large groups of patients with the same disease. (from JAMA 296 (9), 2006)Clinical Competence: The capability to perform acceptably those duties directly related to patient care.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Infant Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in infants ages 1 month to 24 months.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Cross-Sectional Studies: Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.Retrospective Studies: Studies used to test etiologic hypotheses in which inferences about an exposure to putative causal factors are derived from data relating to characteristics of persons under study or to events or experiences in their past. The essential feature is that some of the persons under study have the disease or outcome of interest and their characteristics are compared with those of unaffected persons.Physicians, Family: Those physicians who have completed the education requirements specified by the American Academy of Family Physicians.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical: The transmission of infectious disease or pathogens from one generation to another. It includes transmission in utero or intrapartum by exposure to blood and secretions, and postpartum exposure via breastfeeding.Referral and Consultation: The practice of sending a patient to another program or practitioner for services or advice which the referring source is not prepared to provide.Intensive Care, Neonatal: Continuous care and monitoring of newborn infants with life-threatening conditions, in any setting.Health Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: A chronic lung disease developed after OXYGEN INHALATION THERAPY or mechanical ventilation (VENTILATION, MECHANICAL) usually occurring in certain premature infants (INFANT, PREMATURE) or newborn infants with respiratory distress syndrome (RESPIRATORY DISTRESS SYNDROME, NEWBORN). Histologically, it is characterized by the unusual abnormalities of the bronchioles, such as METAPLASIA, decrease in alveolar number, and formation of CYSTS.Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn: A condition of the newborn marked by DYSPNEA with CYANOSIS, heralded by such prodromal signs as dilatation of the alae nasi, expiratory grunt, and retraction of the suprasternal notch or costal margins, mostly frequently occurring in premature infants, children of diabetic mothers, and infants delivered by cesarean section, and sometimes with no apparent predisposing cause.Dentist's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in dentistry related to diagnosis and treatment.Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.General Practice, Dental: Nonspecialized dental practice which is concerned with providing primary and continuing dental care.Developmental Disabilities: Disorders in which there is a delay in development based on that expected for a given age level or stage of development. These impairments or disabilities originate before age 18, may be expected to continue indefinitely, and constitute a substantial impairment. Biological and nonbiological factors are involved in these disorders. (From American Psychiatric Glossary, 6th ed)Follow-Up Studies: Studies in which individuals or populations are followed to assess the outcome of exposures, procedures, or effects of a characteristic, e.g., occurrence of disease.Australia: The smallest continent and an independent country, comprising six states and two territories. Its capital is Canberra.Physicians: Individuals licensed to practice medicine.Cohort Studies: Studies in which subsets of a defined population are identified. These groups may or may not be exposed to factors hypothesized to influence the probability of the occurrence of a particular disease or other outcome. Cohorts are defined populations which, as a whole, are followed in an attempt to determine distinguishing subgroup characteristics.Mother-Child Relations: Interaction between a mother and child.Education, Medical, Continuing: Educational programs designed to inform physicians of recent advances in their field.Practice Management, Dental: The organization and operation of the business aspects of a dental practice.Infant Equipment: Equipment and furniture used by infants and babies in the home, car, and play area.Quality Assurance, Health Care: Activities and programs intended to assure or improve the quality of care in either a defined medical setting or a program. The concept includes the assessment or evaluation of the quality of care; identification of problems or shortcomings in the delivery of care; designing activities to overcome these deficiencies; and follow-up monitoring to ensure effectiveness of corrective steps.Physician-Patient Relations: The interactions between physician and patient.Maternal Behavior: The behavior patterns associated with or characteristic of a mother.Pediatrics: A medical specialty concerned with maintaining health and providing medical care to children from birth to adolescence.Nurse's Practice Patterns: Patterns of practice in nursing related to provision of services including diagnosis and treatment.Incubators, Infant: Electrically powered devices that are intended to assist in the maintenance of the thermal balance of infants, principally by controlling the air temperature and humidity in an enclosure. (from UMDNS, 1999)Diarrhea, Infantile: DIARRHEA occurring in infants from newborn to 24-months old.Quality of Health Care: The levels of excellence which characterize the health service or health care provided based on accepted standards of quality.Enterocolitis, Necrotizing: ENTEROCOLITIS with extensive ulceration (ULCER) and NECROSIS. It is observed primarily in LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT.Netherlands: Country located in EUROPE. It is bordered by the NORTH SEA, BELGIUM, and GERMANY. Constituent areas are Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, formerly included in the NETHERLANDS ANTILLES.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Neonatal Screening: The identification of selected parameters in newborn infants by various tests, examinations, or other procedures. Screening may be performed by clinical or laboratory measures. A screening test is designed to sort out healthy neonates (INFANT, NEWBORN) from those not well, but the screening test is not intended as a diagnostic device, rather instead as epidemiologic.Sucking Behavior: Any suction exerted by the mouth; response of the mammalian infant to draw milk from the breast. Includes sucking on inanimate objects. Not to be used for thumb sucking, which is indexed under fingersucking.Pregnancy Complications, Infectious: The co-occurrence of pregnancy and an INFECTION. The infection may precede or follow FERTILIZATION.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Neonatology: A subspecialty of Pediatrics concerned with the newborn infant.Mass Screening: Organized periodic procedures performed on large groups of people for the purpose of detecting disease.Drug Prescriptions: Directions written for the obtaining and use of DRUGS.Canada: The largest country in North America, comprising 10 provinces and three territories. Its capital is Ottawa.Apnea: A transient absence of spontaneous respiration.Term Birth: CHILDBIRTH at the end of a normal duration of PREGNANCY, between 37 to 40 weeks of gestation or about 280 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period.Retinopathy of Prematurity: A bilateral retinopathy occurring in premature infants treated with excessively high concentrations of oxygen, characterized by vascular dilatation, proliferation, and tortuosity, edema, and retinal detachment, with ultimate conversion of the retina into a fibrous mass that can be seen as a dense retrolental membrane. Usually growth of the eye is arrested and may result in microophthalmia, and blindness may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Risk Assessment: The qualitative or quantitative estimation of the likelihood of adverse effects that may result from exposure to specified health hazards or from the absence of beneficial influences. (Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 1988)Program Evaluation: Studies designed to assess the efficacy of programs. They may include the evaluation of cost-effectiveness, the extent to which objectives are met, or impact.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Qualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)ScotlandNurse's Role: The expected function of a member of the nursing profession.Rural Health Services: Health services, public or private, in rural areas. The services include the promotion of health and the delivery of health care.Growth: Gradual increase in the number, the size, and the complexity of cells of an individual. Growth generally results in increase in ORGAN WEIGHT; BODY WEIGHT; and BODY HEIGHT.Reproducibility of Results: The statistical reproducibility of measurements (often in a clinical context), including the testing of instrumentation or techniques to obtain reproducible results. The concept includes reproducibility of physiological measurements, which may be used to develop rules to assess probability or prognosis, or response to a stimulus; reproducibility of occurrence of a condition; and reproducibility of experimental results.Decision Making: The process of making a selective intellectual judgment when presented with several complex alternatives consisting of several variables, and usually defining a course of action or an idea.Perinatal Care: The care of women and a fetus or newborn given before, during, and after delivery from the 28th week of gestation through the 7th day after delivery.Pilot Projects: Small-scale tests of methods and procedures to be used on a larger scale if the pilot study demonstrates that these methods and procedures can work.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Interprofessional Relations: The reciprocal interaction of two or more professional individuals.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Ontario: A province of Canada lying between the provinces of Manitoba and Quebec. Its capital is Toronto. It takes its name from Lake Ontario which is said to represent the Iroquois oniatariio, beautiful lake. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p892 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p391)LondonProne Position: The posture of an individual lying face down.Physician's Role: The expected function of a member of the medical profession.Patient Care Team: Care of patients by a multidisciplinary team usually organized under the leadership of a physician; each member of the team has specific responsibilities and the whole team contributes to the care of the patient.Public Health Practice: The activities and endeavors of the public health services in a community on any level.State Medicine: A system of medical care regulated, controlled and financed by the government, in which the government assumes responsibility for the health needs of the population.Patient Satisfaction: The degree to which the individual regards the health care service or product or the manner in which it is delivered by the provider as useful, effective, or beneficial.Outcome Assessment (Health Care): Research aimed at assessing the quality and effectiveness of health care as measured by the attainment of a specified end result or outcome. Measures include parameters such as improved health, lowered morbidity or mortality, and improvement of abnormal states (such as elevated blood pressure).Guidelines as Topic: A systematic statement of policy rules or principles. Guidelines may be developed by government agencies at any level, institutions, professional societies, governing boards, or by convening expert panels. The text may be cursive or in outline form but is generally a comprehensive guide to problems and approaches in any field of activity. For guidelines in the field of health care and clinical medicine, PRACTICE GUIDELINES AS TOPIC is available.Pregnancy Complications: Conditions or pathological processes associated with pregnancy. They can occur during or after pregnancy, and range from minor discomforts to serious diseases that require medical interventions. They include diseases in pregnant females, and pregnancies in females with diseases.Postnatal Care: The care provided to women and their NEWBORNS for the first few months following CHILDBIRTH.Delivery, Obstetric: Delivery of the FETUS and PLACENTA under the care of an obstetrician or a health worker. Obstetric deliveries may involve physical, psychological, medical, or surgical interventions.Incidence: The number of new cases of a given disease during a given period in a specified population. It also is used for the rate at which new events occur in a defined population. It is differentiated from PREVALENCE, which refers to all cases, new or old, in the population at a given time.Communication: The exchange or transmission of ideas, attitudes, or beliefs between individuals or groups.Diffusion of Innovation: The broad dissemination of new ideas, procedures, techniques, materials, and devices and the degree to which these are accepted and used.Beds: Equipment on which one may lie and sleep, especially as used to care for the hospital patient.Societies, Medical: Societies whose membership is limited to physicians.Organizational Innovation: Introduction of changes which are new to the organization and are created by management.General Practitioners: Physicians whose practice is not restricted to a specific field of MEDICINE.Models, Organizational: Theoretical representations and constructs that describe or explain the structure and hierarchy of relationships and interactions within or between formal organizational entities or informal social groups.Child Psychology: The study of normal and abnormal behavior of children.Apgar Score: A method, developed by Dr. Virginia Apgar, to evaluate a newborn's adjustment to extrauterine life. Five items - heart rate, respiratory effort, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color - are evaluated 60 seconds after birth and again five minutes later on a scale from 0-2, 0 being the lowest, 2 being normal. The five numbers are added for the Apgar score. A score of 0-3 represents severe distress, 4-7 indicates moderate distress, and a score of 7-10 predicts an absence of difficulty in adjusting to extrauterine life.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.Cooperative Behavior: The interaction of two or more persons or organizations directed toward a common goal which is mutually beneficial. An act or instance of working or acting together for a common purpose or benefit, i.e., joint action. (From Random House Dictionary Unabridged, 2d ed)Patient Acceptance of Health Care: The seeking and acceptance by patients of health service.Patient Education as Topic: The teaching or training of patients concerning their own health needs.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Neonatal Nursing: The nursing specialty that deals with the care of newborn infants during the first four weeks after birth.Medical Records: Recording of pertinent information concerning patient's illness or illnesses.Leukomalacia, Periventricular: Degeneration of white matter adjacent to the CEREBRAL VENTRICLES following cerebral hypoxia or BRAIN ISCHEMIA in neonates. The condition primarily affects white matter in the perfusion zone between superficial and deep branches of the MIDDLE CEREBRAL ARTERY. Clinical manifestations include VISION DISORDERS; CEREBRAL PALSY; PARAPLEGIA; SEIZURES; and cognitive disorders. (From Adams et al., Principles of Neurology, 6th ed, p1021; Joynt, Clinical Neurology, 1997, Ch4, pp30-1)Group Practice, Prepaid: An organized group of three or more full-time physicians rendering services for a fixed prepayment.Curriculum: A course of study offered by an educational institution.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Evidence-Based Nursing: A way of providing nursing care that is guided by the integration of the best available scientific knowledge with nursing expertise. This approach requires nurses to critically assess relevant scientific data or research evidence, and to implement high-quality interventions for their nursing practice.Focus Groups: A method of data collection and a QUALITATIVE RESEARCH tool in which a small group of individuals are brought together and allowed to interact in a discussion of their opinions about topics, issues, or questions.Premature Birth: CHILDBIRTH before 37 weeks of PREGNANCY (259 days from the first day of the mother's last menstrual period, or 245 days after FERTILIZATION).Maternal Age: The age of the mother in PREGNANCY.Professional Competence: The capability to perform the duties of one's profession generally, or to perform a particular professional task, with skill of an acceptable quality.Jaundice, Neonatal: Yellow discoloration of the SKIN; MUCOUS MEMBRANE; and SCLERA in the NEWBORN. It is a sign of NEONATAL HYPERBILIRUBINEMIA. Most cases are transient self-limiting (PHYSIOLOGICAL NEONATAL JAUNDICE) occurring in the first week of life, but some can be a sign of pathological disorders, particularly LIVER DISEASES.Research Design: A plan for collecting and utilizing data so that desired information can be obtained with sufficient precision or so that an hypothesis can be tested properly.Specialization: An occupation limited in scope to a subsection of a broader field.Obstetrics: A medical-surgical specialty concerned with management and care of women during pregnancy, parturition, and the puerperium.Internship and Residency: Programs of training in medicine and medical specialties offered by hospitals for graduates of medicine to meet the requirements established by accrediting authorities.Health Personnel: Men and women working in the provision of health services, whether as individual practitioners or employees of health institutions and programs, whether or not professionally trained, and whether or not subject to public regulation. (From A Discursive Dictionary of Health Care, 1976)Patient-Centered Care: Design of patient care wherein institutional resources and personnel are organized around patients rather than around specialized departments. (From Hospitals 1993 Feb 5;67(3):14)Quality Improvement: The attainment or process of attaining a new level of performance or quality.Benchmarking: Method of measuring performance against established standards of best practice.Counseling: The giving of advice and assistance to individuals with educational or personal problems.Pregnancy Outcome: Results of conception and ensuing pregnancy, including LIVE BIRTH; STILLBIRTH; SPONTANEOUS ABORTION; INDUCED ABORTION. The outcome may follow natural or artificial insemination or any of the various ASSISTED REPRODUCTIVE TECHNIQUES, such as EMBRYO TRANSFER or FERTILIZATION IN VITRO.HIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Program Development: The process of formulating, improving, and expanding educational, managerial, or service-oriented work plans (excluding computer program development).Asphyxia Neonatorum: Respiratory failure in the newborn. (Dorland, 27th ed)Colic: A clinical syndrome with intermittent abdominal pain characterized by sudden onset and cessation that is commonly seen in infants. It is usually associated with obstruction of the INTESTINES; of the CYSTIC DUCT; or of the URINARY TRACT.Education, Medical, Graduate: Educational programs for medical graduates entering a specialty. They include formal specialty training as well as academic work in the clinical and basic medical sciences, and may lead to board certification or an advanced medical degree.Respiration, Artificial: Any method of artificial breathing that employs mechanical or non-mechanical means to force the air into and out of the lungs. Artificial respiration or ventilation is used in individuals who have stopped breathing or have RESPIRATORY INSUFFICIENCY to increase their intake of oxygen (O2) and excretion of carbon dioxide (CO2).Drug Utilization: The utilization of drugs as reported in individual hospital studies, FDA studies, marketing, or consumption, etc. This includes drug stockpiling, and patient drug profiles.Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic: Works about clinical trials that involve at least one test treatment and one control treatment, concurrent enrollment and follow-up of the test- and control-treated groups, and in which the treatments to be administered are selected by a random process, such as the use of a random-numbers table.Sensitivity and Specificity: Binary classification measures to assess test results. Sensitivity or recall rate is the proportion of true positives. Specificity is the probability of correctly determining the absence of a condition. (From Last, Dictionary of Epidemiology, 2d ed)Congenital Abnormalities: Malformations of organs or body parts during development in utero.Analysis of Variance: A statistical technique that isolates and assesses the contributions of categorical independent variables to variation in the mean of a continuous dependent variable.Career Choice: Selection of a type of occupation or profession.WalesTeaching: The educational process of instructing.Parents: Persons functioning as natural, adoptive, or substitute parents. The heading includes the concept of parenthood as well as preparation for becoming a parent.Milk: The white liquid secreted by the mammary glands. It contains proteins, sugar, lipids, vitamins, and minerals.Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.Outcome and Process Assessment (Health Care): Evaluation procedures that focus on both the outcome or status (OUTCOMES ASSESSMENT) of the patient at the end of an episode of care - presence of symptoms, level of activity, and mortality; and the process (ASSESSMENT, PROCESS) - what is done for the patient diagnostically and therapeutically.Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Chronic Disease: Diseases which have one or more of the following characteristics: they are permanent, leave residual disability, are caused by nonreversible pathological alteration, require special training of the patient for rehabilitation, or may be expected to require a long period of supervision, observation, or care. (Dictionary of Health Services Management, 2d ed)Medicine: The art and science of studying, performing research on, preventing, diagnosing, and treating disease, as well as the maintenance of health.Attitude to Health: Public attitudes toward health, disease, and the medical care system.Cost-Benefit Analysis: A method of comparing the cost of a program with its expected benefits in dollars (or other currency). The benefit-to-cost ratio is a measure of total return expected per unit of money spent. This analysis generally excludes consideration of factors that are not measured ultimately in economic terms. Cost effectiveness compares alternative ways to achieve a specific set of results.Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects: The consequences of exposing the FETUS in utero to certain factors, such as NUTRITION PHYSIOLOGICAL PHENOMENA; PHYSIOLOGICAL STRESS; DRUGS; RADIATION; and other physical or chemical factors. These consequences are observed later in the offspring after BIRTH.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Motor Skills: Performance of complex motor acts.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Enteral Nutrition: Nutritional support given via the alimentary canal or any route connected to the gastrointestinal system (i.e., the enteral route). This includes oral feeding, sip feeding, and tube feeding using nasogastric, gastrostomy, and jejunostomy tubes.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Severity of Illness Index: Levels within a diagnostic group which are established by various measurement criteria applied to the seriousness of a patient's disorder.Organizational Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by an organization, institution, university, society, etc., from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions and positions on matters of public interest or social concern. It does not include internal policy relating to organization and administration within the corporate body, for which ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION is available.Ductus Arteriosus, Patent: A congenital heart defect characterized by the persistent opening of fetal DUCTUS ARTERIOSUS that connects the PULMONARY ARTERY to the descending aorta (AORTA, DESCENDING) allowing unoxygenated blood to bypass the lung and flow to the PLACENTA. Normally, the ductus is closed shortly after birth.Professional Autonomy: The quality or state of being independent and self-directing, especially in making decisions, enabling professionals to exercise judgment as they see fit during the performance of their jobs.Birth Certificates: Official certifications by a physician recording the individual's birth date, place of birth, parentage and other required identifying data which are filed with the local registrar of vital statistics.Health Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Bronchiolitis: Inflammation of the BRONCHIOLES.Medical Records Systems, Computerized: Computer-based systems for input, storage, display, retrieval, and printing of information contained in a patient's medical record.
Designing and implementing policies promoting proper breastfeeding and complementary feeding practice (focusing on diet ... The 2012 World Health Assembly, with its 194 member states, convened to discuss global issues of maternal, infant and young ... are poor feeding practices, poor maternal nutrition, and poor sanitation. Inadequate complementary child feeding and a general ... toilet use and good handwashing practices contribute to reduce stunting depends on the how bad these practices were prior to ...
Loddon Water mill is now a complementary health practice. Loddon is home to three popular schools; Loddon Infant and Nursery, ...
... and supporting improved complementary feeding practices - within the context of exclusive breastfeeding for the first six ... Maternal, Infant and Young Child Nutrition. GAIN works to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition and stunting, by ... infant and young child nutrition; and agriculture and nutrition. Large Scale Food fortification. Fortification of staple foods ... fertilizers and milling and storage practices) are two strategies for bringing better nutrition to vulnerable populations in a ...
Infant massage is a type of complementary and alternative treatment that uses massage therapy for human infants. This therapy ... has been practiced globally, and has been increasingly used in Western countries as a treatment for infants, though the ... Research in pre-term infants and low birth weight infants have found weak evidence that massage might improve weight gain, but ... Diego MA, Field T, Hernandez-Reif M (Apr 2009). "Procedural pain heart rate responses in massaged preterm infants". Infant ...
... is complementary to breastfeeding in the health practices of infants and young children, providing large amounts ... though the lack of sanitation along with the practice contributed to infant mortality. Infants in Medieval Europe were fed an ... In earlier times, premastication was an important practice that prevented infant iron deficiency. Meats provide Heme iron that ... Fat digesting lingual lipase in adult saliva can also help infant digestion and fat absorption since infants generally do not ...
Those practices include: Eliminating milk products, eggs, wheat, and nuts from the diet of breastfeeding mothers Feeding ... When "normal" causes of excessive crying are ruled out, some caregivers adopt alternative and complementary treatments for ... Infant crying is the crying of infants as a response to an internal or external stimulus. Infants cry as a form of basic ... The crying of an infant is regarded by some to be normal and good. The belief that infants have a need to cry to expand or ...
... is a type of complementary and alternative treatment that uses massage therapy for human infants. This therapy ... has been practiced globally, and has been increasingly used in Western countries as a treatment for infants, though the ... In Western culture, infant massage has been increasingly used in neonatal intensive care units for pre-term infants who are in ... Also studies have shown that massage performed on full-term infants is very beneficial to both infant and parents. It can be ...
Infant and young child feedingEdit. Improvement of breast feeding practices, like early initiation and exclusive breast feeding ... support for breastfeeding and complementary feeding for infants and young children, and therapeutic and supplementary feeding.[ ... and health of infants. Exclusive breastfeeding often indicates nutritional status because infants that consume breast milk ... Lozoff B, Jimenez E, Wolf AW (September 1991). "Long-term developmental outcome of infants with iron deficiency". The New ...
In the infant brain, there is limited evidence of the default network, but default network connectivity is more consistent in ... It has been a widespread practice in DMN research to treat its constituent nodes to be functionally homogeneous, but the ... of 10,000 UK Biobank participants further suggests that each DMN node can be decomposed into subregions with complementary ...
"Infants & Young Children: April 1997. 9 (4). Retrieved 2013-07-19.. *^ Dunn W (2001). "The sensations of everyday life: ... OT PRACTICE. 17. 12. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 August 2014. Retrieved 19 July 2013.. ... Medicine, Section on Complementary and Integrative; Disabilities, Council on Children With (2012-06-01). "Sensory Integration ... "Infants and Toddlers Who Require Specialty Services and Supports" (PDF). Department of Community Health-Mental Health Services ...
... appropriate complementary feeding, and maternal dietary practices in six developing countries. The Weston A. Price Foundation ... In 1987 LLLI together with Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) agency, the Chicago Board of Health kicked off the first official ... However, the maternal nutritional guidance given is widely accepted as best practice and is repeated by other nursing advocacy ... Ember, Carol; Melvin Ember (2003). "Breast-feeding practices in the west". Encyclopedia of medical anthropology: Health and ...
The materials are organized into four training modules, based on the latest research and practice. A complementary program, ... In 2002, the National Center for Children in Poverty selected PITC as a model initiative to support infants, toddlers, and ... Effects of Content-Rich and Practice-Based Professional Development Models on Teacher Content Knowledge, Classroom Practice, ... Each module focuses on cases of actual classroom practice that illustrate students' science ideas and highlight an important ...
... support for breastfeeding and complementary feeding for infants and young children, and therapeutic and supplementary feeding. ... Committee for Practice Guidelines (CPG) (2007). "European guidelines on cardiovascular disease prevention in clinical practice ... and health of infants. Exclusive breastfeeding often indicates nutritional status because infants that consume breast milk are ... Major causes of under nutrition in young children include lack of proper breast feeding for infants and illnesses such as ...
... all complementary foods must be labeled as suitable for use by infants from six months and not earlier. The baby food industry ... has been the subject of an international boycott campaign since 1977 for its milk-substitute marketing practices prior to and ... Labels of infant formula must contain a statement on the superiority of breastfeeding and that the product should only be used ... Health risks to infants who are artificially fed or who are not exclusively breastfed should be highlighted through appropriate ...
Positive characteristics can be summarized as: effective, as preventive and complementary to scientific medicine practices; an ... broken into sections regarding infant health and general diseases. The purpose of developing this concept was to expand the ... As a man who boasted on how his medical practice could be practiced by even the illiterate, it is ironic that he chose to ... A common practice among physicians was bloodletting as a way to reduce excess blood, which was deduced to be the cause of the ...
... "breastfed infants self-regulate intake volume", whereas bottle-fed infants receiving expressed breast milk or formula have " ... continuing it with introduction of complementary foods, with an overall duration of "1 year or longer as mutually desired by ... "increased bottle emptying, poorer self-regulation, and excessive weight gain in late infancy", and that such early practice of ... While infant formula is highly regulated in many countries, baby bottles are not. Only the materials of the teat and bottle ...
After six months, a child requires adequate complementary foods for normal growth. Lack of appropriate complementary feeding ... safe motherhood practices, and use of skilled birth attendants during delivery and practice of immediate breastfeeding. Micro- ... Infant Mortality: From 97.70 to 29.40 in 2015. Child malnutrition: Stunting 37%, wasting 11%, and underweight 30% among child ... However, even with complementary feeding, the child should continue to be breastfed for two years or more. Gender inequality in ...
In Practice 1 (1): 29-36։ January 2013։ PMID 24229819։ doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2012.09.003 ,vauthors=. պարամետրը գոյություն չունի ( ... Sinn John KH, Osborn David A. (2007)։ «Prebiotics in infants for prevention of allergy and food hypersensitivity»։ Cochrane ... timing of introduction of complementary foods, and hydrolyzed formulas»։ Pediatrics 121 (1): 183-91։ January 2008։ PMID ... Clinical practice. Allergic rhinitis»։ The New England Journal of Medicine 372 (5): 456-63։ January 2015։ PMC 4324099։ PMID ...
Though Western practices can make an impact in health care practices, in certain areas such as in the spread of various ... Emex australis (inkunzane). This root is used on infants suffering from restlessness or constipation. It is used as a root ... Malangu, N. (1 January 2007). "Self-Reported Use Of Traditional, Complementary And Over-The-Counter Medicines By Hiv-Infected ... Little was done to investigate the legitimacy of these practices, as many foreigners believed that the native medical practices ...
The median birth interval in Nepal is 36 months, which reduces the risk of infant death. However, 21% of infants are born less ... Differences among TBAs arose in clean delivery practices (i.e. hand-washing practices) and standardized identifiers for ... in addition to complementary foods, is 33.6 months. Pashni is the rice feeding ceremony that occurs on the 5th month after ... there are many traditions and rituals that its people practice. In the Kathmandu Valley, the indigenous Newar people practice ...
... for the first six months and complementary feeding along with breast milk after that Low birth weight among infants and its ... Meena and her family question the practice of dowry. Can Meena help her cousin who is being married before the legal age? Girls ... All of her stories advocate change in social and cultural practices. Her popularity is due to her not being closely bound to ...
BLW provides an opportunity for infants to practice new oral motor patterns. Through this method, infants gradually develop the ... Baby-led weaning (often also referred to as BLW) is a method of adding complementary foods to a baby's diet of breastmilk or ... Through continued practice, infants learn to volitionally lateralize their tongue-the first step in the development of a ... When an infant is offered a spoon of puree, the practiced or familiar oral motor pattern is sucking. As purees are thicker than ...
The continued practice of homeopathy, despite a lack of evidence of efficacy, has led to it being characterized within the ... "Complementary therapies: The big con?". The Independent. London. April 22, 2008. Archived from the original on April 27, 2009. ... "Homeopathic Teething Tablets and Gels: FDA Warning - Risk to Infants and Children". FDA. September 30, 2016. Retrieved October ... "Fitness to practise panel hearing on Dr Marisa Viegas". General Medical Council (via archive.org). June 2007. Archived from the ...
... "evil practice of mutilating human bodies for purposes of muti making." Religion portal Complementary and alternative medicine ... Salvia scabra, mixed with the mother's milk, is given as medicine to infants. The mixture is given to the baby to ingest for ... Dlisani, P.B; Bhat, R.B (2008). "Traditional Health Practices in Transkei with Special Emphasis on Maternal and Child Health". ... Occasions of murder and mutilation associated with some traditional cultural practices in South Africa are also termed muti ...
At the same time, a number of colleges and even universities run courses in supplementary, complementary and alternative ... Her investigations into fraudulent practices led to cancellations of the approvals for nine alternative "medical" devices from ... infants, and children". In particular, she called for the chiropractic pediatric clinic run by the Royal Melbourne Institute of ... 21 The Perspective of a Cancer Patient by Loretta Marron". Perspectives on complementary and alternative medicines. London: ...
Family medicine, family practice, general practice or primary care is, in many countries, the first port-of-call for patients ... Pediatrics (AE) or paediatrics (BE) is devoted to the care of infants, children, and adolescents. Like internal medicine, there ... In modern urban practice, most internists are subspecialists: that is, they generally limit their medical practice to problems ... listen)) is the science and practice of the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of disease. The word "medicine" is ...
Infant colic-what works: a systematic review of interventions for breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 May;62 ... Acupuncture for infantile colic: a blinding-validated, randomized controlled multicentre trial in general practice. Scand J ... Nutritional supplements and other complementary medicines for infantile colic: a systematic review. Pediatrics. 2011 Apr;127(4 ... Infant colic-what works: a systematic review of interventions for breast-fed infants. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2016 May;62 ...
Systematic Review of Infant and Young Child Complementary Feeding Practices in South Asian Families the Pakistan Perspective - ... Complementary feeding practices in Pakistan 665. Table 5 Factors influencing complementary feeding (CF) practices in Pakistan ... review of complementary feeding practices in South Asian. conﬂicts of interest. Authorship: L.M., R.L. and M.L. con- infants ... Systematic Review of Infant and Young Child Complementary Feeding Practices in South Asian Families the Pakistan Perspective. ...
Infant Feeding Practices and BMI z Score at 12 Months (Primary Outcome). Breastfeeding Exclusivity and Type of Complementary ... Infant feeding practices in the CHILD cohort (N = 2870 term infants). A, Proportion of infants breastfeeding, exclusively ... The influence of early infant-feeding practices on the intestinal microbiome and body composition in infants [published ... of exclusively breastfed infants; 33.0% of all infants). By 6 months, only 18.0% of infants were exclusively breastfed. An ...
Frontline health workers will counsel and support mothers in relation to breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices ... Complementary feeding indicators that include timely introduction of complementary feeding (infants 6-8 months), dietary ... A nationwide mass media campaign of TV and radio spots on infant and young child feeding practices will be aired in 2011, 2012 ... A nationwide mass media campaign of TV and radio spots on infant and young child feeding practices will be aired in 2011, 2012 ...
Marketing of Breastmilk Substitutes to Guide the Marketing of Complementary Foods to Protect Optimal Infant feeding Practices12 ... Infant Feeding Practices: Observations from Macedonia and Kosovo. As a result of concerns expressed about the usage of infant ... Unlike complementary foods, RUSFs are not a necessary part of the diet of older infants and young children. Where perceived or ... Complementary foods are by definition aimed at infants and young children. They have been inappropriately marketed for well ...
This includes optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices.. Improving Care for Breastfeeding Mothers and Infants ... In the United States, nearly all infants are born in a hospital or birth center. The facilities policies and practices can ... To improve maternity care practices related to breastfeeding, we monitor maternity care practices, using the 10 steps to ... Infant and Toddler Nutrition. Good nutrition before and during pregnancy through a childs second birthday is vital for healthy ...
Persson, and K. M. Rasmussen, "Appropriate infant feeding practices result in better growth of infants and young children in ... Complementary feeding practice was considered appropriate if the mother practices all the above three indicators, as ... i)Near half of mothers were not practicing appropriate complementary feeding practice, considering timely introduction, minimum ... infant, young child). Housewife mothers were found to be about 9.5 times more likely to practice appropriate complementary ...
Complementary feeding counselling. A training course. * Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Part ... Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. * Implementing the Global Strategy for Infant and Young ... Publications on infant feeding/breastfeeding. Key documents. * Updates on HIV and infant feeding - 2016. Principles and ... Infant and young child feeding. A tool for assessing national practices, policies and programmes. ...
... feeding determinants in the Republic of Ireland based on a cross-sectional analysis of the Growing Up in Ireland infant cohort ... 4. Hetherington, MM, Cecil, JE, Jackson, DM et al. (2011) Feeding infants and young children. From guidelines to practice. ... 16. Tarrant, RC, Younger, KM, Sheridan-Pererira, M et al. (2010) Factors associated with weaning practices in term infants: a ... 33. Grote, V, Theurich, M & Koletzko, B (2012) Do complementary feeding practices predict the later risk of obesity? Curr Opin ...
This report describes the timing of infants receiving complementary foods. ... This report describes the timing of infants receiving complementary foods. ... who might influence infant feeding practices could help decrease the number of infants who are introduced to complementary ... Percentage of infants introduced to complementary foods before age 4 months, by sociodemographic characteristics, infant milk ...
How would you judge the accuracy or validity of complementary and alternative medicine practices?. Understanding Nutrition ( ... supporting infant growth and vi.... Nutrition. Lacking modern timepieces, early experimenters some-times measured time ...
H. M. Hanif, "Trends in breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in Pakistan, 1990-2007," International Breastfeeding ... the practice of EBF for the first 6 months is low (17.9%). Factors found to influence infant feeding practices are type of ... G. Saeed, S. Fakhar, T. Imran, L. Laila, and K. Abbas, "The effect of modes of delivery on infants feeding practices," Iranian ... B. Straub, C. Melvin, and M. Labbok, "A descriptive study of Cambodian refugee infant feeding practices in the United States," ...
... and complementary feeding practices from 6-8 months, were described and related to maternal, infant, and household ... food insecurity might lead mothers to leave their infants to seek food for their families or mediate infant feeding practices ... Complementary feeding All but one infant was eating solid or semi-solid foods habitually by the end of 8 months of age. However ... Infant feeding practices in the Peruvian Amazon: implications for programs to improve feeding ...
Compared with infants who received complementary foods between 4 and 6 months, introducing complementary foods too early or too ... Hb level is below 145 g/L for infants aged 0-29 days, below 90 g/L for infants aged 30-119 days, below 100 g/L for infants aged ... below 90 g/L for infants aged 30-119 days, below 100 g/L for infants aged 120-179 days, and below 110 g/L for infants aged 180 ... And some infants were nursing breast milk and complementary foods at the same time. Mineral level of breast milk usually varied ...
The article is "Timing of Introduction of Complementary Foods to US Infants, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey ... These data help understand the current state of infant feeding practices in the U.S. ... Current recommendations stipulate that infants should be introduced to complementary foods at around six months of age. ... infants reports that more than half of babies are currently introduced to complementary foods, that is, foods or drinks other ...
They are also complementary. Provided together they reduce health risks for young children and their families far better than ... Safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene practices are essential for young children to survive and thrive - to be ... Combining hand washing, food protection and household hygiene reduces infant diarrhoea by 33 per cent. Safer excreta disposal ... Families can help reduce waterborne and sanitation-related illnesses with basic hygienic practices. ...
Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. Market survey and dietary practice. ... Commercial infant foods in the UK: macro-nutrient content and composition. Proceedings of the Nutrition Society, Vol. 70, Issue ... Infant Nutrition and Later Health: A Review of Current Evidence. Nutrients, Vol. 4, Issue. 8, p. 859. ... 3Singhal, A, Cole, TJ & Lucas, A (2001) Early nutrition in preterm infants and later blood pressure: two cohorts after ...
Complementary feeding: inappropriate practices in infants. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2010;86:196-201. [ Links ] ... daycare centers on hygienic-dietary practices and health/nutrition of infants", which aimed to train, develop, and refresh the ... Finally, it can be concluded that the introduction of soft drinks and processed juices in the diet of infants is untimely and ... Biral AM, Taddei JA, Passoni DF, Palma D. Dental caries and food practices among children attending daycare centers in the city ...
Breast and complementary feeding practices in relation to morbidity and growth in Malawian infants. European Journal of ... Hrdy, S. B. (1999). Mother Nature: A history of mothers, infants, and natural selection. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar ... Alam, N., Saha, S. K., Razzaque, A., & Van Ginneken, J. K. (2001). The effect of divorce on infant mortality in a remote area ... Gibson, M. A. (2008). Does investment in the sexes differ when fathers are absent? Sex-biased infant survival and child growth ...
We aimed to describe linear growth trajectory among infants under 2 years of age using the WHO growth velocity... ... Breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices in rural Malawi. Acta Paediatr. 2007;90(3):328-32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar ... This included infant age at first visit, gender, birthweight, mothers age at infant birth, maternal HIV status at infant birth ... The relationship between infant feeding practices and diarrhoeal infections. J Adv Nurs. 2001;29(3):721-6.CrossRefGoogle ...
... and very low birth weight infants (VLBW; ≤1,500g) have been reported. We aimed to describe data on enteral feeding in Tuscany ( ... Great variability in enteral feeding practices for very preterm (,32 weeks gestational age-GA) ... Great variability in enteral feeding practices for very preterm (Methods: A 4-years (2012-2015) observational study was ... Two-hundred fifty nine infants were fed formula or complementary milk at the beginning of enteral nutrition, and most of them ( ...
Complementary feeding practices require further investigation in Saudi Arabia. The present study aims to evaluate complementary ... 62.5% of the studys infants received solid foods before reaching 17 weeks old. The maternal factors at higher risk of early ... Data on participants socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured ... feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the ...
Field-testing of guidance on the appropriate labelling of processed complementary foods for infants and young children in South ... Such guidance is necessary to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding practices. ... The aim of this study was to determine which factors influence choice of breast- versus the formula-feeding of infants. This ... There is a lack of formal guidance from international normative bodies on the appropriate marketing of processed complementary ...
Introducing complementary foodsNutritionNutritionalPrevalenceTiming of Introduction of Complementary FoodsOptimalSocio-demographicMalnutritionTherapiesIntroduced to complementary foodsInterventionsGrowthExclusivelyFoodCharacteristicsIntroduction2016Introduce complementaryMonths of ageNutrientsMothers practicedOutcomesNutritionally adequatePediatricsLiquidsYoungCHILDChiropractic care of infantsNewbornsFull-term infantsBirth weight infantsPostnatalInfancyBreastfeeding PracticesProspective cohorDeveloping countriesSupplementationPeriod of complementaryDiversity of complementaryEarlyIYCF
- The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends introducing complementary foods at approximately age 6 months. (cdc.gov)
- The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommends introducing complementary foods (i.e., any solid or liquid other than breast milk or infant formula) to infants at approximately age 6 months ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- Introducing complementary foods to an infant is both an art and a science that relies heavily on caregivers to assess the infant's readiness to begin and advance the type, texture and amount of food. (washington.edu)
- Campaigns to change health and nutrition behaviour are needed to meet the Complementary feeding substantial unmet needs of these children. (scribd.com)
- We propose that UN agencies with mandates to generate international normative guidelines to achieve good nutrition and health for infants and children, in particular Codex Alimentarius, continue the process of refining and obtaining widespread agreement on food marketing guidelines. (ennonline.net)
- The aim of these Guidelines is to contribute to the optimal nutrition for infants and young children, in part by the protection and support of breastfeeding, and safe, timely and nutritionally adequate complementary feeding and by ensuring the proper use of Ready to Use Supplemental Foods (RUSFs), when these are necessary, and by eliminating inappropriate marketing and distribution methods. (ennonline.net)
- Starting good nutrition practices early can help children develop healthy dietary patterns. (cdc.gov)
- We work with a variety of organizations to promote ECE licensing standards that address nutrition, infant feeding, physical activity, and screen time. (cdc.gov)
- Improving infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices in children aged 0-23 months is therefore critical to improved nutrition, health, and development. (hindawi.com)
- It is an annual web- and paper-based survey that collects information from parents and caregivers on their children's physical and emotional health, including infant nutrition, and is representative of noninstitutionalized U.S. children aged 0-17 years. (cdc.gov)
- The aim in here is to assess breastfeeding pattern, infant formula feeding pattern, and weaning introduction in Mauritius and to investigate the factors that influence infant nutrition. (hindawi.com)
- It has been recognized worldwide that breastfeeding is beneficial for both the mother and child, as breast milk is considered the best source of nutrition for an infant [ 2 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Health education focusing on feeding practices and nutrition education could be a practical strategy for preventing anemia and malnutrition in young children. (biomedsearch.com)
- These changing recommendations have influenced many past studies of infant nutrition, most of which show a general lack of adherence to current professional guidelines, whatever they may be. (elsevier.com)
- The official journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics , the Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics is the premier source for the practice and science of food, nutrition, and dietetics. (elsevier.com)
- The Journal focuses on advancing professional knowledge across the range of research and practice issues such as: nutritional science, medical nutrition therapy, public health nutrition, food science and biotechnology, food service systems, leadership and management and dietetics education. (elsevier.com)
- The recommendations for breast-feeding nad complementary nutrition for children in Central America. (eatrightpro.org)
- Proper nutrition during pregnancy and while breast-feeding is not only important for mothers, it is also crucial to the health of their infants. (eatrightpro.org)
- Interventions in Cambodia to improve child nutrition must focus on appropriate feeding practices for infants and young children and on the prevention and management of malnutrition and micronutrient deficiencies. (prb.org)
- L'introduction des nouvelles normes OMS de croissance de l'enfant, basées uniquement sur les bébés allaités exclusivement au lait maternel, est une occasion unique pour encourager le suivi de la croissance et des pratiques optimales en matière de nutrition dans les pays de la Région de la Méditerranée orientale. (who.int)
- Fewtrell M, Bronsky J, Campoy C, et al: Complementary feeding: a position paper by the European Society for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) Committee on Nutrition. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
- Listen to the October 2015 Global Health and Nutrition Community of Practice Discussion on IYCF-E . (wvi.org)
- Development and Evaluation of the Infant Feeding Education Questionnaire for the Expanded Food and Nutrition Education Program. (bioportfolio.com)
- Nutrition Education Program (EFNEP) infant-feeding education on knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intent. (bioportfolio.com)
- Complementary Feeding: Beyond Nutrition. (bioportfolio.com)
- Nutrition of a mother which affects the health of the FETUS and INFANT as well as herself. (bioportfolio.com)
- We documented infant feeding choices by 811 mothers of infants aged less than 18 months enrolled in the Chilenje Infant Growth, Nutrition and Infection Study of fortified complementary or replacement foods. (wiley.com)
- WFP works with UNICEF and other partners collaboratively through the Nutrition Cluster to ensure that treatment and prevention programs are implemented in a cohesive manner with complementary nutrition interventions such as treatment of severe acute malnutrition and promotion of infant and young child feeding practices. (wfp.org)
- The statement promotes accurate and consistent messaging on nutrition for older infants and young children from six to 24 months of age. (canada.ca)
- Guidance on nutrition from birth to six months is covered in a separate but complementary statement . (canada.ca)
- In Practice: Talking to families about infant nutrition. (canada.ca)
- Breastfeeding - exclusively for the first six months, and continued for up to two years or longer with appropriate complementary feeding - is important for the nutrition, immunologic protection, growth, and development of infants and toddlers. (canada.ca)
- Breastfeeding is an important source of nutrition for older infants and young children as complementary foods are introduced. (canada.ca)
- This section of Nutrition for Healthy Term Infants is based on the 2007 Eating Well with Canada's Food Guide. (canada.ca)
- From 2011-2016 her research focused on the effectiveness of nutrition education and food security to improve the nutritional status of infants and young children in Malawi and Cambodia (IMCF project). (uni-giessen.de)
- Chiutsi-Phiri G, Heil E, Kalimbira AA, Mansangano C, Mtimuni BM, Krawinkel MB, Jordan I (2017) Reduced Motivated Adoption of Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices after Nutrition Education Intervention in Rural Malawi. (uni-giessen.de)
- Alive & Thrive (A&T) is a five-year initiative (2009-2013), supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, to improve infant and young child nutrition by increasing rates of exclusive breastfeeding and improving complementary feeding practices. (savethechildren.org)
- Presents nine packages of learning materials that can help health workers acquire skill in presenting the principles and practice of good nutrition to communities. (who.int)
- On 2004, the Codex Committee on Nutrition and Food for Specially Dietary Uses, asked the European Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition (ESPGHAN) to propose compositional requirements for in infant formulas to attain normal growth and development. (scirp.org)
- Good feeding practices in early cient nutritional intake, reducing obesogenic dietary beha- childhood should be a key area of focus to prevent mal- viours while ensuring healthy gain of weight in children(8). (scribd.com)
- The WHO deﬁnes CF as: 'The process starting when breast adopted in Pakistan, emphasize as a global public health milk alone is no longer sufﬁcient to meet the nutritional recommendation that infants should be exclusively breast- requirements of infants, and therefore other foods and liquids fed for the ﬁrst 6 months of life. (scribd.com)
- It focuses on nutritional needs and feeding practices in children less than two years of age. (who.int)
- Nevertheless, there is scanty data that give estimation about the proportion of exclusively breastfed infants at risk of specific nutritional deficiencies. (hindawi.com)
- Identifying at what age infants enrolled in public day care centers are introduced to soft drinks and industrialized juice, as well as comparing the nutritional composition of these goods with natural fruit juice. (scielo.br)
- the process of giving an infant food in addition to breast milk or infant formula, when either becomes insufficient to satisfy the infant's nutritional requirements. (who.int)
- Breastfeeding is the best way to meet the nutritional needs of infants. (prb.org)
- Nutritional status and complementary feeding among HIV-exposed infants: a prospective cohort study. (semanticscholar.org)
- Stability of infant and child feeding index over time and its association with nutritional status of HIV exposed infants in Sidama Zone, Southern Ethiopia: a longitudinal study. (semanticscholar.org)
- An infant and child feeding index is associated with the nutritional status of 6- to 23-month-old children in rural Burkina Faso. (semanticscholar.org)
- Child feeding practices are associated with child nutritional status in Latin America: innovative uses of the demographic and health surveys. (semanticscholar.org)
- It also allows health workers, through a cost-effective tool, to assess and monitor the growth and nutritional status of children for supporting exclusive breastfeeding in the first 6 months, timely adequate complementary feeding practices and continued breastfeeding for 2 years or more [1- (who.int)
- Complementary foods are consumed in addition to breastmilk when breastmilk becomes insufficient to meet nutritional requirements. (babymilkaction.org)
- Child feeding practices was directly influence nutritional status of a child. (scialert.net)
- The findings of this study suggested that education levels of mother were affecting the child feeding practices and finally determined the child s nutritional status. (scialert.net)
- Disagreement with regard to the optimum moment to introduce complementary food and to what extent the exclusive breastfeeding practices supply the increase of nutritional requirements, in the first year of life, led to a change in the World Health Organization's recommendations in 2001. (scielo.br)
- In this article, we will summarize the key non-nutritional aspects of the introduction of complementary feeding. (bioportfolio.com)
- Nutritional exposures included breastfeeding and age at introduction of complementary foods, baseline plasma long-chain omega-3 fatty acids including eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), vitamin D, vitamin E, and, from a baseline food frequency questionnaire, estimated intake of the branched-chain amino acid leucine and total carbohydrate. (diabetesjournals.org)
- In May 2001, representatives of 16 Member States in the WHO European Region, as well as nutritional and health experts, gathered in Budapest to discuss this Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. (who.int)
- Interventions in the first 2 years of life include promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for the first 6 months of life and continued breastfeeding for at least the first 2 years, nutritional counseling to assure adequate complementary feeding, and, if necessary in food insecure areas, the provision of supplemental food to be given to the child. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
- The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complementary feeding practice and its associated factors among mothers with children aged 6−23 months in Lasta District, Northeast Ethiopia, 2015. (hindawi.com)
- prevalence of early introduction varies geographically and across sociodemographic and infant feeding characteristics. (cdc.gov)
- CDC analyzed 2016-2018 data from the National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH) (N = 23,927) to describe timing of complementary feeding introduction and prevalence of early introduction of complementary foods before age 4 months (early introduction) among children aged 1-5 years. (cdc.gov)
- The prevalence of breastfeeding practice in Mauritius has risen from 72% in 1991 to 93.4% as found in this study, while only 17.9% breastfed their children exclusively for the first 6 months, and the mean duration of EBF (exclusive breastfeeding) is 2.10 months. (hindawi.com)
- RESULTS: We found that 35.12% of infants in rural Shaanxi suffered from anemia, and the malnutrition prevalence rates were 32.14% for underweight, 39.58% for stunting, and 11.31% for wasting. (biomedsearch.com)
- It is the time when malnutrition starts for many infants and contributes significantly to the 40 percent prevalence in children under age 5 worldwide. (prb.org)
- The prevalence of approximately 25% of overweight and obesity in 1-2 years old infants from Bushehr. (biomedcentral.com)
- Health care providers and others who might influence infant feeding practices should educate families on recommended timing of introduction of complementary foods. (cdc.gov)
- Timing of introduction of complementary foods was assessed by asking respondents with children aged 0-5 years "How old was this child when he or she was first fed anything other than breast milk or formula" ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- Infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding ( 6 , 7 ) and timing of introduction of complementary foods ( 8 , 9 ), have been associated with the development of diabetes autoimmunity or type 1 diabetes. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This includes optimal breastfeeding and complementary feeding practices. (cdc.gov)
- When breast milk or infant formula no longer supplies infants with required energy and nutrients to sustain normal growth and optimal health and development, complementary feeding should be introduced [ 10 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Such guidance is necessary to protect and promote optimal infant and young child feeding practices. (eldis.org)
- Globally 60% of the infant and young child death occurs due to the inappropriate infants feeding practices and infectious diseases from which two-thirds of the deaths are attributable to sub-optimal breastfeeding practices. (omicsonline.org)
- In Ethiopia, sub-optimal breastfeeding was annually contributed to 70,000 infant mortalities. (omicsonline.org)
- Further, it is missive to local government to form a coalition with breastfeeding partners and community to improve optimal breastfeeding practices. (omicsonline.org)
- But the period is often marked by growth faltering, micronutrient deficiencies and common childhood illnesses following sub-optimal breastfeeding and infant transition from exclusive breastfeeding to additional foods [ 1 - 3 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- To prevent these problems, World Health Organization recommends optimal/appropriate breastfeeding practices. (omicsonline.org)
- Infants born at very low birth weight are medically fragile, and breast milk is of critical importance for their health protection and optimal growth and development. (biomedsearch.com)
- WHO recommends the introduction of solid food to infants around the age of 6 months because by that age breast milk is no longer sufficient to maintain a child's optimal growth. (prb.org)
- The introduction of the new WHO Child Growth Standards, based on exclusively breastfed babies, is a unique opportunity to support growth monitoring and optimal feeding practices in EMR. (who.int)
- With optimal infant and young child feeding practices, the high risk of undernutrition and death can be reduced. (wvi.org)
- Appropriate feeding practices in the early months and years of life are important to achieve optimal health outcomes, and intellectual and social development. (iaea.org)
- World Health Organization (WHO) recommends exclusive breastfeeding (EBF) as the optimal way to feed infants below 6 months of age. (springer.com)
- The aims of the strategy are to improve the feeding of infants and young children and to increase the commitment of governments, civil society and international organizations to protecting, promoting and supporting optimal infant and young child feeding. (who.int)
- Anemia, malnutrition and their correlations with socio-demographic characteristics and feeding practices among infants aged 0-18 months in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China: a cross-sectional study. (biomedsearch.com)
- CONCLUSIONS: Specific socio-demographic characteristics and feeding patterns were highly associated with infant anemia in rural areas of Shaanxi province. (biomedsearch.com)
- Data on participants' socio-demographic characteristics and complementary feeding practices were collected via structured questionnaires. (mdpi.com)
- Data was collected on socio-demographic characteristics and breastfeeding practices through face to face interview using World Health Organization's breastfeeding assessment criteria. (omicsonline.org)
- Binary logistic regression analyses were further performed to test the differences in infant feeding practices between two groups, after controlling for potential socio-demographic confounders. (frontiersin.org)
- We conducted a cross-sectional study as the baseline survey to provide data for developing a policy-based approach to controlling infant anemia and malnutrition in rural areas of Shaanxi province in northwestern China. (biomedsearch.com)
- Malnutrition contributes to about half of under-five mortality and a third of this is due to faulty feeding practices. (who.int)
- Inappropriate infant and young child feeding practices were commonly seen in children with severe acute malnutrition. (who.int)
- Conclusion: The findings of this study confirm the association of severe acute malnutrition with inappropriate infant and young child feeding practices. (who.int)
- To reduce childhood malnutrition due emphasis should be given in improving the knowledge and practice of parents on appropriate infant and young child feeding practices. (who.int)
- Household food insecurity, poor infant and young child feeding practices, and poor sanitation and hygiene practices are among the most common drivers of malnutrition in the country. (africanews.com)
- These estimates suggest that many infants are introduced to complementary foods before they are developmentally ready. (cdc.gov)
- Efforts by health care providers and others who might influence infant feeding practices could help decrease the number of infants who are introduced to complementary foods too early. (cdc.gov)
- To ensure that children had sufficient time to have been introduced to complementary foods, analysis was restricted to children aged 1-5 years. (cdc.gov)
- The first study of a nationally-representative group of U.S. infants reports that more than half of babies are currently introduced to complementary foods, that is, foods or drinks other than breast milk or formula, sooner than they should be. (elsevier.com)
- Current recommendations stipulate that infants should be introduced to complementary foods at around six months of age. (elsevier.com)
- 16.3% were introduced to complementary foods before four months, 38.3% at four-five months, and 12.9% at seven or more months of age. (elsevier.com)
- Inclusion of children under two in the 2020-2025 Dietary Guidelines for Americans may promote consistent messaging of when children should be introduced to complementary foods. (elsevier.com)
- Health policies targeting early feeding practices represent promising interventions to decrease preschool obesity and promote healthy WS. (springer.com)
- Maaike's observations concur with many of our experiences around infant feeding in emergencies (IFE) in previous humanitarian interventions. (ennonline.net)
- supporting infant growth and vi. (bartleby.com)
- Counselling on breastfeeding and complementary feeding leads to improved feeding practices, improved intakes and growth. (who.int)
- We aimed to describe linear growth trajectory among infants under 2 years of age using the WHO growth velocity standards. (springer.com)
- We found slower rate of growth among otherwise healthy Zambian infants. (springer.com)
- High rates of morbidity and poor growth and stunting more often than not have been attributed to poor weaning practices [3- (who.int)
- Assessment of child feeding practices using a summary index: stability over time and association with child growth in urban Madagascar. (semanticscholar.org)
- Our main outcome is infant/toddler growth, captured by mean weight-for-length z-scores (WLZ) at 15 months, mean change in WLZ between 0-15 months, and likelihood of overweight (WLZ ≥ 95th percentile) at 15 months. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- In summary, no benefit or disadvantage has been shown in terms of growth to start complementary foods either between 4 and 6 or after 6 months of age, but early introduction of complementary foods before 4 months of age should be avoided, supporting current recommendations . (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
- ABSTRACT There are several factors influencing infant growth including pre and post-natal ones. (scielo.br)
- The objective of this paper is to review the results in the literature gathering useful information related to the effect of breastfeeding practices on infants' growth pattern. (scielo.br)
- It contains a brief description of child growth determinants, with data on some studies developed to assess the effect of breastfeeding practices on child growth during the first year of life and describes some topics related to the introduction of complementary food. (scielo.br)
- The terms "Breastfeeding practices", "infant growth" and "weight" were search according to Medical Subjects Headings (MESH) in MEDLINES. (scielo.br)
- The Mazira Project is a study of the effect of egg consumption on growth, development and gut health of infants in Malawi. (bioportfolio.com)
- Therefore, timely introduction of complementary foods is essential for the baby's well-being and growth ( 4 ). (diabetesjournals.org)
- The poor quality and quantity of complementary foods along with inadequate caring practices are the key determinants for this early phase of childhood growth retardation, which has long-term consequences in the late onset of the childhood growth spurt and weak physical and mental capacity (Ferrari, 2002). (com.pk)
- Another recent article reviews several studies of yoga during pregnancy and found that, although strict randomized controls (RCTs) were missing in a number of the studies, the nonrandomized trials indicated a significant reduction in rates of preterm labor, intrauterine growth retardation, low birth weight, pregnancy discomforts, and perceived sleep disturbances in those who practiced yoga during pregnancy. (yogafordepression.com)
- In addition, growing demand for complementary and alternative medicines is creating a potential for growth in the belladonna market. (ukprwire.com)
- As to biological insights, there is no convenient way to separate weight from length growth with sonographic monitoring, but a third of infants can be born stunted. (journaltocs.ac.uk)
- The complementary foods that the child receives in addition to breast milk are often inadequate in nutrients and energy, negatively affecting growth. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
- At a proximal level, providing nutrient-rich foods, ensuring good feeding and caregiving practices, and controlling exposure to infectious agents are critical to support healthy growth. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
- Among "exclusively breastfed" infants, 55% received some expressed breast milk, and 27% briefly received formula in hospital. (aappublications.org)
- In addition, early introduction prevents exclusively breastfed infants from reaching the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding ( 1 ) and might be associated with increased risk for overweight and obesity ( 3 ). (cdc.gov)
- The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends that infants be exclusively breastfed for the first six months, followed by breastfeeding along with complementary foods for up to two years of age or beyond [ 3 ]. (hindawi.com)
- According to current UN recommendations, infants should be exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life, and thereafter should receive appropriate complementary feeding with continued breastfeeding up to two years or beyond. (who.int)
- Exclusively breastfed infants have at least 2½ times fewer illness episodes than infants fed breast-milk substitutes. (who.int)
- Infants are as much as 25 times more likely to die from diarrhoea in the first 6 months of life if not exclusively breastfed. (who.int)
- Infants exclusively breastfed for 4 or more months have half the mean number of acute otitis media episodes of those not breastfed at all. (who.int)
- Percentage of infants breastfeeding exclusively for the first six months of life (180 days). (who.int)
- In the region, only 30 per cent of infants are exclusively breastfed for the first six months of life. (unicef.org)
- In 2003, the NHMRC adopted the WHO recommendations, 'In Australia, it is recommended that as many infants as possible be exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age. (racgp.org.au)
- Only a minority of infants worldwide are exclusively breastfed during the first months of life, and complementary feeding is often unsafe, inappropriate and inadequate. (who.int)
- Thus, in such situations, the provision of RUSFs should not be a stand-alone approach but combined with measures to protect and support breastfeeding, complementary feeding and household food security. (ennonline.net)
- About 43.5% of mothers were not feeding their children complementary food appropriately, which would have negative implication on the health of infants and young children. (hindawi.com)
- Scientific evidence indicates that various inappropriate complementary feeding practices such as untimely introduction of complementary food, improper feeding frequency, and low dietary diversity of complementary food have been shown to have numerous negative effects on children's health [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- Exclusive breastfeeding can be defined as a practice whereby the infants receive only breast milk and not even water, other liquids, tea, herbal preparations, or food during the first six months of life, with the exception of vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicines [ 4 ]. (hindawi.com)
- and 3) increase food diversity and the frequency of feeding during the period of complementary feeding. (scielosp.org)
- Combining hand washing, food protection and household hygiene reduces infant diarrhoea by 33 per cent. (unicef.org)
- Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. (cambridge.org)
- the infant takes only breast milk and no additional food, water, or other fluids with the exception of medicines and vitamin or mineral drops. (who.int)
- the infant is given some breast feeds and some artificial feeds, either milk or cereal, or other food or water. (who.int)
- Complementary food was introduced at exactly 6 months for 34.5% of infants. (omicsonline.org)
- Whereas Pre-lacteal feeding (giving any food before initiation of breastfeeding), discarding colostrum and bottle feeding are common dangerous bad habits demonstrated in breastfeeding practice [ 4 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- This first, large-scale study on complementary feeding in Lebanon analysed the timing and types of food introduced to infants according to mothers' demographic and socioeconomic and infants' characteristics. (who.int)
- Fish and rapeseed oil are major sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in complementary food, but little is known about current consumption in Germany. (jove.com)
- Complementary feeding practices are also poor in many areas, particularly with regards to frequency of feedings, food quality and diversity. (unicef.org)
- 7 The transition from exclusive breastfeeding to receiving complementary foods such as cereals, grains, and solid or semi-solid food is a vulnerable period. (prb.org)
- In Cambodia, almost one-third of breastfed infants under 6 months old consume cereals, grains, and some type of solid and semi-solid food. (prb.org)
- Weaning takes place more rapidly by ages 6 months to 7 months - more than two-thirds of children receive complementary food by this age. (prb.org)
- Research shows that artificial milk feedings replace the intake of breast milk rather than add to it Distinguishing between a breastmilk substitute and a complementary food hinges on whether the food directly reduces breastmilk consumption or adds to it. (babymilkaction.org)
- The present study was conducted in 2016 and aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of infants' mothers from Bushehr (Iran) towards food security using anthropometric indicators. (biomedcentral.com)
- A positive and significant relationship was found between knowledge and attitude ( r = 0.26, P = 0.0001) as well as between knowledge and household food security ( r = 0.11, P = 0.02) in complementary feeding. (biomedcentral.com)
- Increased risks of stunting and obesity in infants due to inadequate knowledge of food security by the mothers. (biomedcentral.com)
- We analyzed data of monthly food diaries of more than 1,000 children from 5 European countries in the first 2 years of life with similar infant feeding recommendations, which were collected as part of the prospective European Childhood Obesity Project (CHOP Study) . (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
- revealed that mothers with college education started complementary food at correct time compared to those mother with low education. (scialert.net)
- Skin emollients applied during early infancy could prevent atopic dermatitis, and early complementary food introduction might reduce food allergy in high-risk infants. (bioportfolio.com)
- The study evaluates the the utility of a non-invasive skin measurement as a biomarker of infant food intake during complementary feeding. (bioportfolio.com)
- Reinbott A, Jordan I, Herrmann J, Kuchenbecker J, Kevanna O & Krawinkel MB (2016) Role of Breastfeeding and Complementary Food on Hemoglobin and Ferritin Levels in a Cambodian Cross-Sectional Sample of Children Aged 3 to 24 Months. (uni-giessen.de)
- Complementary food" includes food that is part of the local culture. (pcij.org)
- In this study only 56.5% of children aged 6-23 months received appropriate complementary feeding, considering timely introduction, minimum dietary diversity, and meal frequency. (hindawi.com)
- Appropriate complementary feeding entails introduction of complementary foods at 6 months with continued breastfeeding up to at least 2 years and beyond, feeding frequency for age, and consumption of a diverse diet [ 2 , 5 , 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- For this study the following definitions were considered: introduction of solid, semisolid, or soft foods and proportion of infants aged six months who receive solid, semisolid, or soft foods during the previous day. (hindawi.com)
- Introduction before age 4 months is too early because infants are not developmentally ready for complementary foods. (cdc.gov)
- Early introduction prevents infants from reaching the recommended 6 months of exclusive breastfeeding. (cdc.gov)
- Although a consensus on ideal timing is lacking, most experts agree that introduction of complementary foods before age 4 months is too early because of infant gastrointestinal and motor immaturity ( 1 , 2 ). (cdc.gov)
- The introduction of soft drinks and industrialized juice in the diet of infants was inopportune and premature. (scielo.br)
- 1 In this context, exclusive breastfeeding during the first six months of life is recommended as a public health measure, and, after that period, the introduction of complementary foods, with continuation of breastfeeding until 2 years of age or older, as well as discouraging the offer of processed foods in the first years of life. (scielo.br)
- The present study aims to evaluate complementary feeding practices, and to establish which factors are associated with the early introduction of complementary feeding in the Saudi Arabian context. (mdpi.com)
- Analyses of feeding practice combinations revealed that when children were not breastfed, obesity odds decreased when SF introduction was postponed until 4 months. (springer.com)
- Schiess S, Grote V, Scaglioni S, et al: Introduction of complementary feeding in 5 European countries. (nestlenutrition-institute.org)
- The complementary feeding (CF) comprises a period in the life of the infant that starts with the introduction of foods other than breast-milk. (bioportfolio.com)
- This is why the World Health Organization recommends exclusive breastfeeding from birth to six months of age, followed by the introduction of appropriate complementary foods and continued breastfeeding for up to two years. (iaea.org)
- However, a recent study ( 16 ) showed that this association between age at introduction of complementary foods and IA may decrease/disappear when the follow-up is extended, including older children. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Developmental readiness of normal full term infants to progress from exclusive breastfeeding to the introduction of complementary foods. (pediatros-thes.gr)
- Introduction of complementary foods (solid foods and liquids other than breast milk or infant formula) during infancy is a practice that has evolved and changed over time and across cultures. (washington.edu)
- 1 ] Material continues to be published in 2016 in mainstream media which calls this practice into question, as reported by Arnold on the Australian Broadcasting Commission (ABC) that Doctors speak out against chiropractors treating children and Medew in the Sydney Morning Herald (SMH) that Doctors at war with chiropractors over treatment of babies and children. (chiro.org)
- In 2016, the WHO published guidance2 to clarify that breast-milk substitutes "should be understood to include any milks (or products that could be used to replace milk, such as fortified soy milk), in either liquid or powdered form, that are specifically marketed for feeding infants and young children up to the age of 3 years (including follow-up formula and growing-up milks). (babymilkaction.org)
- Specifically, breast feeding will be assessed in children 0-6 months of age (sampled separately) and complementary feeding will be assessed in children 6-23.9 months of age (sampled separately). (clinicaltrials.gov)
- A cohort of mothers ( n 11 134) from the Republic of Ireland, interviewed when their infants were 9 months of age. (cambridge.org)
- However, many researchers are questioning if there is sufficient evidence to confidently recommend exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months for infants in developed countries due to the fact that breast milk may not meet the full energy requirements of the average infant at 6 months of age [ 6 ]. (hindawi.com)
- A cross-sectional survey over 10 months found that the majority of infants were introduced to solid foods at or after 4 months of age. (who.int)
- Complementary feeding, which significantly contributes to the prevention of undernutrition and mortality in children after 6 months of age, should not be overlooked in emergencies. (wvi.org)
- Breast-feeding at 12 months of age and dietary habits among breast-fed and non-breast-fed infants. (pediatros-thes.gr)
- Introducing babies to complementary foods too early can cause them to miss out on important nutrients that come from breast milk and infant formula. (elsevier.com)
- Breast milk has the perfect combination of nutrients to provide infants with adequate health and development [ 1 ]. (omicsonline.org)
- Exclusive breastfeeding limits exposure to pathogens and reduces infants' risk of infection (particularly diarrheal diseases) and provides all the nutrients that a baby requires. (prb.org)
- Complementary feeding, along with continued breastfeeding, provides the nutrients and energy to meet the needs of the older infant. (canada.ca)
- The ability of breast milk to provide the required nutrients becomes limited among older infants. (diabetesjournals.org)
- save Save Systematic Review of Infant and Young Child Comple. (scribd.com)
- Despite adopting the WHO Infant and Young Child Feeding guidelines, suboptimal CF was found in all studies. (scribd.com)
- These Guidelines are written as an adjunct to the existing International Code of Marketing of Breast-milk Substitutes and relevant WHA resolutions a , and also the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding b . (ennonline.net)
- This document brings together essential knowledge about infant and young child feeding that health professionals should acquire. (who.int)
- This document translates the aim, objectives and operational targets of the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding into concrete, focused national strategy, policy and action plans. (who.int)
- Safe water, adequate sanitation and good hygiene practices are essential for young children to survive and thrive - to be healthy and to flourish both physically and mentally. (unicef.org)
- An updated version of the Operational Guidance for Emergency Relief Staff and Programme Managers on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies is now available from the ENN. (ennonline.net)
- The Operational Guidance focuses especially on infants and young children under 2 years of age and their caregivers, recognising their particular vulnerability in emergencies. (ennonline.net)
- Infant Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) Core Group The IFE Core Group is an interagency collaboration on infant and young child feeding in emergencies (IFE/IYCF-E) that. (ennonline.net)
- In 2001, an Operational Guidance on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies was developed by an Interagency Working Group, supported by 30 INGOs/ NGOs/UN agencies. (ennonline.net)
- The IFE Core Group1 is planning an orientation workshop on infant and young childfeeding in emergencies (IFE) scheduled for 1- 2 November 2006 in Oxford. (ennonline.net)
- A three day strategy workshop/one day training on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies (IFE) is scheduled to be held in Bali, Indonesia on 10-13th March, 2008. (ennonline.net)
- IFE Module 1, v 2.1, 2010 This is a package of resources to help in orientation on infant and young child feeding in emergencies (IFE). (ennonline.net)
- The Operational Guidance on Infant and Young Child Feeding in Emergencies (OG-IFE) was first produced by the Interagency Working Group on Infant and Young Child Feeding in. (ennonline.net)
- Poverty, lack of access to adequate diets, poor infant and young child feeding practices, and the marketing and sales of unhealthy foods and drinks can lead to undernutrition and micronutrient deficiency as well as to overweight and obesity. (unicef.org)
- Several studies have shown an association between an infant and young child feeding index (ICFI) and height-for-age Z-score (HAZ) in Latin America and Africa. (semanticscholar.org)
- Objectives To obtain a general overview of infant and young child feeding practices in one rural county in China and identify current delivery channels and challenges. (bmj.com)
- The complexity of feeding problems in 700 infants and young children presenting to a tertiary care institution. (bmj.com)
- Similarly there was a significant difference between the parents/caregivers of the cases and the controls in their knowledge for infant and young child feeding practices. (who.int)
- Stable isotope techniques are used to evaluate activities to improve infant and young child feeding practices. (iaea.org)
- Recommend a daily vitamin D supplement of 10 µg (400 IU) for infants and young children who are breastfed or receiving breastmilk. (canada.ca)
- Recommend infants and young children always be supervised during feeding. (canada.ca)
- The Effectiveness of the Cascade Model in Promoting Improved Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices in Rural Malawi. (uni-giessen.de)
- The different program models for delivering infant and young child feeding (IYCF) services in the three countries will inform policies and practices worldwide. (savethechildren.org)
- In March 2000, a technical consultation on infant and young child feeding was undertaken by WHO in collaboration with UNICEF to discuss issues around feeding policies and practices. (who.int)
- 23 May 2005 - DOH Administrative Order (AO) 2006-0014 or the National Policies on Infant and Young Children is issued. (pcij.org)
- It states that in times of crisis, breastfeeding is the first and best feeding option for infants and young children. (pcij.org)
- We investigated these practices in the CHILD birth cohort. (aappublications.org)
- Mothers' instigation of complementary feeding before their infant reaches 6 months old risks shortening their breastfeeding duration, and high morbidity and mortality for their child. (mdpi.com)
- The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) also recommends exclusive breastfeeding for the prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission in developing countries where infant mortality is high. (prb.org)
- CMI were more likely than CMC to introduce infant formula to their child within the first 4 months after childbirth. (frontiersin.org)
- Child feeding practices in a rural Western Kenya c. (who.int)
- http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/sites/default/files/textes-experts/en/535/assessment-and-treatment-of-pediatric-feeding-disorders.pdf The aetiology is often complex and multifactorial but can include anatomical, neurological/neuromuscular, neurodevelopmental, immunological, physiological, and behavioural problems. (bmj.com)
- http://www.child-encyclopedia.com/sites/default/files/textes-experts/en/535/assessment-and-treatment-of-pediatric-feeding-disorders.pdf Rommel N, De Meyer AM, Feenstra L, et al. (bmj.com)
- A review of programmatic experience by the World Health Organization (WHO)/United Nations Children's Fund found a number of shortcomings in the coverage and quality of infant feeding counselling and support in most prevention of mother-to-child transmission programmes ( World Health Organization 2007a ). (wiley.com)
- Recent popular press commentary in Australia has raised concerns around the safety and evidence base for the chiropractic care of infants and children. (chiro.org)
- Chiropractic care of infants and children has been reported as part of the profession since the early 1900s. (chiro.org)
- The medical practitioners comments lead to specific questions regarding evidence of effect and safety for the chiropractic care of infants and children. (chiro.org)
- Full enteral feeding was reached earlier in newborns who were fed human milk than in those fed formula, regardless of GA. Sixty-four percent of infants were still fed with any human milk at discharge. (frontiersin.org)
- Mother's own milk is recommended as the best feeding for all newborns, including preterm and VLBW infants, for its multiple short- and long-term health benefits ( 6 - 9 ). (frontiersin.org)
- Several recent studies and two surveys of the research literature on the benefits of yoga during pregnancy all point to the same conclusion-that moms-to-be fare better, as do their newborns, when they practice yoga, especially if they are battling depression. (yogafordepression.com)
- There was a statistically significant association of inappropriate complementary feeding practices with mothers' occupation, postnatal care service, media exposure, and mothers' decision making role on how the money is used. (hindawi.com)
- 2001) Prenatal and postnatal flavor learning by human infants. (pediatros-thes.gr)
- In a large prospective birth cohort, we characterized the association of breastfeeding, infant weight gain, and body composition in the first year of life and further assessed the impact of feeding method, type and timing of complementary feeding, and formula supplementation during the neonatal period. (aappublications.org)
- Executive Commitee, Feldman-Winter L, Landers S, Noble L, Szucs KA, Viehmann L. Concerns with early universal iron supplementation of breastfeeding infants. (pediatros-thes.gr)
- Early complementary feeding has been shown to increase the risk of overweight, obesity and chronic diseases later in life. (cambridge.org)
- The aim of the present paper is to identify predictors of early complementary feeding in order to help health professionals target population groups in greater need of dietary intervention as well as to provide effective advice. (cambridge.org)
- However, there are a number of infants who will not enjoy the benefits of breastfeeding in the early months of life or for whom breastfeeding will not occur or will stop before the recommended duration of two years or beyond. (who.int)
- Drawing upon a nationally representative sample of children from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, we estimated the magnitude of the relationship between children's WS and early feeding practices. (springer.com)
- On the other hand, many sedatives used in infants are unlicensed and animal studies even suggest increased risk of neuroapoptosis using midazolam at an early age. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- Skin emollient and early complementary feeding to prevent infant atopic dermatitis (PreventADALL): a factorial, multicentre, cluster-randomised trial. (bioportfolio.com)
- Quantitative surveys of frontline health workers will help document their awareness about IYCF, MNPs, training, and sales, while quantitative surveys of the households will help document household level awareness, purchase and use of MNPs and awareness and adherence to IYCF practices for children in the target age range. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- The strength of our study is that we collected a full range of globally standard infant feeding indicators as well as information on delivery channels and reasons for coverage failure, which could provide a basis for development of effective IYCF strategies. (bmj.com)