City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.
Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.
Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.
Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.
The term "United States" in a medical context often refers to the country where a patient or study participant resides, and is not a medical term per se, but relevant for epidemiological studies, healthcare policies, and understanding differences in disease prevalence, treatment patterns, and health outcomes across various geographic locations.
Size and composition of the family.
Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.
Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.
A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.
Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)
The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.
The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.
Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.
Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.
The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.
Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.
The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.
Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.
Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.
The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.
An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.
The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.
The status of health in urban populations.
Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).
A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.
The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.
Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.
Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.
An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.
Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.
An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.
A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.
An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.
A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.
Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.
Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.
The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "California" is a place, specifically a state on the western coast of the United States, and not a medical term or concept. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition.
A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.
The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.
A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.
Living facilities for humans.
The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.
A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.
whoa, I'm just an AI and I don't have the ability to provide on-the-fly medical definitions. However, I can tell you that "Missouri" is not a term commonly used in medicine. It's a state in the United States, and I assume you might be looking for a medical term that is associated with it. If you could provide more context or clarify what you're looking for, I'd be happy to help further!
Studies in which the presence or absence of disease or other health-related variables are determined in each member of the study population or in a representative sample at one particular time. This contrasts with LONGITUDINAL STUDIES which are followed over a period of time.
Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.
A severe gangrenous process occurring predominantly in debilitated and malnourished children, especially in underdeveloped countries. It typically begins as a small vesicle or ulcer on the gingiva that rapidly becomes necrotic and spreads to produce extensive destruction of the buccal and labial mucosa and tissues of the face, which may result in severe disfigurement and even death. Various bacteria have been implicated in the etiology. (Dorland, 27th ed)
All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).
The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.
The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.
An infant during the first month after birth.
The status of health in rural populations.
Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.
The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.
The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)
The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.
The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.
Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Chicago" is a specific location and a major city in the United States, not a medical term or condition with a defined meaning within the medical field. Therefore, it doesn't have a medical definition in a singular sentence or otherwise. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or medical terminology, I would be happy to help answer those!
Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.
Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.
The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)
I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term that can be defined in a medical context. It is a geographical location, referring to the Republic of India, a country in South Asia. If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, I would be happy to help with those!
Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.
Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.
The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.
The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.
Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.
The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.
(Note: 'North Carolina' is a place, not a medical term. However, I can provide a fun fact related to health and North Carolina.)
A republic in eastern Africa, south of ETHIOPIA, west of SOMALIA with TANZANIA to its south, and coastline on the Indian Ocean. Its capital is Nairobi.
Planning that has the goals of improving health, improving accessibility to health services, and promoting efficiency in the provision of services and resources on a comprehensive basis for a whole community. (From Facts on File Dictionary of Health Care Management, 1988, p299)
Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.
Female parents, human or animal.
Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.
Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.
Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.
An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.
Organized services to provide health care for children.
Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.

Paediatric home care in Tower Hamlets: a working partnership with parents. (1/1136)

OBJECTIVES: To describe the first two years of a paediatric home care service. DESIGN: Observational cross sectional study, 1989-91. SETTING: One inner London health district. PATIENTS: 611 children referred to the service; 50 children selected from those referred during the first year, whose parents were interviewed and whose general practitioners were invited to complete a questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES: Description and costs of service; views of parents and general practitioners of selected sample of children. RESULTS: In its second year the team received 303 referrals and made 4004 visits at a salary cost of 98000 pounds, an average of 323 pounds/referral and 24 pounds/visit. This represented a referral rate of 3.2% (258/7939) of inpatient episodes from the main referring hospital between 1 December 1989 and 30 November 1990. Of all referrals to the service, 343(56%) came from hospital inpatient wards. The service was used by disadvantaged and ethnic minority families. The children's parents (in 28(61%) families) and the home care team did a wide range of nursing tasks in the home. Parents of 47(94%) children sampled agreed to be interviewed, and those of 43(91%) found the service useful; guidance and support were most commonly appreciated (33, 70%). Parents of 25(53%) children said that hospital stay or attendance had been reduced or avoided. Parents and general practitioners disagreed on clinical responsibility in 10 children, and communication was a problem for some general practitioners. CONCLUSIONS: The service enabled children to receive advanced nursing care at home. Clinical responsibility should be agreed between parents and professionals at referral.  (+info)

Tuberculosis in Bombay: new insights from poor urban patients. (2/1136)

This study explores the health seeking behaviour of poor male and female tuberculosis patients in Bombay, and examines their perceptions of the causes and effects of the disease on their personal lives. Sixteen patients who attended an NGO's tuberculosis clinic were interviewed in-depth. Almost equal numbers of respondents stated 'germs' and 'worry' as the cause of tuberculosis. Men worried about loss of wages, financial difficulties, reduced capacity for work, poor job performance, and the consequences of long absence from work. Women were concerned about rejection by husband, harassment by in-laws, and the reduced chances of marriage (for single women), in addition to their concerns about dismissal from work. During the first two months of symptoms most patients either did nothing or took home remedies. When symptoms continued, private practitioners were the first source of allopathic treatment; they were generally unable to correctly diagnose the disease. Respondents shifted to municipal and NGO health services when private treatment became unaffordable. Respondents shifted again to NGO-based services because of the poor quality of municipal tuberculosis control services. The wage-earning capacity of both men and women was affected, but women feared loss of employment whereas men, being self-employed, lost wages but not employment. Married men and single women perceived a greater level of family support to initiate and complete treatment. Married women tried, often unsuccessfully, to hide their disease condition for fear of desertion, rejection or blame for bringing the disease. Women dropped out from treatment because of the pressure of housework, and the strain of keeping their condition secret particularly when the reasons for their movements outside the home were routinely questioned. Health programmes will have to be sensitive to the different needs and concerns of urban men and women with tuberculosis; in the case of women, health care providers will have to make particular efforts to identify and treat married women with tuberculosis completely.  (+info)

Childhood immunization coverage in zone 3 of Dhaka City: the challenge of reaching impoverished households in urban Bangladesh. (3/1136)

A household survey of 651 children aged 12-23 months in Zone 3 of Dhaka City carried out in 1995 revealed that 51% of them had fully completed the series of childhood immunizations. Immunization coverage in slum households was only half that in non-slum households. Apart from residence in a slum household, other characteristics strongly associated with the completion of the entire series of childhood immunizations included the following: educational level of the mother, number of children in the family household, mother's employment status, distance from the nearest immunization site, and number of home visits from family-planning field workers. The findings point to the need to improve childhood immunization promotion and service delivery among slum populations. Two promising strategies for improving coverage are to reduce the number of missed opportunities for immunization promotion during encounters between health workers and clients, and to identify through visits to households those children who need additional immunizations. In the long run, increasing the educational level of women will provide a strong stimulus for improving childhood immunization coverage in the population.  (+info)

Geographical and socioeconomic variation in the prevalence of asthma symptoms in English and Scottish children. (4/1136)

BACKGROUND: There has been controversy over the relation between poverty and asthma in the community. The aim of this analysis was to disentangle geographical and socioeconomic variation in asthma symptoms. METHODS: The analysis is based on parental reports of symptoms from data collected in 1990 and 1991. Children aged 5-11 years from three populations (English representative sample, Scottish representative sample, and an English inner city sample) were included. Of 17 677 eligible children, between 14 490 (82.0%) and 15 562 (88.0%) children were available for analysis according to symptom group. RESULTS: Wheezy symptoms were less prevalent in the Scottish sample than in the English samples and asthma attacks were most prevalent in the English representative sample. Asthma attacks were less prevalent in inner city areas than in the English representative sample (OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.66 to 0.95), but persistent wheeze and other respiratory symptoms were more prevalent (OR 1.95, 95% CI 1.65 to 2.32 and OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.52 to 1.84, respectively). The prevalence of persistent wheeze was higher in children whose father's social class was low and in those living in areas with a high Townsend score (an index of poverty) than in other children (p<0.001). Of the 14 areas with the highest Townsend score, 13 had an OR above 1 and six had an OR significantly higher than the reference area. CONCLUSIONS: Persistent wheeze is more prevalent in poor areas than in less deprived areas. This may indicate that poverty is associated with severe asthma or that a high percentage of persistent asthma symptoms in inner city areas are unrecognised and untreated.  (+info)

Longitudinal study of Cryptosporidium infection in children in northeastern Brazil. (5/1136)

A prospective, 4-year cohort study of children born in an urban slum in northeastern Brazil was undertaken to elucidate the epidemiology of Cryptosporidium infection in an endemic setting, describe factors associated with Cryptosporidium-associated persistent diarrhea, and clarify the importance of copathogens in symptomatic cryptosporidiosis. A total of 1476 episodes of diarrhea, accounting for 7581 days of illness (5.25 episodes/child-year), were recorded: of these, 102 episodes (6.9%) were persistent. Cryptosporidium oocysts were identified in 7.4% of all stools, and they were found more frequently in children with persistent diarrhea (16.5%) than in those with acute (8.4%) or no (4.0%) diarrhea (P<.001). Low-birth-weight children and those living in densely crowded subdivisions were at greater risk for symptomatic infection. Disease course was highly variable and was not associated with the presence of copathogens. Recurrent Cryptosporidium infection and relapsing diarrhea associated with it were moderately common. In light of these data, the applicability of the current World Health Organization diarrheal definitions to Cryptosporidium-associated diarrheal episodes may need to be reconsidered.  (+info)

Poverty, time, and place: variation in excess mortality across selected US populations, 1980-1990. (6/1136)

STUDY OBJECTIVE: To describe variation in levels and causes of excess mortality and temporal mortality change among young and middle aged adults in a regionally diverse set of poor local populations in the USA. DESIGN: Using standard demographic techniques, death certificate and census data were analysed to make sex specific population level estimates of 1980 and 1990 death rates for residents of selected areas of concentrated poverty. For comparison, data for whites and blacks nationwide were analysed. SETTING: African American communities in Harlem, Central City Detroit, Chicago's south side, the Louisiana Delta, the Black Belt region of Alabama, and Eastern North Carolina. Non-Hispanic white communities in Cleveland, Detroit, Appalachian Kentucky, South Central Louisiana, Northeastern Alabama, and Western North Carolina. PARTICIPANTS: All black residents or all white residents of each specific community and in the nation, 1979-1981 and 1989-1991. MAIN RESULTS: Substantial variability exists in levels, trends, and causes of excess mortality in poor populations across localities. African American residents of urban/northern communities suffer extremely high and growing rates of excess mortality. Rural residents exhibit an important mortality advantage that widens over the decade. Homicide deaths contribute little to the rise in excess mortality, nor do AIDS deaths contribute outside of specific localities. Deaths attributable to circulatory disease are the leading cause of excess mortality in most locations. CONCLUSIONS: Important differences exist among persistently impoverished populations in the degree to which their poverty translates into excess mortality. Social epidemiological inquiry and health promotion initiatives should be attentive to local conditions. The severely disadvantageous mortality profiles experienced by urban African Americans relative to the rural poor and to national averages call for understanding.  (+info)

Inequalities in low birth weight: parental social class, area deprivation, and "lone mother" status. (7/1136)

OBJECTIVE: To describe the extent of socioeconomic inequalities in low birth weight. To assess the relative benefits of measuring socioeconomic status by individual occupation, socioeconomic deprivation status of area of residence, or both, for describing inequalities and targeting resources. DESIGN: Analysis of birth registrations by registration status: joint compared with sole registrants ("lone mothers"), routinely recorded parental occupation (father's for joint registrants), and census derived enumeration district (ED) deprivation. SETTING: England and Wales, 1986-92. SUBJECTS: 471,411 births with coded parental occupation (random 10% sample) and birth weight. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Proportion of low birth weight (< 2500 g) RESULTS: 34% of births to joint registrants in social classes IV and V, and 45% of births to sole registrants, were in the quintile of most deprived EDs. It was found that 6.8% of births were of low birth weight. Sole registrants were at higher risk (9.3% overall) than joint registrants, across all deprivation quintiles. For joint registrants, the socioeconomic risk gradient was similar by social class or area deprivation, but a greater gradient from 4.7% to 8.7% was found with combined classification. CONCLUSIONS: Up to 30% of low birth weight can be seen as being associated with levels of socioeconomic deprivation below that of the most affluent group, as measured in this study. Caution is needed when targeting interventions to high risk groups when using single indicators. For example, the majority of births to lone mothers and to joint registrants in social classes IV and V would be missed by targeting the most deprived quintile. There is a high degree of inequality in low birth weight according to social class, area deprivation and lone mother status. When using routinely recorded birth and census data, all three factors are important to show the true extent of inequalities.  (+info)

Prevalence and immune response to Entamoeba histolytica infection in preschool children in Bangladesh. (8/1136)

Entamoeba histolytica infection was present in 5% and E. dispar in 13% of asymptomatic 2-5-year-old children from an urban slum of Dhaka, Bangladesh. Entamoeba dispar-infected children were no more likely than uninfected children to have serum antibodies to lectin. In contrast, all children infected with E. histolytica had serum antibodies to lectin. This anti-lectin response included antibodies against the carbohydrate recognition domain, which have been demonstrated in animal models to confer passive protection from amebiasis. Antibodies to lectin persisted in the sera of 17 children with E. histolytica infection over one year of follow-up, during which time E. histolytica infection cleared without treatment in 15, and with anti-amebic medication in two. We conclude that half of the children in this population have serologic evidence of amebiasis by five years of age, and that an anti-lectin serum antibody response is associated with limitation of E. histolytica infection to the colon.  (+info)

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Poverty Areas" is not a standard medical term or classification. However, in a broader social determinants of health context, poverty is recognized as a significant factor that can impact an individual's health outcomes and access to healthcare.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines poverty as "pronounced deprivation in well-being," which includes but is not limited to lack of income and economic opportunities. The WHO also acknowledges that poverty is a major cause of ill-health and premature death around the world.

If you are referring to a specific term or concept that goes by a different name, please provide more context so I can give a more accurate response.

Socioeconomic factors are a range of interconnected conditions and influences that affect the opportunities and resources a person or group has to maintain and improve their health and well-being. These factors include:

1. Economic stability: This includes employment status, job security, income level, and poverty status. Lower income and lack of employment are associated with poorer health outcomes.
2. Education: Higher levels of education are generally associated with better health outcomes. Education can affect a person's ability to access and understand health information, as well as their ability to navigate the healthcare system.
3. Social and community context: This includes factors such as social support networks, discrimination, and community safety. Strong social supports and positive community connections are associated with better health outcomes, while discrimination and lack of safety can negatively impact health.
4. Healthcare access and quality: Access to affordable, high-quality healthcare is an important socioeconomic factor that can significantly impact a person's health. Factors such as insurance status, availability of providers, and cultural competency of healthcare systems can all affect healthcare access and quality.
5. Neighborhood and built environment: The physical conditions in which people live, work, and play can also impact their health. Factors such as housing quality, transportation options, availability of healthy foods, and exposure to environmental hazards can all influence health outcomes.

Socioeconomic factors are often interrelated and can have a cumulative effect on health outcomes. For example, someone who lives in a low-income neighborhood with limited access to healthy foods and safe parks may also face challenges related to employment, education, and healthcare access that further impact their health. Addressing socioeconomic factors is an important part of promoting health equity and reducing health disparities.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "income" is not a medical term. Income is an economic term that refers to the inflow of monetary resources or earnings that an individual or household receives from various sources, such as employment, investments, or government benefits. It is typically used in financial and economic contexts rather than medical ones. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

I'm happy to help, but I need to clarify that "residence characteristics" is not a commonly used medical term. It is more related to the field of public health or epidemiology. However, if you are asking for the characteristics of a residence that could be relevant to medical or health research, they might include:

1. Housing type (single-family home, apartment, mobile home, etc.)
2. Age and condition of the housing unit
3. Presence of environmental hazards (lead paint, asbestos, radon, etc.)
4. Quality of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems
5. Access to clean water and sanitation facilities
6. Safety features (smoke detectors, carbon monoxide detectors, etc.)
7. Presence of pests (rodents, cockroaches, bed bugs, etc.)
8. Neighborhood characteristics (crime rates, access to healthy food options, walkability, etc.)

These factors can all have an impact on the health outcomes of individuals and communities, and are often studied in public health research.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "United States" is a geopolitical entity, specifically the name of the country consisting of 50 states, and it is not a medical term or concept. Therefore, I can't provide a medical definition for it. If you have any questions related to health, medicine, or biology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

"Family characteristics" is a broad term that can refer to various attributes, dynamics, and structures of a family unit. These characteristics can include:

1. Family structure: This refers to the composition of the family, such as whether it is a nuclear family (two parents and their children), single-parent family, extended family, blended family, or same-sex parent family.
2. Family roles: The responsibilities and expectations assigned to each family member, such as caregiver, provider, or decision-maker.
3. Communication patterns: How family members communicate with one another, including frequency, tone, and level of openness.
4. Problem-solving styles: How the family approaches and resolves conflicts and challenges.
5. Cultural and religious practices: The values, traditions, and beliefs that shape the family's identity and worldview.
6. Family functioning: The overall health and effectiveness of the family system, including its ability to adapt to change and support individual members' needs.
7. Attachment styles: The quality and nature of the emotional bonds between family members, which can impact attachment security and relationships throughout life.
8. Parenting style: The approach that parents take in raising their children, such as authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, or uninvolved.
9. Family history: Past experiences and events that have shaped the family's development and dynamics.
10. Genetic factors: Inherited traits and predispositions that can influence family members' health, behavior, and personality.

Understanding family characteristics is essential in fields such as medicine, psychology, social work, and counseling, as these factors can significantly impact individual and family well-being.

Health status disparities refer to differences in the health outcomes that are observed between different populations. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic factors such as race, ethnicity, sex, gender identity, sexual orientation, age, disability, income, education level, and geographic location. Health status disparities can manifest as differences in rates of illness, disease prevalence or incidence, morbidity, mortality, access to healthcare services, and quality of care received. These disparities are often the result of systemic inequities and social determinants of health that negatively impact certain populations, leading to worse health outcomes compared to other groups. It is important to note that health status disparities are preventable and can be addressed through targeted public health interventions and policies aimed at reducing health inequities.

Child welfare is a broad term that refers to the overall well-being and protection of children. It encompasses a range of services and interventions aimed at promoting the physical, emotional, social, and educational development of children, while also protecting them from harm, abuse, and neglect. The medical definition of child welfare may include:

1. Preventive Services: Programs and interventions designed to strengthen families and prevent child maltreatment, such as home visiting programs, parent education classes, and family support services.
2. Protective Services: Interventions that aim to protect children from harm, abuse, or neglect, including investigations of reports of maltreatment, removal of children from dangerous situations, and provision of alternative care arrangements.
3. Family Reunification Services: Efforts to reunite children with their families when it is safe and in the best interest of the child, such as family therapy, parent-child visitation, and case management services.
4. Permanency Planning: The development of long-term plans for children who cannot safely return to their families, including adoption, guardianship, or other permanent living arrangements.
5. Foster Care Services: Provision of temporary care for children who cannot safely remain in their own homes, including placement with foster families, group homes, or residential treatment facilities.
6. Child Health and Development Services: Programs that promote the physical, emotional, and developmental well-being of children, such as health screenings, immunizations, mental health services, and early intervention programs for children with special needs.
7. Advocacy and Policy Development: Efforts to promote policies and practices that support the well-being and protection of children, including advocating for laws and regulations that protect children's rights and ensure their safety and well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social class" is not a term that has a medical definition. It is a sociological concept that refers to the grouping of individuals in a society based on their shared economic and social positions. This can include factors such as income, education, occupation, and wealth.

However, social class can have an impact on health outcomes and access to healthcare. For example, people in lower socioeconomic groups are more likely to experience chronic diseases, mental health disorders, and have limited access to quality healthcare services compared to those in higher socioeconomic groups. This relationship is often referred to as the "social determinants of health."

A census is a official count or survey of a population, typically conducted by a governmental authority to gather information about the demographics, economic characteristics, and other important data about the people living within its borders. In the medical context, censuses may refer to counts or surveys of specific populations, such as patients in a hospital or residents of a particular geographic area, to gather health-related data. This information can be used to inform public health policy, allocate resources, and plan for future healthcare needs.

Health services accessibility refers to the degree to which individuals and populations are able to obtain needed health services in a timely manner. It includes factors such as physical access (e.g., distance, transportation), affordability (e.g., cost of services, insurance coverage), availability (e.g., supply of providers, hours of operation), and acceptability (e.g., cultural competence, language concordance).

According to the World Health Organization (WHO), accessibility is one of the key components of health system performance, along with responsiveness and fair financing. Improving accessibility to health services is essential for achieving universal health coverage and ensuring that everyone has access to quality healthcare without facing financial hardship. Factors that affect health services accessibility can vary widely between and within countries, and addressing these disparities requires a multifaceted approach that includes policy interventions, infrastructure development, and community engagement.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Urban Population" is not a medical term. It is a demographic term used to describe the portion of a country's population that lives in areas classified as urban. The United Nations defines an urban area as a city, town, or other agglomeration with a population of 20,000 or more. However, the specific definition can vary by country and organization.

In contrast, medical terms typically refer to conditions, diseases, symptoms, treatments, or healthcare-related concepts. If you have any questions related to health or medicine, I'd be happy to help if I can!

'Vulnerable populations' is a term used in public health and medicine to refer to groups of individuals who are at a higher risk of negative health outcomes or have limited access to healthcare services. These populations can be defined by various sociodemographic, economic, and environmental factors, including:

1. Age: Older adults and children, especially those with chronic medical conditions, are often considered vulnerable populations due to their increased susceptibility to illness and reduced ability to access care.
2. Race/Ethnicity: Racial and ethnic minorities may face barriers to healthcare access, discrimination, and systemic inequities that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
3. Socioeconomic status: Individuals with low income, limited education, or unstable housing are more likely to experience health disparities due to reduced access to quality healthcare, nutritious food, and safe living environments.
4. Disability status: People with disabilities may face physical, communication, or attitudinal barriers that limit their ability to access healthcare services and contribute to poorer health outcomes.
5. Sexual orientation and gender identity: Lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ+) individuals often experience discrimination and stigma in healthcare settings, which can negatively impact their health and access to care.
6. Immigration status: Undocumented immigrants and refugees may face legal barriers to healthcare access, language barriers, and fear of deportation that contribute to poorer health outcomes.
7. Geographic location: Rural areas and urban "food deserts" often lack adequate healthcare resources and access, leading to health disparities for residents in these regions.
8. Incarceration status: Individuals involved in the criminal justice system may experience limited access to healthcare services and face unique health challenges related to their incarceration.
9. Mental health status: People with mental illness or substance use disorders are often considered vulnerable populations due to stigma, discrimination, and reduced access to quality care.

It is important to note that these factors can intersect and compound the vulnerabilities faced by individuals within these groups. Addressing the needs of vulnerable populations requires a comprehensive approach that addresses social determinants of health, systemic inequities, and barriers to healthcare access.

"Public assistance" is a term used in the field of social welfare and public health to refer to government programs that provide financial aid, food, housing, or other necessary resources to individuals and families who are experiencing economic hardship or have limited means to meet their basic needs. These programs are funded by taxpayers' dollars and are administered at the federal, state, or local level. Examples of public assistance programs include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Medicaid, and Section 8 housing vouchers. The goal of public assistance is to help individuals and families achieve self-sufficiency and improve their overall well-being.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Food Supply" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a more general term related to the availability and distribution of food. However, in a broader public health context, "food supply" can refer to the overall system and infrastructure that provides food to a population, including agricultural practices, food processing, distribution, and accessibility. Ensuring a safe and adequate food supply is an important aspect of public health and preventive medicine.

The term "developing countries" is a socio-economic classification used to describe nations that are in the process of industrialization and modernization. This term is often used interchangeably with "low and middle-income countries" or "Global South." The World Bank defines developing countries as those with a gross national income (GNI) per capita of less than US $12,695.

In the context of healthcare, developing countries face unique challenges including limited access to quality medical care, lack of resources and infrastructure, high burden of infectious diseases, and a shortage of trained healthcare professionals. These factors contribute to significant disparities in health outcomes between developing and developed nations.

A rural population refers to people who live in areas that are outside of urban areas, typically defined as having fewer than 2,000 residents and lacking certain infrastructure and services such as running water, sewage systems, and paved roads. Rural populations often have less access to healthcare services, education, and economic opportunities compared to their urban counterparts. This population group can face unique health challenges, including higher rates of poverty, limited access to specialized medical care, and a greater exposure to environmental hazards such as agricultural chemicals and industrial pollutants.

African Americans are defined as individuals who have ancestry from any of the black racial groups of Africa. This term is often used to describe people living in the United States who have total or partial descent from enslaved African peoples. The term does not refer to a single ethnicity but is a broad term that includes various ethnic groups with diverse cultures, languages, and traditions. It's important to note that some individuals may prefer to identify as Black or of African descent rather than African American, depending on their personal identity and background.

"Social welfare" is a broad concept and not a medical term per se, but it is often discussed in the context of public health and medical social work. Here's a definition related to those fields:

Social welfare refers to the programs, services, and benefits provided by governmental and non-governmental organizations to promote the well-being of individuals, families, and communities, with a particular focus on meeting basic needs, protecting vulnerable populations, and enhancing social and economic opportunities. These efforts aim to improve overall quality of life, reduce health disparities, and strengthen the social determinants of health.

Examples of social welfare programs include Temporary Assistance for Needy Families (TANF), Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP), Medicaid, Section 8 housing assistance, and various community-based services such as mental health counseling, substance abuse treatment, and home healthcare.

In the medical field, social workers often play a crucial role in connecting patients to available social welfare resources to address various psychosocial needs that can impact their health outcomes.

Medical professionals may use the term "social conditions" to refer to various environmental and sociological factors that can impact an individual's health and well-being. These conditions can include things like:

* Socioeconomic status (SES): This refers to a person's position in society, which is often determined by their income, education level, and occupation. People with lower SES are more likely to experience poor health outcomes due to factors such as limited access to healthcare, nutritious food, and safe housing.
* Social determinants of health (SDOH): These are the conditions in which people live, learn, work, and play that affect a wide range of health risks and outcomes. Examples include poverty, discrimination, housing instability, education level, and access to healthy foods and physical activity opportunities.
* Social support: This refers to the emotional, informational, and instrumental assistance that individuals receive from their social networks, including family, friends, neighbors, and community members. Strong social support is associated with better health outcomes, while lack of social support can contribute to poor health.
* Social isolation: This occurs when people are disconnected from others and have limited social contacts or interactions. Social isolation can lead to negative health outcomes such as depression, cognitive decline, and increased risk for chronic diseases.
* Community context: The physical and social characteristics of the communities in which people live can also impact their health. Factors such as access to green spaces, transportation options, and safe housing can all contribute to better health outcomes.

Overall, social conditions can have a significant impact on an individual's health and well-being, and addressing these factors is essential for promoting health equity and improving overall public health.

I'm happy to help! However, it's important to note that while "social justice" is a term used in many fields, including public health and medicine, it does not have a single, universally accepted medical definition. Instead, the concept of social justice in healthcare is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in the distribution of healthcare resources, opportunities, and outcomes.

The World Health Organization (WHO) defines social justice as "the fair and equitable distribution of social determinants of health, which are conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age, including the health system." According to this definition, social justice in healthcare requires addressing the root causes of health disparities, such as poverty, discrimination, and lack of access to education and employment opportunities.

The American Public Health Association (APHA) defines social justice as "the distribution of resources, benefits, and burdens of society to all individuals and groups. When principles of social justice are applied, the resulting distribution is equitable and all members of society have a fair opportunity to benefit from the resources, benefits, and burdens."

In summary, while there may not be a single medical definition of social justice, it is generally understood as the pursuit of fairness, equity, and equality in healthcare and health outcomes. This involves addressing the root causes of health disparities and ensuring that all individuals have access to the resources and opportunities they need to achieve optimal health.

Economics is a social science that studies how individuals, businesses, governments, and societies make choices on allocating resources to satisfy their unlimited wants. It primarily focuses on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services.

In healthcare, economics is often referred to as "health economics," which applies economic theory and methods to analyze health care markets, evaluate alternative health policies, and optimize resource allocation in the healthcare sector. Health economists study issues such as the cost-effectiveness of medical treatments, the impact of health insurance on access to care, and the efficiency of different healthcare delivery systems.

Understanding economics is crucial for making informed decisions about healthcare policy, resource allocation, and patient care. By analyzing data and applying economic principles, healthcare professionals can help ensure that resources are used efficiently and effectively to improve health outcomes and reduce costs.

Urban health is a branch of public health that focuses on the unique health challenges and disparities faced by urban populations. It encompasses the physical, mental, and social well-being of people living in urban areas, which are characterized by high population density, diverse cultural and socioeconomic backgrounds, and unique environmental exposures.

Urban health addresses a range of issues, including infectious diseases, chronic conditions, injuries, violence, and mental health disorders, as well as the social determinants of health such as housing, education, income, and access to healthcare services. It also considers the impact of urbanization on health, including the effects of pollution, noise, crowding, and lack of green spaces.

The goal of urban health is to promote health equity and improve the overall health outcomes of urban populations by addressing these challenges through evidence-based interventions, policies, and programs that are tailored to the unique needs of urban communities.

Neglected Tropical Diseases (NTDs) are a group of infectious diseases that primarily affect people living in poverty, in tropical and subtropical areas. These diseases are called "neglected" because they have been largely ignored by medical research and drug development, as well as by global health agencies and pharmaceutical companies.

The World Health Organization (WHO) has identified 20 diseases as NTDs, including:

1. Buruli ulcer
2. Chagas disease
3. Dengue and chikungunya
4. Dracunculiasis (guinea-worm disease)
5. Echinococcosis
6. Endemic treponematoses
7. Foodborne trematodiases
8. Human African trypanosomiasis (sleeping sickness)
9. Leishmaniasis
10. Leprosy (Hansen's disease)
11. Lymphatic filariasis
12. Onchocerciasis (river blindness)
13. Rabies
14. Schistosomiasis
15. Soil-transmitted helminthiases
16. Snakebite envenoming
17. Taeniasis/Cysticercosis
18. Trachoma
19. Mycetoma, chromoblastomycosis and other deep mycoses
20. Yaws (Endemic treponematoses)

These diseases can lead to severe disfigurement, disability, and even death if left untreated. They affect more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in low-income countries in Africa, Asia, and the Americas. NTDs also have significant social and economic impacts, contributing to poverty, stigma, discrimination, and exclusion.

Efforts are underway to raise awareness and increase funding for research, prevention, and treatment of NTDs. The WHO has set targets for controlling or eliminating several NTDs by 2030, including dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, trachoma, and human African trypanosomiasis.

Health surveys are research studies that collect data from a sample population to describe the current health status, health behaviors, and healthcare utilization of a particular group or community. These surveys may include questions about various aspects of health such as physical health, mental health, chronic conditions, lifestyle habits, access to healthcare services, and demographic information. The data collected from health surveys can be used to monitor trends in health over time, identify disparities in health outcomes, develop and evaluate public health programs and policies, and inform resource allocation decisions. Examples of national health surveys include the National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS).

Health status is a term used to describe the overall condition of an individual's health, including physical, mental, and social well-being. It is often assessed through various measures such as medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and self-reported health assessments. Health status can be used to identify health disparities, track changes in population health over time, and evaluate the effectiveness of healthcare interventions.

Healthcare disparities refer to differences in the quality, accessibility, and outcomes of healthcare that are systematically related to social or economic disadvantage. These disparities may exist between different racial, ethnic, socioeconomic, gender, sexual orientation, geographic, or disability status groups. They can result from a complex interplay of factors including provider bias, patient-provider communication, health system policies, and structural racism, among others. Healthcare disparities often lead to worse health outcomes and reduced quality of life for disadvantaged populations.

The term "European Continental Ancestry Group" is a medical/ethnic classification that refers to individuals who trace their genetic ancestry to the continent of Europe. This group includes people from various ethnic backgrounds and nationalities, such as Northern, Southern, Eastern, and Western European descent. It is often used in research and medical settings for population studies or to identify genetic patterns and predispositions to certain diseases that may be more common in specific ancestral groups. However, it's important to note that this classification can oversimplify the complex genetic diversity within and between populations, and should be used with caution.

Personal Financing is not a term that has a specific medical definition. However, in general terms, it refers to the management of an individual's financial resources, such as income, assets, liabilities, and debts, to meet their personal needs and goals. This can include budgeting, saving, investing, planning for retirement, and managing debt.

In the context of healthcare, personal financing may refer to the ability of individuals to pay for their own medical care expenses, including health insurance premiums, deductibles, co-pays, and out-of-pocket costs. This can be a significant concern for many people, particularly those with chronic medical conditions or disabilities who may face ongoing healthcare expenses.

Personal financing for healthcare may involve various strategies, such as setting aside savings, using health savings accounts (HSAs) or flexible spending accounts (FSAs), purchasing health insurance policies with lower premiums but higher out-of-pocket costs, or negotiating payment plans with healthcare providers. Ultimately, personal financing for healthcare involves making informed decisions about how to allocate financial resources to meet both immediate and long-term medical needs while also balancing other financial goals and responsibilities.

Medical Definition:

"Risk factors" are any attribute, characteristic or exposure of an individual that increases the likelihood of developing a disease or injury. They can be divided into modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors. Modifiable risk factors are those that can be changed through lifestyle choices or medical treatment, while non-modifiable risk factors are inherent traits such as age, gender, or genetic predisposition. Examples of modifiable risk factors include smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity, and unhealthy diet, while non-modifiable risk factors include age, sex, and family history. It is important to note that having a risk factor does not guarantee that a person will develop the disease, but rather indicates an increased susceptibility.

Educational status refers to the level or stage of education that a person has reached. It can be used to describe an individual's educational background, achievements, and qualifications. Educational status can be categorized in various ways, including by level (e.g., elementary school, high school, college, graduate school), years of schooling completed, or type of degree earned (e.g., bachelor's, master's, doctoral).

In medical settings, educational status may be used as a demographic variable to describe the characteristics of a patient population or to identify potential disparities in health outcomes based on education level. Research has shown that higher levels of education are often associated with better health outcomes, including lower rates of chronic diseases and improved mental health. Therefore, understanding a patient's educational status can help healthcare providers tailor their care and education strategies to meet the unique needs and challenges of each individual.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but the term "United Nations" is a political and international organization, not a medical concept or term. The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that was established on October 24, 1945, to promote international cooperation and prevent conflicts. It is headquartered in New York City, and its member states work together to address various global issues, such as peace and security, climate change, human rights, and sustainable development.

If you have any questions related to medical terminology or health-related topics, I would be happy to help!

"Public policy" is not a medical term, but rather a term used in the field of politics, government, and public administration. It refers to a course or principle of action adopted or proposed by a government, party, business, or organization to guide decisions and achieve specific goals related to public health, safety, or welfare.

However, in the context of healthcare and medicine, "public policy" often refers to laws, regulations, guidelines, and initiatives established by government entities to promote and protect the health and well-being of the population. Public policies in healthcare aim to ensure access to quality care, reduce health disparities, promote public health, regulate healthcare practices and industries, and address broader social determinants of health. Examples include Medicaid and Medicare programs, laws mandating insurance coverage for certain medical procedures or treatments, and regulations governing the safety and efficacy of drugs and medical devices.

A catastrophic illness is a severe and acute or chronic illness or condition that requires complex or long-term care, often involving extensive medical resources and significant financial costs. These illnesses often cause major disruptions to the lives of patients and their families, both in terms of their daily activities and their emotional well-being.

Examples of catastrophic illnesses include advanced stages of cancer, end-stage renal disease, stroke, heart failure, and certain neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These conditions often require ongoing medical treatment, hospitalization, surgery, and/or the use of specialized medical equipment, which can result in substantial financial burdens for patients and their families.

In some cases, insurance policies may provide coverage for catastrophic illnesses, but the specific benefits and limitations of such coverage can vary widely depending on the policy and the insurer. Some government programs, such as Medicaid and Medicare, may also offer financial assistance for patients with catastrophic illnesses, although eligibility criteria and benefit levels may also vary.

Small-area analysis is a research method used in epidemiology and public health to examine health outcomes, healthcare utilization, and other health-related factors across small geographic areas or populations. This approach allows for the identification of spatial patterns, disparities, and clustering of health issues within communities, which can inform the development and targeting of interventions, policies, and resources to improve health outcomes and reduce inequalities.

Small-area analysis often involves the use of statistical techniques, such as spatial statistics and geographic information systems (GIS), to analyze data at a fine spatial resolution, typically at the level of census tracts, zip codes, or other small administrative units. This method can help identify areas with high rates of disease or poor health outcomes, as well as social determinants of health that may contribute to these disparities, such as poverty, lack of access to healthcare, and environmental exposures.

Overall, small-area analysis is a valuable tool for understanding the geographic distribution of health issues and developing targeted interventions to improve population health.

Hispanic Americans, also known as Latino Americans, are individuals in the United States who are of Spanish-speaking origin or whose ancestors came from Spain, Mexico, Cuba, the Caribbean, Central and South America. This group includes various cultures, races, and nationalities. It is important to note that "Hispanic" refers to a cultural and linguistic affiliation rather than a racial category. Therefore, Hispanic Americans can be of any race, including White, Black, Asian, Native American, or mixed races.

I'm not aware of a specific medical definition for "Continental Population Groups." However, in the context of genetics and population health, continental population groups often refer to the major population divisions based on genetic ancestry and geographical origin. These groups typically include:

1. African: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Africa, particularly sub-Saharan Africa.
2. European: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Europe.
3. Asian: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Asia, including East Asia, South Asia, and Central Asia.
4. Native American: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from the indigenous populations of North, Central, and South America.
5. Oceanian: Individuals with recent ancestry primarily from Australia, New Guinea, and neighboring islands in the Pacific region.

It is important to note that these categories are not exhaustive or mutually exclusive, as human migration and admixture have led to a complex web of genetic ancestries. Furthermore, using continental population labels can oversimplify the rich diversity within each group and may perpetuate harmful stereotypes or misunderstandings about racial and ethnic identities.

A "social environment" is not a term that has a specific medical definition, but it is often used in the context of public health and social sciences to refer to the physical and social conditions, relationships, and organized institutions that influence the health and well-being of individuals and communities.

The social environment includes factors such as:

* Social support networks (family, friends, community)
* Cultural norms and values
* Socioeconomic status (income, education, occupation)
* Housing and neighborhood conditions
* Access to resources (food, healthcare, transportation)
* Exposure to discrimination, violence, and other stressors

These factors can have a significant impact on health outcomes, as they can influence behaviors related to health (such as diet, exercise, and substance use), as well as exposure to disease and access to healthcare. Understanding the social environment is essential for developing effective public health interventions and policies that promote health equity and reduce health disparities.

"California" is a geographical location and does not have a medical definition. It is a state located on the west coast of the United States, known for its diverse landscape including mountains, beaches, and forests. However, in some contexts, "California" may refer to certain medical conditions or situations that are associated with the state, such as:

* California encephalitis: a viral infection transmitted by mosquitoes that is common in California and other western states.
* California king snake: a non-venomous snake species found in California and other parts of the southwestern United States, which can bite and cause allergic reactions in some people.
* California roll: a type of sushi roll that originated in California and is made with avocado, cucumber, and crab meat, which may pose an allergy risk for some individuals.

It's important to note that these uses of "California" are not medical definitions per se, but rather descriptive terms that refer to specific conditions or situations associated with the state.

A Partnership Practice in Dentistry refers to a dental practice that is owned and operated by two or more dentists who have formed a legal partnership. In this type of arrangement, the partners share the responsibilities, profits, and losses of the practice. They make decisions together about the direction and management of the practice, and they typically have an equal say in how it is run.

Partnership practices can take many forms, depending on the needs and preferences of the partners. Some partnerships may involve dentists who are equally skilled and experienced, while others may involve a more senior dentist partnering with a junior associate. In some cases, partnerships may be formed between dentists who have complementary skills and expertise, such as a general dentist partnering with an oral surgeon or orthodontist.

Partnership practices can offer several benefits to dentists, including the ability to share costs, pool resources, and collaborate on complex cases. However, they also come with certain risks and challenges, such as the potential for disagreements or conflicts between partners. As such, it is important for dentists who are considering forming a partnership practice to carefully consider their options and seek legal and financial advice before making any commitments.

Health expenditures refer to the total amount of money spent on health services, goods, and resources in a given period. This can include expenses for preventive care, medical treatments, medications, long-term care, and administrative costs. Health expenditures can be made by individuals, corporations, insurance companies, or governments, and they can be measured at the national, regional, or household level.

Health expenditures are often used as an indicator of a country's investment in its healthcare system and can reflect the overall health status of a population. High levels of health expenditures may indicate a strong commitment to healthcare, but they can also place a significant burden on individuals, businesses, and governments. Understanding patterns and trends in health expenditures is important for policymakers, healthcare providers, and researchers who are working to improve the efficiency, effectiveness, and accessibility of healthcare services.

An ethnic group is a category of people who identify with each other based on shared ancestry, language, culture, history, and/or physical characteristics. The concept of an ethnic group is often used in the social sciences to describe a population that shares a common identity and a sense of belonging to a larger community.

Ethnic groups can be distinguished from racial groups, which are categories of people who are defined by their physical characteristics, such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features. While race is a social construct based on physical differences, ethnicity is a cultural construct based on shared traditions, beliefs, and practices.

It's important to note that the concept of ethnic groups can be complex and fluid, as individuals may identify with multiple ethnic groups or switch their identification over time. Additionally, the boundaries between different ethnic groups can be blurred and contested, and the ways in which people define and categorize themselves and others can vary across cultures and historical periods.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "housing" is not a term that has a medical definition. In a general sense, housing refers to a place where someone lives, such as a house or apartment. If you have any questions related to healthcare, medicine, or health-related topics, I would be happy to try to help answer them.

Prevalence, in medical terms, refers to the total number of people in a given population who have a particular disease or condition at a specific point in time, or over a specified period. It is typically expressed as a percentage or a ratio of the number of cases to the size of the population. Prevalence differs from incidence, which measures the number of new cases that develop during a certain period.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "sociology" is not a term that has a medical definition. Sociology is a social science that focuses on the study of human behavior and interactions in society, including the development, structure, and functioning of human societies. It is distinct from medical disciplines which focus on the diagnosis and treatment of health conditions.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Missouri" is not a medical term or concept. It is a geographical location, being the name of a state located in the central United States. If you have any questions related to medical terminology or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

A cross-sectional study is a type of observational research design that examines the relationship between variables at one point in time. It provides a snapshot or a "cross-section" of the population at a particular moment, allowing researchers to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition and identify potential risk factors or associations.

In a cross-sectional study, data is collected from a sample of participants at a single time point, and the variables of interest are measured simultaneously. This design can be used to investigate the association between exposure and outcome, but it cannot establish causality because it does not follow changes over time.

Cross-sectional studies can be conducted using various data collection methods, such as surveys, interviews, or medical examinations. They are often used in epidemiology to estimate the prevalence of a disease or condition in a population and to identify potential risk factors that may contribute to its development. However, because cross-sectional studies only provide a snapshot of the population at one point in time, they cannot account for changes over time or determine whether exposure preceded the outcome.

Therefore, while cross-sectional studies can be useful for generating hypotheses and identifying potential associations between variables, further research using other study designs, such as cohort or case-control studies, is necessary to establish causality and confirm any findings.

"Medically uninsured" is not a term that has an official medical definition. However, it generally refers to individuals who do not have health insurance coverage. This can include those who cannot afford it, those who are not offered coverage through their employer, and those who are ineligible for government-sponsored programs like Medicaid or Medicare. Being medically uninsured can lead to financial strain if an individual experiences a medical emergency or needs ongoing care, as they will be responsible for paying for these services out of pocket.

Noma, also known as cancrum oris, is a rare but severe gangrenous disease that primarily affects children who are malnourished, have weakened immune systems, and lack access to proper oral hygiene and healthcare. The condition typically starts as a small ulcer in the mouth and quickly progresses, causing extensive tissue damage and necrosis of the soft and hard tissues of the face.

Noma can also affect the genital region (genital noma) or the anus (anorectal noma). The disease is caused by a polymicrobial infection, involving both aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, that thrive in necrotic tissue. If left untreated, noma can result in significant disfigurement, disability, and even death.

Early diagnosis and prompt treatment with antibiotics, surgery, and nutritional support are crucial to prevent the progression of the disease and improve the chances of a successful recovery. Preventive measures, such as improving oral hygiene, promoting access to healthcare, and addressing malnutrition, can help reduce the risk of noma in vulnerable populations.

"Africa South of the Sahara" is a term commonly used in medical and scientific literature to refer to the region of the African continent that lies south of the Sahara Desert. This region includes 48 countries, with a population of over 1 billion people, and is characterized by its tropical or subtropical climate, diverse cultures, and unique health challenges.

The term "South of the Sahara" is used to distinguish this region from North Africa, which is predominantly Arab and Berber in culture and has closer ties to the Middle East than to Sub-Saharan Africa. The Sahara Desert serves as a natural geographical boundary between these two regions.

In medical terms, "Africa South of the Sahara" encompasses a wide range of health issues, including infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, malaria, tuberculosis, and Ebola, which are prevalent in many parts of the region. The area also faces challenges related to maternal and child health, nutrition, water and sanitation, and non-communicable diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

Medical research and interventions focused on "Africa South of the Sahara" aim to address these unique health challenges and improve the overall health outcomes of the population in this region.

Medical sociology is a subfield of sociology that focuses on the social aspects of health, illness, and healthcare. It studies how various social factors such as race, class, gender, age, and culture influence health outcomes and access to healthcare services. Medical sociologists also examine the organization and delivery of healthcare systems, the physician-patient relationship, and the impact of medical technologies on society. They use a variety of research methods including surveys, interviews, ethnographic observation, and content analysis to gather data and analyze social patterns related to health and medicine. The field of medical sociology is closely linked with other disciplines such as anthropology, psychology, and public health.

In the context of medicine, the term "ownership" is not typically used as a formal medical definition. However, it may be used informally to refer to the responsibility and authority that a healthcare provider has in managing a patient's care. For example, a physician may say that they "take ownership" of a patient's care, meaning that they will oversee and coordinate all aspects of the patient's medical treatment. Additionally, in medical research or clinical trials, "data ownership" refers to who has the rights to access, use, and share the data collected during the study.

A newborn infant is a baby who is within the first 28 days of life. This period is also referred to as the neonatal period. Newborns require specialized care and attention due to their immature bodily systems and increased vulnerability to various health issues. They are closely monitored for signs of well-being, growth, and development during this critical time.

Rural health is a branch of healthcare that focuses on the unique health challenges and needs of people living in rural areas. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines rural health as "the state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in the rural population."

Rural populations often face disparities in healthcare access and quality compared to their urban counterparts. Factors such as geographic isolation, poverty, lack of transportation, and a shortage of healthcare providers can contribute to these disparities. Rural health encompasses a broad range of services, including primary care, prevention, chronic disease management, mental health, oral health, and emergency medical services.

The goal of rural health is to improve the health outcomes of rural populations by addressing these unique challenges and providing high-quality, accessible healthcare services that meet their needs. This may involve innovative approaches such as telemedicine, mobile health clinics, and community-based programs to reach people in remote areas.

Logistic models, specifically logistic regression models, are a type of statistical analysis used in medical and epidemiological research to identify the relationship between the risk of a certain health outcome or disease (dependent variable) and one or more independent variables, such as demographic factors, exposure variables, or other clinical measurements.

In contrast to linear regression models, logistic regression models are used when the dependent variable is binary or dichotomous in nature, meaning it can only take on two values, such as "disease present" or "disease absent." The model uses a logistic function to estimate the probability of the outcome based on the independent variables.

Logistic regression models are useful for identifying risk factors and estimating the strength of associations between exposures and health outcomes, adjusting for potential confounders, and predicting the probability of an outcome given certain values of the independent variables. They can also be used to develop clinical prediction rules or scores that can aid in decision-making and patient care.

"Cultural deprivation" is a term that was previously used in sociology and social work to describe the idea that some individuals or groups may be at a disadvantage due to their lack of exposure to dominant cultural values, customs, and behaviors. This concept has been criticized for its deficit-based perspective and oversimplification of complex social issues.

In medical contexts, the term "cultural competence" is more commonly used to describe the ability of healthcare providers to understand, respect, and respond to the cultural differences of their patients. Cultural competence involves recognizing and addressing power imbalances, communication barriers, and other factors that may affect healthcare access and outcomes for individuals from diverse backgrounds.

It's important to note that cultural competence is not just about acquiring knowledge about different cultures, but also about developing skills and attitudes that promote respectful and effective communication and care. This includes self-awareness of one's own biases and assumptions, flexibility in adapting to different cultural contexts, and a commitment to ongoing learning and improvement.

Catholicism is a branch of Christianity that recognizes the authority of the Pope and follows the teachings and traditions of the Roman Catholic Church. It is the largest Christian denomination in the world, with over a billion members worldwide. The beliefs and practices of Catholicism include the sacraments, prayer, and various forms of worship, as well as social justice initiatives and charitable works. The Catholic Church has a hierarchical structure, with the Pope at the top, followed by bishops, priests, and deacons. It places a strong emphasis on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the Virgin Mary, and the saints.

Health status indicators are measures used to assess and monitor the health and well-being of a population. They provide information about various aspects of health, such as mortality rates, morbidity rates, prevalence of chronic diseases, lifestyle factors, environmental exposures, and access to healthcare services. These indicators can be used to identify trends and disparities in health outcomes, inform policy decisions, allocate resources, and evaluate the effectiveness of public health interventions. Examples of health status indicators include life expectancy, infant mortality rate, prevalence of diabetes, smoking rates, and access to primary care.

I apologize for any confusion, but "agriculture" is not a term that has a medical definition. Agriculture refers to the cultivation and breeding of animals, plants, and fungi for food, fiber, biofuel, medicinal plants, and other products used to sustain and enhance human life. It is an important industry and practice that has been developed over thousands of years and continues to play a critical role in global food production and security.

Health Insurance is a type of insurance that covers the whole or a part of the risk of a person incurring medical expenses, spreading the risk over a large number of persons. By purchasing health insurance, insured individuals pay a premium to an insurance company, which then pools those funds with other policyholders' premiums to pay for the medical care costs of individuals who become ill or injured. The coverage can include hospitalization, medical procedures, prescription drugs, and preventive care, among other services. The goal of health insurance is to provide financial protection against unexpected medical expenses and to make healthcare services more affordable.

I apologize, but "Chicago" is not a medical term or concept. Chicago is the largest city in the state of Illinois and the third-most populous city in the United States. It's known for its impressive architecture, vibrant arts scene, and significant contributions to American culture, including jazz music, improvisational theater, and culinary innovations like deep-dish pizza and the Chicago-style hot dog.

If you have any questions related to medical topics or definitions, please feel free to ask!

Human development in a medical context often refers to the process of physical, cognitive, and emotional growth and development that occurs from conception through adulthood. This includes the development of organs, organ systems, and bodily functions, as well as the acquisition of skills, knowledge, and social-emotional capabilities.

The medical community may also use the term "human development" to refer to the study of how genetic and environmental factors influence this growth and development over time. This field draws on insights from a range of disciplines, including genetics, neuroscience, psychology, sociology, and anthropology, among others.

It's important to note that human development is a complex and dynamic process that can be influenced by a wide range of factors, including genetics, nutrition, physical activity, stress, social support, and cultural context, among others. Understanding the many factors that contribute to healthy human development is an important goal for researchers, clinicians, and policymakers alike.

Demography is the statistical study of populations, particularly in terms of size, distribution, and characteristics such as age, race, gender, and occupation. In medical contexts, demography is often used to analyze health-related data and trends within specific populations. This can include studying the prevalence of certain diseases or conditions, identifying disparities in healthcare access and outcomes, and evaluating the effectiveness of public health interventions. Demographic data can also be used to inform policy decisions and allocate resources to address population health needs.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "geography" is not a term that has a medical definition. Geography is a field of study that deals with the location and distribution of physical and cultural features on Earth's surface, as well as how humans interact with and affect those features. It is not a concept that is typically used in a medical context. If you have any questions related to medicine or healthcare, I would be happy to try to help answer them for you!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "India" is not a medical term or concept. It is a country in South Asia, the second-most populous country in the world, known for its rich history, diverse culture, and numerous contributions to various fields including medicine. If you have any questions related to medical topics, I would be happy to help answer them!

Health policy refers to a set of decisions, plans, and actions that are undertaken to achieve specific healthcare goals within a population. It is formulated by governmental and non-governmental organizations with the objective of providing guidance and direction for the management and delivery of healthcare services. Health policies address various aspects of healthcare, including access, financing, quality, and equity. They can be designed to promote health, prevent disease, and provide treatment and rehabilitation services to individuals who are sick or injured. Effective health policies require careful consideration of scientific evidence, ethical principles, and societal values to ensure that they meet the needs of the population while being fiscally responsible.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "social problems" is not a term that has a specific medical definition. It is a broad term used in sociology and social work to refer to issues that affect large numbers of people within a society, such as poverty, discrimination, crime, and substance abuse. These issues can certainly have impacts on individuals' mental and physical health, but they are not considered medical conditions themselves. If you have any questions related to healthcare or medical terminology, I would be happy to try to help answer those!

The conservation of natural resources refers to the responsible use and management of natural resources, such as water, soil, minerals, forests, and wildlife, in a way that preserves their availability for future generations. This may involve measures such as reducing waste and pollution, promoting sustainable practices, protecting habitats and ecosystems, and engaging in careful planning and decision-making to ensure the long-term sustainability of these resources. The goal of conservation is to balance the needs of the present with the needs of the future, so that current and future generations can continue to benefit from the many goods and services that natural resources provide.

"Employment" is a term that is commonly used in the context of social sciences and law rather than medicine. It generally refers to the state or condition of being employed, which means an individual is engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer in exchange for compensation, such as wages or salary. Employment may involve various types of work arrangements, including full-time, part-time, temporary, contract, or freelance positions.

In the context of medicine and public health, employment is often discussed in relation to its impact on health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status. For instance, research has shown that unemployment or underemployment can negatively affect mental and physical health, while stable employment can contribute to better health outcomes and overall well-being. Additionally, employment may influence an individual's ability to afford healthcare, medications, and other essential needs, which can impact their health status.

In summary, the medical definition of 'employment' pertains to the state or condition of being engaged in a job or occupation, providing services to an employer for compensation. Employment has significant implications for health outcomes, healthcare access, and socioeconomic status.

I'm happy to help, but it seems there might be some confusion in your question. "Interviews" is a broad topic that isn't typically a medical term or subject. However, interviews can certainly be a part of medical settings and procedures, such as job interviews for healthcare positions, patient interviews during medical consultations, or research interviews in clinical studies.

In the context of medical education, an interview might refer to the process by which medical schools evaluate applicants for admission, known as the medical school interview. This is a critical component of the application process and typically involves one-on-one conversations between the applicant and an admissions committee member or a series of multiple mini-interviews (MMIs) with various evaluators.

If you could provide more context or clarify what you mean by "Interviews as Topic" in a medical setting, I'd be happy to help further!

Unemployment is an economic concept rather than a medical one. It refers to the situation where individuals who are actively seeking employment are unable to find work. The World Health Organization (WHO) and other medical bodies do not provide a specific medical definition for unemployment. However, unemployment can have significant impacts on both physical and mental health, leading to issues such as stress, anxiety, depression, and poor physical health.

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "North Carolina" is a geographical location and not a medical term or condition. It is a state located in the southeastern region of the United States. If you have any questions about medical terms or conditions, I'd be happy to help with those!

I'm sorry for any confusion, but "Kenya" is not a medical term. It is the name of a country located in East Africa, known for its diverse wildlife and geography, including savannas, lakelands, the dramatic Great Rift Valley, and mountain highlands. It is also where you can find the Maasai Mara Reserve, known for its annual wildebeest migrations, and vast Nairobi National Park. The capital city of Kenya is Nairobi. If you have any questions about medical terms or concepts, I would be happy to help with those!

Community health planning is a systematic and continuous process that involves assessing the health needs and resources of a defined population, setting priorities for health improvement, and developing and implementing action plans to achieve those priorities. It is a collaborative effort between various stakeholders, including community members, healthcare providers, public health professionals, and other relevant organizations. The goal of community health planning is to improve the overall health and well-being of the community by addressing the social, environmental, and economic factors that impact health. This process typically involves the following steps:

1. Needs assessment: Identifying the health needs and priorities of the community through data collection and analysis, including demographic information, health status indicators, and healthcare utilization patterns.
2. Resource assessment: Identifying the available resources in the community, such as healthcare facilities, public health programs, and community-based organizations that can be leveraged to address the identified needs.
3. Priority setting: Determining the most pressing health issues that need to be addressed based on the needs and resource assessments. This involves engaging stakeholders in a participatory process to identify shared priorities.
4. Plan development: Developing an action plan that outlines specific strategies, activities, and timelines for addressing the identified priorities. The plan should also include indicators for measuring progress and evaluating outcomes.
5. Implementation: Putting the action plan into practice by engaging community members, healthcare providers, and other stakeholders in implementing the strategies and activities outlined in the plan.
6. Evaluation: Monitoring and evaluating the progress of the action plan to ensure that it is achieving the desired outcomes and making adjustments as needed.

Community health planning is an essential component of public health practice because it helps to ensure that resources are allocated effectively, priorities are aligned with community needs, and interventions are tailored to the unique characteristics of the population being served.

Longitudinal studies are a type of research design where data is collected from the same subjects repeatedly over a period of time, often years or even decades. These studies are used to establish patterns of changes and events over time, and can help researchers identify causal relationships between variables. They are particularly useful in fields such as epidemiology, psychology, and sociology, where the focus is on understanding developmental trends and the long-term effects of various factors on health and behavior.

In medical research, longitudinal studies can be used to track the progression of diseases over time, identify risk factors for certain conditions, and evaluate the effectiveness of treatments or interventions. For example, a longitudinal study might follow a group of individuals over several decades to assess their exposure to certain environmental factors and their subsequent development of chronic diseases such as cancer or heart disease. By comparing data collected at multiple time points, researchers can identify trends and correlations that may not be apparent in shorter-term studies.

Longitudinal studies have several advantages over other research designs, including their ability to establish temporal relationships between variables, track changes over time, and reduce the impact of confounding factors. However, they also have some limitations, such as the potential for attrition (loss of participants over time), which can introduce bias and affect the validity of the results. Additionally, longitudinal studies can be expensive and time-consuming to conduct, requiring significant resources and a long-term commitment from both researchers and study participants.

I believe there may be a misunderstanding in your question. "Mothers" is a term that refers to individuals who have given birth to and raised children. It is not a medical term with a specific definition. If you are referring to a different word or term, please clarify so I can provide a more accurate response.

I am not a medical professional, but I can provide you with some general information about the concept of "education" in the context of health and medicine.

In this context, education generally refers to the process of acquiring knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes related to maintaining and improving one's health and well-being, as well as preventing and managing diseases and injuries. Health education can take place in various settings, such as schools, healthcare facilities, workplaces, and communities.

Health education aims to empower individuals and populations to make informed decisions about their health and promote healthy behaviors and lifestyle choices. It covers a wide range of topics, including:

1. Anatomy and physiology
2. Nutrition and diet
3. Exercise and physical activity
4. Mental health and well-being
5. Substance use and abuse
6. Sexual and reproductive health
7. Personal hygiene and infection control
8. Chronic disease management
9. Injury prevention and safety
10. Environmental health

Health education is often delivered by healthcare professionals, educators, and community leaders, using various methods such as lectures, workshops, demonstrations, simulations, and digital media. The ultimate goal of health education is to improve overall health outcomes and reduce health disparities in populations.

Allostasis is a term used in physiology and medicine to describe the process by which an organism adapts to environmental challenges, such as stressors, in order to maintain stability and homeostasis. It refers to the ability of the body to achieve stability through change, rather than through a rigid maintenance of a fixed setpoint.

The concept of allostasis was developed to expand upon the traditional concept of homeostasis, which emphasizes the maintenance of a stable internal environment despite external changes. Allostasis recognizes that the body must actively respond and adapt to changing environmental demands in order to maintain stability and function effectively.

Allostatic load refers to the cumulative wear and tear on the body's systems as a result of repeated or chronic activation of allostatic responses. Over time, this can lead to dysregulation of physiological processes and increased risk for disease.

The term "African Continental Ancestry Group" is a racial category used in the field of genetics and population health to describe individuals who have ancestral origins in the African continent. This group includes people from diverse ethnic backgrounds, cultures, and languages across the African continent. It's important to note that this term is used for genetic and epidemiological research purposes and should not be used to make assumptions about an individual's personal identity, culture, or experiences.

It's also worth noting that there is significant genetic diversity within Africa, and using a single category to describe all individuals with African ancestry can oversimplify this diversity. Therefore, it's more accurate and informative to specify the particular population or region of African ancestry when discussing genetic research or health outcomes.

Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which one or more nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the body's function is not maintained. It can also refer to a deficiency or excess of vitamins, minerals, protein, energy, and/or water. This condition can have negative effects on physical and mental health. Malnutrition includes undernutrition (wasting, stunting, underweight), overnutrition (overweight, obesity) and micronutrient deficiencies or excesses.

It's important to note that malnutrition is different from malabsorption, which is the inability to absorb nutrients from food. Malabsorption can also lead to malnutrition if it results in a lack of necessary nutrients for the body's function.

Child health services refer to a range of medical and supportive services designed to promote the physical, mental, and social well-being of children from birth up to adolescence. These services aim to prevent or identify health problems early, provide treatment and management for existing conditions, and support healthy growth and development.

Examples of child health services include:

1. Well-child visits: Regular checkups with a pediatrician or other healthcare provider to monitor growth, development, and overall health.
2. Immunizations: Vaccinations to protect against infectious diseases such as measles, mumps, rubella, polio, and hepatitis B.
3. Screening tests: Blood tests, hearing and vision screenings, and other diagnostic tests to identify potential health issues early.
4. Developmental assessments: Evaluations of a child's cognitive, emotional, social, and physical development to ensure they are meeting age-appropriate milestones.
5. Dental care: Preventive dental services such as cleanings, fluoride treatments, and sealants, as well as restorative care for cavities or other dental problems.
6. Mental health services: Counseling, therapy, and medication management for children experiencing emotional or behavioral challenges.
7. Nutrition counseling: Education and support to help families make healthy food choices and promote good nutrition.
8. Chronic disease management: Coordinated care for children with ongoing medical conditions such as asthma, diabetes, or cerebral palsy.
9. Injury prevention: Programs that teach parents and children about safety measures to reduce the risk of accidents and injuries.
10. Public health initiatives: Community-based programs that promote healthy lifestyles, provide access to healthcare services, and address social determinants of health such as poverty, housing, and education.

The "Healthy People" programs are a set of initiatives and objectives established by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP), which is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS). These programs aim to improve the health of all Americans over the course of a decade by setting evidence-based national goals and objectives for promoting physical, mental, and social well-being, as well as preventing disease, injury, and premature death.

The "Healthy People" programs are not a medical definition per se, but rather a set of public health initiatives that provide a framework for improving the health of the population. The program's goals and objectives cover a wide range of topics, including:

* Physical activity
* Nutrition
* Tobacco use
* Alcohol and drug abuse
* Mental health
* Sexual health
* Injury prevention
* Environmental health
* Access to healthcare

The "Healthy People" programs are updated every 10 years, with the most recent iteration being Healthy People 2030. These programs serve as a roadmap for policymakers, healthcare providers, and communities to work together to improve the health of the nation.

Within the project's control area, 57% of households were below the poverty line in 2002 compared with 43% in 2007. Making ... Make Poverty History Poor relief Poverty in the United States Poverty threshold Poverty trap Private sector development ... Poverty reduction, poverty relief, or poverty alleviation is a set of measures, both economic and humanitarian, that are ... Overcoming Human Poverty: UNDP Poverty Report 2000. New York: United Nations Publications. Kerbo, Harold (2005). World Poverty ...
Regardless of urbanicity, areas of concentrated poverty tend to have higher crime rates, underperforming schools, poor housing ... The deep poverty rate of a population is the percentage of families earning less than half of the poverty threshold. For a ... Sociologist Gary Sandefur has called reservations the "first underclass areas" because of their concentrated poverty, high ... Sandefur, Gary (1989). "American Indian Reservations: The First Underclass Areas?". Focus. Institute for Research on Poverty. ...
... "low-income areas" as census tracts with 20%-39% of inhabitants falling under the poverty line, and labeling areas with 40% or ... International Development Main page on poverty Accumulation by dispossession Causes of poverty Poverty trap Extreme poverty ... below the federal poverty threshold." A large body of literature argues that areas of concentrated poverty place additional ... Low-poverty areas are not anxious to receive large numbers of poor, public housing families, and there will typically be ...
The pattern of poverty growth is common in rural areas, but there has been a rise in poverty in urban areas. Cities in the ... In 2022, the poverty situation in the Philippines has seen a steady ease Some of the many causes of poverty are bad governance ... "Chronic and Transient Poverty and Vulnerability to Poverty in the Philippines: Evidence Using a Simple Spells Approach". ... As of 2021[update], about 19.99 million Filipinos lived in poverty. Through various anti-poverty programs, such as the ...
The PRS covered a number of areas. In the area of education and literacy, the PRS aimed to have 70 percent of children ... The Poverty Reduction Strategy (PRS) is a country-based process which leads to the formation of a Poverty Reduction Strategy ... Economy of Honduras Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper "Poverty Reduction Strategies". web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 5 July 2018 ... "Honduras - Honduras Poverty Assessment: Attaining Poverty Reduction". web.worldbank.org. Retrieved 5 July 2018. Documents of ...
"SRSP activists share gains in flood-hit areas". The Nation. 5 April 2012. (Articles with short description, Short description ... Poverty in Pakistan Poverty threshold List of countries by percentage of population living in poverty "Initiative for poverty ... "Poverty alleviation programme to undergo third party evaluation". DAWN. 3 March 2013. "The future of poverty reduction ... Bacha Khan Poverty Alleviation Programme (BKPAP), named after Khudai-e-Khidmatgar movement leader, Bacha Khan, was a public- ...
64.01% of rural areas lack access to water. Food insecurity in Niger List of countries by percentage of population living in ... Economy of Niger, Society of Niger, Poverty in Africa, Poverty by country, Social issues in Niger). ... Poverty in Niger is widespread and enduring in one of the world's most impoverished countries. In 2015, the United Nations (UN ... Two out of three residents live below the poverty line and more than 40 percent of the population earn less than $1 a day. ...
Sichuan and Yunnan as the most poverty-stricken areas. In November 2015, the Central Conference on Poverty Alleviation and ... Poverty Alleviation Office of the State Council (2014). "国务院扶贫开发领导小组办公室 建档立卡 国务院扶贫办关于印发《扶贫开发建档立卡工作方案》的通知 'Poverty Alleviation, ... to combat poverty in China. Targeted poverty alleviation plays into China's poverty alleviation strategy, and is to contribute ... Those left behind will face the most difficulty getting over the
"Kafalat programme reaching out to remote areas, says PM's aide". 20 December 2022. "World must help Pakistan suffering from ... "Minister for Poverty Alleviation and Social Security calls on PM". www.radio.gov.pk. v t e (Articles with short description, ... The Ministry of Poverty Alleviation and Social Safety is a federal government ministry in Pakistan that was established in 2020 ... The Ministry of Poverty Alleviation and Social Safety works in close collaboration with provincial governments, civil society ...
The problem is that in high poverty areas this is supposed to be a helpful resource, but they start to hold lower quality[ ... in poverty Make Poverty History Poverty Poverty reduction Poverty threshold Rural ghetto Social mobility Theories of poverty ... In economics, a cycle of poverty or poverty trap is caused by self-reinforcing mechanisms that cause poverty, once it exists, ... conviction Cost of poverty Culture of poverty Deprivation index Diseases of poverty Economic inequality Feminization of poverty ...
... basic needs poverty, and food poverty. However, these reductions are occurring faster in urban areas as compared to rural areas ... Trends in poverty alleviation in Tanzania vary greatly between urban and rural areas in which about 70% of Tanzania's ... This disparity in wealth between urban and rural is a key factor for child poverty in the rural areas, with 48% lacking basic ... Food Poverty The split between rural and urban poverty is most extreme in terms of food insecurity. As of 2012 only 1% of ...
In Afghanistan, poverty is widespread in rural and urban areas. However, it has been estimated that poverty in Afghanistan is ... "Afghanistan's poverty rate rises as economy suffers". U.S. Retrieved 2018-10-18. "Afghan poverty as politics stall". BBC News. ... It has been estimated that four out of five poor people live in rural areas. In these rural areas, families without enough ... Also, 20 percent of people living just above the poverty line are highly vulnerable to falling into poverty. The recent rise of ...
Child poverty is one of the most important problems in Moldova. Children living in rural areas have an extremely high risk of ... "Poverty & Equity Data Portal". povertydata.worldbank.org. Retrieved 2019-08-11. "Poverty headcount ratio at national poverty ... Therefore, increases in employment in agriculture in rural areas alone cannot solve the issue of poverty in villages. Roma ... In 2012, Moldova received 0.004 as its Multidimensional poverty index (MPI). A major concern of the state is that a lot of ...
Poverty exists in rural communities as well as in urban areas. Rural poverty is frequently overlooked. The most common form of ... Working-age poverty Working-age poverty, The Joseph Rowntree Foundation Pensioner poverty Pensioner poverty, Joseph Rowntree ... Absolute poverty is better at judging poverty in the short term, whereas relative poverty is better at seeing long-term trends ... "Poverty in the UK". Oxfam GB. "The Poverty Barrier" (PDF). Wikimedia Commons has media related to Poverty in the United Kingdom ...
"Center helps Madison-area residents complete tax papers". Wisconsin News. "Puelicher Center for Banking Education wins ... John Hoffmire, who holds the Carmen Porco Chair in Sustainable Business at the Center on Business and Poverty, founded the ... Center on Business and Poverty (COBAP) is a non-profit organization that supports writing and community projects related to ... The Center on Business and Poverty has helped to grow a sister organization: The Personal Finance Employee Education Fund ( ...
The rural areas lack the educational resources of the urban areas and the rural areas are considered to be falling below the ... There exist inequalities within rural areas, and within urban areas themselves. In some rural areas, incomes are comparable to ... Ward, Patrick S. (February 1, 2016). "Transient poverty, poverty dynamics, and vulnerability to poverty: An empirical analysis ... From poor areas to poor people : China's evolving poverty reduction agenda - an assessment of poverty and inequality, World ...
Some of the provinces record a high poverty rate compared to others. Areas with high poverty rates include Ratanak Kiri, ... Cambodia has experienced a tremendous drop in poverty but there is a high chance of relapsing to poverty. Poverty rate in ... poverty has dramatically reduced in both rural and urban areas. However, one thing is real that the remaining poverty is more ... The level of poverty in rural areas was estimated at about 45 percent, which was four times that of the capital city. The ...
Areas with low rates of commuters for work are also shown to have higher child poverty rates than areas with higher commuter ... Children in rural areas are more affected by child poverty as well. Many key industries have disappeared from these areas, ... Poverty is also related to rates of covid-19 infection and deaths. Counties with higher rates of poverty are shown to also have ... In fact, poverty in minority communities was not addressed until the 1960s, and until then, the image of poverty was only ...
The new poverty threshold for rural areas was fixed at Rs 972 per month or Rs 32 per day. For urban areas, it was fixed at Rs ... The decline in urban areas was from 14.2% to 6.3% in the same period.The poverty level in rural and urban areas went down by ... 6.9% of the population still lives below the national poverty line and 63% in extreme poverty (December 2018) The World Poverty ... per month in rural areas and 1,286 Indian rupees (75 PPP USD) per month in urban areas. India's nationwide average poverty line ...
Poverty rose sharply in the rural areas in the 1990s and the gap in income between urban and rural areas of the country became ... Poverty in Pakistan has historically been higher in rural areas and lower in the cities. Out of the total 40 million living ... Poverty in Pakistan has been recorded by the World Bank at 39.3% using the lower middle-income poverty rate of US$3.2 per day ... According to the World Bank, poverty in Pakistan fell from 64.3% in 2001 to 24.3% in 2015. Poverty headcount ratio at $1.90 a ...
US Census Bureau (September 2011). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010" (PDF). US Census ... The Montrose Area School District is a small, rural public school district that is located in northwestern Susquehanna County, ... The Montrose Area School District offers a variety of clubs, activities and sports. The district funds: Varsity Junior high ... The Montrose Area School District encompasses approximately 228 square miles (590 km2). According to 2000 federal census data, ...
". "Poverty Guidelines". Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, Education Facts Student Poverty Concentration by LEA, 2012 ... Hazleton Area High School was created on September 2, 1992. The Hazleton Area School district consists of various high schools ... "Locate Us." Hazleton Area School District. Retrieved on July 18, 2016. "Hazleton Area School District Administration Building ... The Hazleton Area School District is a large, rural public school district in Pennsylvania, stretching across portions of ...
Areas of the country which were part of the American frontier for longer, and were therefore more influenced by the frontier ... "Rugged Individualism and the Misunderstanding of American Inequality" (PDF). Confronting Poverty. February 5, 2020. Retrieved ... "Religion, hard work are just 2 areas where Americans and Europeans diverge". MarketWatch. Retrieved 2021-02-22. " ...
". "Poverty Guidelines". Pennsylvania Budget and Policy Center, Education Facts Student Poverty Concentration by LEA, 2012 US ... The Schuylkill Haven Area School District is a small public school district in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. It serves the ... Schuylkill Haven Area School District operates one high school, Schuylkill Haven High School, one middle school, and one ... Schuylkill Haven Area School District encompasses approximately 55 square miles (140 km2). According to 2000 federal census ...
US Census Bureau (September 2011). "Income, Poverty, and Health Insurance Coverage in the United States: 2010" (PDF). US Census ... Minersville Area Elementary Center (1st-6th) and Minersville Area Junior Senior High School (7th-12). High school students may ... Minersville Area School District offers a variety of clubs, activities and an extensive sports program. It offers: German club ... The Minersville Area School District is a small, rural public school district in Schuylkill County, Pennsylvania. It is ...
A 2020 GAO study identified 409 persistent poverty counties, as measured by the 1990 and 2000 censuses and the 2017 Small Area ... "Targeting Federal Funds: Information on Funding to Areas with Persistent or High Poverty". U.S. Governmental Accountability ... Poverty in the United States List of lowest-income places in the United States List of lowest-income counties in the United ... Persistent poverty counties are defined as those where 20% or more of the county population in each of the last four decennial ...
Foreign workers were more likely to be men in their prime working years in the industrial areas, which generally had higher ... While the French poverty threshold is calculated as being half of the median income, the U.S. poverty threshold is based on ... Poverty rate at 50% 1970 12% 1975 10.2% 1979 8.3% 1984 7.7% 1990 6.6% 1996 7.2% 1998 6.7% 2000 6.5% 2002 6% Poverty rate at 60 ... Poverty in France has fallen by 60% over thirty years. Although it affected 15% of the population in 1970, in 2001 only 6.1% ( ...
... living situation is an especially strong determinant of health in poverty. Urban areas present health risks through poor living ... Poverty can overpower race, but within poverty, race highly contributes to health outcomes. African Americans, even in some of ... It is measured in relation to the 'poverty line' or the lowest amount of money needed to sustain human life. Relative poverty ... Poverty and poor health are inseparably linked. Poverty has many dimensions - material deprivation (of food, shelter, ...
"Municipal and City Level Small Area Poverty Estimates; 2009, 2012 and 2015". Philippine Statistics Authority. 10 July 2019. " ... "Poverty incidence (PI):". Philippine Statistics Authority. Retrieved December 28, 2020. "2012 Municipal and City Level Poverty ... 3 - Population, Land Area, and Population Density" (PDF). Philippine Statistics Authority. Quezon City, Philippines. August ... "PSA Releases the 2018 Municipal and City Level Poverty Estimates". Philippine Statistics Authority. 15 December 2021. Retrieved ...
"Areas with weak education targeted for levelling up". BBC News. 1 February 2022. Retrieved 6 April 2022. "Poverty and Schools ... The Labour government of Harold Wilson introduced Education Priority Areas (EPAs) in the late 1960s. Located in areas of ... The Plowden Report advised that around 10% of Britain's deprived areas be recognised as Education Priority Areas, a proposal ... "Doncaster Opportunity Area". Doncaster Opportunity Area. Retrieved 21 April 2022. Greening, Justine (18 January 2017). " ...
Variability Observed By Area, Race/Ethnicity, and Poverty Status ... Variability Observed By Area, Race/Ethnicity, and Poverty ... and higher coverage among teens living in poverty compared with those living at or above the poverty level. Blacks had lower ... Differences were observed among racial/ethnic groups and by poverty status, including higher coverage for HPV4 among Hispanic ... Survey provides first estimates of coverage at the state level and for selected local areas ...
To help, some federal agencies have been required to use at least 10% of program funds in counties with poverty rates of at ... Areas with high poverty rates can face systemic problems-like higher levels of crime and school dropouts-that can make it more ... difficult for residents to get out of poverty. ... Areas with high poverty rates can face systemic problems-like ... Funding for Areas With Persistent or High Poverty. Thursday, July 16, 2020. ...
... shows for the first time how ill-health is linked to poverty in cities, and not just among the poorest urban populations. ... ... Poverty and Ill-Health are Linked in Urban Areas. Thursday, 18 November 2010, 11:26 am. Press Release: WHO ... Hidden Cities: New Report Shows how Poverty and Ill-Health are Linked in Urban Areas. Novel analytical approach allows policy ... Within Osaka city, one area where many day labourers live has an incidence rate 9 times higher than the area with least TB. The ...
Standards or rules apply to: Fortified biscuits at 1st hour, khichdi for 20000 children (pilot) in poverty prone areas. ... GNPR 2016-2017: School health and nutrition (q11) School Feeding Programme in Poverty-Prone Areas - Home, school or community ... Action - GNPR 2016-2017: School health and nutrition (q11) School Feeding Programme in Poverty-Prone Areas - Standards or rules ... Programme: GNPR 2016-2017: School health and nutrition (q11) School Feeding Programme in Poverty-Prone Areas ...
... poverty increased in both urban and suburban areas. However, poverty rose faster in the suburbs than in urban areas and varied ... In January 2012, the Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco released a report that analyzed the increasing poverty in Bay Area ... The Bleaching of San Francisco: Extreme Gentrification and Suburbanized Poverty in the Bay Area. San Francisco is experiencing ... The report notes that several factors contributed to the suburbanization of Bay Area poverty. One is the collapse of the ...
For instance: Just 1% of chil-dren in Ver-mont live in areas of con-cen-trat-ed pover-ty. In Mis-sis-sip-pi, this rate hits 27 ... Com-pared to chil-dren liv-ing in wealth-i-er areas, chil-dren grow-ing up in high-pover-ty neigh-bor-hoods are much less like- ... Millions of Children Living in High-Poverty Areas. Posted July 21, 2015, By the Annie E. Casey Foundation ... Con-cen-trat-ed pover-ty puts whole neigh-bor-hoods at risk. Rel-a-tive to their more afflu-ent coun-ter-parts, high-pover-ty ...
... conditions and billions of yuan in renovation projects as part of an effort to improve education in areas with high poverty. ... Campaign to improve education in areas with high poverty. Updated: 2015-12-16 15:41. By XU WEI(chinadaily.com.cn). ... to improving conditions of primary and junior secondary schools that provide compulsory eduction in poverty-stricken areas. ... conditions and billions of yuan in renovation projects as part of an effort to improve education in areas with high poverty. ...
... is working to break the cycle of poverty in Greenville. ... Nonprofits aim to break cycle of poverty in underserved areas ... But Greenville also ranks as one of the toughest places to get out of poverty," said Dan Weidenbenner, executive director of ... GREENVILLE, S.C. (WSPA) - Mill Village Ministries, a coalition of nonprofits, is working to break the cycle of poverty in ... "It ranks, I think, in the top 27 counties in the country to get out of poverty." ...
We know breaking the cycle of poverty in the Bay Area requires us to fight on two fronts, addressing both short-term needs and ... CEO, United Way Bay Area. At United Way Bay Area, we know that breaking the cycle of poverty in the Bay Area requires us to ... The housing affordability crisis is one of the top issues that keeps Bay Area families in poverty while continually widening ... As is always the case, however, there is much more to be done if we are to truly dismantle poverty and its root causes ...
Understanding Poverty in Orlando Area High Schools (Part 2) Teachers in Osceola County, Florida schools were encouraged to ... First, students in poverty can learn to be forward looking. Second, the American standard for what is "poverty level" is not ... I sure wish there were more churches that believed this in my area, that also were at least somewhat appealing in the area of ... The writer of Understanding Poverty points out that poverty has just as much to do with income as an ability to allocate ...
This definition is consistent with the Census Bureau practice of identifying poverty areas. High-poverty ... High-poverty areas are defined as nonmetro areas with a poverty rate of 20 percent or more. ... High-Poverty Areas Law and Legal Definition. High-poverty areas are defined as nonmetro areas with a poverty rate of 20 percent ... Just over two-thirds of poverty area residents lived in a metropolitan area. In some of these areas, poverty was especially ...
This study analyses the performance of poverty prediction models based on small area estimation (SAE) techniques. Predicted ... yield poverty estimates that match observed poverty fairly closely. This offers some support for using SAE techniques ... Poverty prediction methods that track consumption correlates as opposed to consumption itself have been developed to overcome ... However, the findings also call for further validation especially in settings with rapid, transitory poverty deterioration, as ...
2. The poverty rate in the Bay Area remains at near record levels, with more than 800,000 residents living below the federal ... San Francisco Mayor Pushes for $250 Million Affordable Housing Bond; More than 800K Bay Area Residents Living in Poverty. San ... And the number of residents who are actually living in poverty is likely much higher than 800,000 because the federal poverty ... More than 800K Bay Area Residents Living in Poverty. Read more: eastbayexpress.com ...
Cardiometabolic dysfunction among U.S. adolescents and area-level poverty: race/ethnicity-specific associations. Journal of ... Cardiometabolic dysfunction among U.S. adolescents and area-level poverty: race/ethnicity-specific associations ... adolescents and area-level poverty: race/ethnicity-specific associations ... Poverty, food insecurity and the risk for childhood internalizing and externalizing disorders ...
Fuel poverty in the UK: Is there a difference between rural and urban areas?. Title. Fuel poverty in the UK: Is there a ... Printed from /publications/fuel-poverty-uk-there-difference-between-rural-and-urban-areas on 01/12/23 07:27:37 AM ...
... Headlines: October 1st, 2010 A new report from the Rural Services ... for rural householders and is based on a targeted survey of people in areas seen to be more at more risk of fuel poverty due to ... Director of the Commission for Rural Communities said they had expected to find high levels of fuel poverty in the survey areas ... The findings reveal an apparent link between fuel poverty and the health of rural residents. They show that more of the people ...
... ... 2023) Precarity, Area-Based Discrimination, and Limited Support: Experiences of Urban Poverty After COVID-19 in Bangladesh, ... The COVID-19 pandemic led to a significant increase in poverty in Bangladesh, particularly in urban areas. Rising food prices ... https://bigd.bracu.ac.bd/publications/precarity-area-based-discrimination-and-limited-support_english/ ...
The films place of action is The Borinage, a district in the Belgian Hainaut province that had been a mining area for ... Misere au BorinagepovertyruinsThe BorainsunemploymentWallonieWalloonwork ...
Here we hypothesize that coastal towns and villages close to marine protected areas can better alleviate poverty in the context ... Can marine protected areas alleviate poverty in the context of land desertification? - MPA-POVERTY. Can marine protected areas ... Here we hypothesize that coastal towns and villages close to marine protected areas (MPAs) can better alleviate poverty in the ... Here we hypothesize that coastal towns and villages close to marine protected areas can better alleviate poverty in the context ...
VOLUNTEERING TO HELP CHIDREN LIVING AT RISK AND IN EXTREME POVERTY IN THE ANDES OF PERU. This is a one-time opportunity ... These children come from migrants families of areas that have been declared, by the main organisations of international ... VOLUNTEERING TO HELP CHIDREN LIVING AT RISK AND IN EXTREME POVERTY IN THE ANDES OF PERU Save to Favorites ... development, to be in a situation of extreme poverty and need (Junin, Huancavelica, Ayacucho and Central Rainforest). ...
... and advocates across the country can help reduce poverty and hardship by conducting aggressive outreach and giving hands-on ... State revenue agencies also can provide information to state benefit agencies or community groups about geographic areas in the ... www.cbpp.org/research/poverty-and-inequality/economic-security-programs-reduce-overall-poverty-racial-and-ethnic. Even in the ... The Rescue Plans changes to the Child Tax Credit are estimated to reduce the number of children in poverty by more than 40 ...
... for the Puget Sound region including all of the Poverty Bay 7.5 quadrangle. For a brief description of lidar (LIght... ... 24,000-scale topographic map of the Poverty Bay 7.5 quadrangle. The topographic map, published in 1997 but compiled in 1957, ... a 6-ft-resolution lidar digital elevation model combined with the geology depicted on the Geologic Map of the Poverty Bay 7.5 ... Study Area. Publication type. Report. Publication Subtype. USGS Numbered Series. Title. Lidar-revised geologic map of the ...
Cutting the Child Poverty Rate by Half: A Report from the National Academies. *Hilary Hoynes and Robert Moffitt ...
Ratios are much higher among disadvantaged African American and Latino young men living in urban areas. ...
The Southern Poverty Law Center and its partners intervened in a federal class action lawsuit to end the practice. ...
... poverty estimates from several major national household surveys and programs. Find out more about these data sources. ... Metro and Micro Areas Population Estimates Population Projections Small Area Income and Poverty Statistics of U.S. Businesses ... The Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates Program (SAIPE) uses data from a variety of sources to create statistical models to ... The Small Area Income and Poverty Estimates (SAIPE) program provides more current estimates for the administration and ...
We compute poverty rates separately for women and men and find that womens poverty relative to men decreases with dowry. ... and individual-level poverty in rural India. Based on the estimates of a collective household model, we show that the share of ... may have the unintended effect of aggravating intra-household inequality and increasing womens risk of living in poverty after ... Programme Areas * Research Policy Networks (RPNs) * Research Projects and Networks * Research Policies ...
Research has shown that women are more likely to fall into energy poverty as they are the main users and producers of household ... For instance, older women are the most likely to suffer from energy poverty due to a higher life expectancy and lower pensions ... It is estimated that 70% of 1.3 billion population in developing countries living in poverty are women. ... The EESC brings together representatives from all areas of organised civil society, who give their independent advice on EU ...
Examine the different conceptualisations of poverty and inequality with MSc Global Development with Poverty and Inequality. ... Courses in related subject areas. Use the links below to view lists of courses in related subject areas. ... MSc Global Development (Poverty and Inequality). Examine the different conceptualisations and characteristics of poverty and ... Explore the different conceptualisations and characteristics of poverty and inequality. *Benefit from leading academics in each ...
The Effect of a U.S. Poverty Reduction Intervention on Maternal Assessments of Young Childrens Health, Nutrition, and Sleep: A ... The Effect of a U.S. Poverty Reduction Intervention on Maternal Assessments of Young Childrens Health, Nutrition, and Sleep: A ... The Effect of a U.S. Poverty Reduction Intervention on Maternal Assessments of Young Childrens Health, Nutrition, and Sleep: A ... The Effect of a U.S. Poverty Reduction Intervention on Maternal Assessments of Young Childrens Health, Nutrition, and Sleep: A ...

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