Poverty Areas: City, urban, rural, or suburban areas which are characterized by severe economic deprivation and by accompanying physical and social decay.Socioeconomic Factors: Social and economic factors that characterize the individual or group within the social structure.Income: Revenues or receipts accruing from business enterprise, labor, or invested capital.Residence Characteristics: Elements of residence that characterize a population. They are applicable in determining need for and utilization of health services.United StatesFamily Characteristics: Size and composition of the family.Health Status Disparities: Variation in rates of disease occurrence and disabilities between population groups defined by socioeconomic characteristics such as age, ethnicity, economic resources, or gender and populations identified geographically or similar measures.Child Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the child.Social Class: A stratum of people with similar position and prestige; includes social stratification. Social class is measured by criteria such as education, occupation, and income.Censuses: Enumerations of populations usually recording identities of all persons in every place of residence with age or date of birth, sex, occupation, national origin, language, marital status, income, relation to head of household, information on the dwelling place, education, literacy, health-related data (e.g., permanent disability), etc. The census or "numbering of the people" is mentioned several times in the Old Testament. Among the Romans, censuses were intimately connected with the enumeration of troops before and after battle and probably a military necessity. (From Last, A Dictionary of Epidemiology, 3d ed; Garrison, An Introduction to the History of Medicine, 4th ed, p66, p119)Health Services Accessibility: The degree to which individuals are inhibited or facilitated in their ability to gain entry to and to receive care and services from the health care system. Factors influencing this ability include geographic, architectural, transportational, and financial considerations, among others.Urban Population: The inhabitants of a city or town, including metropolitan areas and suburban areas.Vulnerable Populations: Groups of persons whose range of options is severely limited, who are frequently subjected to COERCION in their DECISION MAKING, or who may be compromised in their ability to give INFORMED CONSENT.Public Assistance: Financial assistance to impoverished persons for the essentials of living through federal, state or local government programs.Food Supply: The production and movement of food items from point of origin to use or consumption.Developing Countries: Countries in the process of change with economic growth, that is, an increase in production, per capita consumption, and income. The process of economic growth involves better utilization of natural and human resources, which results in a change in the social, political, and economic structures.Rural Population: The inhabitants of rural areas or of small towns classified as rural.African Americans: Persons living in the United States having origins in any of the black groups of Africa.Social Welfare: Organized institutions which provide services to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community.Social Conditions: The state of society as it exists or in flux. While it usually refers to society as a whole in a specified geographical or political region, it is applicable also to restricted strata of a society.Social Justice: An interactive process whereby members of a community are concerned for the equality and rights of all.Economics: The science of utilization, distribution, and consumption of services and materials.Urban Health: The status of health in urban populations.Neglected Diseases: Diseases that are underfunded and have low name recognition but are major burdens in less developed countries. The World Health Organization has designated six tropical infectious diseases as being neglected in industrialized countries that are endemic in many developing countries (HELMINTHIASIS; LEPROSY; LYMPHATIC FILARIASIS; ONCHOCERCIASIS; SCHISTOSOMIASIS; and TRACHOMA).Health Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to health and disease in a human population within a given geographic area.Health Status: The level of health of the individual, group, or population as subjectively assessed by the individual or by more objective measures.Healthcare Disparities: Differences in access to or availability of medical facilities and services.European Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Europe.Financing, Personal: Payment by individuals or their family for health care services which are not covered by a third-party payer, either insurance or medical assistance.Risk Factors: An aspect of personal behavior or lifestyle, environmental exposure, or inborn or inherited characteristic, which, on the basis of epidemiologic evidence, is known to be associated with a health-related condition considered important to prevent.Educational Status: Educational attainment or level of education of individuals.United Nations: An international organization whose members include most of the sovereign nations of the world with headquarters in New York City. The primary objectives of the organization are to maintain peace and security and to achieve international cooperation in solving international economic, social, cultural, or humanitarian problems.Public Policy: A course or method of action selected, usually by a government, from among alternatives to guide and determine present and future decisions.Catastrophic Illness: An acute or prolonged illness usually considered to be life-threatening or with the threat of serious residual disability. Treatment may be radical and is frequently costly.Small-Area Analysis: A method of analyzing the variation in utilization of health care in small geographic or demographic areas. It often studies, for example, the usage rates for a given service or procedure in several small areas, documenting the variation among the areas. By comparing high- and low-use areas, the analysis attempts to determine whether there is a pattern to such use and to identify variables that are associated with and contribute to the variation.Hispanic Americans: Persons living in the United States of Mexican (MEXICAN AMERICANS), Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, or other Spanish culture or origin. The concept does not include Brazilian Americans or Portuguese Americans.Continental Population Groups: Groups of individuals whose putative ancestry is from native continental populations based on similarities in physical appearance.Social Environment: The aggregate of social and cultural institutions, forms, patterns, and processes that influence the life of an individual or community.CaliforniaPartnership Practice, Dental: A voluntary contract between two or more dentists who may or may not share responsibility for the care of patients, with proportional sharing of profits and losses.Health Expenditures: The amounts spent by individuals, groups, nations, or private or public organizations for total health care and/or its various components. These amounts may or may not be equivalent to the actual costs (HEALTH CARE COSTS) and may or may not be shared among the patient, insurers, and/or employers.Ethnic Groups: A group of people with a common cultural heritage that sets them apart from others in a variety of social relationships.Housing: Living facilities for humans.Prevalence: The total number of cases of a given disease in a specified population at a designated time. It is differentiated from INCIDENCE, which refers to the number of new cases in the population at a given time.Sociology: A social science dealing with group relationships, patterns of collective behavior, and social organization.MissouriMedically Uninsured: Individuals or groups with no or inadequate health insurance coverage. Those falling into this category usually comprise three primary groups: the medically indigent (MEDICAL INDIGENCY); those whose clinical condition makes them medically uninsurable; and the working uninsured.Noma: A severe gangrenous process occurring predominantly in debilitated and malnourished children, especially in underdeveloped countries. It typically begins as a small vesicle or ulcer on the gingiva that rapidly becomes necrotic and spreads to produce extensive destruction of the buccal and labial mucosa and tissues of the face, which may result in severe disfigurement and even death. Various bacteria have been implicated in the etiology. (Dorland, 27th ed)Africa South of the Sahara: All of Africa except Northern Africa (AFRICA, NORTHERN).Sociology, Medical: The study of the social determinants and social effects of health and disease, and of the social structure of medical institutions or professions.Ownership: The legal relation between an entity (individual, group, corporation, or-profit, secular, government) and an object. The object may be corporeal, such as equipment, or completely a creature of law, such as a patent; it may be movable, such as an animal, or immovable, such as a building.Infant, Newborn: An infant during the first month after birth.Rural Health: The status of health in rural populations.Logistic Models: Statistical models which describe the relationship between a qualitative dependent variable (that is, one which can take only certain discrete values, such as the presence or absence of a disease) and an independent variable. A common application is in epidemiology for estimating an individual's risk (probability of a disease) as a function of a given risk factor.Cultural Deprivation: The absence of certain expected and acceptable cultural phenomena in the environment which results in the failure of the individual to communicate and respond in the most appropriate manner within the context of society. Language acquisition and language use are commonly used in assessing this concept.Catholicism: The Christian faith, practice, or system of the Catholic Church, specifically the Roman Catholic, the Christian church that is characterized by a hierarchic structure of bishops and priests in which doctrinal and disciplinary authority are dependent upon apostolic succession, with the pope as head of the episcopal college. (From Webster, 3d ed; American Heritage Dictionary, 2d college ed)Health Status Indicators: The measurement of the health status for a given population using a variety of indices, including morbidity, mortality, and available health resources.Agriculture: The science, art or practice of cultivating soil, producing crops, and raising livestock.Insurance, Health: Insurance providing coverage of medical, surgical, or hospital care in general or for which there is no specific heading.ChicagoHuman Development: Continuous sequential changes which occur in the physiological and psychological functions during the life-time of an individual.Demography: Statistical interpretation and description of a population with reference to distribution, composition, or structure.Geography: The science dealing with the earth and its life, especially the description of land, sea, and air and the distribution of plant and animal life, including humanity and human industries with reference to the mutual relations of these elements. (From Webster, 3d ed)IndiaHealth Policy: Decisions, usually developed by government policymakers, for determining present and future objectives pertaining to the health care system.Social Problems: Situations affecting a significant number of people, that are believed to be sources of difficulty or threaten the stability of the community, and that require programs of amelioration.Conservation of Natural Resources: The protection, preservation, restoration, and rational use of all resources in the total environment.Employment: The state of being engaged in an activity or service for wages or salary.Interviews as Topic: Conversations with an individual or individuals held in order to obtain information about their background and other personal biographical data, their attitudes and opinions, etc. It includes school admission or job interviews.Unemployment: The state of not being engaged in a gainful occupation.North CarolinaStilbamidines: STILBENES with AMIDINES attached.Apoferritins: The protein components of ferritins. Apoferritins are shell-like structures containing nanocavities and ferroxidase activities. Apoferritin shells are composed of 24 subunits, heteropolymers in vertebrates and homopolymers in bacteria. In vertebrates, there are two types of subunits, light chain and heavy chain. The heavy chain contains the ferroxidase activity.Longitudinal Studies: Studies in which variables relating to an individual or group of individuals are assessed over a period of time.Mothers: Female parents, human or animal.Education: Acquisition of knowledge as a result of instruction in a formal course of study.Allostasis: Biological adaptation, such as the rise of EPINEPHRINE in response to exercise, stress or perceived danger, followed by a fall of epinephrine during RELAXATION. Allostasis is the achievement of stability by turning on and turning off the allostatic systems including the IMMUNE SYSTEM; the AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM and NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS.African Continental Ancestry Group: Individuals whose ancestral origins are in the continent of Africa.Malnutrition: An imbalanced nutritional status resulted from insufficient intake of nutrients to meet normal physiological requirement.Pharmacovigilance: The detection of long and short term side effects of conventional and traditional medicines through research, data mining, monitoring, and evaluation of healthcare information obtained from healthcare providers and patients.Healthy People Programs: Healthy People Programs are a set of health objectives to be used by governments, communities, professional organizations, and others to help develop programs to improve health. It builds on initiatives pursued over the past two decades beginning with the 1979 Surgeon General's Report, Healthy People, Healthy People 2000: National Health Promotion and Disease Prevention Objectives, and Healthy People 2010. These established national health objectives and served as the basis for the development of state and community plans. These are administered by the Office of Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (ODPHP). Similar programs are conducted by other national governments.BangladeshTropical Medicine: The branch of medicine concerned with diseases, mainly of parasitic origin, common in tropical and subtropical regions.Maternal Welfare: Organized efforts by communities or organizations to improve the health and well-being of the mother.Single Parent: A natural, adoptive, or substitute parent of a dependent child, who lives with only one parent. The single parent may live with or visit the child. The concept includes the never-married, as well as the divorced and widowed.South Africa: A republic in southern Africa, the southernmost part of Africa. It has three capitals: Pretoria (administrative), Cape Town (legislative), and Bloemfontein (judicial). Officially the Republic of South Africa since 1960, it was called the Union of South Africa 1910-1960.Politics: Activities concerned with governmental policies, functions, etc.Mortality: All deaths reported in a given population.Hunger: The desire for FOOD generated by a sensation arising from the lack of food in the STOMACH.Quebec: A province of eastern Canada. Its capital is Quebec. The region belonged to France from 1627 to 1763 when it was lost to the British. The name is from the Algonquian quilibek meaning the place where waters narrow, referring to the gradually narrowing channel of the St. Lawrence or to the narrows of the river at Cape Diamond. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p993 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p440)Rhode IslandEmigration and Immigration: The process of leaving one's country to establish residence in a foreign country.Latin America: The geographic area of Latin America in general and when the specific country or countries are not indicated. It usually includes Central America, South America, Mexico, and the islands of the Caribbean.Delivery of Health Care: The concept concerned with all aspects of providing and distributing health services to a patient population.Family: A social group consisting of parents or parent substitutes and children.Health Services Needs and Demand: Health services required by a population or community as well as the health services that the population or community is able and willing to pay for.Urban Renewal: The planned upgrading of a deteriorating urban area, involving rebuilding, renovation, or restoration. It frequently refers to programs of major demolition and rebuilding of blighted areas.Rhodobacter capsulatus: Non-pathogenic ovoid to rod-shaped bacteria that are widely distributed and found in fresh water as well as marine and hypersaline habitats.Regression Analysis: Procedures for finding the mathematical function which best describes the relationship between a dependent variable and one or more independent variables. In linear regression (see LINEAR MODELS) the relationship is constrained to be a straight line and LEAST-SQUARES ANALYSIS is used to determine the best fit. In logistic regression (see LOGISTIC MODELS) the dependent variable is qualitative rather than continuously variable and LIKELIHOOD FUNCTIONS are used to find the best relationship. In multiple regression, the dependent variable is considered to depend on more than a single independent variable.Child, Orphaned: Child who has lost both parents through death or desertion.Child Mortality: Number of deaths of children between one year of age to 12 years of age in a given population.Infant Mortality: Postnatal deaths from BIRTH to 365 days after birth in a given population. Postneonatal mortality represents deaths between 28 days and 365 days after birth (as defined by National Center for Health Statistics). Neonatal mortality represents deaths from birth to 27 days after birth.Multivariate Analysis: A set of techniques used when variation in several variables has to be studied simultaneously. In statistics, multivariate analysis is interpreted as any analytic method that allows simultaneous study of two or more dependent variables.Disabled Children: Children with mental or physical disabilities that interfere with usual activities of daily living and that may require accommodation or intervention.Sanitation: The development and establishment of environmental conditions favorable to the health of the public.Caribbean Region: The area that lies between continental North and South America and comprises the Caribbean Sea, the West Indies, and the adjacent mainland regions of southern Mexico, Central America, Colombia, and Venezuela.Violence: Individual or group aggressive behavior which is socially non-acceptable, turbulent, and often destructive. It is precipitated by frustrations, hostility, prejudices, etc.Child Nutrition Disorders: Disorders caused by nutritional imbalance, either overnutrition or undernutrition, occurring in children ages 2 to 12 years.Stress, Psychological: Stress wherein emotional factors predominate.Insurance Coverage: Generally refers to the amount of protection available and the kind of loss which would be paid for under an insurance contract with an insurer. (Slee & Slee, Health Care Terms, 2d ed)Data Collection: Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, including questionnaires, interviews, observation, existing records, and electronic devices. The process is usually preliminary to statistical analysis of the data.Zimbabwe: A republic in southern Africa, east of ZAMBIA and BOTSWANA and west of MOZAMBIQUE. Its capital is Harare. It was formerly called Rhodesia and Southern Rhodesia.Public Health: Branch of medicine concerned with the prevention and control of disease and disability, and the promotion of physical and mental health of the population on the international, national, state, or municipal level.Costa RicaCharities: Social welfare organizations with programs designed to assist individuals in need.FloridaPrejudice: A preconceived judgment made without factual basis.MexicoCrime: A violation of the criminal law, i.e., a breach of the conduct code specifically sanctioned by the state, which through its administrative agencies prosecutes offenders and imposes and administers punishments. The concept includes unacceptable actions whether prosecuted or going unpunished.Child Development: The continuous sequential physiological and psychological maturing of an individual from birth up to but not including ADOLESCENCE.Causality: The relating of causes to the effects they produce. Causes are termed necessary when they must always precede an effect and sufficient when they initiate or produce an effect. Any of several factors may be associated with the potential disease causation or outcome, including predisposing factors, enabling factors, precipitating factors, reinforcing factors, and risk factors.Food Assistance: Food or financial assistance for food given to those in need.Human Rights: The rights of the individual to cultural, social, economic, and educational opportunities as provided by society, e.g., right to work, right to education, and right to social security.World Health: The concept pertaining to the health status of inhabitants of the world.Emigrants and Immigrants: People who leave their place of residence in one country and settle in a different country.Parenting: Performing the role of a parent by care-giving, nurturance, and protection of the child by a natural or substitute parent. The parent supports the child by exercising authority and through consistent, empathic, appropriate behavior in response to the child's needs. PARENTING differs from CHILD REARING in that in child rearing the emphasis is on the act of training or bringing up the children and the interaction between the parent and child, while parenting emphasizes the responsibility and qualities of exemplary behavior of the parent.Minority Groups: A subgroup having special characteristics within a larger group, often bound together by special ties which distinguish it from the larger group.Urbanization: The process whereby a society changes from a rural to an urban way of life. It refers also to the gradual increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas.Medicaid: Federal program, created by Public Law 89-97, Title XIX, a 1965 amendment to the Social Security Act, administered by the states, that provides health care benefits to indigent and medically indigent persons.AfricaFees and Charges: Amounts charged to the patient as payer for health care services.Commerce: The interchange of goods or commodities, especially on a large scale, between different countries or between populations within the same country. It includes trade (the buying, selling, or exchanging of commodities, whether wholesale or retail) and business (the purchase and sale of goods to make a profit). (From Random House Unabridged Dictionary, 2d ed, p411, p2005 & p283)Sex Factors: Maleness or femaleness as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from SEX CHARACTERISTICS, anatomical or physiological manifestations of sex, and from SEX DISTRIBUTION, the number of males and females in given circumstances.BrazilPopulation Surveillance: Ongoing scrutiny of a population (general population, study population, target population, etc.), generally using methods distinguished by their practicability, uniformity, and frequently their rapidity, rather than by complete accuracy.Capital Expenditures: Those funds disbursed for facilities and equipment, particularly those related to the delivery of health care.NicaraguaEconomic Recession: Significant decline in economic activity spread across the economy, lasting more than a few months, normally visible in real gross domestic product, real income, employment, industrial production, and wholesale-retail sales. (National Bureau of Economic Research, Inc, www.nber.org/cycles.html, accessed 4/23/2009)Age Distribution: The frequency of different ages or age groups in a given population. The distribution may refer to either how many or what proportion of the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.New York CityPublic Sector: The area of a nation's economy that is tax-supported and under government control.Environmental Health: The science of controlling or modifying those conditions, influences, or forces surrounding man which relate to promoting, establishing, and maintaining health.Nutritional Status: State of the body in relation to the consumption and utilization of nutrients.MichiganHealth Care Surveys: Statistical measures of utilization and other aspects of the provision of health care services including hospitalization and ambulatory care.Health Planning Councils: Organized groups serving in advisory capacities related to health planning activities.Developed Countries: Countries that have reached a level of economic achievement through an increase of production, per capita income and consumption, and utilization of natural and human resources.Social Planning: Interactional process combining investigation, discussion, and agreement by a number of people in the preparation and carrying out of a program to ameliorate conditions of need or social pathology in the community. It usually involves the action of a formal political, legal, or recognized voluntary body.Southeastern United States: The geographic area of the southeastern region of the United States in general or when the specific state or states are not included. The states usually included in this region are Alabama, Arkansas, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina, West Virginia, and Virginia.Health Promotion: Encouraging consumer behaviors most likely to optimize health potentials (physical and psychosocial) through health information, preventive programs, and access to medical care.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Geographic Information Systems: Computer systems capable of assembling, storing, manipulating, and displaying geographically referenced information, i.e. data identified according to their locations.Financial Management: The obtaining and management of funds for institutional needs and responsibility for fiscal affairs.Nutrition Surveys: A systematic collection of factual data pertaining to the nutritional status of a human population within a given geographic area. Data from these surveys are used in preparing NUTRITION ASSESSMENTS.Social Support: Support systems that provide assistance and encouragement to individuals with physical or emotional disabilities in order that they may better cope. Informal social support is usually provided by friends, relatives, or peers, while formal assistance is provided by churches, groups, etc.BostonHIV Infections: Includes the spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus infections that range from asymptomatic seropositivity, thru AIDS-related complex (ARC), to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).Eligibility Determination: Criteria to determine eligibility of patients for medical care programs and services.Public Housing: Housing subsidized by tax funds, usually intended for low income persons or families.Pregnancy in Adolescence: Pregnancy in human adolescent females under the age of 19.Group Practice, Dental: Any group of three or more full-time dentists, organized in a legally recognized entity for the provision of dental care, sharing space, equipment, personnel and records for both patient care and business management, and who have a predetermined arrangement for the distribution of income.ArtToilet Facilities: Facilities provided for human excretion, often with accompanying handwashing facilities.Age Factors: Age as a constituent element or influence contributing to the production of a result. It may be applicable to the cause or the effect of a circumstance. It is used with human or animal concepts but should be differentiated from AGING, a physiological process, and TIME FACTORS which refers only to the passage of time.Social Change: Social process whereby the values, attitudes, or institutions of society, such as education, family, religion, and industry become modified. It includes both the natural process and action programs initiated by members of the community.Health Services: Services for the diagnosis and treatment of disease and the maintenance of health.Internationality: The quality or state of relating to or affecting two or more nations. (After Merriam-Webster Collegiate Dictionary, 10th ed)Health Behavior: Behaviors expressed by individuals to protect, maintain or promote their health status. For example, proper diet, and appropriate exercise are activities perceived to influence health status. Life style is closely associated with health behavior and factors influencing life style are socioeconomic, educational, and cultural.Life Change Events: Those occurrences, including social, psychological, and environmental, which require an adjustment or effect a change in an individual's pattern of living.Sarcoma Virus, Woolly Monkey: A species of GAMMARETROVIRUS producing tumors in primates. Originally isolated from a fibrosarcoma in a woolly monkey, WMSV is a replication-defective v-onc virus which carries the sis oncogene. In order to propagate, WMSV requires a replication-competent helper virus.Communicable DiseasesQualitative Research: Any type of research that employs nonnumeric information to explore individual or group characteristics, producing findings not arrived at by statistical procedures or other quantitative means. (Qualitative Inquiry: A Dictionary of Terms Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, 1997)CambodiaFinancing, Organized: All organized methods of funding.Hygiene: The science dealing with the establishment and maintenance of health in the individual and the group. It includes the conditions and practices conducive to health. (Webster, 3d ed)Multilevel Analysis: The statistical manipulation of hierarchically and non-hierarchically nested data. It includes clustered data, such as a sample of subjects within a group of schools. Prevalent in the social, behavioral sciences, and biomedical sciences, both linear and nonlinear regression models are applied.Questionnaires: Predetermined sets of questions used to collect data - clinical data, social status, occupational group, etc. The term is often applied to a self-completed survey instrument.Culture: A collective expression for all behavior patterns acquired and socially transmitted through symbols. Culture includes customs, traditions, and language.South CarolinaSocial Determinants of Health: The circumstances in which people are born, grow up, live, work, and age, as well as the systems put in place to deal with illness. These circumstances are in turn shaped by a wider set of forces: economics, social policies, and politics (http://www.cdc.gov/socialdeterminants/).AlabamaWomen: Human females as cultural, psychological, sociological, political, and economic entities.Community Health Services: Diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive health services provided for individuals in the community.Financing, Government: Federal, state, or local government organized methods of financial assistance.Sex Distribution: The number of males and females in a given population. The distribution may refer to how many men or women or what proportion of either in the group. The population is usually patients with a specific disease but the concept is not restricted to humans and is not restricted to medicine.Psychosocial Deprivation: The absence of appropriate stimuli in the physical or social environment which are necessary for the emotional, social, and intellectual development of the individual.Topography, Medical: The systematic surveying, mapping, charting, and description of specific geographical sites, with reference to the physical features that were presumed to influence health and disease. Medical topography should be differentiated from EPIDEMIOLOGY in that the former emphasizes geography whereas the latter emphasizes disease outbreaks.Marriage: The social institution involving legal and/or religious sanction whereby individuals are joined together.Racism: Differential treatment or unequal access to opportunities, based on group membership such as origin or ethnicity.Uncompensated Care: Medical services for which no payment is received. Uncompensated care includes charity care and bad debts.Literature, ModernEthical Theory: A philosophically coherent set of propositions (for example, utilitarianism) which attempts to provide general norms for the guidance and evaluation of moral conduct. (from Beauchamp and Childress, Principles of Biomedical Ethics, 4th ed)History, 19th Century: Time period from 1801 through 1900 of the common era.Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome: An acquired defect of cellular immunity associated with infection by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a CD4-positive T-lymphocyte count under 200 cells/microliter or less than 14% of total lymphocytes, and increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections and malignant neoplasms. Clinical manifestations also include emaciation (wasting) and dementia. These elements reflect criteria for AIDS as defined by the CDC in 1993.Fast Foods: Prepared food that is ready to eat or partially prepared food that has a final preparation time of a few minutes or less.Catchment Area (Health): A geographic area defined and served by a health program or institution.Food: Any substances taken in by the body that provide nourishment.Medical Indigency: The condition in which individuals are financially unable to access adequate medical care without depriving themselves and their dependents of food, clothing, shelter, and other essentials of living.Mental Health: The state wherein the person is well adjusted.Ghana: A republic in western Africa, south of BURKINA FASO and west of TOGO. Its capital is Accra.History, 20th Century: Time period from 1901 through 2000 of the common era.

Economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity in the United States. (1/4330)

This paper reviews recent research on the economic determinants and dietary consequences of food insecurity and hunger in the United States. The new Current Population Study (CPS) food insecurity and hunger measure shows that hunger rates decline sharply with rising incomes. Despite this strong relationship, confirmed in other national datasets, a one-to-one correspondence between poverty-level incomes and hunger does not exist. In 1995, 13.1% of those in poverty experienced hunger and half of those experiencing hunger had incomes above the poverty level. Panel data indicate that those who are often food insufficient are much more likely than food-sufficient households to have experienced recent events that stress household budgets, such as losing a job, gaining a household member or losing food stamps. Cross-sectional work also demonstrates the importance of food stamps because benefit levels are inversely related to food insufficiency. Concern for the dietary consequences of domestic food insufficiency is well placed; recent research shows that the odds of consuming intakes <50% of the recommended dietary allowance (RDA) are higher for adult women and elderly individuals from food-insufficient households. Preschoolers from food-insufficient households do not consume significantly lower amounts than those from food-sufficient households, but mean intakes for the rest of members in those very same households are significantly lower for the food insufficient. This research highlights the importance of food insecurity and hunger indicators, further validates the use of self-reported measures and points to areas of need for future research and interventions.  (+info)

Food insecurity: consequences for the household and broader social implications. (2/4330)

A conceptual framework showing the household and social implications of food insecurity was elicited from a qualitative and quantitative study of 98 households from a heterogeneous low income population of Quebec city and rural surroundings; the study was designed to increase understanding of the experience of food insecurity in order to contribute to its prevention. According to the respondents' description, the experience of food insecurity is characterized by two categories of manifestations, i.e., the core characteristics of the phenomenon and a related set of actions and reactions by the household. This second category of manifestations is considered here as a first level of consequences of food insecurity. These consequences at the household level often interact with the larger environment to which the household belongs. On a chronic basis, the resulting interactions have certain implications that are tentatively labeled "social implications" in this paper. Their examination suggests that important aspects of human development depend on food security. It also raises questions concerning the nature of socially acceptable practices of food acquisition and food management, and how such acceptability can be assessed. Guidelines to that effect are proposed. Findings underline the relevance and urgency of working toward the realization of the right to food.  (+info)

Predicting longitudinal growth curves of height and weight using ecological factors for children with and without early growth deficiency. (3/4330)

Growth curve models were used to examine the effect of genetic and ecological factors on changes in height and weight of 225 children from low income, urban families who were assessed up to eight times in the first 6 y of life. Children with early growth deficiency [failure to thrive (FTT)] (n = 127) and a community sample of children without growth deficiency (n = 98) were examined to evaluate how genetic, child and family characteristics influenced growth. Children of taller and heavier parents, who were recruited at younger ages and did not have a history of growth deficiency, had accelerated growth from recruitment through age 6 y. In addition, increases in height were associated with better health, less difficult temperament, nurturant mothers and female gender; increases in weight were associated with better health. Children with a history of growth deficiency demonstrated slower rates of growth than children in the community group without a history of growth deficiency. In the community group, changes in children's height and weight were related to maternal perceptions of health and temperament and maternal nurturance during feeding, whereas in the FTT group, maternal perceptions and behavior were not in synchrony with children's growth. These findings suggest that, in addition to genetic factors, growth is dependent on a nurturant and sensitive caregiving system. Interventions to promote growth should consider child and family characteristics, including maternal perceptions of children's health and temperament and maternal mealtime behavior.  (+info)

Influence of prenatal iron and zinc supplements on supplemental iron absorption, red blood cell iron incorporation, and iron status in pregnant Peruvian women. (4/4330)

BACKGROUND: It is estimated that 60% of pregnant women worldwide are anemic. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to examine the influence of iron status on iron absorption during pregnancy by measuring supplemental iron absorption, red blood cell iron incorporation, and iron status in pregnant women. DESIGN: Subjects were 45 pregnant Peruvian women (33+/-1 wk gestation), of whom 28 received daily prenatal supplements containing 60 mg Fe and 250 microg folate without (Fe group, n = 14) or with (Fe+Zn group, n = 14) 15 mg Zn, which were were consumed from week 10 to 24 of gestation until delivery. The remaining 17 women (control) received no prenatal supplementation. Iron status indicators and isotopes were measured in maternal blood collected 2 wk postdosing with oral (57Fe) and intravenous (58Fe) stable iron isotopes. RESULTS: Maternal serum ferritin and folate concentrations were significantly influenced by supplementation (P < 0.05). Serum iron was also significantly higher in the Fe than in the Fe+Zn (P < 0.03) or control (P < 0.001) groups. However, the supplemented groups had significantly lower serum zinc concentrations than the control group (8.4+/-2.3 and 10.9+/-1.8 micromol/L, respectively, P < 0.01). Although percentage iron absorption was inversely related to maternal serum ferritin concentrations (P = 0.036), this effect was limited and percentage iron absorption did not differ significantly between groups. CONCLUSIONS: Because absorption of nonheme iron was not substantially greater in pregnant women with depleted iron reserves, prenatal iron supplementation is important for meeting iron requirements during pregnancy.  (+info)

Geography of intestinal permeability and absorption. (5/4330)

BACKGROUND: Intestinal morphology and function vary geographically. AIMS: These functions were assessed in asymptomatic volunteers in European, North American, Middle Eastern, Asian, African, and Caribbean countries. METHODS: Five hour urine collections were obtained from each subject following ingestion of a 100 ml iso-osmolar test solution containing 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, L-rhamnose, and lactulose after an overnight fast, to assess active (3-0-methyl-D-glucose) and passive (D-xylose) carrier mediated, and non-mediated (L-rhamnose) absorption capacity, as well as intestinal permeability (lactulose:rhamnose ratio). RESULTS: A comparison of results for subjects from tropical countries (n=218) with those resident in the combined temperate and subtropical region (Europe, United States, Qatar) (n=224) showed significant differences. Residents in tropical areas had a higher mean lactulose:rhamnose ratio and lower mean five hour recoveries of 3-0-methyl-D-glucose, D-xylose, and L-rhamnose, indicating higher intestinal permeability and lower absorptive capacity. Investigation of visiting residents suggested that differences in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity were related to the area of residence. Subjects from Texas and Qatar, although comprised of several ethnic groups and resident in a subtropical area, showed no significant difference from European subjects. CONCLUSIONS: There are clearly demarcated variations in intestinal permeability and absorptive capacity affecting asymptomatic residents of different geographical areas which correspond with the condition described as tropical enteropathy. Results suggest the importance of environmental factors. The parameters investigated may be relevant to the predisposition of the indigenous population and travellers to diarrhoeal illness and malnutrition. Intestinal function in patients from the tropics may be difficult to interpret, but should take into account the range of values found in the asymptomatic normal population.  (+info)

Prevalence and social correlates of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Harlem. (6/4330)

OBJECTIVES: This study examined the prevalence, social correlates, and clustering of cardiovascular disease risk factors in a predominantly Black, poor, urban community. METHODS: Associations of risk factor prevalences with sociodemographic variables were examined in a population-based sample of 695 men and women aged 18 to 65 years living in Central Harlem. RESULTS: One third of the men and women were hypertensive, 48% of the men and 41% of the women were smokers, 25% of the men and 49% of the women were overweight, and 23% of the men and 35% of the women reported no leisure-time physical activity over the past month. More than 80% of the men and women had at least 1 of these risk factors, and 9% of the men and 19% of the women had 3 or more risk factors. Income and education were inversely related to hypertension, smoking, and physical inactivity. Having 3 or more risk factors was associated with low income and low education (extreme odds ratio [OR] = 10.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.0, 34.5 for education; OR = 3.7, CI = 1.6, 8.9 for income) and with a history of unstable work or of homelessness. CONCLUSIONS: Disadvantaged, urban communities are at high risk for cardiovascular disease. These results highlight the importance of socioenvironmental factors in shaping cardiovascular risk.  (+info)

Efficacy of Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate vaccines and persistence of disease in disadvantaged populations. The Haemophilus Influenzae Study Group. (7/4330)

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) conjugate vaccines among children aged 2 to 18 months and to determine risk factors for invasive Hib disease during a period of declining incidence (1991-1994). METHODS: A prospective population-based case-control study was conducted in a multistate US population of 15.5 million. A laboratory-based active surveillance system was used for case detection. RESULTS: In a multivariate analysis, having a single-parent mother (odds ratio [OR] = 4.3, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.2, 14.8) and household crowding (OR = 3.5, 95% CI = 1.03, 11.7) were risk factors for Hib disease independent of vaccination status. After adjustment for these risk factors, the protective efficacy of 2 or more Hib vaccine doses was 86% (95% CI = 16%, 98%). Among undervaccinated subjects, living with a smoker (P = .02) and several indicators of lower socioeconomic status were risk factors for Hib disease. CONCLUSIONS: Hib disease still occurs at low levels in the United States, predominantly in socioeconomically disadvantaged populations. Low immunization coverage may facilitate continuing transmission of Hib. Special efforts to achieve complete and timely immunization in disadvantaged populations are needed.  (+info)

Abbreviated measures of food sufficiency validly estimate the food security level of poor households: measuring household food security. (8/4330)

This study was designed to develop an abbreviated method that captures both the qualitative and quantitative dimensions of household food security (HFS). Women in poor and very poor households (n = 238) in a peri-urban barrio in Caracas, Venezuela, provided data on food availability and their perception of food resource constraints and hunger experiences within the home. Socioeconomic data and food-related behavior that may predict HFS levels were gathered. On average, the top 12 food contributors of energy provided 81% and predicted more than 90% of the variation in households' total energy availability using stepwise regression analysis. On the other hand, a 4-point 12-item scale was shown to have face, content and construct validity with reiterative testing, factor analysis and a Chronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.92. Assessing predictors of energy availability together with a self-perceived HFS scale may provide a valid and reliable method for identifying and monitoring food security levels among poor urban households.  (+info)

  • Multiple Perspectives for Poverty Reduction. (igi-global.com)
  • The chapter is descriptive and theoretical and adopts a multi-disciplinary approach to poverty reduction by examining the key elements of four perspectives, synthesizing their commonalities and emphasizing their unique contribution and ability to interface with each other to address the complex issue of poverty reduction (Sofo & Wicks, 2017). (igi-global.com)
  • Government implementation of free Senior High School policy is a major poverty reduction mechanism in the country, according to the suspended General Secretary of the People's National Convention (PNC), Mr. Atik Mohammed. (ghanaweb.com)
  • The World Bank leader set another poverty-reduction target: to increase the incomes of the poorest 40 per cent of the population in each country. (dawn.com)
  • This tool provides a compilation of Cities Reducing Poverty members' anticipated vs. actual timeframes for developing their community-wide poverty reduction strategies. (tamarackcommunity.ca)
  • Most of the reduction in poverty since 1990 is because of the economic growth of India and China. (erlc.com)
  • From 2014 to 2018, the poverty rate of the population without a migration background and the second generation showed no significant increase. (admin.ch)
  • Poverty rates in New York City have declined by around 0.7 percentage points from 2006 to 2007, according to the American Community Survey released yesterday by the Census Bureau. (observer.com)
  • The Congressional Progressive Caucus (CPC), which she co-chairs along with Congresswoman Lynn Woolsey, introduced its Progressive Caucus Budget which included an Anti-Poverty and Opportunity Initiative. (thenation.com)
  • Oxfam, the international anti-poverty organisation, welcomed Kim's vision but criticised the lack of a target for shared prosperity. (dawn.com)
  • Third, she reminded the audience that that China ultimately lifted 800 million people out of poverty without any anti-poverty policies. (globalintegrity.org)
  • To reach the 2030 goal, we must halve global poverty once, then halve it again, and then nearly halve it a third time - all in less than one generation," he said. (dawn.com)
  • Yet according to a Barna Group survey taken in 2014, more than eight in 10 Americans (84 percent) were unaware global poverty has reduced so drastically, and more than two-thirds (67 percent) said they thought global poverty had risen. (erlc.com)
  • Additionally, more than two-thirds of US adults (68 percent) said they don't believe it's possible to end extreme global poverty within the next 25 years. (erlc.com)
  • Yet the Bank uses that figure as the "International Poverty Line (IPL)," and by that measure, global poverty has been reduced significantly. (likethedew.com)
  • The reality about global poverty, which the World Bank would prefer that we forget, is that extreme poverty has hardly improved at all in recent decades . (likethedew.com)
  • WASHINGTON: World Bank chief Jim Yong Kim on Tuesday called for a global drive to wipe out extreme poverty by 2030, acknowledging that reaching the goal will require extraordinary efforts. (dawn.com)
  • Can We End Extreme Poverty by 2030? (erlc.com)
  • In addition, Kim said, efforts must be made to curb inequality and ensure that growth reduces poverty, especially through job creation. (dawn.com)
  • But the international community's abysmal record on tackling poverty, inequality and disregard for human life far precede this pandemic. (likethedew.com)
  • The idea that extreme poverty could "end" and yet twice the current U.S. population be living on less than $1.90 a day may sound strange. (erlc.com)
  • The map on the left shows the poverty headcount ratio $1.90 a day. (likethedew.com)
  • Anyone living on $1.90 a day-the World Bank for many years used $1 a day to define extreme poverty-cannot possibly live a meaningful life no matter how defined. (likethedew.com)
  • Participants also stated that the poverty in the United Kingdom was increasing, and consisted of families as well as individuals falling into the poverty trap. (yougov.co.uk)
  • Ang opened her remarks by presenting the poverty trap: the notion that poor countries are poor because of their weak institutions, and that they have weak institutions because they are poor. (globalintegrity.org)
  • That's why Lee has maintained a laser-like focus on addressing poverty. (thenation.com)
  • Using the British standard of measurement, approximately 30 percent of Americans - and 40 percent of American children - are living in poverty. (thenation.com)
  • The resolution stated that "policy initiatives addressing poverty have not kept pace with the needs of millions of Americans" and that "the United States has a moral responsibility to meet the needs of those persons, groups, and communities that are impoverished, disadvantaged or otherwise in poverty. (thenation.com)
  • Just as "frictional unemployment" (about four percent) exists when there is "full" employment, "frictional poverty" (around three to eight percent) will continue even when extreme poverty has been "ended. (erlc.com)
  • COVID-19 is projected to push hundreds of millions into unemployment and poverty, while increasing the number at risk of acute hunger by more than 250 million. (likethedew.com)
  • It seems that the city's poverty rate, which dropped from 19.2 percent in 2006 to 18.5 percent in 2007, is following the downward trend in national poverty numbers, which dropped from 13.3 percent in 2006 to 13 percent in 2007. (observer.com)
  • However, all is not well on Manhattan Island, as the borough's children's poverty rate increased to 27.5 percent (up from 27.1 percent in 2006), bucking the downward trend in the city's overall children's poverty rate, which fell 0.9 percentage points from 2006 to 2007. (observer.com)
  • Vibrant Communities supports cities and local leaders to develop and implement large-scale change initiatives through two learning networks, Cities Reducing Poverty and Cities Deepening Community. (tamarackcommunity.ca)
  • In the population with a migration background from the second or subsequent generations, the poverty rate is not significantly different from that of the population with no migration background, but it is lower (6%) than that of the first generation. (admin.ch)
  • In most major regions, the poverty rates of the population with or without a migration background do not differ significantly from one another, with the exception of the Lake Geneva Region and Northwest Switzerland where the poverty rate of the population with a migration background is around twice as high as that of the population without a migration background. (admin.ch)
  • A Vibrant Community can be created once the human, social and economic cost of poverty are significantly reduced. (tamarackcommunity.ca)
  • America stands as a beacon of hope and the possibility of a better life -- but it is also a nation where nearly 1 in 4 children live in poverty. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • Poverty rates also declined in Manhattan, falling from 18.3 percent in 2006 to 17.6 in 2007, perhaps indicative of widespread gentrification and a then-healthy local economy. (observer.com)
  • The 2007 poverty rate for the Northeast (11.4 percent) was unchanged from 2006. (observer.com)
  • A world free of poverty is within our grasp. (dawn.com)
  • And so we're looking now at the specific recommendations of many groups that have come together to talk about what makes sense to begin to reduce and eliminate poverty. (thenation.com)
  • A theoretical framework that incorporates these perspectives and the SEED-SCALE methodology is proposed, demonstrating how the establishment of new micro-businesses may be used to reduce poverty in developing economies. (igi-global.com)
  • Together, these cities/regions aspire to reduce poverty in 100 cities. (tamarackcommunity.ca)
  • Increasing tuition rates can be insurmountable roadblocks for high school graduates who are trying to forge a path out of poverty for their families. (huffingtonpost.com)
  • To slash extreme poverty, Kim said higher economic growth rates will be needed, in particular sustained high growth in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. (dawn.com)
  • Unfortunately, that isn't as likely to happen in the areas of the world that currently have the highest rates of poverty. (erlc.com)
  • And with COVID-19, which the World Bank does take into account, "poverty rates will go up as the global economy falls into recession and there is a sharp drop in GDP per capita. (likethedew.com)
  • Over the past decade, Areas of Concentrated Poverty have expanded in the cities of Minneapolis and Saint Paul, as well as in the suburbs. (metrocouncil.org)