Lipids: A generic term for fats and lipoids, the alcohol-ether-soluble constituents of protoplasm, which are insoluble in water. They comprise the fats, fatty oils, essential oils, waxes, phospholipids, glycolipids, sulfolipids, aminolipids, chromolipids (lipochromes), and fatty acids. (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Lipid Metabolism: Physiological processes in biosynthesis (anabolism) and degradation (catabolism) of LIPIDS.Lipid A: Lipid A is the biologically active component of lipopolysaccharides. It shows strong endotoxic activity and exhibits immunogenic properties.Lipid Bilayers: Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.Lipid Peroxidation: Peroxidase catalyzed oxidation of lipids using hydrogen peroxide as an electron acceptor.Lipid Peroxides: Peroxides produced in the presence of a free radical by the oxidation of unsaturated fatty acids in the cell in the presence of molecular oxygen. The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the membranes. They therefore cause a variety of toxic effects in vivo and their formation is considered a pathological process in biological systems. Their formation can be inhibited by antioxidants, such as vitamin E, structural separation or low oxygen tension.Phospholipids: Lipids containing one or more phosphate groups, particularly those derived from either glycerol (phosphoglycerides see GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS) or sphingosine (SPHINGOLIPIDS). They are polar lipids that are of great importance for the structure and function of cell membranes and are the most abundant of membrane lipids, although not stored in large amounts in the system.Cholesterol: The principal sterol of all higher animals, distributed in body tissues, especially the brain and spinal cord, and in animal fats and oils.Membrane Microdomains: Detergent-insoluble CELL MEMBRANE components. They are enriched in SPHINGOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL and clustered with glycosyl-phosphatidylinositol (GPI)-anchored proteins.Phosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a choline moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and choline and 2 moles of fatty acids.Fatty Acids: Organic, monobasic acids derived from hydrocarbons by the equivalent of oxidation of a methyl group to an alcohol, aldehyde, and then acid. Fatty acids are saturated and unsaturated (FATTY ACIDS, UNSATURATED). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)TriglyceridesLiposomes: Artificial, single or multilaminar vesicles (made from lecithins or other lipids) that are used for the delivery of a variety of biological molecules or molecular complexes to cells, for example, drug delivery and gene transfer. They are also used to study membranes and membrane proteins.Membrane Fluidity: The motion of phospholipid molecules within the lipid bilayer, dependent on the classes of phospholipids present, their fatty acid composition and degree of unsaturation of the acyl chains, the cholesterol concentration, and temperature.Lipid Metabolism Disorders: Pathological conditions resulting from abnormal anabolism or catabolism of lipids in the body.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Chromatography, Thin Layer: Chromatography on thin layers of adsorbents rather than in columns. The adsorbent can be alumina, silica gel, silicates, charcoals, or cellulose. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Phosphatidylglycerols: A nitrogen-free class of lipids present in animal and particularly plant tissues and composed of one mole of glycerol and 1 or 2 moles of phosphatidic acid. Members of this group differ from one another in the nature of the fatty acids released on hydrolysis.Membranes, Artificial: Artificially produced membranes, such as semipermeable membranes used in artificial kidney dialysis (RENAL DIALYSIS), monomolecular and bimolecular membranes used as models to simulate biological CELL MEMBRANES. These membranes are also used in the process of GUIDED TISSUE REGENERATION.Glycolipids: Any compound containing one or more monosaccharide residues bound by a glycosidic linkage to a hydrophobic moiety such as an acylglycerol (see GLYCERIDES), a sphingoid, a ceramide (CERAMIDES) (N-acylsphingoid) or a prenyl phosphate. (From IUPAC's webpage)Lipoproteins: Lipid-protein complexes involved in the transportation and metabolism of lipids in the body. They are spherical particles consisting of a hydrophobic core of TRIGLYCERIDES and CHOLESTEROL ESTERS surrounded by a layer of hydrophilic free CHOLESTEROL; PHOSPHOLIPIDS; and APOLIPOPROTEINS. Lipoproteins are classified by their varying buoyant density and sizes.Dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine: A synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers for the study of biological membranes.Liver: A large lobed glandular organ in the abdomen of vertebrates that is responsible for detoxification, metabolism, synthesis and storage of various substances.1,2-Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine: Synthetic phospholipid used in liposomes and lipid bilayers to study biological membranes. It is also a major constituent of PULMONARY SURFACTANTS.Molecular Conformation: The characteristic three-dimensional shape of a molecule.Cholesterol, LDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to low density lipoproteins (LDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Unilamellar Liposomes: Single membrane vesicles, generally made of PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Cholesterol, HDL: Cholesterol which is contained in or bound to high-density lipoproteins (HDL), including CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and free cholesterol.Sphingomyelins: A class of sphingolipids found largely in the brain and other nervous tissue. They contain phosphocholine or phosphoethanolamine as their polar head group so therefore are the only sphingolipids classified as PHOSPHOLIPIDS.Dietary Fats: Fats present in food, especially in animal products such as meat, meat products, butter, ghee. They are present in lower amounts in nuts, seeds, and avocados.Membrane Proteins: Proteins which are found in membranes including cellular and intracellular membranes. They consist of two types, peripheral and integral proteins. They include most membrane-associated enzymes, antigenic proteins, transport proteins, and drug, hormone, and lectin receptors.Phase Transition: A change of a substance from one form or state to another.Malondialdehyde: The dialdehyde of malonic acid.Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: Spectroscopic method of measuring the magnetic moment of elementary particles such as atomic nuclei, protons or electrons. It is employed in clinical applications such as NMR Tomography (MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING).Fatty Acids, Unsaturated: FATTY ACIDS in which the carbon chain contains one or more double or triple carbon-carbon bonds.Hyperlipidemias: Conditions with excess LIPIDS in the blood.Oxidation-Reduction: A chemical reaction in which an electron is transferred from one molecule to another. The electron-donating molecule is the reducing agent or reductant; the electron-accepting molecule is the oxidizing agent or oxidant. Reducing and oxidizing agents function as conjugate reductant-oxidant pairs or redox pairs (Lehninger, Principles of Biochemistry, 1982, p471).Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Antioxidants: Naturally occurring or synthetic substances that inhibit or retard the oxidation of a substance to which it is added. They counteract the harmful and damaging effects of oxidation in animal tissues.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances: Low-molecular-weight end products, probably malondialdehyde, that are formed during the decomposition of lipid peroxidation products. These compounds react with thiobarbituric acid to form a fluorescent red adduct.Aldehydes: Organic compounds containing a carbonyl group in the form -CHO.Fat Emulsions, Intravenous: Emulsions of fats or lipids used primarily in parenteral feeding.Lipoproteins, LDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (18-25 nm) and light (1.019-1.063 g/ml) particles with a core composed mainly of CHOLESTEROL ESTERS and smaller amounts of TRIGLYCERIDES. The surface monolayer consists mostly of PHOSPHOLIPIDS, a single copy of APOLIPOPROTEIN B-100, and free cholesterol molecules. The main LDL function is to transport cholesterol and cholesterol esters to extrahepatic tissues.Phosphatidylserines: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to a serine moiety. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid and serine and 2 moles of fatty acids.Models, Biological: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Galactolipids: A group of GLYCOLIPIDS in which the sugar group is GALACTOSE. They are distinguished from GLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS in lacking nitrogen. They constitute the majority of MEMBRANE LIPIDS in PLANTS.Fatty Acids, Nonesterified: FATTY ACIDS found in the plasma that are complexed with SERUM ALBUMIN for transport. These fatty acids are not in glycerol ester form.Lipid Mobilization: LIPOLYSIS of stored LIPIDS in the ADIPOSE TISSUE to release FREE FATTY ACIDS. Mobilization of stored lipids is under the regulation of lipolytic signals (CATECHOLAMINES) or anti-lipolytic signals (INSULIN) via their actions on the hormone-sensitive LIPASE. This concept does not include lipid transport.beta-Cyclodextrins: Cyclic GLUCANS consisting of seven (7) glucopyranose units linked by 1,4-glycosidic bonds.Detergents: Purifying or cleansing agents, usually salts of long-chain aliphatic bases or acids, that exert cleansing (oil-dissolving) and antimicrobial effects through a surface action that depends on possessing both hydrophilic and hydrophobic properties.Oxidative Stress: A disturbance in the prooxidant-antioxidant balance in favor of the former, leading to potential damage. Indicators of oxidative stress include damaged DNA bases, protein oxidation products, and lipid peroxidation products (Sies, Oxidative Stress, 1991, pxv-xvi).Glycerophospholipids: Derivatives of phosphatidic acid in which the hydrophobic regions are composed of two fatty acids and a polar alcohol is joined to the C-3 position of glycerol through a phosphodiester bond. They are named according to their polar head groups, such as phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine.Glycerides: GLYCEROL esterified with FATTY ACIDS.Molecular Structure: The location of the atoms, groups or ions relative to one another in a molecule, as well as the number, type and location of covalent bonds.Chromatography, Gas: Fractionation of a vaporized sample as a consequence of partition between a mobile gaseous phase and a stationary phase held in a column. Two types are gas-solid chromatography, where the fixed phase is a solid, and gas-liquid, in which the stationary phase is a nonvolatile liquid supported on an inert solid matrix.Biophysics: The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.Ceramides: Members of the class of neutral glycosphingolipids. They are the basic units of SPHINGOLIPIDS. They are sphingoids attached via their amino groups to a long chain fatty acyl group. They abnormally accumulate in FABRY DISEASE.Calorimetry, Differential Scanning: Differential thermal analysis in which the sample compartment of the apparatus is a differential calorimeter, allowing an exact measure of the heat of transition independent of the specific heat, thermal conductivity, and other variables of the sample.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Models, Chemical: Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of chemical processes or phenomena; includes the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.Sphingolipids: A class of membrane lipids that have a polar head and two nonpolar tails. They are composed of one molecule of the long-chain amino alcohol sphingosine (4-sphingenine) or one of its derivatives, one molecule of a long-chain acid, a polar head alcohol and sometimes phosphoric acid in diester linkage at the polar head group. (Lehninger et al, Principles of Biochemistry, 2nd ed)Protein Binding: The process in which substances, either endogenous or exogenous, bind to proteins, peptides, enzymes, protein precursors, or allied compounds. Specific protein-binding measures are often used as assays in diagnostic assessments.Apolipoproteins: Protein components on the surface of LIPOPROTEINS. They form a layer surrounding the hydrophobic lipid core. There are several classes of apolipoproteins with each playing a different role in lipid transport and LIPID METABOLISM. These proteins are synthesized mainly in the LIVER and the INTESTINES.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Hypolipidemic Agents: Substances that lower the levels of certain LIPIDS in the BLOOD. They are used to treat HYPERLIPIDEMIAS.Lipoproteins, HDL: A class of lipoproteins of small size (4-13 nm) and dense (greater than 1.063 g/ml) particles. HDL lipoproteins, synthesized in the liver without a lipid core, accumulate cholesterol esters from peripheral tissues and transport them to the liver for re-utilization or elimination from the body (the reverse cholesterol transport). Their major protein component is APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I. HDL also shuttle APOLIPOPROTEINS C and APOLIPOPROTEINS E to and from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins during their catabolism. HDL plasma level has been inversely correlated with the risk of cardiovascular diseases.Biophysical Phenomena: The physical characteristics and processes of biological systems.Micelles: Particles consisting of aggregates of molecules held loosely together by secondary bonds. The surface of micelles are usually comprised of amphiphatic compounds that are oriented in a way that minimizes the energy of interaction between the micelle and its environment. Liquids that contain large numbers of suspended micelles are referred to as EMULSIONS.Apolipoproteins B: Major structural proteins of triacylglycerol-rich LIPOPROTEINS. There are two forms, apolipoprotein B-100 and apolipoprotein B-48, both derived from a single gene. ApoB-100 expressed in the liver is found in low-density lipoproteins (LIPOPROTEINS, LDL; LIPOPROTEINS, VLDL). ApoB-48 expressed in the intestine is found in CHYLOMICRONS. They are important in the biosynthesis, transport, and metabolism of triacylglycerol-rich lipoproteins. Plasma Apo-B levels are high in atherosclerotic patients but non-detectable in ABETALIPOPROTEINEMIA.Apolipoprotein A-I: The most abundant protein component of HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS or HDL. This protein serves as an acceptor for CHOLESTEROL released from cells thus promoting efflux of cholesterol to HDL then to the LIVER for excretion from the body (reverse cholesterol transport). It also acts as a cofactor for LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE that forms CHOLESTEROL ESTERS on the HDL particles. Mutations of this gene APOA1 cause HDL deficiency, such as in FAMILIAL ALPHA LIPOPROTEIN DEFICIENCY DISEASE and in some patients with TANGIER DISEASE.Adipose Tissue: Specialized connective tissue composed of fat cells (ADIPOCYTES). It is the site of stored FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. In mammals, there are two types of adipose tissue, the WHITE FAT and the BROWN FAT. Their relative distributions vary in different species with most adipose tissue being white.Models, Molecular: Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.Carrier Proteins: Transport proteins that carry specific substances in the blood or across cell membranes.Oleic Acid: An unsaturated fatty acid that is the most widely distributed and abundant fatty acid in nature. It is used commercially in the preparation of oleates and lotions, and as a pharmaceutical solvent. (Stedman, 26th ed)Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Emulsions: Colloids formed by the combination of two immiscible liquids such as oil and water. Lipid-in-water emulsions are usually liquid, like milk or lotion. Water-in-lipid emulsions tend to be creams. The formation of emulsions may be aided by amphiphatic molecules that surround one component of the system to form MICELLES.Cell Line: Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.Lipolysis: The metabolic process of breaking down LIPIDS to release FREE FATTY ACIDS, the major oxidative fuel for the body. Lipolysis may involve dietary lipids in the DIGESTIVE TRACT, circulating lipids in the BLOOD, and stored lipids in the ADIPOSE TISSUE or the LIVER. A number of enzymes are involved in such lipid hydrolysis, such as LIPASE and LIPOPROTEIN LIPASE from various tissues.Microscopy, Electron: Microscopy using an electron beam, instead of light, to visualize the sample, thereby allowing much greater magnification. The interactions of ELECTRONS with specimens are used to provide information about the fine structure of that specimen. In TRANSMISSION ELECTRON MICROSCOPY the reactions of the electrons that are transmitted through the specimen are imaged. In SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPY an electron beam falls at a non-normal angle on the specimen and the image is derived from the reactions occurring above the plane of the specimen.Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. It is produced by glands on the tongue and by the pancreas and initiates the digestion of dietary fats. (From Dorland, 27th ed) EC 18.104.22.168.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Signal Transduction: The intracellular transfer of information (biological activation/inhibition) through a signal pathway. In each signal transduction system, an activation/inhibition signal from a biologically active molecule (hormone, neurotransmitter) is mediated via the coupling of a receptor/enzyme to a second messenger system or to an ion channel. Signal transduction plays an important role in activating cellular functions, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation. Examples of signal transduction systems are the GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID-postsynaptic receptor-calcium ion channel system, the receptor-mediated T-cell activation pathway, and the receptor-mediated activation of phospholipases. Those coupled to membrane depolarization or intracellular release of calcium include the receptor-mediated activation of cytotoxic functions in granulocytes and the synaptic potentiation of protein kinase activation. Some signal transduction pathways may be part of larger signal transduction pathways; for example, protein kinase activation is part of the platelet activation signal pathway.DiglyceridesSpectrometry, Fluorescence: Measurement of the intensity and quality of fluorescence.Sterols: Steroids with a hydroxyl group at C-3 and most of the skeleton of cholestane. Additional carbon atoms may be present in the side chain. (IUPAC Steroid Nomenclature, 1987)Fatty Acids, Monounsaturated: Fatty acids which are unsaturated in only one position.Oleic Acids: A group of fatty acids that contain 18 carbon atoms and a double bond at the omega 9 carbon.Cardiolipins: Acidic phospholipids composed of two molecules of phosphatidic acid covalently linked to a molecule of glycerol. They occur primarily in mitochondrial inner membranes and in bacterial plasma membranes. They are the main antigenic components of the Wassermann-type antigen that is used in nontreponemal SYPHILIS SERODIAGNOSIS.Phosphatidylinositols: Derivatives of phosphatidic acids in which the phosphoric acid is bound in ester linkage to the hexahydroxy alcohol, myo-inositol. Complete hydrolysis yields 1 mole of glycerol, phosphoric acid, myo-inositol, and 2 moles of fatty acids.Surface Properties: Characteristics or attributes of the outer boundaries of objects, including molecules.Plant Oils: Oils derived from plants or plant products.Fluorescent Dyes: Agents that emit light after excitation by light. The wave length of the emitted light is usually longer than that of the incident light. Fluorochromes are substances that cause fluorescence in other substances, i.e., dyes used to mark or label other compounds with fluorescent tags.Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions: The thermodynamic interaction between a substance and WATER.Blood Glucose: Glucose in blood.Body Weight: The mass or quantity of heaviness of an individual. It is expressed by units of pounds or kilograms.Mass Spectrometry: An analytical method used in determining the identity of a chemical based on its mass using mass analyzers/mass spectrometers.Mice, Inbred C57BLLinoleic Acids: Eighteen-carbon essential fatty acids that contain two double bonds.Thermodynamics: A rigorously mathematical analysis of energy relationships (heat, work, temperature, and equilibrium). It describes systems whose states are determined by thermal parameters, such as temperature, in addition to mechanical and electromagnetic parameters. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 12th ed)Palmitic Acids: A group of 16-carbon fatty acids that contain no double bonds.Diffusion: The tendency of a gas or solute to pass from a point of higher pressure or concentration to a point of lower pressure or concentration and to distribute itself throughout the available space. Diffusion, especially FACILITATED DIFFUSION, is a major mechanism of BIOLOGICAL TRANSPORT.Glyceryl Ethers: Compounds in which one or more of the three hydroxyl groups of glycerol are in ethereal linkage with a saturated or unsaturated aliphatic alcohol; one or two of the hydroxyl groups of glycerol may be esterified. These compounds have been found in various animal tissue.Insulin: A 51-amino acid pancreatic hormone that plays a major role in the regulation of glucose metabolism, directly by suppressing endogenous glucose production (GLYCOGENOLYSIS; GLUCONEOGENESIS) and indirectly by suppressing GLUCAGON secretion and LIPOLYSIS. Native insulin is a globular protein comprised of a zinc-coordinated hexamer. Each insulin monomer containing two chains, A (21 residues) and B (30 residues), linked by two disulfide bonds. Insulin is used as a drug to control insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (DIABETES MELLITUS, TYPE 1).Diet: Regular course of eating and drinking adopted by a person or animal.Lysophosphatidylcholines: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDYLCHOLINES obtained by their partial hydrolysis which removes one of the fatty acid moieties.Microscopy, Fluorescence: Microscopy of specimens stained with fluorescent dye (usually fluorescein isothiocyanate) or of naturally fluorescent materials, which emit light when exposed to ultraviolet or blue light. Immunofluorescence microscopy utilizes antibodies that are labeled with fluorescent dye.EstersLipopolysaccharides: Lipid-containing polysaccharides which are endotoxins and important group-specific antigens. They are often derived from the cell wall of gram-negative bacteria and induce immunoglobulin secretion. The lipopolysaccharide molecule consists of three parts: LIPID A, core polysaccharide, and O-specific chains (O ANTIGENS). When derived from Escherichia coli, lipopolysaccharides serve as polyclonal B-cell mitogens commonly used in laboratory immunology. (From Dorland, 28th ed)G(M1) Ganglioside: A specific monosialoganglioside that accumulates abnormally within the nervous system due to a deficiency of GM1-b-galactosidase, resulting in GM1 gangliosidosis.Acyltransferases: Enzymes from the transferase class that catalyze the transfer of acyl groups from donor to acceptor, forming either esters or amides. (From Enzyme Nomenclature 1992) EC 2.3.Octoxynol: Nonionic surfactant mixtures varying in the number of repeating ethoxy (oxy-1,2-ethanediyl) groups. They are used as detergents, emulsifiers, wetting agents, defoaming agents, etc. Octoxynol-9, the compound with 9 repeating ethoxy groups, is a spermatocide.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Protein Transport: The process of moving proteins from one cellular compartment (including extracellular) to another by various sorting and transport mechanisms such as gated transport, protein translocation, and vesicular transport.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Triolein: (Z)-9-Octadecenoic acid 1,2,3-propanetriyl ester.Glycerol: A trihydroxy sugar alcohol that is an intermediate in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. It is used as a solvent, emollient, pharmaceutical agent, and sweetening agent.Protein Structure, Tertiary: The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.Structure-Activity Relationship: The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.Apolipoproteins E: A class of protein components which can be found in several lipoproteins including HIGH-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS; and CHYLOMICRONS. Synthesized in most organs, Apo E is important in the global transport of lipids and cholesterol throughout the body. Apo E is also a ligand for LDL receptors (RECEPTORS, LDL) that mediates the binding, internalization, and catabolism of lipoprotein particles in cells. There are several allelic isoforms (such as E2, E3, and E4). Deficiency or defects in Apo E are causes of HYPERLIPOPROTEINEMIA TYPE III.X-Ray Diffraction: The scattering of x-rays by matter, especially crystals, with accompanying variation in intensity due to interference effects. Analysis of the crystal structure of materials is performed by passing x-rays through them and registering the diffraction image of the rays (CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, X-RAY). (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Fluorescence Polarization: Measurement of the polarization of fluorescent light from solutions or microscopic specimens. It is used to provide information concerning molecular size, shape, and conformation, molecular anisotropy, electronic energy transfer, molecular interaction, including dye and coenzyme binding, and the antigen-antibody reaction.Obesity: A status with BODY WEIGHT that is grossly above the acceptable or desirable weight, usually due to accumulation of excess FATS in the body. The standards may vary with age, sex, genetic or cultural background. In the BODY MASS INDEX, a BMI greater than 30.0 kg/m2 is considered obese, and a BMI greater than 40.0 kg/m2 is considered morbidly obese (MORBID OBESITY).Insulin Resistance: Diminished effectiveness of INSULIN in lowering blood sugar levels: requiring the use of 200 units or more of insulin per day to prevent HYPERGLYCEMIA or KETOSIS.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Adipocytes: Cells in the body that store FATS, usually in the form of TRIGLYCERIDES. WHITE ADIPOCYTES are the predominant type and found mostly in the abdominal cavity and subcutaneous tissue. BROWN ADIPOCYTES are thermogenic cells that can be found in newborns of some species and hibernating mammals.Lipoproteins, VLDL: A class of lipoproteins of very light (0.93-1.006 g/ml) large size (30-80 nm) particles with a core composed mainly of TRIGLYCERIDES and a surface monolayer of PHOSPHOLIPIDS and CHOLESTEROL into which are imbedded the apolipoproteins B, E, and C. VLDL facilitates the transport of endogenously made triglycerides to extrahepatic tissues. As triglycerides and Apo C are removed, VLDL is converted to INTERMEDIATE-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS, then to LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS from which cholesterol is delivered to the extrahepatic tissues.Peroxides: A group of compounds that contain a bivalent O-O group, i.e., the oxygen atoms are univalent. They can either be inorganic or organic in nature. Such compounds release atomic (nascent) oxygen readily. Thus they are strong oxidizing agents and fire hazards when in contact with combustible materials, especially under high-temperature conditions. The chief industrial uses of peroxides are as oxidizing agents, bleaching agents, and initiators of polymerization. (From Hawley's Condensed Chemical Dictionary, 11th ed)Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Linoleic Acid: A doubly unsaturated fatty acid, occurring widely in plant glycosides. It is an essential fatty acid in mammalian nutrition and is used in the biosynthesis of prostaglandins and cell membranes. (From Stedman, 26th ed)Solubility: The ability of a substance to be dissolved, i.e. to form a solution with another substance. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Laurates: Salts and esters of the 12-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acid--lauric acid.Protein Structure, Secondary: The level of protein structure in which regular hydrogen-bond interactions within contiguous stretches of polypeptide chain give rise to alpha helices, beta strands (which align to form beta sheets) or other types of coils. This is the first folding level of protein conformation.Acylation: The addition of an organic acid radical into a molecule.Mutation: Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.Permeability: Property of membranes and other structures to permit passage of light, heat, gases, liquids, metabolites, and mineral ions.Organelles: Specific particles of membrane-bound organized living substances present in eukaryotic cells, such as the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Peptides: Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared: A spectroscopic technique in which a range of wavelengths is presented simultaneously with an interferometer and the spectrum is mathematically derived from the pattern thus obtained.Lipid Metabolism, Inborn Errors: Errors in the metabolism of LIPIDS resulting from inborn genetic MUTATIONS that are heritable.Cyclodextrins: A homologous group of cyclic GLUCANS consisting of alpha-1,4 bound glucose units obtained by the action of cyclodextrin glucanotransferase on starch or similar substrates. The enzyme is produced by certain species of Bacillus. Cyclodextrins form inclusion complexes with a wide variety of substances.Diphenylhexatriene: A fluorescent compound that emits light only in specific configurations in certain lipid media. It is used as a tool in the study of membrane lipids.Arteriosclerosis: Thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES of all sizes. There are many forms classified by the types of lesions and arteries involved, such as ATHEROSCLEROSIS with fatty lesions in the ARTERIAL INTIMA of medium and large muscular arteries.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Particle Size: Relating to the size of solids.Soybean Oil: Oil from soybean or soybean plant.Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid: Liquid chromatographic techniques which feature high inlet pressures, high sensitivity, and high speed.Surface Tension: The force acting on the surface of a liquid, tending to minimize the area of the surface. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Escherichia coli: A species of gram-negative, facultatively anaerobic, rod-shaped bacteria (GRAM-NEGATIVE FACULTATIVELY ANAEROBIC RODS) commonly found in the lower part of the intestine of warm-blooded animals. It is usually nonpathogenic, but some strains are known to produce DIARRHEA and pyogenic infections. Pathogenic strains (virotypes) are classified by their specific pathogenic mechanisms such as toxins (ENTEROTOXIGENIC ESCHERICHIA COLI), etc.Meibomian Glands: The sebaceous glands situated on the inner surface of the eyelids between the tarsal plates and CONJUNCTIVA.Thiobarbiturates: Compounds in which one or more of the ketone groups on the pyrimidine ring of barbituric acid are replaced by thione groups.Protein Conformation: The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).Lysophospholipids: Derivatives of PHOSPHATIDIC ACIDS that lack one of its fatty acyl chains due to its hydrolytic removal.Membrane Fusion: The adherence and merging of cell membranes, intracellular membranes, or artificial membranes to each other or to viruses, parasites, or interstitial particles through a variety of chemical and physical processes.2-Naphthylamine: A naphthalene derivative with carcinogenic action.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Anticholesteremic Agents: Substances used to lower plasma CHOLESTEROL levels.Fish Oils: Oils high in unsaturated fats extracted from the bodies of fish or fish parts, especially the LIVER. Those from the liver are usually high in VITAMIN A. The oils are used as DIETARY SUPPLEMENTS. They are also used in soaps and detergents and as protective coatings.Apolipoproteins A: Structural proteins of the alpha-lipoproteins (HIGH DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS), including APOLIPOPROTEIN A-I and APOLIPOPROTEIN A-II. They can modulate the activity of LECITHIN CHOLESTEROL ACYLTRANSFERASE. These apolipoproteins are low in atherosclerotic patients. They are either absent or present in extremely low plasma concentration in TANGIER DISEASE.Static Electricity: The accumulation of an electric charge on a objectMacrophages: The relatively long-lived phagocytic cell of mammalian tissues that are derived from blood MONOCYTES. Main types are PERITONEAL MACROPHAGES; ALVEOLAR MACROPHAGES; HISTIOCYTES; KUPFFER CELLS of the liver; and OSTEOCLASTS. They may further differentiate within chronic inflammatory lesions to EPITHELIOID CELLS or may fuse to form FOREIGN BODY GIANT CELLS or LANGHANS GIANT CELLS. (from The Dictionary of Cell Biology, Lackie and Dow, 3rd ed.)Cations: Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.Spin Labels: Molecules which contain an atom or a group of atoms exhibiting an unpaired electron spin that can be detected by electron spin resonance spectroscopy and can be bonded to another molecule. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Chemical and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Lipoprotein Lipase: An enzyme of the hydrolase class that catalyzes the reaction of triacylglycerol and water to yield diacylglycerol and a fatty acid anion. The enzyme hydrolyzes triacylglycerols in chylomicrons, very-low-density lipoproteins, low-density lipoproteins, and diacylglycerols. It occurs on capillary endothelial surfaces, especially in mammary, muscle, and adipose tissue. Genetic deficiency of the enzyme causes familial hyperlipoproteinemia Type I. (Dorland, 27th ed) EC 22.214.171.124.Docosahexaenoic Acids: C22-unsaturated fatty acids found predominantly in FISH OILS.Atherosclerosis: A thickening and loss of elasticity of the walls of ARTERIES that occurs with formation of ATHEROSCLEROTIC PLAQUES within the ARTERIAL INTIMA.Spectrophotometry, Infrared: Spectrophotometry in the infrared region, usually for the purpose of chemical analysis through measurement of absorption spectra associated with rotational and vibrational energy levels of molecules. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Acetates: Derivatives of ACETIC ACID. Included under this heading are a broad variety of acid forms, salts, esters, and amides that contain the carboxymethane structure.Mice, Knockout: Strains of mice in which certain GENES of their GENOMES have been disrupted, or "knocked-out". To produce knockouts, using RECOMBINANT DNA technology, the normal DNA sequence of the gene being studied is altered to prevent synthesis of a normal gene product. Cloned cells in which this DNA alteration is successful are then injected into mouse EMBRYOS to produce chimeric mice. The chimeric mice are then bred to yield a strain in which all the cells of the mouse contain the disrupted gene. Knockout mice are used as EXPERIMENTAL ANIMAL MODELS for diseases (DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL) and to clarify the functions of the genes.Proteolipids: Protein-lipid combinations abundant in brain tissue, but also present in a wide variety of animal and plant tissues. In contrast to lipoproteins, they are insoluble in water, but soluble in a chloroform-methanol mixture. The protein moiety has a high content of hydrophobic amino acids. The associated lipids consist of a mixture of GLYCEROPHOSPHATES; CEREBROSIDES; and SULFOGLYCOSPHINGOLIPIDS; while lipoproteins contain PHOSPHOLIPIDS; CHOLESTEROL; and TRIGLYCERIDES.Proteins: Linear POLYPEPTIDES that are synthesized on RIBOSOMES and may be further modified, crosslinked, cleaved, or assembled into complex proteins with several subunits. The specific sequence of AMINO ACIDS determines the shape the polypeptide will take, during PROTEIN FOLDING, and the function of the protein.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Caveolae: Endocytic/exocytic CELL MEMBRANE STRUCTURES rich in glycosphingolipids, cholesterol, and lipid-anchored membrane proteins that function in ENDOCYTOSIS (potocytosis), transcytosis, and SIGNAL TRANSDUCTION. Caveolae assume various shapes from open pits to closed vesicles. Caveolar coats are composed of CAVEOLINS.4-Chloro-7-nitrobenzofurazan: A benzofuran derivative used as a protein reagent since the terminal N-NBD-protein conjugate possesses interesting fluorescence and spectral properties. It has also been used as a covalent inhibitor of both beef heart mitochondrial ATPase and bacterial ATPase.Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry: A microanalytical technique combining mass spectrometry and gas chromatography for the qualitative as well as quantitative determinations of compounds.Free Radicals: Highly reactive molecules with an unsatisfied electron valence pair. Free radicals are produced in both normal and pathological processes. They are proven or suspected agents of tissue damage in a wide variety of circumstances including radiation, damage from environment chemicals, and aging. Natural and pharmacological prevention of free radical damage is being actively investigated.Erythrocyte Membrane: The semi-permeable outer structure of a red blood cell. It is known as a red cell 'ghost' after HEMOLYSIS.Plasmalogens: GLYCEROPHOSPHOLIPIDS in which one of the two acyl chains is attached to glycerol with an ether alkenyl linkage instead of an ester as with the other glycerophospholipids.Lipogenesis: De novo fat synthesis in the body. This includes the synthetic processes of FATTY ACIDS and subsequent TRIGLYCERIDES in the LIVER and the ADIPOSE TISSUE. Lipogenesis is regulated by numerous factors, including nutritional, hormonal, and genetic elements.Quaternary Ammonium Compounds: Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy: A technique applicable to the wide variety of substances which exhibit paramagnetism because of the magnetic moments of unpaired electrons. The spectra are useful for detection and identification, for determination of electron structure, for study of interactions between molecules, and for measurement of nuclear spins and moments. (From McGraw-Hill Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 7th edition) Electron nuclear double resonance (ENDOR) spectroscopy is a variant of the technique which can give enhanced resolution. Electron spin resonance analysis can now be used in vivo, including imaging applications such as MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING.Filipin: A complex of polyene antibiotics obtained from Streptomyces filipinensis. Filipin III alters membrane function by interfering with membrane sterols, inhibits mitochondrial respiration, and is proposed as an antifungal agent. Filipins I, II, and IV are less important.Surface-Active Agents: Agents that modify interfacial tension of water; usually substances that have one lipophilic and one hydrophilic group in the molecule; includes soaps, detergents, emulsifiers, dispersing and wetting agents, and several groups of antiseptics.Drug Carriers: Forms to which substances are incorporated to improve the delivery and the effectiveness of drugs. Drug carriers are used in drug-delivery systems such as the controlled-release technology to prolong in vivo drug actions, decrease drug metabolism, and reduce drug toxicity. Carriers are also used in designs to increase the effectiveness of drug delivery to the target sites of pharmacological actions. Liposomes, albumin microspheres, soluble synthetic polymers, DNA complexes, protein-drug conjugates, and carrier erythrocytes among others have been employed as biodegradable drug carriers.Intracellular Membranes: Thin structures that encapsulate subcellular structures or ORGANELLES in EUKARYOTIC CELLS. They include a variety of membranes associated with the CELL NUCLEUS; the MITOCHONDRIA; the GOLGI APPARATUS; the ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM; LYSOSOMES; PLASTIDS; and VACUOLES.Biological Markers: Measurable and quantifiable biological parameters (e.g., specific enzyme concentration, specific hormone concentration, specific gene phenotype distribution in a population, presence of biological substances) which serve as indices for health- and physiology-related assessments, such as disease risk, psychiatric disorders, environmental exposure and its effects, disease diagnosis, metabolic processes, substance abuse, pregnancy, cell line development, epidemiologic studies, etc.Energy Metabolism: The chemical reactions involved in the production and utilization of various forms of energy in cells.Chylomicrons: A class of lipoproteins that carry dietary CHOLESTEROL and TRIGLYCERIDES from the SMALL INTESTINE to the tissues. Their density (0.93-1.006 g/ml) is the same as that of VERY-LOW-DENSITY LIPOPROTEINS.Glutathione Peroxidase: An enzyme catalyzing the oxidation of 2 moles of glutathione in the presence of hydrogen peroxide to yield oxidized glutathione and water. EC 126.96.36.199.Cholesterol, Dietary: Cholesterol present in food, especially in animal products.Glutathione: A tripeptide with many roles in cells. It conjugates to drugs to make them more soluble for excretion, is a cofactor for some enzymes, is involved in protein disulfide bond rearrangement and reduces peroxides.Erythrocytes: Red blood cells. Mature erythrocytes are non-nucleated, biconcave disks containing HEMOGLOBIN whose function is to transport OXYGEN.Endoplasmic Reticulum: A system of cisternae in the CYTOPLASM of many cells. In places the endoplasmic reticulum is continuous with the plasma membrane (CELL MEMBRANE) or outer membrane of the nuclear envelope. If the outer surfaces of the endoplasmic reticulum membranes are coated with ribosomes, the endoplasmic reticulum is said to be rough-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, ROUGH); otherwise it is said to be smooth-surfaced (ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM, SMOOTH). (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)Microscopy, Atomic Force: A type of scanning probe microscopy in which a probe systematically rides across the surface of a sample being scanned in a raster pattern. The vertical position is recorded as a spring attached to the probe rises and falls in response to peaks and valleys on the surface. These deflections produce a topographic map of the sample.Organelle Size: The quantity of volume or surface area of ORGANELLES.Ascorbic Acid: A six carbon compound related to glucose. It is found naturally in citrus fruits and many vegetables. Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form, vitamin C, functions as a reducing agent and coenzyme in several metabolic pathways. Vitamin C is considered an antioxidant.Cricetinae: A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.Diacylglycerol O-Acyltransferase: An enzyme that catalyses the last step of the TRIACYLGLYCEROL synthesis reaction in which diacylglycerol is covalently joined to LONG-CHAIN ACYL COA to form triglyceride. It was formerly categorized as EC 188.8.131.52.Fasting: Abstaining from all food.
lipid metabolic process. • biosynthetic process. • fatty acid metabolic process. • mammary gland development. • fatty acid ... Flavin R, Peluso S, Nguyen PL, Loda M (April 2010). "Fatty acid synthase as a potential therapeutic target in cancer". Future ... Orlistat which is a gastrointenstinal lipase inhibitor also inhibits FAS and has a potential as a medicine for cancer. ... "Fatty acid synthase is expressed mainly in adult hormone-sensitive cells or cells with high lipid metabolism and in ...
Kato K, Zorumski C (1996). "Platelet-activating factor as a potential retrograde messenger". J Lipid Mediat Cell Signal. 14 (1- ... Kato K, Clark G, Bazan N, Zorumski C (1994). "Platelet-activating factor as a potential retrograde messenger in CA1 hippocampal ... Carta, Mario (2014). "Membrane Lipids Tune Synaptic Transmission by Direct Modulation of Presynaptic Potassium Channels". ...
"Lipids as potential Drug for Cancer". Amity University. 2017. "NAMS Fellows" (PDF). National Academy of Medical Sciences. 2017 ... Das is the editor-in-chief of Lipids in Health and Disease, a journal published by BioMed Central and Current Nutrition & Food ... Neoplasm Lipid peroxidation Brain-derived neurotrophic factor Lipoxins Resolvin Protectin Maresin India portal Medicine portal ... ISBN 978-94-007-0495-4. Undurti N Das (2011). "Essential fatty acids enhance free radical generation and lipid peroxidation to ...
"Drug candidates with blockbuster potential". bioscience-beteiligungs-anstalt.com. BioScience Beteiligungs Anstalt. 2015. ... Lipid Res. 44 (2): 415-23. doi:10.1194/jlr.M200335-JLR200. PMID 12576524. Retrieved 2015-03-17. " ...
"Obesity alters the gustatory perception of lipids in the mouse: plausible involvement of lingual CD36". Journal of Lipid ... Biello D (2005-11-02). "Potential Taste Receptor for Fat Identified". Scientific American. Retrieved 2008-08-05. ... Abdoul-Azize S, Atek-Mebarki F, Bitam A, Sadou H, Koceïr EA, Khan NA (2013). "Oro-gustatory perception of dietary lipids and ... Evidence implicating the lipid moiety of the lipoprotein as the binding site". Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular ...
Recent research has shown its potential use in weight loss by curbing appetite. Pinolenic acid causes the triggering of two ... Lipids. 39 (4): 383-7. doi:10.1007/s11745-004-1242-2. PMID 15357026. PAN Pesticides Database. "Pinoleic acid - Identification, ... toxicity, use, water pollution potential, ecological toxicity and regulatory information". Retrieved 2007-10-24. ...
The reduction potential to go to HS− is 0.92 eV. HS• in water can ionize to S•− and H+. The S•− can catalyze a cis-trans ... A contender for the isomerization of double bonds in membrane lipids". Angewandte Chemie. Wiley. 46 (11): 1914-1916. doi: ... This has potential for bioleaching in metallic ore extraction. The hydrosulfide ion HS− can be oxidized to HS• with cerium (IV ... "Reduction potential of the sulfhydryl radical: pulse radiolysis and laser flash photolysis studies of the formation and ...
Lang S, Wullbrandt D (January 1999). "Rhamnose lipids--biosynthesis, microbial production and application potential". Appl. ... Other bio-based surfactants include sophorolipids and mannose-erythritol lipids. Desai JD, Banat IM (March 1997). "Microbial ... Irfan-Maqsood, Muhammad; Seddiq-Shams, Mahsa (2014). "Rhamnolipids: Well-Characterized Glycolipids with Potential Broad ... production of surfactants and their commercial potential". Microbiol. Mol. Biol. Rev. 61 (1): 47-64. PMC 232600 . PMID 9106364 ...
Lipids. 116 (1-2): 75-91. doi:10.1016/S0009-3084(02)00021-X. PMID 12093536. Carter CA, Kane CJ (2005). "Therapeutic potential ...
Agwa, O; Ibe, S; Abu, G. (2012). "Economically effective potential of Chlorella sp. for biomass and lipid production" (PDF). ...
Journal of Lipid Research. 55 (6): 1150-1164. doi:10.1194/jlr.M047357. PMC 4031946 . PMID 24634501. Prostaglandins Other Lipid ... He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (Dec 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ... steroids and other lipids. CYP1A2 localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and its expression is induced by some polycyclic ... Other Lipid Mediators. 96 (1-4): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.09.001. PMID 21945326. Fleming I (Oct 2014). "The ...
He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (December 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ... steroids and other lipids. This protein likely localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum. CYP4F12 is expressed in the liver and ... Other Lipid Mediators. 113-115: 2-12. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2014.09.001. PMC 4254344 . PMID 25240260. Fischer R, Konkel ... Other Lipid Mediators. 96 (1-4): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.09.001. PMID 21945326. Fleming I (October 2014). " ...
He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (Dec 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ... steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and hydroxylates medium-chain fatty acids such ... Other Lipid Mediators. 96 (1-4): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.09.001. PMID 21945326. Fleming I (Oct 2014). "The ... Journal of Lipid Research. 55 (6): 1150-1164. doi:10.1194/jlr.M047357. PMC 4031946 . PMID 24634501. Kikuta Y, Kusunose E, ...
He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (December 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ... steroids and other lipids. This protein localizes to the endoplasmic reticulum and functions as a 19-hydroxylase of the ... Other Lipid Mediators. 75 (1-4): 47-64. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2004.09.014. PMID 15789615. Stark K, Wongsud B, Burman R, ... Other Lipid Mediators. 113-115: 2-12. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2014.09.001. PMC 4254344 . PMID 25240260. Fischer R, Konkel ...
... resulting in potential lipid peroxidation as well as protein and DNA oxidation. CYP2E1 is particularly susceptible to this ... Its hydroxyl group is well-positioned to donate a hydrogen bond to potential acceptors on the substrate, and its methyl group ... He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (Dec 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ... Other Lipid Mediators. 96 (1-4): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.09.001. PMID 21945326. Fleming I (Oct 2014). "The ...
He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (December 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ... "Dietary omega-3 fatty acids modulate the eicosanoid profile in man primarily via the CYP-epoxygenase pathway". J. Lipid Res. 55 ... "The role of long chain fatty acids and their epoxide metabolites in nociceptive signaling". Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. ... Journal of Lipid Research. 55 (6): 1150-1164. doi:10.1194/jlr.M047357. PMC 4031946 . PMID 24634501. "Comparison in the In Vitro ...
He J, Wang C, Zhu Y, Ai D (Dec 2015). "Soluble epoxide hydrolase: A potential target for metabolic diseases". Journal of ... Journal of Lipid Research. 55 (6): 1150-1164. doi:10.1194/jlr.M047357. PMC 4031946 . PMID 24634501. Ma Q, Lu AY (Jul 2007). " ... Other Lipid Mediators. 96 (1-4): 99-108. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2011.09.001. PMID 21945326. Nguyen, CH; Brenner, S; ... Other Lipid Mediators. 113-115: 2-12. doi:10.1016/j.prostaglandins.2014.09.001. PMC 4254344 . PMID 25240260. Fischer R, Konkel ...
Journal of Lipid Research. 47 (6): 1307-14. doi:10.1194/jlr.M600040-JLR200. PMID 16508036. Lim J, Hao T, Shaw C, Patel AJ, ... "Adenovirus-mediated overexpression of sphingomyelin synthases 1 and 2 increases the atherogenic potential in mice". ... affects intracellular sphingomyelin accumulation and plasma membrane lipid organization". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta. 1771 ( ...
... a human gut microbe with a high potential to convert glucocorticoids into androgens". The Journal of Lipid Research. 54 (9): ...
A very important finding with respect to 7DHC is that it is the most reactive lipid for lipid peroxidation, and results in ... It contains a potential sterol-sensing domain (SSD), whose function is unknown but thought to be necessary for binding sterol ... Antioxidants have been shown to increase the level of lipid transcripts in SLOS cells, these transcripts play a role in lipid ( ... Furthermore, cholesterol is a constituent in lipid rafts. These are congregations of proteins and lipids (including ...
This compound is a potential antioxidant and may help to protect dinoflagellates against reactive oxygen species. Loeblich AR, ... 3rd; Smith, VE (January 1968). "Chloroplast pigments of the marine dinoflagellateGyrodinium resplendens". Lipids. 3 (1): 5-13. ...
Potential of Alligator Fat as Source of Lipids for Biodiesel Production. Publication Date (Web): July 15, 2011 The New York ... The fatty acid profile of the lipid showed that palmitic acid (C16:0), palmitoleic acid (C16:1), and oleic acid (C18:1) were ... The authors show that recovery of lipids from the alligator fat tissue was studied by solvent extraction as well as by ... Crocodile fat, alligator oil or crocodile/alligator oil is a lipid substance deriving from the bodies of the crocodilian family ...
Zeb A (2006). "Anticarcinogenic potential of lipids from Hippophae--evidence from the recent literature". Asian Pac. J. Cancer ... As species belonging to this genus accumulate lipids in the mesocarp (the fleshy part of the fruit), oil can be extracted from ... Laboratory work is examining sea buckthorn oil for its potential properties, although there is no evidence as of 2017 that it ... Bal, Lalit M.; Meda, Venkatesh; Naik, S. N.; Satya, Santosh (2011). "Sea buckthorn berries: a potential source of valuable ...
Although lipid rescue mechanism of action is not completely understood, the added lipid in the blood stream may act as a sink, ... Potential side effects. General systemic adverse effects are due to the pharmacological effects of the anesthetic agents ... Home-made Lipid Rescue Kit *^ Harvey M, Cave G (February 2007). "Intralipid outperforms sodium bicarbonate in a rabbit model of ... Treatment of overdose: "Lipid rescue". This method of toxicity treatment was invented by Dr. Guy Weinberg in 1998, and ...
"Perspective and potential of oral lipid-based delivery to optimize pharmacological therapies against cardiovascular diseases". ... Drug delivery systems, lipid- or polymer-based nanoparticles, can be designed to improve the pharmacokinetics and ... Existing and potential drug nanocarriers have been reviewed. ... Advances in lipid nanotechnology were instrumental in engineering medical nanodevices and novel drug delivery systems, as well ...
Though successful in predicting the timing and qualitative features of the action potential, it nevertheless failed to predict ... Voltage sensitive ion channels are glycoprotein molecules which extend through the lipid bilayer, allowing ions to traverse ... Huxley developed the voltage clamp and created the first biophysical model of the action potential. Hubel & Wiesel discovered ...
HDL, its enzymes and its potential to influence lipid peroxidation.. Mackness MI1, Durrington PN. ... However, recently it has become clear that HDL has the potential to limit oxidative modification of low density lipoprotein ( ... Evidence that some of these might act to metabolise lipid peroxidation products, such as oxidised phospholipids and lyso- ... this suggests another potential mechanism by which HDL might impede the development of CHD. HDL is the major carrier of ...
Lipid-lowering agents linked to improved survival in women with endometrial Ca. July 01, 2013 ... FDA approved mipomersen sodium (Kynamro, Genzyme and Isis Pharmaceuticals) once-a-week injection as an addition to lipid- ...
Artificial lipid droplets; Dual-use crops; Lipid-based drug delivery; Lipid-based formulations; Recombinant lipid-binding ... The characteristics and potential applications of structural lipid droplet proteins in plants.. Laibach N1, Post J2, Twyman RM3 ... There are many potential applications of NOLDs including the engineering of lipid production in plants and the generation of ... and non-oleosin-based lipid droplets (NOLDs). OLDs are the best characterized lipid droplets in plants. They are primarily ...
Effect of reduced sodium intake on blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids and other potential adverse effects World ... Effect of increased potassium intake on blood pressure, blood lipids and other potential adverse effects in children. ... Effect of increased potassium intake on blood pressure, renal function, blood lipids and other potential adverse effects ... 2012). Effect of increased potassium intake on blood pressure, blood lipids and other potential adverse effects in children. ...
... Jun Peng, Yi Huan, Qian Jiang ... A. Baldán, D. D. Bojanic, and P. A. Edwards, "The ABCs of sterol transport," Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 50, pp. S80-S85, ... S. M. Watkins, P. R. Reifsnyder, H.-J. Pan, J. Bruce German, and E. H. Leiter, "Lipid metabolome-wide effects of the PPARγ ... A. Tailleux, K. Wouters, and B. Staels, "Roles of PPARs in NAFLD: potential therapeutic targets," Biochimica et Biophysica Acta ...
... *Download PDF Copy ... The findings have uncovered a novel genetic control of lipid maintenance and its potential connection to lifespan. The team is ... Tags: Drugs, Eye, Gene, Genes, Genetic, Glucose, Healthy Living, Lipids, Olive Oil, Physiology, Research, Signaling Pathway, ... The findings, published online in the journal PLOS One, point to a fundamental process of lipid regulation that happens in the ...
... Jun Peng, Yi Huan, Qian Jiang ... This study aimed to analyze the effects and potential mechanisms of pioglitazone on triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in ...
Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functio ... Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. Here we ...
... Scand J ... Bacterial fractions were examined for proteins using ion exchange chromatography and SDS-PAGE; for lipids using thin-layer ... chromatography, lipid anion-exchange chromatography, column chromatography on silica gel, 31P-NMR, gas chromatography and mass ...
The Lipid Lowdown-Potential To Treat Type II Diabetes. Posted on February 21, 2018 ... Thus, FAHFAs are endogenous lipids with the potential to treat type 2 diabetes. ... Avanti Polar Lipids, Inc. 700 Industrial Park Drive Alabaster, Alabama 35007-9105 (205) 663-2494 (800) 227-0651 Contact us ... NEW ENDOGENOUS LIPID WITH ANTI-DIABETIC AND ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS. PAHSA levels correlate highly with insulin sensitivity ...
Potential-dependent conductances in lipid membranes containing alamethicin Message Subject (Your Name) has sent you a message ... Potential-dependent conductances in lipid membranes containing alamethicin. L. G. M. Gordon, D. A. Haydon ... This article is concerned primarily with the mechanism of the potential-dependent conductance induced in artificial lipid ... It is demonstrated that the sensitivity of the membrane conductance to the applied potential arises only to a slight extent ...
... as well as on the potential of lipid-based nanoparticles to target both CSCs and non-stem cancer cells. ... Targeting Cancer Stem Cells and Non-Stem Cancer Cells: The Potential of Lipid-Based Nanoparticles Curr Pharm Des. 2017 Nov 14. ... Conclusion: This review will focus on the multiple strategies to target CSCs, as well as on the potential of lipid-based ... However, the recognition of the potential of cells to interconvert in response to environmental stimulus, turned both CSCs and ...
These results indicate that lipid peroxidation is another potential mechanism besides pore-formation underlying the hemolysis ... The concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), an important marker of lipid peroxidation, increased dose-dependently in rat ... This study was performed to explore other potential mechanisms underlying hemolysis in addition to pore-formation of tentacle ...
Gating of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) Channels Activated by Cold and Chemical Agonists in Planar Lipid ... Gating of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) Channels Activated by Cold and Chemical Agonists in Planar Lipid ... Gating of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) Channels Activated by Cold and Chemical Agonists in Planar Lipid ... Gating of Transient Receptor Potential Melastatin 8 (TRPM8) Channels Activated by Cold and Chemical Agonists in Planar Lipid ...
The objective of this study was to investigate the antiobesity potential of d-psicose and the possible mechanism using Wistar ... Anti-obesity potential of rare sugar D-psicose by regulating lipid metabolism in rats J. Chen, W. Huang, T. Zhang, M. Lu and B ... Anti-obesity potential of rare sugar d-psicose by regulating lipid metabolism in rats ... The blood lipid profile and antioxidative activity of the rat were also improved. D-Psicose can regulate lipid metabolism by ...
Acyl-CoA inhibition of hexokinase in rat and human skeletal muscle is a potential mechanism of lipid-induced insulin resistance ... Acyl-CoA inhibition of hexokinase in rat and human skeletal muscle is a potential mechanism of lipid-induced insulin resistance ... Acyl-CoA inhibition of hexokinase in rat and human skeletal muscle is a potential mechanism of lipid-induced insulin resistance ... Acyl-CoA inhibition of hexokinase in rat and human skeletal muscle is a potential mechanism of lipid-induced insulin resistance ...
Colicin M, a peptidoglycan lipid-II-degrading enzyme: potential use for antibacterial means? Thierry Touzé Thierry Touzé 1 ... ColM acts in the periplasm by hydrolysing the phosphoester bond of the peptidoglycan lipid intermediate (lipid II). ColM ... a peptidoglycan lipid-II-degrading enzyme: potential use for antibacterial means?. Biochem Soc Trans 1 December 2012; 40 (6): ... The in vitro activity of the isolated catalytic domain towards lipid II was 50-fold higher than that of the full-length ...
Oligomannosides or oligosaccharide-lipids as potential substrates for rat liver cytosolic α-d-mannosidase. Thierry GRARD, ... Oligomannosides or oligosaccharide-lipids as potential substrates for rat liver cytosolic α-d-mannosidase ... Oligomannosides or oligosaccharide-lipids as potential substrates for rat liver cytosolic α-d-mannosidase ... Oligomannosides or oligosaccharide-lipids as potential substrates for rat liver cytosolic α-d-mannosidase ...
... Jacob Valenzuela,1, ... To elucidate P. tricornutum gene expression profiles during nutrient-deprivation and lipid-accumulation, cell cultures were ... Keywords: Algae, Diatom, Lipid-accumulation, Transcriptomics, Biofuel, Carbon fixation, RNA-seq, Bio-oil ... and cyclin B1 was up-expressed during lipid-accumulation after growth cessation. While many of the genes associated with the C3 ...
New Agents, New Options, and Expanded Potential In Lipid Management: Integrating The Data Into Practice. ... Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a key lipid fraction that plays a causal role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular ... is more effective than less intensive lipid management.. The monoclonal antibodies to proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin ...
... such as nanostructured lipid carriers (NLC) and nanoemulsions (NE) have been described as promising alternatives to ... skin hydration potential of vitamin E-loaded lipid nanosystems formulations: In vitro and human in vivo studies.". Lipid-based ... This study demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo safety and hydration potential of hydrogels containing vitamin E-loaded lipid- ... The formation of lipid peroxides results in the destruction of the original lipid leading to the loss of integrity of the ...
Autoxidizability and Potential as Inhibitors of Lipoxygenases. ... the most potent lipid-soluble antioxidant in nature). In order ... We have undertaken a preliminary study of the effect of replacing the unsaturation in the related polyunsaturated lipid ... Towards Highly-Reactive Pyri(mi)dinol-Based Fluorescent Antioxidant Indicators And Cyclopropane Lipids: ... are a family of important enzymes that catalyze the dioxygenation of arachidonic acid to yield a variety of potent lipid ...
... By Ya Zhang. January 2012. ... In this study, potential use of polymersomes (PMs) and lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as nanocarriers in rat inner ear respect to ... Both PMs and LNCs are potential nanocarriers to carry drugs and genes in the future to perform inner ear therapeutics. The ...
Assessment of lutein and zeaxanthin dietary intake and status biomarkers and lipid profile as potential determinants of macular ... L and Z in fasting blood by HPLC, MPOD by heterochromic flicker photometry (MPS-9000 desktop device) (1). Lipid profile by ... serum lipids: no significant correlations were found. Numerous and highly significative correlations were found between L+Z in ...
Assessment of apolar lipids in subseafloor rocks and potential contaminants from the Atlantis Massif (IODP Expedition 357) ... Given the high potential for contamination during drilling, a suite of materials used in sample collection and processing were ... A subset of contrasting lithologies were analyzed for apolar lipid content to determine if non-volatile organic molecules can ... The definitive detection and identification of abiotic and biological lipids in the subsurface of an actively serpentinizing ...
MetabolismMembranesBilayerDropletsMembrane LipidsEmulsionLinoleic acidTypes of lipidsPromoted lipid peroxidationTherapeuticMoleculesEnzymeBioactive LipidsPhospholipidsAnti-inflammatory lipidNanostructured lipid carriersTriglyceridesInflammationCarbohydratesCharacterizationCardiovascular diseaseElectrostaticBiologicalExtractionAntioxidativeRole of lipidPrevalence of lipidHypothesis that lipidAlgalCationicRegulationHepaticProteinCytotoxic effectsTherapyCytotoxicityScreeningHydrophobicCompoundsSystematicSubstratesRolesTissues
- This study aimed to analyze the effects and potential mechanisms of pioglitazone on triglyceride and cholesterol metabolism in obese diabetic KKAy mice. (hindawi.com)
- After sacrifice, blood lipid profile, tissue morphology, and related genes participating in lipid metabolism were analyzed. (rsc.org)
- D -Psicose can regulate lipid metabolism by increasing the lipid-metabolism-related enzymes such as SDH in serum and liver and HL in the liver. (rsc.org)
- however, the mechanism by which lipids interact with glucose metabolism is not completely understood. (diabetesjournals.org)
- This inhibition of skeletal muscle hexokinase by long-chain acyl CoA suggests that increases in intramuscular lipid metabolites could interact directly with insulin-mediated glucose metabolism in vivo by decreasing the rate of glucose phosphorylation and decreasing glucose-6-phosphate concentrations. (diabetesjournals.org)
- Additionally, adipocytes directly transfer lipids to melanoma cells, which alters tumor cell metabolism. (aacrjournals.org)
- A large portion of the Mtb genome encodes genes involved in lipid biosynthesis and metabolism, including 20 putative cytochrome P450 enzymes that are of interest as potential drug targets ( 2 - 5 ). (pnas.org)
- Activated AKT takes on GSK690693 a significant part in glycolysis gluconeogenesis protein synthesis and adipogenesis (7 13 Mice lacking gene in hepatocytes and shown that a lack of PTEN in liver improves insulin level of sensitivity and alters lipid rate of metabolism in mutant mice (63). (exposed-skin-care.net)
- Reprogramming of lipid metabolism is a newly recognized hallmark of malignancy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs), a family of membrane-bound transcription factors in the endoplasmic reticulum, play a central role in the regulation of lipid metabolism. (biomedcentral.com)
- SREBP cleavage-activating protein is a key transporter in the trafficking and activation of SREBPs as well as a critical glucose sensor, thus linking glucose metabolism and de novo lipid synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- This review summarizes recent progress in our understanding of lipid metabolism regulation in malignancy, and highlights potential molecular targets and their inhibitors for cancer treatment. (biomedcentral.com)
- Targeting the pathways regulating lipid metabolism has become a novel anti-cancer strategy. (biomedcentral.com)
- Regulation of lipid metabolism in cancer cells. (biomedcentral.com)
- Furthermore, the results imply that a pathogenetic link may exist between intracellular lipid metabolism and regulation of expression of fibrinolytic system components. (ahajournals.org)
- By 6 months of age, IR-exposed males had increased lipid accumulation in liver as well as increased plasma refed fatty acids, consistent with disrupted lipid metabolism. (diabetesjournals.org)
- A practical text on the clinical management of dyslipidemias, Practical Lipid Management balances conceptual development and pathophysiology with a straightforward approach to the identification and treatment of abnormalities in lipid metabolism. (wiley.com)
- However, these effects can be triggered by earlier step(s) in LPS signaling, initiating alterations in the expression and activity of proteins involved in cellular lipid metabolism. (thefreelibrary.com)
- To clarify the involvement of mROS in the LPS-induced shift of lipid metabolism, in this study we used MitoQ, a ubiquinone derivative that is covalently attached to a lipophilic triphenylphosphonium cation. (thefreelibrary.com)
- This article is concerned primarily with the mechanism of the potential-dependent conductance induced in artificial lipid membranes by the cyclic polypeptide antibiotic alamethicin. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- From the properties of lipid membranes containing alamethicin in a wide variety of electrolytes, and from other evidence, it is concluded that the polypeptide reacts to the electric field more probably because it has a large dipole moment than because it binds ions. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Effect of surface-potential modulators on the opening of lipid pores in liposomal and mitochondrial inner membranes induced by palmitate and calcium ions. (semanticscholar.org)
- The effect of surface-potential modulators on palmitate/Ca2+-induced formation of lipid pores was studied in liposomal and inner mitochondrial membranes. (semanticscholar.org)
- These studies define 2 independent binding sites for PtdIns-derived lipids in SNX27, that contribute to the dynamic recruitment of SNX27 to distinct membranes during T cell activation. (pubmedcentralcanada.ca)
- The effect of phloretin on the permeability of thin lipid membranes. (springer.com)
- Structure of the gramicidin A channel: Discrimination between the π L,D and the β helix by electrical measurements with lipid bilayer membranes. (springer.com)
- Voltage-induced thickness changes of lipid bilayer membranes and the effect of an electrical field on gramicidin channel formation. (springer.com)
- Channel formation kinetics of gramicidin A in lipid bilayer membranes. (springer.com)
- Dipole potential measurements in asymmetric membranes. (springer.com)
- Lipids constitute the basic structure of membranes and also function as signaling molecules and energy sources. (biomedcentral.com)
- In addition to their role as structural components, lipids in membranes also serve important functions of different organelles. (biomedcentral.com)
- Using latest-generation molecular simulations, which are like "computational microscopes", the researchers have demonstrated that a decrease in polyunsaturated lipids in neuronal membranes, as seen in Parkinson's and Alzheimer's sufferers, directly affects the binding rate of dopamine and adenosine receptors. (cureparkinsons.org.uk)
- The researchers believe that this difference in the lipid composition of membranes could alter the way in which certain proteins interact with each other, as in the case of the GPCR receivers. (cureparkinsons.org.uk)
- Lipid membranes provide the permeability barrier that keeps a cell's 'insides' in and their 'outsides' out-it is an understatement to say we have a vested interest in understanding exactly how this barrier is maintained. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- In general, lipid membranes are not spontaneously leaky, and in order to form a pore the energetic barrier to parting the lipid leaflets and making a hole must be overcome. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- Advances in Biomembranes and Lipid Self-Assembly, Volume 26, formerly titled Advances in Planar Lipid Bilayers and Liposomes, provides a global platform for a broad community of experimental and theoretical researchers studying cell membranes, lipid model membranes, and lipid self-assemblies from the micro- to the nanoscale. (elsevier.com)
- Lipid signaling is thought to be qualitatively different from other classical signaling paradigms (such as monoamine neurotransmission) because lipids can freely diffuse through membranes (see osmosis. (wikipedia.org)
- Alternatively, this sphingosine-derived lipid (sphingolipid) can be synthesized from scratch (de novo) by the enzymes serine palmitoyl transferase (SPT) and ceramide synthase in organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and possibly, in the mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs) and the perinuclear membranes. (wikipedia.org)
- The cell membranes of almost all living organisms and many viruses are made of a lipid bilayer, as are the membranes surrounding the cell nucleus and other sub-cellular structures. (wikipedia.org)
- The mechanisms involve several steps: binding, bilayer lateral expansion, stimulation of lipid synthesis, and membrane bending. (diva-portal.org)
- To address these limitations, we recently used optical imaging of ionic flux to study the formation and properties of individual, mobile punctate defects in a lipid bilayer [ 22 ]. (royalsocietypublishing.org)
- The lipid bilayer (or phospholipid bilayer) is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid molecules. (wikipedia.org)
- Just like the heads, the tails of lipids can also affect membrane properties, for instance by determining the phase of the bilayer. (wikipedia.org)
- The bilayer can adopt a solid gel phase state at lower temperatures but undergo phase transition to a fluid state at higher temperatures, and the chemical properties of the lipids' tails influence at which temperature this happens. (wikipedia.org)
- The packing of lipids within the bilayer also affects its mechanical properties, including its resistance to stretching and bending. (wikipedia.org)
- The lipid bilayer is very thin compared to its lateral dimensions. (wikipedia.org)
- If a typical mammalian cell (diameter ~10 micrometers) were magnified to the size of a watermelon (~1 ft/30 cm), the lipid bilayer making up the plasma membrane would be about as thick as a piece of office paper. (wikipedia.org)
- Plant cytosolic lipid droplets are storage organelles that accumulate hydrophobic molecules. (nih.gov)
- Two distinct types can be distinguished, which we define here as oleosin-based lipid droplets (OLDs) and non-oleosin-based lipid droplets (NOLDs). (nih.gov)
- OLDs are the best characterized lipid droplets in plants. (nih.gov)
- Lipid droplets are a deposit of fat that exist in cells. (euanmacdonaldcentre.org)
- Dr Giuseppa Pennetta, with Prof. Michael Welte (University of Rochester, NY, USA), has reviewed the evidence that lipid droplets could affect motor neuron function and survival both in health and disease. (euanmacdonaldcentre.org)
- In an published essay, the researchers propose that lipid droplets in cells called glia, which support the neurons, could function as a fuel supply and therefore affect their function and survival. (euanmacdonaldcentre.org)
- But the role of lipid droplets in motor neurons may go beyond this. (euanmacdonaldcentre.org)
- Recently, however, it was discovered that histones can bind to lipid droplets-organelles in the cytosol that are primarily used to store energy-in various animal cells and tissues. (elifesciences.org)
- have demonstrated that histones bound to lipid droplets can protect cells against bacteria without causing any of the harm normally associated with the presence of free histones. (elifesciences.org)
- In in vitro experiments with lipid droplets purified from Drosophila embryos, they showed that histones bound to lipid droplets could be released to kill bacteria. (elifesciences.org)
- injected similar numbers of bacteria into Drosophila embryos that contained histones bound to lipid droplets, and also into embryos that had been genetically modified so that they did not contain such droplet-bound histones. (elifesciences.org)
- Mitochondrial-Targeted Antioxidant MitoQ Prevents E. coli Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Accumulation of Triacylglycerol and Lipid Droplets Biogenesis in Epithelial Cells. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Our findings yield insights into a complex molecular paradigm in which the juxtaposition of LPS molecules and the anionic phospholipid POPG (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl phosphatidylglycerol) on the bacterial outer membrane confers such interfacial properties which create the optimal environment for the interaction between the peptides and bacterial membrane lipids. (portlandpress.com)
- It will also facilitate the study of other similar scenarios where specific membrane lipids are able to modulate the behaviour of other important receivers, at a clinical level. (cureparkinsons.org.uk)
- This has led to the quest to identify a lipid emulsion that decreases complications and provides beneficial physiologic effects. (practicalgastro.com)
- In 2005, Tebbutt and colleagues (1) showed that lipid emulsion therapy provided a survival advantage in rats that received toxic doses of verapamil. (annals.org)
- Four years later, lipid emulsion was used to manage a human patient with verapamil overdose (2). (annals.org)
- To describe the use of lipid emulsion in the management of a patient with verapamil overdose. (annals.org)
- We have undertaken a preliminary study of the effect of replacing the unsaturation in the related polyunsaturated lipid linoleic acid with cyclopropane rings on both the oxidizability of the lipid, as well as lipoxygenase's ability to utilize it as a substrate. (queensu.ca)
- 9,11 Given that Intralipid® contains 20% SO, with 52% of the fat as linoleic acid, only 2.9-8.7g/day of lipid or 29-87 mL of Intralipid® would be required to meet the essential fatty acid needs of a 60 kg individual receiving 25 kcal/kg/day. (practicalgastro.com)
- Finally, different types of lipids were successfully protected by surface and internal modifications from the surfactant treatment. (nature.com)
- Although certain types of lipids were affected by the extraction solvent used (hexane and diethyl ether) as were overall amounts, analysis of the each extract showed novel lipid profiles with several potential health benefitting agents present at levels comparable to or exceeding those present in other typically consumed dietary oils or food systems (vitamin E, carotenoids, sterols and unsaturated free fatty acids, particularly the both omega 7-fatty acids). (nebraska.edu)
- However, the recognition of the potential of cells to interconvert in response to environmental stimulus, turned both CSCs and non-stem cancer cells into two relevant therapeutic targets. (nih.gov)
- These compounds were also showed potential therapeutic benefit in experimental diabetes and hyperlipidemia. (biomedcentral.com)
- After identifying PE as the lipid that impaired the immune response, the scientists began to consider its potential therapeutic value. (eurekalert.org)
- The positive results and lack of adverse effects support human trials of O-PFC + 50% O 2 normobaric hyperoxia as a potential therapeutic approach. (springer.com)
- These results will enable, in the future, new therapeutic pathways to be initiated for regulating the binding of these receivers, either through the lipid composition of the membrane or by designing new lipids that have a modulating effect on this binding rate. (cureparkinsons.org.uk)
- 3 - 6 The US National Lipid Association (NLA) in its recent published recommendation recognizes both non-HDL-C and LDL-C as primary therapeutic targets. (scielo.br)
- reviews the evidence base for the use of therapeutic lifestyle change and specific lipid-lowering medications to reduce morbidity and mortality from cardiovascular disease. (wiley.com)
- A subset of contrasting lithologies were analyzed for apolar lipid content to determine if non-volatile organic molecules can be detected in the oceanic subsurface. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
- In particular, the monotopic lipid-synthesizing enzymes are able to synthesize amphiphilic lipid products by catalyzing two biochemically distinct molecules (substrates) at the membrane interface. (diva-portal.org)
- Lipid-based drug delivery systems, sometimes referred to as lipidic carriers, are widely used today because they have the ability to incorporate lipophilic and hydrophilic molecules and stabilize them in vitro and in vivo. (dovepress.com)
- Lipids present in algal cells are generally hydrophobic molecules that interact with moderately non-polar solvents such as ethyl ether, chloroform, acetone and benzene. (thefreelibrary.com)
- Colicin M, a peptidoglycan lipid-II-degrading enzyme: potential use for antibacterial means? (portlandpress.com)
- Lipid profile by colorimetric enzyme assays. (csic.es)
- We are focused on a plant lipid-synthesizing enzyme DGD2 involved in phosphate shortage stress, and analyzed the potentially important lipid anchoring segments of it, by a set of biochemical and biophysical approaches. (diva-portal.org)
- Acetate is converted to acetyl-CoA by the ACSS2 enzyme, serving as another source of lipid synthesis. (biomedcentral.com)
- Evidence that some of these might act to metabolise lipid peroxidation products, such as oxidised phospholipids and lyso-phosphatidylcholine, is discussed in this review. (nih.gov)
- Structural studies have identified phospholipids as potential LRH-1 ligands, but their functional relevance is unclear. (biomedsearch.com)
- Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) was used to quantify the concentration of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) and the FAME profile of transesterified lipids, phospholipids and pigments extracted under varied supercritical temperatures and pressures. (supercriticalfluids.com)
- Transdermal drug delivery of triptolide-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers: preparation, pharmacokinetic, and evaluation for rheumatoid arthritis. (bioportfolio.com)
- The objective of this present study was to develop and evaluate the triptolide-loaded nanostructured lipid carriers (TPL-NLCs) for transdermal drug delivery system (TDDS). (bioportfolio.com)
- Nanostructured lipid carriers have attracted expanding scientific and commercial vigilance in the last couple of years as alternate carriers for the pharmaceutical consignment, particularly anticancer pharmaceuticals. (biomedcentral.com)
- It is foreseen that, in the beside future, nanostructured lipid carriers will be further advanced to consign cytotoxic anticancer compounds in a more efficient, exact and protected manner. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lipid disorders (e.g., high blood cholesterol and triglycerides) increase the risk for atherosclerosis, which can lead to coronary heart disease (CHD), which accounts for a substantial proportion of cardiovascular mortality ( 1 ). (cdc.gov)
- TC, HDL-C, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol [LDL-C] and triglycerides [TG]) is useful for persons with dyslipidemia identified through TC and HDL-C screening tests, although they did not specify the numerical cut-points for determining lipid disorders ( 4 ). (cdc.gov)
- 8 Gemfibrozil, a lipid-lowering fibrate, decreases early cardiac events and cardiac mortality 9 10 11 12 in hypertriglyceridemic patients and decreases plasma PAI-1 in subjects with elevated triglycerides. (ahajournals.org)
- We describe here the biochemical characterization of CYP124 that includes identifying a series of substrates consistent with ω-hydroxylase activity and, importantly, a marked preference for lipids containing methyl branching. (pnas.org)
- Genome characterization of oleaginous Aspergillus oryzae BCC7051: A potential fungal-based platform for lipid production. (pacb.com)
- Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is a key lipid fraction that plays a causal role in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD), and control of LDL-C levels can reduce the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). (naceonline.com)
- The liver is the central regulatory organ of lipid pathways but since dyslipidaemias are major contributors to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes rather than liver disease, research in this area has not been a major focus for hepatologists. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- Researchers at Wayne State University have discovered a potential way to improve the lipid profiles in patients undergoing hemodialysis that may prevent cardiovascular disease common in these patients. (medicalxpress.com)
- Lipid management is a key part of medical practice, affecting the prevention and treatment of several diseases, including diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. (wiley.com)
- Practical Lipid Management provides a concise summary of best practice according to various international guidelines, making it a useful tool for all primary care physicians and others involved in the management of diseases such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease and stroke. (wiley.com)
- The definitive detection and identification of abiotic and biological lipids in the subsurface of an actively serpentinizing system would be a significant step towards understanding a variety of scientific processes, including the evolution of pre-biotic chemistry, microbial habitability, and the global carbon cycle. (darkenergybiosphere.org)
- Biochemical and biological endpoints relating to genotoxic lipid peroxidation (LPO) products potentially formed in the SOP. (lshtm.ac.uk)
- and (2) in biological system by lipid peroxydation tests (MDA and DC) in cells culture. (springer.com)
- Catalytic functions are difficult to assign to the remaining Mtb P450s because they have diverged significantly from P450 enzymes of known function, and their organization within the Mtb genome provides few clues about their potential biological roles ( 2 , 3 , 17 , 18 ). (pnas.org)
- The present study was focused on the optimization of yield of the essential oil extraction from leaves of Lawsonia inermis , and the determination of chemical composition, antioxidant activities, and lipid peroxydation and antiproliferative effects. (springer.com)
- The aim of this study was to optimize extraction of essential oil from Lawsonia inermis leaves, and to search an antioxidant activity, lipid peroxydation and cytotoxic effects. (springer.com)
- In addition, scanning electron microscopic pictographs (SEM) were taken for analyzing the micro algal structure before and after the lipid extraction. (elsevier.com)
- Total lipid content varies greatly depending on polarity of extraction solvent and technique used. (lsu.edu)
- Algae harvested by centrifugation ( vs. lyophilization) demonstrated a similar extraction efficiency in scCO 2 , indicating potential energy benefits by avoiding conventional algal mass dehydration prior to extraction. (supercriticalfluids.com)
- This study suggests that scCO 2 , a green solvent, shows great potential for algal lipid extraction for the sustainable production of biodiesel. (supercriticalfluids.com)
- Microwave assisted extraction with chloroform-methanol resulted in highest lipid yield (30%) with Chlorella sp. (thefreelibrary.com)
- 1984) Most commonly used laboratory techniques for lipid extraction are the Soxhlet extraction method with hexane as extracting solvent. (thefreelibrary.com)
- This report analyzes 2005-2008 data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) to determine what proportion of the adult population should be screened for cholesterol based on the USPSTF recommendations, the prevalence of lipid screening among those for whom screening is recommended, and the prevalence of high LDL-C, LDL-C treatment and control by screening recommendation category. (cdc.gov)
- In this paper, a novel series of bis [(aminoethyl)]-amine cationic lipid derivatives have been synthesized and identified to purity by NMR and Elemental analysis. (scirp.org)
- B16-F0 cells were transfected with cationic lipid/pEGFP-N1 and cationic lipid/b-gal lipoplexes complexed at +/− charge ratios of 1:1, 2:1, and 4:1. (scirp.org)
- Cationic lipid-mediated gene transfer is one of the most promising non-viral gene delivery systems to date due to such characteristics as non-immunogenicity, efficacy, moderate toxicity and simplicity of large scale production and use. (scirp.org)
- Among all the basic components of the cationic lipid, the type of head group has been made known to have a dominant role in transfection efficiency and toxicity. (scirp.org)
- To this end, a new series of novel cationic lipid derivatives containing bis[(aminoethyl)]-amine headgroup at the 2-position and hydrophobic chains at the 1- and 3-position, have been synthesized by acylation of a 1,3-di- amino-2-propanol backbone using, dilauroyl, dimyristoyl, dipalmitoyl, distearoyl and dioleoyl acyl chlorides. (scirp.org)
- A team of biologists from McMaster University studying these worms called C. elegans , or nematodes, has found that the regulation of lipid production, and the delicate balance of too much or too little fat, is crucial to healthy living. (news-medical.net)
- The findings, published online in the journal PLOS One , point to a fundamental process of lipid regulation that happens in the WNT signaling pathway, a widely-studied genetic thoroughfare that, when mutated, is directly linked to a variety of cancers. (news-medical.net)
- PTS also induced a significant loss of mitochondrial membrane potential that was attributed to up-regulation of both Bak and PUMA, two pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 family members, leading to apoptosis. (frontiersin.org)
- Ceramide was also shown to activate PKCζ, implicating it to the inhibition of AKT, regulation of the voltage difference between the interior and exterior of the cell (membrane potential) and signaling functions that favor apoptosis. (wikipedia.org)
- The effect of Sorbus commixta cortex, a traditional herbal medicine used for the treatment of bronchitis, gastritis and dropsy, on blood alcohol concentration (BAC) and hepatic lipid peroxidation was examined in acute alcohol-treated rats. (ovid.com)
- These results suggest that pretreatment with SE reduces hepatic lipid peroxidation by decreasing the bioavailability of alcohol and its oxidative metabolites, such as H2O2, at least partly, through the protection of hepatic catalase in acute alcohol-treated rats. (ovid.com)
- One of the strategies HCV has adopted to escape immune clearance and establish persistent infection is to make use of hepatic lipid pathways. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- Detailed subcellular localization and liposome binding assay indicates different interface anchoring regions in the protein, and anionic lipid seems to influence the binding properties of the anchoring segments. (diva-portal.org)
- Intravenous lipid emulsions (ILE) have become a crucial component of parenteral nutrition providing a source of essential fatty acids as well as non-protein calories. (practicalgastro.com)
- In some cases, the hydrated region can extend much further, for instance in lipids with a large protein or long sugar chain grafted to the head. (wikipedia.org)
- In the United Kingdom, a report on the economic advantages of treating FH revealed that lipid-lowering statin therapy would lead to 101 fewer cardiovascular deaths/1000 patients with FH given treatment. (centerwatch.com)
- Lipid as Potential Anti-Inflammatory Therapy? (irosacea.org)
- Patients with preexisting hyperlipidemia may require closer monitoring during quetiapine therapy, and adjustments made accordingly in their lipid-lowering regimen. (drugs.com)
- discuss approaches to targeting host lipid pathways as adjunctive therapy. (northumbria.ac.uk)
- Primary prevention patients without diabetes or lipid-lowering therapy were included. (scielo.br)
- Controversy: Should a Measure of Atherogenic Lipoprotein Particle Number be used in Risk Assessment And/Or to Evaluate the Response to Lipid Therapy? (wiley.com)
- Knockdown of SOD1 expression in SiHa cells with small interfering RNA significantly enhanced lipid peroxidation and cytotoxicity on exposure to DHA. (aacrjournals.org)
- The susceptibility of n -3 PUFAs to lipid peroxidation renders them capable of rapidly generating lipid peroxides, which may directly cause cytotoxicity or may influence intracellular signaling pathways, resulting in growth inhibition or death of tumor cells ( 15 ). (aacrjournals.org)
- This alga has been selected for lipid lowering activity because it showed lipid lowering effect in our random screening programme of marine flora. (scitechnol.com)
- The USPSTF concludes that the current evidence is insufficient and that the balance of benefits and harms of screening for lipid disorders in asymptomatic children and adolescents 20 years or younger cannot be determined. (aafp.org)
- Screening for lipid abnormalities is essential in detecting and properly managing lipid disorders early in the atherogenic process, thereby preventing the development of atherosclerotic plaques and minimizing existing plaques. (cdc.gov)
- Recent population-based reports on the prevalence of screening for lipids ( 6 ), lipid levels ( 7,8 ), and the prevalence, treatment, and control of high LDL-C using NCEP CHD risk categories have been published ( 9 ), but these reports did not address the outcomes in terms of USPSTF lipid disorder screening recommendations, i.e., by the groups recommended or eligible for screening. (cdc.gov)
- Contrasted to SLN, NLC show a higher loading capability for hardworking compounds by conceiving a less organized solid lipid matrix, i.e. by blending a fluid lipid with the solid lipid, a higher element drug stacking can be achieved. (biomedcentral.com)
- Lipids and lipid-related compounds play essential roles in disease prevention and growth. (ift.org)
- Such a structure and a high potential across the inner membrane of mitochondria allow MitoQ and other structurally similar compounds to be extremely highly concentrated in mitochondria matrix scavenging active radicals . (thefreelibrary.com)