Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Isotopes that exhibit radioactivity and undergo radioactive decay. (From Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed & McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Unstable isotopes of zinc that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Zn atoms with atomic weights 60-63, 65, 69, 71, and 72 are radioactive zinc isotopes.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
Method for assessing flow through a system by injection of a known quantity of radionuclide into the system and monitoring its concentration over time at a specific point in the system. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
Unstable isotopes of strontium that decay or disintegrate spontaneously emitting radiation. Sr 80-83, 85, and 89-95 are radioactive strontium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iodine that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. I atoms with atomic weights 117-139, except I 127, are radioactive iodine isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of krypton that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Kr atoms with atomic weights 74-77, 79, 81, 85, and 87-94 are radioactive krypton isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of indium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. In atoms with atomic weights 106-112, 113m, 114, and 116-124 are radioactive indium isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of sodium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Na atoms with atomic weights 20-22 and 24-26 are radioactive sodium isotopes.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
The spontaneous transformation of a nuclide into one or more different nuclides, accompanied by either the emission of particles from the nucleus, nuclear capture or ejection of orbital electrons, or fission. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
Unstable isotopes of barium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Ba atoms with atomic weights 126-129, 131, 133, and 139-143 are radioactive barium isotopes.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
The production of an image obtained by cameras that detect the radioactive emissions of an injected radionuclide as it has distributed differentially throughout tissues in the body. The image obtained from a moving detector is called a scan, while the image obtained from a stationary camera device is called a scintiphotograph.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Unstable isotopes of yttrium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Y atoms with atomic weights 82-88 and 90-96 are radioactive yttrium isotopes.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Unstable isotopes of tin that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Sn atoms with atomic weights 108-111, 113, 120-121, 123 and 125-128 are tin radioisotopes.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Unstable isotopes of carbon that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. C atoms with atomic weights 10, 11, and 14-16 are radioactive carbon isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of iron that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Fe atoms with atomic weights 52, 53, 55, and 59-61 are radioactive iron isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of copper that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Cu atoms with atomic weights 58-62, 64, and 66-68 are radioactive copper isotopes.
Unstable isotopes of phosphorus that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. P atoms with atomic weights 28-34 except 31 are radioactive phosphorus isotopes.
High energy POSITRONS or ELECTRONS ejected from a disintegrating atomic nucleus.

Uptakes and images of 38K in rabbit heart, kidney, and brain. (1/91)

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the kinetics and image quality of positron-emitting 38K (half-life, 7.6 min) and high-resolution small-animal PET in the heart, kidney, and brain of rabbits. METHODS: Studies were performed with 18 closed-chest anesthetized rabbits at baseline and during infusions of adenosine (0.2 mg/kg/min) and propranolol (0.5-1.0 mg/kg intravenously) using high-resolution small-animal PET. 38K was injected intravenously and dynamic PET imaging of the heart, kidney, or brain was performed for 3 min. Colored microspheres were injected into the left ventricle to measure organ blood flow. Arterial blood was withdrawn directly from the femoral artery, and, after the animals were killed, 38K activities in each organ were measured directly with a well counter. Uptake of 38K was calculated by dividing the 38K activities in each organ by the integral of the input function. The extraction fraction of 38K was estimated by dividing the uptake of 38K in each organ by the organ blood flow, measured by microspheres. RESULTS: The left ventricular myocardium and kidney were clearly visualized, but there was no visual 38K uptake in the brain. For the heart, kidney, and brain, respectively, average blood flow was 2.91 +/- 1.29, 5.49 +/- 0.71, and 0.57 +/- 0.11 mL/min/g, and the extraction fraction of 38K at baseline was 0.55 +/- 0.13, 0.48 +/- 0.13, and 0.022 +/- 0004. The Renkin-Crone model fit the relation between myocardial extraction and flow under a wide range of myocardial blood flow (r = 0.89). CONCLUSION: 38K is a suitable tracer for noninvasively showing the potassium kinetics of the heart, kidney, and brain by PET imaging.  (+info)

The role of K+ channels in the force recovery elicited by Na+-K+ pump stimulation in Ba2+-paralysed rat skeletal muscle. (2/91)

The present experiments were performed to assess the role of K+ channels in hormonal stimulation of the Na+-K+ pump and to determine the contribution of Na+-K+ pumps to the recovery of excitability and contractility in depolarized skeletal muscle. In soleus muscle, Ba2+ (0.02 and 1 mM) was found to inhibit 42K+ efflux and 42K+ influx. Both in the absence and the presence of Ba2+ (1 mM), salbutamol and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) induced a marked decrease in intracellular Na+ and stimulation of 42K+ uptake. In soleus muscles Ba2+ (0.1 and 1.0 mM) decreased twitch and tetanic force. Subsequent stimulation of the Na+-K+ pumps by salbutamol, CGRP or repeated electrical stimulation produced a highly significant restoration of force development, which was suppressed by ouabain, but not by glibenclamide. Also, in extensor digitorum longus muscles Ba2+ (0.1 mM) produced a considerable force decline, which was partly restored by salbutamol and CGRP. The area of compound action potentials (M-waves) elicited by indirect stimulation was decreased by Ba2+ (0.1 mM). This was associated with a concomitant decrease in tetanic force and depolarization. Salbutamol, CGRP or repeated electrical stimulation all elicited marked recovery of M-wave area, force and membrane potential. All recordings showed close correlations between these three parameters. The data add further support to the concept that due to its electrogenic nature and large transport capacity, the Na+-K+ pump is a rapid and efficient mechanism for the maintenance of excitability in skeletal muscle, acting independently of Ba2+- or ATP-sensitive K+ channel function.  (+info)

Comparison of total body potassium with other techniques for measuring lean body mass in men and women with AIDS wasting. (3/91)

BACKGROUND: Lean body mass is an important predictor of survival and functional status in patients with AIDS wasting. The bias between different techniques for assessing body composition in AIDS wasting is not known. DESIGN: We compared total body potassium (TBK) with fat-free mass (FFM) determined by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold-thickness measurement (SKF) in 132 patients (63 men, 69 women) with AIDS wasting (weight < 90% of ideal body weight, or weight loss > 10% of original, or both). None of the subjects exhibited clinical lipodystrophy. Comparisons were made by using different BIA equations. RESULTS: Lean body mass determined by DXA was highly correlated with TBK in men (r = 0.79, P: < 0.0001) and women (r = 0.84, P: < 0.0001). FFM(BIA) and FFM(DXA) were significantly different (P: < 0.01 in men and P: < 0.0001 in women). The difference between FFM(DXA) and FFM(BIA) was significantly greater with greater weight and body fat, particularly in HIV-infected women (r = -0.39, P: = 0.001 for weight; r = -0.60, P: < 0.0001 for fat). The comparability of FFM and fat mass determined by DXA and BIA was dependent on the specific BIA equation used. Among men, no single BIA equation was more highly predictive of fat mass and FFM in comparison with DXA. CONCLUSIONS: The differences between DXA, BIA, and SKF in the determination of fat mass and FFM are significant in patients with AIDS wasting. BIA overestimates FFM compared with DXA in those with greater body fat. Standard BIA equations may not accurately estimate FFM and fat mass in men and women with AIDS wasting.  (+info)

Voltage dependence of the apparent affinity for external Na(+) of the backward-running sodium pump. (4/91)

The steady-state voltage and [Na(+)](o) dependence of the electrogenic sodium pump was investigated in voltage-clamped internally dialyzed giant axons of the squid, Loligo pealei, under conditions that promote the backward-running mode (K(+)-free seawater; ATP- and Na(+)-free internal solution containing ADP and orthophosphate). The ratio of pump-mediated (42)K(+) efflux to reverse pump current, I(pump) (both defined by sensitivity to dihydrodigitoxigenin, H(2)DTG), scaled by Faraday's constant, was -1.5 +/- 0.4 (n = 5; expected ratio for 2 K(+)/3 Na(+) stoichiometry is -2.0). Steady-state reverse pump current-voltage (I(pump)-V) relationships were obtained either from the shifts in holding current after repeated exposures of an axon clamped at various V(m) to H(2)DTG or from the difference between membrane I-V relationships obtained by imposing V(m) staircases in the presence or absence of H(2)DTG. With the second method, we also investigated the influence of [Na(+)](o) (up to 800 mM, for which hypertonic solutions were used) on the steady-state reverse I(pump)-V relationship. The reverse I(pump)-V relationship is sigmoid, I(pump) saturating at large negative V(m), and each doubling of [Na(+)](o) causes a fixed (29 mV) rightward parallel shift along the voltage axis of this Boltzmann partition function (apparent valence z = 0.80). These characteristics mirror those of steady-state (22)Na(+) efflux during electroneutral Na(+)/Na(+) exchange, and follow without additional postulates from the same simple high field access channel model (Gadsby, D.C., R.F. Rakowski, and P. De Weer, 1993. Science. 260:100-103). This model predicts valence z = nlambda, where n (1.33 +/- 0.05) is the Hill coefficient of Na binding, and lambda (0.61 +/- 0.03) is the fraction of the membrane electric field traversed by Na ions reaching their binding site. More elaborate alternative models can accommodate all the steady-state features of the reverse pumping and electroneutral Na(+)/Na(+) exchange modes only with additional assumptions that render them less likely.  (+info)

Correlation of the glycoside response, the force staircase, and the action potential configuration in the neonatal rat heart. (5/91)

The rat heart demonstrates marked alterations in its responses to ouabain and increased frequencies of stimulation and in the duration of its action potential during the initial 21 days of life. At an age of 6.2 days 5 times 10- minus 5M ouabain produced a 158.2% increase in dP/dt compared with a 17.2% increase at 21.1 days (P less than 0.001). At 6.2 days dP/dt increased by 53.4% when the heart rate was accelerated from 30 to 90 beats/min compared with an increase of 12.2% at 21.1 days (P less than 0.005). The positive glycoside and staircase responses at the younger age were virtually eliminated when the hearts were perfused with a solution containing 50% [Na+]o and 25% [Ca-2+]o ([Ca-2+]o/[Na+]o-2 maintained constant). The duration of the ventricular action potential progressively decreased from 350-400 msec at birth to 100-150 msec at 21 days of life. This decrease was due to a shortening and a decrease in the potential level of the plateau phase. The prominent plateau typical of the early neonatal period was significantly diminished by perfusion with 50% [Na+]o. The results suggest that Na+ flux through a slow membrane channel plays a significant role in the positive staircase and glycoside responses of the early neonatal rat heart. As the heart matures and becomes functionally anomalous relative to other mammalian species, the slow channel progressively closes.  (+info)

Perturbation of the pump-leak balance for Na(+) and K(+) in malaria-infected erythrocytes. (6/91)

In human erythrocytes infected with the mature form of the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum, the cytosolic concentration of Na(+) is increased and that of K(+) is decreased. In this study, the membrane transport changes underlying this perturbation were investigated using a combination of (86)Rb(+), (43)K(+), and (22)Na(+) flux measurements and a semiquantitative hemolysis technique. From >15 h postinvasion, there appeared in the infected erythrocyte membrane new permeation pathways (NPP) that caused a significant increase in the basal ion permeability of the erythrocyte membrane and that were inhibited by furosemide (0.1 mM). The NPP showed the selectivity sequence Cs(+) > Rb(+) > K(+) > Na(+), with the K(+)-to-Na(+) permeability ratio estimated as 2.3. From 18 to 36 h postinvasion, the activity of the erythrocyte Na(+)/K(+) pump increased in response to increased cytosolic Na(+) (a consequence of the increased leakage of Na(+) via the NPP) but underwent a progressive decrease in the latter 12 h of the parasite's occupancy of the erythrocyte (36-48 h postinvasion). Incorporation of the measured ion transport rates into a mathematical model of the human erythrocyte indicates that the induction of the NPP, together with the impairment of the Na(+)/K(+) pump, accounts for the altered Na(+) and K(+) levels in the host cell cytosol, as well as predicting an initial decrease, followed by a lytic increase in the volume of the host erythrocyte.  (+info)

Age-related differences in fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, body cell mass and fat mass between 18 and 94 years. (7/91)

OBJECTIVE: To determine (1) lean and fat body compartments, reflected by fat-free mass (FFM), appendicular skeletal muscle mass (ASMM), body cell mass (BCM), total body potassium (TBK), fat mass and percentage fat mass, and their differences between age groups in healthy, physically active subjects from 18 to 94 y of age; and (2) if the rate of decrease in any one of the parameters by age might be accelerated compared to others. METHODS: A total of 433 healthy ambulatory Caucasians (253 men and 180 women) aged 18--94 y were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and whole body scintillation counter (TBK counter) using a large sodium iodide crystal (203 mm diameter). RESULTS: The ASMM change (-16.4 and -12.3% in men and women, respectively) in >75 y-old compared to 18 to 34-y-old subjects was greater than the FFM change (-11.8 and -9.7% in men and women, respectively) and this suggests that skeletal muscle mass decrease in older subjects was proportionally greater than non-skeletal muscle mass. BCM (-25.1 and -23.2% in men and women, respectively) and TBK differences were greater than the differences in FFM or ASMM suggesting altered composition of FFM in older subjects. Women had lower peak FFM, ASMM, BCM and TBK than men. CONCLUSIONS: The decline in FFM, ASMM, BCM and TBK is accelerated in men and women after 60 y of age and FFM, ASMM, BCM and TBK are significantly lower than in younger subjects. Fat mass continued to increase until around 75 y.  (+info)

Coincidence and noncoincidence counting (81Rb and 43K): a comparative study. (8/91)

This paper compares the accuracy of imaging and resolution obtained with 81Rb and 43K using coincidence and noncoincidence counting. Phantoms and isolated infarcted dog hearts were used. The results clearly show the superiority of coincidence counting with a resolution of 0.5 cm. Noncoincidence counting failed to reveal even sizable defects in the radioactive source.  (+info)

Potassium radioisotopes refer to unstable isotopes or variants of the element potassium that emit radiation as they decay towards a stable form. A common example is Potassium-40 (40K), which occurs naturally in small amounts in potassium-containing substances. It decays through beta decay and positron emission, as well as electron capture, with a half-life of approximately 1.25 billion years.

Radioisotopes like 40K have medical applications such as in dating archaeological artifacts or studying certain biological processes. However, exposure to high levels of radiation from potassium radioisotopes can be harmful and potentially lead to health issues like radiation sickness or cancer.

Potassium is a essential mineral and an important electrolyte that is widely distributed in the human body. The majority of potassium in the body (approximately 98%) is found within cells, with the remaining 2% present in blood serum and other bodily fluids. Potassium plays a crucial role in various physiological processes, including:

1. Regulation of fluid balance and maintenance of normal blood pressure through its effects on vascular tone and sodium excretion.
2. Facilitation of nerve impulse transmission and muscle contraction by participating in the generation and propagation of action potentials.
3. Protein synthesis, enzyme activation, and glycogen metabolism.
4. Regulation of acid-base balance through its role in buffering systems.

The normal serum potassium concentration ranges from 3.5 to 5.0 mEq/L (milliequivalents per liter) or mmol/L (millimoles per liter). Potassium levels outside this range can have significant clinical consequences, with both hypokalemia (low potassium levels) and hyperkalemia (high potassium levels) potentially leading to serious complications such as cardiac arrhythmias, muscle weakness, and respiratory failure.

Potassium is primarily obtained through the diet, with rich sources including fruits (e.g., bananas, oranges, and apricots), vegetables (e.g., leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes), legumes, nuts, dairy products, and meat. In cases of deficiency or increased needs, potassium supplements may be recommended under the guidance of a healthcare professional.

Radioisotopes, also known as radioactive isotopes or radionuclides, are variants of chemical elements that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation in the form of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or conversion electrons. These isotopes are formed when an element's nucleus undergoes natural or artificial radioactive decay.

Radioisotopes can be produced through various processes, including nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, and particle bombardment in a cyclotron or other types of particle accelerators. They have a wide range of applications in medicine, industry, agriculture, research, and energy production. In the medical field, radioisotopes are used for diagnostic imaging, radiation therapy, and in the labeling of molecules for research purposes.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires proper training, safety measures, and regulatory compliance due to their ionizing radiation properties, which can pose potential health risks if not handled correctly.

Zinc radioisotopes are unstable isotopes or variants of the element zinc that undergo radioactive decay, emitting radiation in the process. These isotopes have a different number of neutrons than the stable isotope of zinc (zinc-64), which contributes to their instability and tendency to decay.

Examples of zinc radioisotopes include zinc-65, zinc-70, and zinc-72. These isotopes are often used in medical research and diagnostic procedures due to their ability to emit gamma rays or positrons, which can be detected using specialized equipment.

Zinc radioisotopes may be used as tracers to study the metabolism and distribution of zinc in the body, or as therapeutic agents to deliver targeted radiation therapy to cancer cells. However, it is important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries potential risks, including exposure to ionizing radiation and the potential for damage to healthy tissues.

Potassium channels are membrane proteins that play a crucial role in regulating the electrical excitability of cells, including cardiac, neuronal, and muscle cells. These channels facilitate the selective passage of potassium ions (K+) across the cell membrane, maintaining the resting membrane potential and shaping action potentials. They are composed of four or six subunits that assemble to form a central pore through which potassium ions move down their electrochemical gradient. Potassium channels can be modulated by various factors such as voltage, ligands, mechanical stimuli, or temperature, allowing cells to fine-tune their electrical properties and respond to different physiological demands. Dysfunction of potassium channels has been implicated in several diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, and neurodegenerative disorders.

The Radioisotope Dilution Technique is a method used in nuclear medicine to measure the volume and flow rate of a particular fluid in the body. It involves introducing a known amount of a radioactive isotope, or radioisotope, into the fluid, such as blood. The isotope mixes with the fluid, and samples are then taken from the fluid at various time points.

By measuring the concentration of the radioisotope in each sample, it is possible to calculate the total volume of the fluid based on the amount of the isotope introduced and the dilution factor. The flow rate can also be calculated by measuring the concentration of the isotope over time and using the formula:

Flow rate = Volume/Time

This technique is commonly used in medical research and clinical settings to measure cardiac output, cerebral blood flow, and renal function, among other applications. It is a safe and reliable method that has been widely used for many years. However, it does require the use of radioactive materials and specialized equipment, so it should only be performed by trained medical professionals in appropriate facilities.

Strontium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element strontium. Strontium is an alkaline earth metal that is found in nature and has several isotopes, some of which are stable and some of which are radioactive. The radioactive isotopes of strontium, also known as strontium radionuclides, decay and emit radiation in the form of beta particles.

Strontium-89 (^89Sr) and strontium-90 (^90Sr) are two common radioisotopes of strontium that are used in medical applications. Strontium-89 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 50.5 days, which makes it useful for the treatment of bone pain associated with metastatic cancer. When administered, strontium-89 is taken up by bones and irradiates the bone tissue, reducing pain and improving quality of life in some patients.

Strontium-90, on the other hand, has a longer half-life of 28.8 years and emits more powerful beta particles than strontium-89. It is used as a component in radioactive waste and in some nuclear weapons, but it is not used in medical applications due to its long half-life and high radiation dose.

It's important to note that exposure to strontium radioisotopes can be harmful to human health, especially if ingested or inhaled. Therefore, handling and disposal of strontium radioisotopes require special precautions and regulations.

Iodine radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of the element iodine, which decays and emits radiation in the form of gamma rays. Some commonly used iodine radioisotopes include I-123, I-125, I-131. These radioisotopes have various medical applications such as in diagnostic imaging, therapy for thyroid disorders, and cancer treatment.

For example, I-131 is commonly used to treat hyperthyroidism and differentiated thyroid cancer due to its ability to destroy thyroid tissue. On the other hand, I-123 is often used in nuclear medicine scans of the thyroid gland because it emits gamma rays that can be detected by a gamma camera, allowing for detailed images of the gland's structure and function.

It is important to note that handling and administering radioisotopes require specialized training and safety precautions due to their radiation-emitting properties.

Krypton is a noble gas with the symbol Kr and atomic number 36. It exists in various radioisotopes, which are unstable isotopes of krypton that undergo radioactive decay. A few examples include:

1. Krypton-81: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 2.1 x 10^5 years and decays via electron capture to rubidium-81. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.
2. Krypton-83: With a half-life of approximately 85.7 days, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to bromine-83. It can be used in medical imaging for lung ventilation studies.
3. Krypton-85: This radioisotope has a half-life of about 10.7 years and decays via beta decay to rubidium-85. It is produced as a byproduct of nuclear fission and can be found in trace amounts in the atmosphere.
4. Krypton-87: With a half-life of approximately 76.3 minutes, this radioisotope decays via beta decay to rubidium-87. It is not found naturally on Earth but can be produced artificially.

It's important to note that while krypton radioisotopes have medical applications, they are also associated with potential health risks due to their radioactivity. Proper handling and safety precautions must be taken when working with these substances.

Indium radioisotopes refer to specific types of radioactive indium atoms, which are unstable and emit radiation as they decay. Indium is a chemical element with the symbol In and atomic number 49. Its radioisotopes are often used in medical imaging and therapy due to their unique properties.

For instance, one commonly used indium radioisotope is Indium-111 (^111In), which has a half-life of approximately 2.8 days. It emits gamma rays, making it useful for diagnostic imaging techniques such as single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). In clinical applications, indium-111 is often attached to specific molecules or antibodies that target particular cells or tissues in the body, allowing medical professionals to monitor biological processes and identify diseases like cancer.

Another example is Indium-113m (^113mIn), which has a half-life of about 99 minutes. It emits low-energy gamma rays and is used as a source for in vivo counting, typically in the form of indium chloride (InCl3) solution. This radioisotope can be used to measure blood flow, ventilation, and other physiological parameters.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes require proper training and safety measures due to their ionizing radiation properties.

Sodium radioisotopes are unstable forms of sodium, an element naturally occurring in the human body, that emit radiation as they decay over time. These isotopes can be used for medical purposes such as imaging and treatment of various diseases. Commonly used sodium radioisotopes include Sodium-22 (^22Na) and Sodium-24 (^24Na).

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes in medicine should be under the supervision of trained medical professionals, as improper handling or exposure can pose health risks.

Potassium channel blockers are a class of medications that work by blocking potassium channels, which are proteins in the cell membrane that control the movement of potassium ions into and out of cells. By blocking these channels, potassium channel blockers can help to regulate electrical activity in the heart, making them useful for treating certain types of cardiac arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms).

There are several different types of potassium channel blockers, including:

1. Class III antiarrhythmic drugs: These medications, such as amiodarone and sotalol, are used to treat and prevent serious ventricular arrhythmias (irregular heart rhythms that originate in the lower chambers of the heart).
2. Calcium channel blockers: While not strictly potassium channel blockers, some calcium channel blockers also have effects on potassium channels. These medications, such as diltiazem and verapamil, are used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure), angina (chest pain), and certain types of arrhythmias.
3. Non-selective potassium channel blockers: These medications, such as 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium, have a broader effect on potassium channels and are used primarily in research settings to study the electrical properties of cells.

It's important to note that potassium channel blockers can have serious side effects, particularly when used in high doses or in combination with other medications that affect heart rhythms. They should only be prescribed by a healthcare provider who is familiar with their use and potential risks.

Inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir) are a type of potassium channel that allow for the selective passage of potassium ions (K+) across cell membranes. The term "inwardly rectifying" refers to their unique property of allowing potassium ions to flow more easily into the cell (inward current) than out of the cell (outward current). This characteristic is due to the voltage-dependent blockage of these channels by intracellular magnesium and polyamines at depolarized potentials.

These channels play crucial roles in various physiological processes, including:

1. Resting membrane potential maintenance: Kir channels help establish and maintain the negative resting membrane potential in cells by facilitating potassium efflux when the membrane potential is near the potassium equilibrium potential (Ek).
2. Action potential repolarization: In excitable cells like neurons and muscle fibers, Kir channels contribute to the rapid repolarization phase of action potentials, allowing for proper electrical signaling.
3. Cell volume regulation: Kir channels are involved in regulating cell volume by mediating potassium influx during osmotic stress or changes in intracellular ion concentrations.
4. Insulin secretion: In pancreatic β-cells, Kir channels control the membrane potential and calcium signaling necessary for insulin release.
5. Renal function: Kir channels are essential for maintaining electrolyte balance and controlling renal tubular transport in the kidneys.

There are several subfamilies of inwardly rectifying potassium channels (Kir1-7), each with distinct biophysical properties, tissue distributions, and functions. Mutations in genes encoding these channels can lead to various human diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, and Bartter syndrome.

Radioactivity is not typically considered within the realm of medical definitions, but since it does have medical applications and implications, here is a brief explanation:

Radioactivity is a natural property of certain elements (referred to as radioisotopes) that emit particles or electromagnetic waves due to changes in their atomic nuclei. This process can occur spontaneously without any external influence, leading to the emission of alpha particles, beta particles, gamma rays, or neutrons. These emissions can penetrate various materials and ionize atoms along their path, which can cause damage to living tissues.

In a medical context, radioactivity is used in both diagnostic and therapeutic settings:

1. Diagnostic applications include imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans and single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT), where radioisotopes are introduced into the body to visualize organ function or detect diseases like cancer.
2. Therapeutic uses involve targeting radioisotopes directly at cancer cells, either through external beam radiation therapy or internal radiotherapy, such as brachytherapy, where a radioactive source is placed near or within the tumor.

While radioactivity has significant medical benefits, it also poses risks due to ionizing radiation exposure. Proper handling and safety measures are essential when working with radioactive materials to minimize potential harm.

Barium radioisotopes are radioactive forms of the element barium, which are used in medical imaging procedures to help diagnose various conditions. The radioisotopes emit gamma rays that can be detected by external devices, allowing doctors to visualize the inside of the body. Barium sulfate is often used as a contrast agent in X-rays and CT scans, but when combined with a radioisotope such as barium-133, barium-198, or barium-207, it can provide more detailed images of specific organs or systems.

For example, barium sulfate mixed with barium-133 may be used in a lung scan to help diagnose pulmonary embolism or other respiratory conditions. Barium-207 is sometimes used in bone scans to detect fractures, tumors, or infections.

It's important to note that the use of radioisotopes carries some risks, including exposure to radiation and potential allergic reactions to the barium compound. However, these risks are generally considered low compared to the benefits of accurate diagnosis and effective treatment.

Dietary Potassium is a mineral and an essential electrolyte that is required in the human body for various physiological processes. It is primarily obtained through dietary sources. The recommended daily intake of potassium for adults is 4700 milligrams (mg).

Potassium plays a crucial role in maintaining normal blood pressure, heart function, and muscle and nerve activity. It also helps to balance the body's fluids and prevent kidney stones. Foods that are rich in dietary potassium include fruits such as bananas, oranges, and melons; vegetables such as leafy greens, potatoes, and tomatoes; legumes such as beans and lentils; dairy products such as milk and yogurt; and nuts and seeds.

It is important to maintain a balanced intake of dietary potassium, as both deficiency and excess can have negative health consequences. A deficiency in potassium can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, and heart arrhythmias, while an excess can cause hyperkalemia, which can result in serious cardiac complications.

Radionuclide imaging, also known as nuclear medicine, is a medical imaging technique that uses small amounts of radioactive material, called radionuclides or radiopharmaceuticals, to diagnose and treat various diseases and conditions. The radionuclides are introduced into the body through injection, inhalation, or ingestion and accumulate in specific organs or tissues. A special camera then detects the gamma rays emitted by these radionuclides and converts them into images that provide information about the structure and function of the organ or tissue being studied.

Radionuclide imaging can be used to evaluate a wide range of medical conditions, including heart disease, cancer, neurological disorders, gastrointestinal disorders, and bone diseases. The technique is non-invasive and generally safe, with minimal exposure to radiation. However, it should only be performed by qualified healthcare professionals in accordance with established guidelines and regulations.

Potassium deficiency, also known as hypokalemia, is a condition characterized by low levels of potassium (

Yttrium radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element Yttrium, which is a rare earth metal. These radioisotopes are artificially produced and have unstable nuclei that emit radiation in the form of gamma rays or high-speed particles. Examples of yttrium radioisotopes include Yttrium-90 and Yttrium-86, which are used in medical applications such as radiotherapy for cancer treatment and molecular imaging for diagnostic purposes.

Yttrium-90 is a pure beta emitter with a half-life of 64.1 hours, making it useful for targeted radionuclide therapy. It can be used to treat liver tumors, leukemia, and lymphoma by attaching it to monoclonal antibodies or other targeting agents that selectively bind to cancer cells.

Yttrium-86 is a positron emitter with a half-life of 14.7 hours, making it useful for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging. It can be used to label radiopharmaceuticals and track their distribution in the body, providing information on the location and extent of disease.

It is important to note that handling and use of radioisotopes require specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Voltage-gated potassium channels are a type of ion channel found in the membrane of excitable cells such as nerve and muscle cells. They are called "voltage-gated" because their opening and closing is regulated by the voltage, or electrical potential, across the cell membrane. Specifically, these channels are activated when the membrane potential becomes more positive, a condition that occurs during the action potential of a neuron or muscle fiber.

When voltage-gated potassium channels open, they allow potassium ions (K+) to flow out of the cell down their electrochemical gradient. This outward flow of K+ ions helps to repolarize the membrane, bringing it back to its resting potential after an action potential has occurred. The precise timing and duration of the opening and closing of voltage-gated potassium channels is critical for the normal functioning of excitable cells, and abnormalities in these channels have been linked to a variety of diseases, including cardiac arrhythmias, epilepsy, and neurological disorders.

Tin radioisotopes refer to specific variants of the element tin that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation as they decay towards a more stable state. These isotopes are often produced in nuclear reactors or particle accelerators and can be used in a variety of medical applications, such as:

1. Medical Imaging: Tin-117m, for example, is used as a radiopharmaceutical in medical imaging studies to help diagnose various conditions, including bone disorders and liver diseases.
2. Radiation Therapy: Tin-125 can be used in the treatment of certain types of cancer, such as prostate cancer, through brachytherapy - a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source directly into or near the tumor.
3. Radioisotope Production: Tin-106 is used as a parent isotope in the production of other medical radioisotopes, such as iodine-125 and gallium-67.

It's important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment due to their potential radiation hazards.

Potassium compounds refer to substances that contain the element potassium (chemical symbol: K) combined with one or more other elements. Potassium is an alkali metal that has the atomic number 19 and is highly reactive, so it is never found in its free form in nature. Instead, it is always found combined with other elements in the form of potassium compounds.

Potassium compounds can be ionic or covalent, depending on the properties of the other element(s) with which it is combined. In general, potassium forms ionic compounds with nonmetals and covalent compounds with other metals. Ionic potassium compounds are formed when potassium donates one electron to a nonmetal, forming a positively charged potassium ion (K+) and a negatively charged nonmetal ion.

Potassium compounds have many important uses in medicine, industry, and agriculture. For example, potassium chloride is used as a salt substitute and to treat or prevent low potassium levels in the blood. Potassium citrate is used to treat kidney stones and to alkalinize urine. Potassium iodide is used to treat thyroid disorders and to protect the thyroid gland from radioactive iodine during medical imaging procedures.

It's important to note that some potassium compounds can be toxic or even fatal if ingested in large quantities, so they should only be used under the supervision of a healthcare professional.

Carbon radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes of carbon, which is an naturally occurring chemical element with the atomic number 6. The most common and stable isotope of carbon is carbon-12 (^12C), but there are also several radioactive isotopes, including carbon-11 (^11C), carbon-14 (^14C), and carbon-13 (^13C). These radioisotopes have different numbers of neutrons in their nuclei, which makes them unstable and causes them to emit radiation.

Carbon-11 has a half-life of about 20 minutes and is used in medical imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It is produced by bombarding nitrogen-14 with protons in a cyclotron.

Carbon-14, also known as radiocarbon, has a half-life of about 5730 years and is used in archaeology and geology to date organic materials. It is produced naturally in the atmosphere by cosmic rays.

Carbon-13 is stable and has a natural abundance of about 1.1% in carbon. It is not radioactive, but it can be used as a tracer in medical research and in the study of metabolic processes.

"Iron radioisotopes" refer to specific forms of the element iron that have unstable nuclei and emit radiation. These isotopes are often used in medical imaging and treatment procedures due to their ability to be detected by specialized equipment. Common iron radioisotopes include Iron-52, Iron-55, Iron-59, and Iron-60. They can be used as tracers to study the distribution, metabolism, or excretion of iron in the body, or for targeted radiation therapy in conditions such as cancer.

Copper radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the chemical element copper. These isotopes have an unstable nucleus and emit radiation as they decay over time. Copper has several radioisotopes, including copper-64, copper-67, and copper-60, among others. These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as diagnostic imaging, therapy, and research. For example, copper-64 is used in positron emission tomography (PET) scans to help diagnose diseases like cancer, while copper-67 is used in targeted radionuclide therapy for cancer treatment. The use of radioisotopes in medicine requires careful handling and regulation due to their radiation hazards.

Phosphorus radioisotopes are radioactive isotopes or variants of the element phosphorus that emit radiation. Phosphorus has several radioisotopes, with the most common ones being phosphorus-32 (^32P) and phosphorus-33 (^33P). These radioisotopes are used in various medical applications such as cancer treatment and diagnostic procedures.

Phosphorus-32 has a half-life of approximately 14.3 days and emits beta particles, making it useful for treating certain types of cancer, such as leukemia and lymphoma. It can also be used in brachytherapy, a type of radiation therapy that involves placing a radioactive source close to the tumor.

Phosphorus-33 has a shorter half-life of approximately 25.4 days and emits both beta particles and gamma rays. This makes it useful for diagnostic procedures, such as positron emission tomography (PET) scans, where the gamma rays can be detected and used to create images of the body's internal structures.

It is important to note that handling and using radioisotopes requires specialized training and equipment to ensure safety and prevent radiation exposure.

Beta particles, also known as beta rays, are a type of ionizing radiation that consist of high-energy electrons or positrons emitted from the nucleus of certain radioactive isotopes during their decay process. When a neutron in the nucleus decays into a proton, it results in an excess energy state and one electron is ejected from the atom at high speed. This ejected electron is referred to as a beta particle.

Beta particles can have both positive and negative charges, depending on the type of decay process. Negative beta particles (β−) are equivalent to electrons, while positive beta particles (β+) are equivalent to positrons. They possess kinetic energy that varies in range, with higher energies associated with greater penetrating power.

Beta particles can cause ionization and excitation of atoms and molecules they encounter, leading to chemical reactions and potential damage to living tissues. Therefore, appropriate safety measures must be taken when handling materials that emit beta radiation.

It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium (K) into argon (Ar). Potassium is ... Moran, T. J. (2009). "Teaching Radioisotope Dating Using the Geology of the Hawaiian Islands" (PDF). Journal of Geoscience ... Potassium naturally occurs in 3 isotopes: 39 K (93.2581%), 40 K (0.0117%), 41 K (6.7302%). 39 K and 41 K are stable. The 40 K ... The potassium is quantified by flame photometry or atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of 40 K is rarely measured ...
Traces of 40 K are found in all potassium, and it is the most common radioisotope in the human body. Potassium ions are vital ... Major potassium chemicals are potassium hydroxide, potassium carbonate, potassium sulfate, and potassium chloride. Megatons of ... potassium oxide (K2O), potassium peroxide (K2O2), potassium superoxide (KO2) and potassium ozonide (KO3). The binary potassium- ... With oxygen it forms potassium peroxide. With water potassium forms potassium hydroxide (KOH). The reaction of potassium with ...
... and potassium-40 (40K). Potassium-40 (up to 88% of total activity), carbon-14 (14C), radium-226, uranium-238 and rubidium-87 ( ... Radioisotopes can be transformed directly through changes in valence state by acting as acceptors or by acting as cofactors to ... The radioisotope interact with binding sites of metabolically active cells and is used as terminal electron acceptor in the ... Several radioisotopes of strontium, for example, are recognized as analogs of calcium and incorporated within Micrococcus ...
It was here that he also pioneered new dating methods based on potassium-argon radioisotope techniques. Howell was an proponent ...
For example, in a sample of potassium-40, 89.3% of the nuclei decay to calcium-40 and 10.7% to argon-40. We have for all time t ... Therefore, given a sample of a particular radioisotope, the number of decay events −dN expected to occur in a small interval of ... A number of experiments have found that decay rates of other modes of artificial and naturally occurring radioisotopes are, to ... Bismuth-209, however, is only very slightly radioactive, with a half-life greater than the age of the universe; radioisotopes ...
This paper also reports details of the effect of potassium, ammonium and calcium ions on the uptake of the radioisotopes. In ... This iron potassium cyanide compound acts as an ion-exchanger. The cyanide is so tightly bonded to the iron that it is safe for ... Just because a radioisotope is released it does not mean it will enter a human and then cause harm. For instance, the migration ... If the radioisotope is tightly bound to the minerals in the soil, then less radioactivity can be absorbed by crops and grass ...
The underlying rock includes micaceous phyllite and micaceous schist; it was estimated by radioisotope dating (potassium-argon ...
The natural long-lived radioisotope of potassium, potassium-40, makes up about 0.012% of natural potassium, and thus natural ... potassium chloride). Previously, potassium was generally made from the electrolysis of potassium chloride or potassium ... Potassium hydroxide is a very strong base, and is used to control the pH of various substances. Potassium nitrate and potassium ... Potassium forms a mixture of potassium peroxide and potassium superoxide, while rubidium and caesium form the superoxide ...
One is the issue of potassium iodide (KI) tablets, which blocks the uptake of radioactive iodine (one of the major radioisotope ... As humans, plants, and animals consume food, air, and water, an inventory of radioisotopes builds up within the organism (see ... Cosmic rays may also produce radioisotopes on Earth (for example, carbon-14), which in turn decay and emit ionizing radiation. ... The major radionuclides of concern for terrestrial radiation are isotopes of potassium, uranium, and thorium. Each of these ...
This paper also reports details of the effect of potassium, ammonium and calcium ions on the uptake of the radioisotopes. ... Some of these radioisotopes are tritium, carbon-14 and phosphorus-32. Here is a list of radioisotopes formed by the action of ... This radioisotope can be released from the nuclear fuel cycle; this is the radioisotope responsible for the majority of the ... In addition some natural radioisotopes are present. A recent paper reports the levels of long-lived radioisotopes in the ...
Even though it is a small percentage of potassium (0.0117%), it is the single most abundant radioisotope in the human body. In ... Perhaps the best known naturally-occurring radioisotope which produces positrons is potassium-40, a long-lived isotope of ... The activity of natural potassium is 31 Bq/g. About 0.001% of these 40K decays produce about 4000 natural positrons per day in ... potassium which occurs as a primordial isotope of potassium. ... potassium-40) and in interactions of gamma quanta (emitted by ...
Since Chernobyl, distributing potassium iodide to children has been a standard response when risk of radioactivity release is ... as it prevents the absorption of the potentially dangerous radioisotopes of that element. ... To counteract the radioactive iodine the distribution of potassium iodide is used, ...
Radioisotopes Production Facility is capable of producing the following: Chromium-51, through the irradiation of potassium ... Radioisotopes Production Facility (RPF), is a facility for the production of radioisotopes from irradiation of Low enriched ... "Radioisotopes in Medicine". World Nuclear Association. April 2016. Retrieved 11 May 2016. "Radioisotopes production plants". ... The produced radioisotopes are used in medicine, industry and research activities for domestic market. The RPF is owned and ...
Prussian blue, or "Radiogardase", is stockpiled in the US, along with potassium iodide and DPTA, as pharmaceuticals useful in ... treating internal exposure to harmful radioisotopes in fallout. Publications on adapting to a changing diet and supplying ...
The main source of radiation in the human body is potassium-40 (40K), typically 17 milligrams in the body at a time and 0.4 ... The two tables show some of the major radioisotopes, their half-lives, and their radiation yield as a proportion of the yield ... This is further complicated by the fact that many radioisotopes do not decay immediately to a stable state but rather to ... Coal contains a small amount of radioactive uranium, barium, thorium, and potassium, but, in the case of pure coal, this is ...
Iridium radioisotopes are used in some radioisotope thermoelectric generators. Iridium is found in meteorites with an abundance ... Caesium is an alkali metal and has physical and chemical properties similar to those of rubidium and potassium. The metal is ... Although the element is only mildly toxic, it is a hazardous material as a metal and its radioisotopes present a high health ... Caesium is mined mostly from pollucite, while the radioisotopes, especially caesium-137, a fission product, are extracted from ...
Ingested alpha emitter radioisotopes such as transuranics or actinides are an average of about 20 times more dangerous, and in ... The exposure caused by potassium-40 present within a normal person. The exposure to the ingestion of a soluble radioactive ... A person who is being treated for cancer by means of a radiopharmaceutical where a radioisotope is used as a drug (usually a ... some experiments up to 1000 times more dangerous than an equivalent activity of beta emitting or gamma emitting radioisotopes. ...
Uranium, Thorium and Potassium 40, suggested in Hamilton's 2015 paper, were inadequate for the task. Those elements all ... wherein the radioisotopes increased shallow temperatures while producing non-convecting lower mantles. Conventional plate- ...
3000 Bqkg−1 of natural potassium-40). Busby later self-published a document that he claimed offered theoretical support for his ... He also marketed online, services and a mineral supplement he claimed mitigate the dangers of ingested radioisotopes. Busby ... U.S. FTC (21 March 2011). "FTC Warns Consumers About Scam Artists' Pitch for Potassium Iodide Treatment" (Government). Federal ... Niwa also agreed with Thomas, that mineral supplements cannot guard against strontium, uranium and plutonium radioisotopes. ...
... liquid sodium potassium alloy coolant, and was activated or deactivated with beryllium reflectors Reactor heat fed a ... A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG, RITEG), sometimes referred to as a radioisotope power system (RPS), is a type of ... NASA Radioisotope Power Systems website - RTG page NASA JPL briefing, Expanding Frontiers with Radioisotope Power Systems - ... not really an RTG, the ASRG uses a Stirling power device that runs on radioisotope (see Stirling radioisotope generator) The ...
As with other radioisotopes of iodine, accidental iodine-125 uptake in the body (mostly by the thyroid gland) can be blocked by ... Potassium iodide (KI) is typically used for this purpose. However, unjustified self-medicated preventive administration of ... The other xenon radioisotopes decay either to stable xenon, or to various caesium isotopes, some of them radioactive (a.o., the ... It is the second longest-lived radioisotope of iodine, after iodine-129. Its half-life is 59.49 days and it decays by electron ...
... or the production of radioisotopes for medicine and industry. These are much smaller than power reactors or those propelling ... neutron activation analysis and potassium-argon dating[clarification needed]) Research reactor: Typically reactors used for ... transport Nuclear decommissioning Nuclear power by country Nuclear power in space One Less Nuclear Power Plant Radioisotope ...
Radioisotopes with a sufficiently long halflife, and whose decay produces an appreciable amount of gamma rays are: Potassium ... Potassium 40 decays directly to stable argon 40 with the emission of 1.46 MeV gamma-ray. Uranium 238 and thorium 232 decay ... Potassium chloride (KCl) in mud, for example, flows into permeable sections, resulting in an increase in gamma ray activity. ... Shale are represent the Sharp Peaks and its range is 40-140 API and contain the high amount of potassium. Older gamma-ray ...
Natural sources of gamma rays on Earth include gamma decay from naturally occurring radioisotopes such as potassium-40, and ... When this radionuclide tracer is administered to a patient, a gamma camera can be used to form an image of the radioisotope's ... A number of different gamma-emitting radioisotopes are used. For example, in a PET scan a radiolabeled sugar called ...
... the radioactivity from the sample was from the naturally occurring potassium radioisotope, potassium-40). He then published a ... In 1925, he observed weak radioactivity in a sample of potassium, another alkali metal, and incorrectly concluded that eka- ...
... potassium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.075 - barium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.090 - bromine radioisotopes MeSH D01.496. ... oxygen radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.658 - phosphorus radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.690 - potassium radioisotopes MeSH ... iron radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.540 - krypton radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.560 - lead radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.590 ... xenon radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.960 - yttrium radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.749.980 - zinc radioisotopes MeSH D01.496.807.800 ...
Other radioisotopes have an affinity for particular tissues, such as plutonium into bone, and may be retained there for years ... For instance, Potassium iodide (KI), administered orally immediately after exposure, may be used to protect the thyroid from ... A person who is being treated for cancer by means of an unsealed source radiotherapy method where a radioisotope is used as a ... Thorotrast The exposure caused by Potassium-40 present within a normal person. The exposure to the ingestion of a soluble ...
Many other calcium radioisotopes are known, ranging from 35Ca to 60Ca. They are all much shorter-lived than 41Ca, the most ... The isotopes lighter than 42Ca usually undergo beta plus decay to isotopes of potassium, and those heavier than 44Ca usually ... Apart from the practically stable 48Ca, the longest lived radioisotope of calcium is 41Ca. It decays by electron capture to ...
Plutonium Pnictogen Pollucite pollution Polonium polymer Polymerization Porphyrin Post-transition metal Potassium Potassium ... radioisotope Radium Radon Radon difluoride Raman spectroscopy Raoult's law Redox Reduction Reflux Reversible reaction Rhazes ... Svante Arrhenius Syenite Sylvite synthetic radioisotope systematic element name Tabun Talc Talcum Tantalite Tantalum Tanzanite ...
The long half-life of this primordial radioisotope is caused by a highly spin-forbidden transition: 40 K has a nuclear spin of ... Various potassium isotopes have been used for nutrient cycling studies because potassium is a macronutrient required for life.[ ... 40 K occurs in natural potassium in sufficient quantity that large bags of potassium chloride commercial salt substitutes can ... Potassium ( 19K) has 26 known isotopes from 31 K to 57 K, with the exception of still-unknown 32 K, as well as an unconfirmed ...
It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium (K) into argon (Ar). Potassium is ... Moran, T. J. (2009). "Teaching Radioisotope Dating Using the Geology of the Hawaiian Islands" (PDF). Journal of Geoscience ... Potassium naturally occurs in 3 isotopes: 39 K (93.2581%), 40 K (0.0117%), 41 K (6.7302%). 39 K and 41 K are stable. The 40 K ... The potassium is quantified by flame photometry or atomic absorption spectroscopy. The amount of 40 K is rarely measured ...
For information about possible countermeasures for internal contamination with I-131, please see CDCs fact sheet on Potassium ...
NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes has provided an update on its corporate progress and upcoming milestones over the past 12 ... Only use potassium molybdate Mo-99, processing reagents, saline and other supplies, including kit/packs, provided by NorthStar ... About NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes, LLC NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes is a commercial-stage nuclear medicine company ... radioisotope production as the only commercialized producer of key medical radioisotopes molybdenum-99 (Mo-99)/technetium-99m ( ...
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable ... "Potassium Isotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicines controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical ... This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Potassium Isotopes" by people in this website by year, and ... Below are the most recent publications written about "Potassium Isotopes" by people in Profiles. ...
KCNQ1 and KCNE2 were each recognized more than a decade ago as forming potassium channels in cardiac muscle that help end each ... Abbott and his team visualized the accumulation in the mouse thyroid of an iodine radioisotope in real-time. They found that ... The researchers have now discovered that KCNQ1 and KCNE2 also form a potassium channel in the thyroid gland. ... Without the KCNQ1-KCNE2 potassium channel, the efficiency of iodide absorption by the thyroid is greatly reduced. Because ...
Potassium-40 19. 21. 1.24×109 y. β−, EC. 1330 /1505 Primordial. used for potassium-argon dating, source of atmospheric argon, ... used in radioisotope thermoelectric generators (RTGs) and radioisotope heater units as an energy source for spacecraft ... "Radioisotopes in Industry". World Nuclear Association.. *. Martin, James (2006). Physics for Radiation Protection: A Handbook. ... most commonly used medical radioisotope, used as a radioactive tracer Iodine-129 53. 76. 15,700,000 y. β−. 194 Cosmogenic. ...
A radioisotope of iodine with a 159 keV gamma emission and a physical half-life of 13.2 h, used for studies of thyroid disease ... Gram i. a solution containing i. and potassium iodide, used in Gram stain. povidone i. a water soluble complex of i. with ... radioactive i. the i. radioisotopes 131I, 125I, or 123I used as tracers in biology and medicine. tamed i. SYN: iodophor. i. ... A beta- and gamma-emitting radioisotope of iodine with a half-life of 2.28 h, usually obtained from a tellurium-132 ...
History of Potassium Iodide (KI). FDA Guidance on KI. FDA Approved KI. Nuclear vs Dirty Bombs. US Research & Test Facilities. ... 1 EXTREME Radiation Water Filtration Straw filters radioisotopes from outdoor fresh-water drinking supplies. ... How many packs of potassium iodide should I stockpile?. Storing at least one pack PER person for each location frequented (home ... Potassium Iodide tablets should be immediately available in the event of a nuclear radiation emergency. To be most effective, ...
Cs-137, like potassium becomes deposited in soft tissue.. As for the infant deaths in Alaska, we hope that careful and complete ... autopsies were performed on the dead children, and that levels of radioisotopes be measured in humans and wildlife. ...
8 and the accuracy of potassium-argon radioisotope-dating techniques.9. Appealing to public emotions can be effective, because ...
Potassium-40 is the most dominant naturally occurring radioisotope in soil. It is therefore found in almost all plant and ... Potassium-40. Facts and figures about the most common radioactive material, potassium-40. ... Check out the potassium-40 levels in the food we eat and the water we drink. ...
There is some exposure to radiation from the radioisotope. The radiation from this radioisotope is higher than from many others ... Usually people take potassium iodide for 1 day prior and 6 days after. This blocks the thyroid from taking up the MIBG. ... A radioisotope (MIBG, iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine, or iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine) is injected into a vein. ... This prevents your thyroid gland from absorbing too much of the radioisotope. ...
Iodine Radioisotopes * RNA, Messenger * Sodium Channel Blockers * Sodium Channels * Amiloride * Sodium * Sodium-Potassium- ...
supplements that help to block absorption of radioisotopes include calcium/magnesium combo, potassium rich foods, and anti- ... more radioisotopes in the water - ocean spray - will increase concentration of radioisotopes that are re-suspended into that ... for the presence of a great deal many other radioisotopes from a nuclear accident:. World Health Organization. Health hazards ... includes reference material on radioisotopes and resuspension from ocean to land thru hydrological processes:. https://www. ...
While the Brunet team has been unable to use the standard potassium-argon radio-isotope dating technique for establishing the ...
... and in fact there are many many methods of radio isotope dating, including Potassium/Argon which has a half life of 1.36 ... In stark contrast to the age of the wood are the potassium-argon (K-AR) ages of the basalt (see Table 2).. Surprise, ...
Potassium within institutional normal range. Serum total calcium (correct for serum albumin) or ionized calcium within ... radioisotope or iothalamate) ≥ 70 mL/min/1.73 m2 are eligible.. Table 2: Serum Creatinine for age/sex Serum Creatinine for age/ ...
Other fleeting elements are carbon, sodium and potassium. The calcium and phosphorus in bones and teeth stay put longer,... To ... Aebersold based his conclusion on experiments with radioisotopes, which trace the movements of chemical elements in and out of ...
There is some exposure to radiation from the radioisotope. The radiation from this radioisotope is higher than from many others ... Usually people take potassium iodide for 1 day prior and 6 days after. This blocks the thyroid from taking up the MIBG. ... A radioisotope (MIBG, iodine-131-meta-iodobenzylguanidine, or iodine-123-meta-iodobenzylguanidine) is injected into a vein. ... This prevents your thyroid gland from absorbing too much of the radioisotope. ...
... potassium iodide) can help block radioactive iodine from being absorbed by the thyroid gland. ... Radioisotope Brief. *Toxicology FAQs. *Uranium-235 (U-235) & Uranium-238 (U-238)plus icon *Radioisotope Brief ... Potassium Iodine (KI): Recommended Single Dosage by Age. Predicted Thyroid Exposure. KI dose (mg). Number or fraction of 130 mg ... Potassium iodide (KI) is a type of iodine that is not radioactive and can be used to help block one type of radioactive ...
C. sinensis can absorb as much as 90 percent of the radioisotopes in the human body and discharges it before it reaches the ... This reduces the possibility of getting Jod-Basedow syndrome, a hyperthyroid disease one can acquire after taking potassium ... said drinking tea is even more helpful than taking potassium iodine tablets, because tea prevents radioactive materials from ...
That said, potassium in the diet may not be enough. According to the CDC, potassium can play a major role in protecting the ... It also neutralizes exposure from radio-isotopes. Studies show that the X-irradiation that can damage the body s Kupffer and ... Potassium orotates can prevent the accumulation of Cesium-137. In fact, getting enough potassium from food such as bananas is a ... Potassium Orotate is the best form of potassium to use for radiation exposure. ...
The half lives of several radio isotopes are given in your Reference Tables. Look them up and fill in the table below: ... If a certain radioactive element, say Potassium 40 (written K40), is incorporated into a crystal of K-Feldspar, it will decay, ... over time, to the stable element Argon 40 (written Ar40). When we find the crystal and measure the amount of the radio isotope ... These unstable atoms are called RADIO ISOTOPES, and they break down by the process of RADIOACTIVE DECAY. ...
Potassium,Radioisotopes;Rats,Rats;ReperfusionRubidiumSodiumSodium,Sodium-CalciumSodium-Potassium-ExchangingTimeTriphosphate, ...
Experimentation involving animals and radioisotopes is common in molecu- lar biology today. Use of radioisotopes in or with ... Class D fires involve such combustible metals as mag- nesium, sodium, and potassium. Class A, B, and C materials are found in ... The use of radioisotopes is strictly controlled by the US Nuclear Regu- latory Commission (US Congress 1971). Investigators ... Beta particles are electrons that are emitted with very high energy from many radioisotopes. Positively charged counterparts of ...
Granitoids with potassium feldspar, on the other hand, contributed the largest share of 40K radioisotope content. ... The rock types additionally showed good correlation with radioisotopes from the thorium series. ... thorium and potassium), which are primordial in origin. Concentrations of these naturally occurring radionuclides were ...
Potassium loss from skeletal muscle during exercise in man: a radioisotope study. Exp Physiol. 1993 Sep;78(5):639-48. doi: ... Potassium is found in high amounts in the muscle. When you work out, you need potassium to break down the energy found in the ... Potassium. It is essential for muscle contraction. When there is not enough potassium in your body, you are more likely to get ... Since you need potassium for muscle contraction, having low levels of potassium leads to muscle cramps. ...
We strongly recommend taking them at different times because the potassium in potassium iodide may bind with Cesium Eliminator ... Its also a deadly radioisotope created in the aftermath of nuclear bombs. Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years and it mimics ... As a general rule, avoid all high-potassium foods if you suspect them being radioactive, as high-potassium foods will tend to ... Potassium iodide or nascent iodine offer thyroid protection. Cesium Eliminator has a different purpose altogether. Can I take ...
Lab experiments were conducted using radioisotopes like Cobalt-60, Cobalt-67, Thallium-204, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137. ... IANSCS offered GITAM instruments to detect and measure radiation including radioisotopes Our Bureau 2 years ago ... Radioisotopes are used to follow the paths of biochemical reactions or to determine how a substance is distributed within an ... Radioisotopes that emit radiation have many applications in the real world, such as sterilization of medical consumables, non- ...
  • For information about possible countermeasures for internal contamination with I-131, please see CDC's fact sheet on Potassium Iodide (KI) . (cdc.gov)
  • They believe that, normally, the KCNQ1-KCNE2 potassium channel helps another protein (the sodium/iodide symporter) to transport iodide into the thyroid. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Without the KCNQ1-KCNE2 potassium channel, the efficiency of iodide absorption by the thyroid is greatly reduced. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Gram i. a solution containing i. and potassium iodide, used in Gram stain. (theodora.com)
  • How many packs of potassium iodide should I stockpile? (nukepills.com)
  • Potassium Iodide tablets should be immediately available in the event of a nuclear radiation emergency. (nukepills.com)
  • Nukepills, Inc. manages the sales and marketing division for Anbex, Inc., the U.S.-based manufacturer of Iosat™ Potassium Iodide. (nukepills.com)
  • Usually people take potassium iodide for 1 day prior and 6 days after. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Potassium iodide (KI) is a type of iodine that is not radioactive and can be used to help block one type of radioactive material, radioactive iodine (I-131), from being absorbed by the thyroid. (cdc.gov)
  • This reduces the possibility of getting Jod-Basedow syndrome, a hyperthyroid disease one can acquire after taking potassium iodide to combat radiation poisoning. (pacherbs.com)
  • It is based on measurement of the product of the radioactive decay of an isotope of potassium (K) into argon (Ar). (wikipedia.org)
  • A radionuclide ( radioactive nuclide , radioisotope or radioactive isotope ) is a nuclide that has excess nuclear energy, making it unstable. (wikipedia.org)
  • radioactive i. the i. radioisotopes 131I, 125I, or 123I used as tracers in biology and medicine. (theodora.com)
  • Facts and figures about the most common radioactive material, potassium-40. (philrutherford.com)
  • Master Sheng Lun, who has dedicated many of his years to organic farming, said drinking tea is even more helpful than taking potassium iodine tablets, because tea prevents radioactive materials from being absorbed into the body and accelerates the body's metabolism of such substances. (pacherbs.com)
  • In fact, getting enough potassium from food such as bananas is a good first step at preventing radioactive cesium 137 retention. (lewrockwell.com)
  • If a certain radioactive element, say Potassium 40 (written K 40 ), is incorporated into a crystal of K-Feldspar, it will decay, over time, to the stable element Argon 40 (written Ar 40 ). (scienceteacherprogram.org)
  • Naturally occurring potassium is composed of three isotopes, of which 40 K is radioactive. (chemkits.eu)
  • Unstable or radioactive isotopes (also called radioisotopes) change structure and emit radiation spontaneously as they decay, and become different isotopes. (usgs.gov)
  • Spectral gamma borehole geophysical methods measure natural-gamma energy spectra, which are caused by the decay of uranium, thorium, potassium-40, and anthropogenic radioactive isotopes. (usgs.gov)
  • Cesium-137 persists in the environment for nearly three centuries, contaminating soils, waterways and the food supply (animal milk in particular) with a radioactive substance that mimics the metabolic pathways of potassium (and therefore out-competes potassium in both plant and animal metabolism, see this journal article in Plant and Cell Physiology: "Cesium Inhibits Plant Growth Primarily Through Reduction of Potassium Influx and Accumulation in Arabidopsis. (lymestudio.com)
  • Other fleeting elements are carbon, sodium and potassium. (time.com)
  • Potassium is chemically very similar to sodium, the previous element in group 1 of the periodic table. (chemkits.eu)
  • The dataset contains sediment core analyses (extraction for total phosphorus, aluminum, iron, manganese, sodium, sulfur, and potassium, sequential chemical extractions of phosphorus species, and pigment concentrations) along with radioisotope-derived sediment core dating results (sediment age and sediment accumulate rates). (frdr-dfdr.ca)
  • There were progressively lower mean levels of serum calcium, urinary sodium, pH, and volume, combined with higher serum phosphate and potassium, from patients with relatives with bilateral MSK, to those with unilateral MSK, and to those unaffected by MSK. (medscape.com)
  • Potassium Isotopes" is a descriptor in the National Library of Medicine's controlled vocabulary thesaurus, MeSH (Medical Subject Headings) . (umassmed.edu)
  • This graph shows the total number of publications written about "Potassium Isotopes" by people in this website by year, and whether "Potassium Isotopes" was a major or minor topic of these publications. (umassmed.edu)
  • Below are the most recent publications written about "Potassium Isotopes" by people in Profiles. (umassmed.edu)
  • Two elements have unstable primordial isotopes with long lifetimes which have significant contributions to natural radioactivity doses, these are uranium and potassium. (climate-and-hope.net)
  • BUSINESS WIRE )-- NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes , LLC, a global innovator in the development, production and commercialization of radiopharmaceuticals used for therapeutic and medical imaging applications, today announced a corporate update highlighting progress across its key programs during the past twelve months, and indicating important upcoming milestones. (businesswire.com)
  • NorthStar's industry-leading reputation is grounded in technological innovation, successful execution and proven expertise, and we have made tremendous strides in advancing our portfolio over the past year," said Stephen Merrick, Chief Executive Officer of NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes. (businesswire.com)
  • NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes , LLC, a global innovator in the development, production and commercialization of radiopharmaceuticals used for medical imaging and therapeutic applications, announced that it has achieved a major milestone in its efforts to expand U.S. production capacity for the important medical radioisotope, molybdenum-99 (Mo-99). (northstarnm.com)
  • NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes is the sole commercial U.S. producer of the important medical radioisotope Mo-99 and the only company in the world to use environmentally friendly Mo-99 production processes that are non-uranium based. (northstarnm.com)
  • Delivery of these electron beam accelerators to advance Mo-99 production marks a tremendous milestone event for NorthStar, nuclear medicine and the patients who rely on diagnostic imaging studies for their health," said Stephen Merrick, President and Chief Executive Officer of NorthStar Medical Radioisotopes. (northstarnm.com)
  • Potassium-40 is the most dominant naturally occurring radioisotope in soil. (philrutherford.com)
  • The BARC scientists used the instruments to demonstrate the participants that daily use products such as soap and salt contain enough naturally occurring K-40 radioisotopes to emit Beta radiation. (healthofasia.com)
  • Well-known examples are uranium and thorium, but also included are naturally occurring long-lived radioisotopes, such as potassium Egypt is a recognised cultural trend-setter of the Arabic-speaking world. (aitzol.com)
  • Radioisotopes that emit radiation have many applications in the real world, such as sterilization of medical consumables, non-destructive testing of fabricated materials and irradiation of food products. (healthofasia.com)
  • The radioisotope continues to emit radiation from inside your body - at point blank range - with devastating results for chromosomal destruction, tissue degradation and cancer. (lymestudio.com)
  • Cesium-137 has a half-life of 30 years and it mimics potassium in soils and plants. (toxindefense.org)
  • The body responds to the influx of dietary potassium, which raises serum potassium levels, with a shift of potassium from outside to inside cells and an increase in potassium excretion by the kidneys. (chemkits.eu)
  • Using micro positron emission tomography (microPET), Dr. Abbott and his team visualized the accumulation in the mouse thyroid of an iodine radioisotope in real-time. (sciencedaily.com)
  • Potassium orotates can prevent the accumulation of Cesium-137. (lewrockwell.com)
  • In the periodic table, potassium is one of the alkali metals. (chemkits.eu)
  • Elemental potassium is a soft silvery-white alkali metal that oxidizes rapidly in air and reacts vigorously with water, generating sufficient heat to ignite hydrogen emitted in the reaction and burning with a lilac-colored flame. (chemkits.eu)
  • The accelerators are critical components in a first-of-its-kind commercial-scale process to produce Mo-99, the parent radioisotope of technetium-99m, the most widely used medical imaging radioisotope, informing healthcare decisions for approximately 40,000 U.S. patients daily. (northstarnm.com)
  • Additionally, electron beam accelerators can be used to produce therapeutic radioisotopes such as actinium-225 and copper-67. (northstarnm.com)
  • potassium 40 and carbon 14 (which undergoes 8,000 disintegrations per second). (eu.com)
  • This radiation has both a direct effect on DNA in the body and also creates more radioisotopes, as an example carbon 14 used for carbon dating of ancient objects. (climate-and-hope.net)
  • NorthStar is poised to be the first commercial-scale producer of therapeutic radioisotopes Cu-67 and non-carrier added (n.c.a. (businesswire.com)
  • According to the CDC, potassium can play a major role in protecting the body and thyroid gland after an internal contamination, as in the example of the Japanese nuclear reactor explosion. (lewrockwell.com)
  • It's also a deadly radioisotope created in the aftermath of nuclear bombs. (toxindefense.org)
  • The researchers have now discovered that KCNQ1 and KCNE2 also form a potassium channel in the thyroid gland. (sciencedaily.com)
  • This prevents your thyroid gland from absorbing too much of the radioisotope. (medlineplus.gov)
  • Potassium in nature occurs only in ionic salts. (chemkits.eu)
  • Lab experiments were conducted using radioisotopes like Cobalt-60, Cobalt-67, Thallium-204, Potassium-40 and Cesium-137. (healthofasia.com)
  • All elements have unstable forms, 'radioisotopes' which are unstable with lifetimes dependent on the distance from the stability region indicated in the plot. (climate-and-hope.net)
  • Dr. Aebersold based his conclusion on experiments with radioisotopes, which trace the movements of chemical elements in and out of the body. (time.com)
  • Potassium is a chemical element with symbol K (from Neo-Latin kalium) and atomic number 19. (chemkits.eu)
  • Heavy crop production rapidly depletes the soil of potassium, and this can be remedied with agricultural fertilizers containing potassium, accounting for 95% of global potassium chemical production. (chemkits.eu)
  • A study of radioactivity in wine from the Bordeaux region in France has been performed where the amount of the radioisotope 137 Cs was measured using its distinctive gamma decay line. (climate-and-hope.net)
  • KCNQ1 and KCNE2 were each recognized more than a decade ago as forming potassium channels in cardiac muscle that help end each heartbeat in a timely fashion. (sciencedaily.com)
  • potassium deficiency and excess can each result in numerous abnormalities, including an abnormal heart rhythm and various electrocardiographic (ECG) abnormalities. (chemkits.eu)
  • C. sinensis can absorb as much as 90 percent of the radioisotopes in the human body and discharges it before it reaches the bone marrow. (pacherbs.com)
  • When there is not enough potassium in your body, you are more likely to get cramps. (feastgood.com)
  • Traces of 40 K are found in all potassium, and it is the most common radioisotope in the human body. (chemkits.eu)
  • The potassium is quantified by flame photometry or atomic absorption spectroscopy. (wikipedia.org)
  • Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. (umassmed.edu)
  • The students of the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre delivered a five-day national workshop on "Radiochemistry and Application of Radioisotopes" at GITAM, Hyderabad. (healthofasia.com)
  • Radioisotopes are used to follow the paths of biochemical reactions or to determine how a substance is distributed within an organism. (healthofasia.com)
  • as the potassium source for this crucial substance. (scienceinschool.org)
  • As for the infant deaths in Alaska, we hope that careful and complete autopsies were performed on the dead children, and that levels of radioisotopes be measured in humans and wildlife. (counterpunch.org)
  • Check out the potassium-40 levels in the food we eat and the water we drink. (philrutherford.com)
  • We are proud to be a leader in expanding the horizons of patient health by providing innovative solutions to ensure robust, reliable access to radioisotopes and radiopharmaceutical products that can make a positive difference in healthcare for people around the world. (businesswire.com)
  • We all share a vision to accelerate the future of patient health by providing innovative solutions to ensure reliable access to radioisotopes that can make a positive difference in healthcare for people around the world," he concluded. (northstarnm.com)
  • A reliable source of potassium chloride, it is full of nutritional value, including Matrix metalloproteinase 2. (kadesh.biz)
  • Potassium Orotate is the best form of potassium to use for radiation exposure. (lewrockwell.com)
  • In practice, each of these values may be expressed as a proportion of the total potassium present, as only relative, not absolute, quantities are required. (wikipedia.org)
  • They found that absorption of the radioisotope in the thyroid was greatly impaired in mice lacking the KCNE2 gene. (sciencedaily.com)
  • It is found dissolved in sea water (which is 0.04% potassium by weight), and is part of many minerals. (chemkits.eu)
  • OBJECTIVES: Autoantibodies against the extracellular domains of the voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC) complex proteins, leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-2 (CASPR2), are found in patients with limbic encephalitis, faciobrachial dystonic seizures, Morvan's syndrome and neuromyotonia. (ox.ac.uk)
  • In this paper, an inverse calibration matrix (ICM) algorithm for radioisotope identification is proposed, which uses approaches different from those of conventional algorithms. (researchain.net)
  • These agreements have the potential to bring novel new treatments to patients with cancer, using radioisotopes to selectively destroy a wide range of cancer cells. (businesswire.com)
  • We are also proud to help showcase Wisconsin as a pioneer and leader in technology innovation and sustainable radioisotope production. (northstarnm.com)
  • 1 'EXTREME' Radiation Water Filtration Straw filters radioisotopes from outdoor fresh-water drinking supplies. (nukepills.com)
  • Most industrial applications of potassium exploit the high solubility in water of potassium compounds, such as potassium soaps. (chemkits.eu)
  • Fresh fruits and vegetables are good dietary sources of potassium. (chemkits.eu)
  • A radioisotope of iodine with a 159 keV gamma emission and a physical half-life of 13.2 h, used for studies of thyroid disease and of renal function. (theodora.com)
  • To evaluate this method, various gamma energy spectra of 133Ba, 137Cs, 60Co, 22Na, background radiation and a potassium fertilizer that included 40K were measured by four photomultipliers attached to a large-area polyvinyl-toluene (PVT) scintillator for a radiation portal monitor. (researchain.net)
  • The radiation from this radioisotope is higher than from many others. (medlineplus.gov)
  • The role of radioisotope uptake imaging is to assess renal function and to show the site of renal parenchymal scarring. (medscape.com)
  • Discovery News' bias is further demonstrated by the fact that, although the author was careful to include instances that he thought 'disproved' creationist claims, he failed to mention examples of the supposed evidence used to support evolution and long ages that have been debunked, such the classification of Tiktaalik and Pakicetus as transitional forms (aka 'missing links'), 8 and the accuracy of potassium-argon radioisotope-dating techniques. (icr.org)
  • Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Medicine 1974: Proceedings of a Symposium on Dynamic Studies with Radioisotopes in Clinical Medicine and Research, Knoxville, Tennessee, July 15-19, 1974. (cdc.gov)