Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Potassium Deficiency: A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Diuresis: An increase in the excretion of URINE. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Potassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Benzothiadiazines: Heterocyclic compounds of a ring with SULFUR and two NITROGEN atoms fused to a BENZENE ring. Members inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Chlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p812)Triamterene: A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.Chlorthalidone: A benzenesulfonamide-phthalimidine that tautomerizes to a BENZOPHENONES form. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Bendroflumethiazide: A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)Metolazone: A quinazoline-sulfonamide derived DIURETIC that functions by inhibiting SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.Bumetanide: A sulfamyl diuretic.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Trichlormethiazide: A thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p830)Antihypertensive Agents: Drugs used in the treatment of acute or chronic vascular HYPERTENSION regardless of pharmacological mechanism. Among the antihypertensive agents are DIURETICS; (especially DIURETICS, THIAZIDE); ADRENERGIC BETA-ANTAGONISTS; ADRENERGIC ALPHA-ANTAGONISTS; ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME INHIBITORS; CALCIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS; GANGLIONIC BLOCKERS; and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Ethacrynic Acid: A compound that inhibits symport of sodium, potassium, and chloride primarily in the ascending limb of Henle, but also in the proximal and distal tubules. This pharmacological action results in excretion of these ions, increased urinary output, and reduction in extracellular fluid. This compound has been classified as a loop or high ceiling diuretic.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Malpighian Tubules: Slender tubular or hairlike excretory structures found in insects. They emerge from the alimentary canal between the mesenteron (midgut) and the proctodeum (hindgut).Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.Shaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Natriuresis: Sodium excretion by URINATION.Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Indapamide: A benzamide-sulfonamide-indole derived DIURETIC that functions by inhibiting SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Uricosuric Agents: Gout suppressants that act directly on the renal tubule to increase the excretion of uric acid, thus reducing its concentrations in plasma.Kidney: Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.Kv1.4 Potassium Channel: A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.Potassium Permanganate: Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Heart Failure: A heterogeneous condition in which the heart is unable to pump out sufficient blood to meet the metabolic need of the body. Heart failure can be caused by structural defects, functional abnormalities (VENTRICULAR DYSFUNCTION), or a sudden overload beyond its capacity. Chronic heart failure is more common than acute heart failure which results from sudden insult to cardiac function, such as MYOCARDIAL INFARCTION.Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors: A class of drugs whose main indications are the treatment of hypertension and heart failure. They exert their hemodynamic effect mainly by inhibiting the renin-angiotensin system. They also modulate sympathetic nervous system activity and increase prostaglandin synthesis. They cause mainly vasodilation and mild natriuresis without affecting heart rate and contractility.Shab Potassium Channels: A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.Aldosterone: A hormone secreted by the ADRENAL CORTEX that regulates electrolyte and water balance by increasing the renal retention of sodium and the excretion of potassium.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)KCNQ2 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Thiazides: Heterocyclic compounds with SULFUR and NITROGEN in the ring. This term commonly refers to the BENZOTHIADIAZINES that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS and are used as DIURETICS.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Sodium Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters found in KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL that are the major pathway for salt resorption. Inhibition of these symporters by BENZOTHIADIAZINES is the basis of action of some DIURETICS.KCNQ3 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.Organomercury Compounds: Organic compounds which contain mercury as an integral part of the molecule.Water-Electrolyte Balance: The balance of fluid in the BODY FLUID COMPARTMENTS; total BODY WATER; BLOOD VOLUME; EXTRACELLULAR SPACE; INTRACELLULAR SPACE, maintained by processes in the body that regulate the intake and excretion of WATER and ELECTROLYTES, particularly SODIUM and POTASSIUM.Radioisotope Renography: Graphic tracing over a time period of radioactivity measured externally over the kidneys following intravenous injection of a radionuclide which is taken up and excreted by the kidneys.Drug Therapy, Combination: Therapy with two or more separate preparations given for a combined effect.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Cyclopenthiazide: Thiazide diuretic also used as an antihypertensive agent.Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Water-Electrolyte Imbalance: Disturbances in the body's WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Adrenergic beta-Antagonists: Drugs that bind to but do not activate beta-adrenergic receptors thereby blocking the actions of beta-adrenergic agonists. Adrenergic beta-antagonists are used for treatment of hypertension, cardiac arrhythmias, angina pectoris, glaucoma, migraine headaches, and anxiety.Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Potassium Dichromate: Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.Amiloride: A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)Technetium Tc 99m Mertiatide: A technetium diagnostic aid used in renal function determination.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsSodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Kidney Tubules, Distal: The portion of renal tubule that begins from the enlarged segment of the ascending limb of the LOOP OF HENLE. It reenters the KIDNEY CORTEX and forms the convoluted segments of the distal tubule.Hydronephrosis: Abnormal enlargement or swelling of a KIDNEY due to dilation of the KIDNEY CALICES and the KIDNEY PELVIS. It is often associated with obstruction of the URETER or chronic kidney diseases that prevents normal drainage of urine into the URINARY BLADDER.Calcium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.Renin: A highly specific (Leu-Leu) endopeptidase that generates ANGIOTENSIN I from its precursor ANGIOTENSINOGEN, leading to a cascade of reactions which elevate BLOOD PRESSURE and increase sodium retention by the kidney in the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM. The enzyme was formerly listed as EC 188.8.131.52.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Hyponatremia: Deficiency of sodium in the blood; salt depletion. (Dorland, 27th ed)Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.Uric Acid: An oxidation product, via XANTHINE OXIDASE, of oxypurines such as XANTHINE and HYPOXANTHINE. It is the final oxidation product of purine catabolism in humans and primates, whereas in most other mammals URATE OXIDASE further oxidizes it to ALLANTOIN.Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Digoxin: A cardiotonic glycoside obtained mainly from Digitalis lanata; it consists of three sugars and the aglycone DIGOXIGENIN. Digoxin has positive inotropic and negative chronotropic activity. It is used to control ventricular rate in ATRIAL FIBRILLATION and in the management of congestive heart failure with atrial fibrillation. Its use in congestive heart failure and sinus rhythm is less certain. The margin between toxic and therapeutic doses is small. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p666)Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Clopamide: A sulfamoylbenzamide piperidine. It is considered a thiazide-like diuretic.Solute Carrier Family 12, Member 3: Na-Cl cotransporter in the convoluted segments of the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE. It mediates active reabsorption of sodium and chloride and is inhibited by THIAZIDE DIURETICS.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Xipamide: A sulfamoylbenzamide analog of CLOPAMIDE. It is diuretic and saluretic with antihypertensive activity. It is bound to PLASMA PROTEINS, thus has a delayed onset and prolonged action.Gout: Hereditary metabolic disorder characterized by recurrent acute arthritis, hyperuricemia and deposition of sodium urate in and around the joints, sometimes with formation of uric acid calculi.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.KATP Channels: Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Mannitol: A diuretic and renal diagnostic aid related to sorbitol. It has little significant energy value as it is largely eliminated from the body before any metabolism can take place. It can be used to treat oliguria associated with kidney failure or other manifestations of inadequate renal function and has been used for determination of glomerular filtration rate. Mannitol is also commonly used as a research tool in cell biological studies, usually to control osmolarity.Receptors, Drug: Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.Potassium Cyanide: A highly poisonous compound that is an inhibitor of many metabolic processes, but has been shown to be an especially potent inhibitor of heme enzymes and hemeproteins. It is used in many industrial processes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Glomerular Filtration Rate: The volume of water filtered out of plasma through glomerular capillary walls into Bowman's capsules per unit of time. It is considered to be equivalent to INULIN clearance.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Sodium-Potassium-Chloride Symporters: A subclass of symporters that specifically transport SODIUM CHLORIDE and/or POTASSIUM CHLORIDE across cellular membranes in a tightly coupled process.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Urine: Liquid by-product of excretion produced in the kidneys, temporarily stored in the bladder until discharge through the URETHRA.Sulfanilamides: Compounds based on 4-aminobenzenesulfonamide. The '-anil-' part of the name refers to aniline.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Ascites: Accumulation or retention of free fluid within the peritoneal cavity.Kidney Tubules: Long convoluted tubules in the nephrons. They collect filtrate from blood passing through the KIDNEY GLOMERULUS and process this filtrate into URINE. Each renal tubule consists of a BOWMAN CAPSULE; PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE; LOOP OF HENLE; DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCT leading to the central cavity of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS) that connects to the URETER.Urination: Discharge of URINE, liquid waste processed by the KIDNEY, from the body.Insect Hormones: Hormones secreted by insects. They influence their growth and development. Also synthetic substances that act like insect hormones.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.CreatinineSulfonamides: A group of compounds that contain the structure SO2NH2.Sodium, Dietary: Sodium or sodium compounds used in foods or as a food. The most frequently used compounds are sodium chloride or sodium glutamate.Mineralocorticoid Receptor Antagonists: Drugs that bind to and block the activation of MINERALOCORTICOID RECEPTORS by MINERALOCORTICOIDS such as ALDOSTERONE.Barium: An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.Acetazolamide: One of the CARBONIC ANHYDRASE INHIBITORS that is sometimes effective against absence seizures. It is sometimes useful also as an adjunct in the treatment of tonic-clonic, myoclonic, and atonic seizures, particularly in women whose seizures occur or are exacerbated at specific times in the menstrual cycle. However, its usefulness is transient often because of rapid development of tolerance. Its antiepileptic effect may be due to its inhibitory effect on brain carbonic anhydrase, which leads to an increased transneuronal chloride gradient, increased chloride current, and increased inhibition. (From Smith and Reynard, Textbook of Pharmacology, 1991, p337)Magnesium Deficiency: A nutritional condition produced by a deficiency of magnesium in the diet, characterized by anorexia, nausea, vomiting, lethargy, and weakness. Symptoms are paresthesias, muscle cramps, irritability, decreased attention span, and mental confusion, possibly requiring months to appear. Deficiency of body magnesium can exist even when serum values are normal. In addition, magnesium deficiency may be organ-selective, since certain tissues become deficient before others. (Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, 12th ed, p1936)Oocytes: Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).Potassium Acetate: A potassium salt used to replenish ELECTROLYTES, for restoration of WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE, as well as a urinary and systemic alkalizer, which can be administered orally or by intravenous infusion. Formerly, it was used in DIURETICS and EXPECTORANTS.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.Biological Transport: The movement of materials (including biochemical substances and drugs) through a biological system at the cellular level. The transport can be across cell membranes and epithelial layers. It also can occur within intracellular compartments and extracellular compartments.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Body Water: Fluids composed mainly of water found within the body.Bartter Syndrome: A group of disorders caused by defective salt reabsorption in the ascending LOOP OF HENLE. It is characterized by severe salt-wasting, HYPOKALEMIA; HYPERCALCIURIA; metabolic ALKALOSIS, and hyper-reninemic HYPERALDOSTERONISM without HYPERTENSION. There are several subtypes including ones due to mutations in the renal specific SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Atrial Natriuretic Factor: A potent natriuretic and vasodilatory peptide or mixture of different-sized low molecular weight PEPTIDES derived from a common precursor and secreted mainly by the HEART ATRIUM. All these peptides share a sequence of about 20 AMINO ACIDS.Xenopus laevis: The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.Renin-Angiotensin System: A BLOOD PRESSURE regulating system of interacting components that include RENIN; ANGIOTENSINOGEN; ANGIOTENSIN CONVERTING ENZYME; ANGIOTENSIN I; ANGIOTENSIN II; and angiotensinase. Renin, an enzyme produced in the kidney, acts on angiotensinogen, an alpha-2 globulin produced by the liver, forming ANGIOTENSIN I. Angiotensin-converting enzyme, contained in the lung, acts on angiotensin I in the plasma converting it to ANGIOTENSIN II, an extremely powerful vasoconstrictor. Angiotensin II causes contraction of the arteriolar and renal VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE, leading to retention of salt and water in the KIDNEY and increased arterial blood pressure. In addition, angiotensin II stimulates the release of ALDOSTERONE from the ADRENAL CORTEX, which in turn also increases salt and water retention in the kidney. Angiotensin-converting enzyme also breaks down BRADYKININ, a powerful vasodilator and component of the KALLIKREIN-KININ SYSTEM.Kidney Function Tests: Laboratory tests used to evaluate how well the kidneys are working through examination of blood and urine.Borates: Inorganic or organic salts and esters of boric acid.Loop of Henle: The U-shaped portion of the renal tubule in the KIDNEY MEDULLA, consisting of a descending limb and an ascending limb. It is situated between the PROXIMAL KIDNEY TUBULE and the DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE.Lithium: An element in the alkali metals family. It has the atomic symbol Li, atomic number 3, and atomic weight [6.938; 6.997]. Salts of lithium are used in treating BIPOLAR DISORDER.Extracellular Space: Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.Cromakalim: A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)Charybdotoxin: A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.Natriuretic Agents: Endogenous or exogenous chemicals that regulate the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in the body. They consist of peptides and non-peptide compounds.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Edema: Abnormal fluid accumulation in TISSUES or body cavities. Most cases of edema are present under the SKIN in SUBCUTANEOUS TISSUE.Kidney Medulla: The internal portion of the kidney, consisting of striated conical masses, the renal pyramids, whose bases are adjacent to the cortex and whose apices form prominent papillae projecting into the lumen of the minor calyces.Angiotensin II Type 1 Receptor Blockers: Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.Intermediate-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.Pinacidil: A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channel alpha Subunits: The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.Diazoxide: A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.Drug Interactions: The action of a drug that may affect the activity, metabolism, or toxicity of another drug.Alkalosis: A pathological condition that removes acid or adds base to the body fluids.Methyclothiazide: A thiazide diuretic with properties similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p825)Canrenoic Acid: A synthetic pregnadiene derivative with anti-aldosterone activity.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Treatment Outcome: Evaluation undertaken to assess the results or consequences of management and procedures used in combating disease in order to determine the efficacy, effectiveness, safety, and practicability of these interventions in individual cases or series.Urea: A compound formed in the liver from ammonia produced by the deamination of amino acids. It is the principal end product of protein catabolism and constitutes about one half of the total urinary solids.Xenopus: An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.Molecular Sequence Data: Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.Sodium-Potassium-Exchanging ATPase: An enzyme that catalyzes the active transport system of sodium and potassium ions across the cell wall. Sodium and potassium ions are closely coupled with membrane ATPase which undergoes phosphorylation and dephosphorylation, thereby providing energy for transport of these ions against concentration gradients.Sulfonylurea Receptors: ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.Captopril: A potent and specific inhibitor of PEPTIDYL-DIPEPTIDASE A. It blocks the conversion of ANGIOTENSIN I to ANGIOTENSIN II, a vasoconstrictor and important regulator of arterial blood pressure. Captopril acts to suppress the RENIN-ANGIOTENSIN SYSTEM and inhibits pressure responses to exogenous angiotensin.Urodynamics: The mechanical laws of fluid dynamics as they apply to urine transport.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Digitalis Glycosides: Glycosides from plants of the genus DIGITALIS. Some of these are useful as cardiotonic and anti-arrhythmia agents. Included also are semi-synthetic derivatives of the naturally occurring glycosides. The term has sometimes been used more broadly to include all CARDIAC GLYCOSIDES, but here is restricted to those related to Digitalis.Hemodynamics: The movement and the forces involved in the movement of the blood through the CARDIOVASCULAR SYSTEM.Drug Combinations: Single preparations containing two or more active agents, for the purpose of their concurrent administration as a fixed dose mixture.Minoxidil: A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)Scorpion Venoms: Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.Rhodnius: A genus of the subfamily TRIATOMINAE. Rhodnius prolixus is a vector for TRYPANOSOMA CRUZI.Gitelman Syndrome: An inherited renal disorder characterized by defective NaCl reabsorption in the convoluted DISTAL KIDNEY TUBULE leading to HYPOKALEMIA. In contrast with BARTTER SYNDROME, Gitelman syndrome includes hypomagnesemia and normocalcemic hypocalciuria, and is caused by mutations in the thiazide-sensitive SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS.Vasopressins: Antidiuretic hormones released by the NEUROHYPOPHYSIS of all vertebrates (structure varies with species) to regulate water balance and OSMOLARITY. In general, vasopressin is a nonapeptide consisting of a six-amino-acid ring with a cysteine 1 to cysteine 6 disulfide bridge or an octapeptide containing a CYSTINE. All mammals have arginine vasopressin except the pig with a lysine at position 8. Vasopressin, a vasoconstrictor, acts on the KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS to increase water reabsorption, increase blood volume and blood pressure.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.Amino Acid Sequence: The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.Diuretics, Potassium Sparing: A subclass of diuretics that limits the secretion of POTASSIUM into the URINE.Tropaeolum: A plant genus of the family TROPAEOLACEAE. The common nasturtium is a plant that grows 2.4-3.6 m (8-12 feet) tall and has funnel-shaped flowers that are commonly yellow-orange with red spots or stripes and have a long spur that contains sweet nectar. Some species in this genus are called watercress which is also a common name for RORIPPA and NASTURTIUM.Apamin: A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.Antimony Potassium Tartrate: A schistosomicide possibly useful against other parasites. It has irritant emetic properties and may cause lethal cardiac toxicity among other adverse effects.Oliguria: Decreased URINE output that is below the normal range. Oliguria can be defined as urine output of less than or equal to 0.5 or 1 ml/kg/hr depending on the age.Aminopyridines: Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.Cell Membrane: The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Kidney Tubules, Collecting: Straight tubes commencing in the radiate part of the kidney cortex where they receive the curved ends of the distal convoluted tubules. In the medulla the collecting tubules of each pyramid converge to join a central tube (duct of Bellini) which opens on the summit of the papilla.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Ticrynafen: A novel diuretic with uricosuric action. It has been proposed as an antihypertensive agent.Atenolol: A cardioselective beta-1 adrenergic blocker possessing properties and potency similar to PROPRANOLOL, but without a negative inotropic effect.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
For potassium-sparing diuretics, such as amiloride and triamterene; both the drugs block epithelial sodium channels in the ... As the extracellular potassium levels increase, potassium conductance is increased so that more potassium leaves the myocyte in ... Physicians taking a medical history may focus on kidney disease, medication use (e.g. potassium-sparing diuretics), which are ... Emergency lowering of potassium levels is needed when new arrhythmias occur at any level of potassium in the blood, or when ...
... belongs to a class of medications known as potassium-sparing diuretics. Spironolactone was discovered in 1957 ... Unlike with some other diuretics, potassium supplementation should not be administered while taking spironolactone, as this may ... While loop diuretics remain first-line for most people with heart failure, spironolactone has shown to reduce both morbidity ... It is also used in the treatment of high blood pressure, low blood potassium that does not improve with supplementation, early ...
Management of heart failure
Potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g. amiloride) - used first-line use to correct hypokalaemia. Spironolactone is used as add-on ... "Potent diuretic effects of prednisone in heart failure patients with refractory diuretic resistance". The Canadian journal of ... especially in heart failure patients with refractory diuretic resistance with large dose of loop diuretics. Glucocorticoids ... Diuretic therapy is indicated for relief of congestive symptoms. Several classes are used, with combinations reserved for ...
... diet and a potassium-sparing diuretic that directly blocks the sodium channel. Potassium-sparing diuretics that are effective ... and is treated with a combination of low sodium diet and potassium-sparing diuretics (e.g. amiloride). It is extremely rare, ... In Liddle's disease, the serum sodium is typically elevated, the serum potassium is reduced, and the serum bicarbonate is ... Liddle syndrome involves abnormal kidney function, with excess reabsorption of sodium and loss of potassium from the renal ...
The drug is often used in conjunction with a thiazide diuretic to counteract the potassium-sparing effect. Due to its potassium ... other potassium-sparing diuretics, or any potassium-containing supplements. A fraction of the effects of amiloride is ... Amiloride is in the potassium-sparing diuretic family of medications. It works by increasing the amount of sodium and ... Amiloride is often used with a thiazide or other loop diuretic. It is taken by mouth. Onset of action is about two hours and it ...
Epithelial sodium channel
Amiloride and triamterene are potassium-sparing diuretics that act as epithelial sodium channel blockers. Jasti J, Furukawa H, ... It can be blocked by either triamterene or amiloride, which are used medically to serve as diuretics. In the kidney, it is ... like potassium channels, aquaporins or Na/K-ATPase. In sweat glands, CFTR is responsible for the reabsorption of chloride in ... of many tight epithelia contain sodium channels that are characterized primarily by their high affinity for the diuretic ...
It also focused medical attention on potassium loss with the use of vavarious diuretics. In 1964, Lown introduced a new use for ... During a medical residency at the Montefiore Hospital in New York City, Lown demonstrated the critical role of potassium in ... Lown B, Levine HD: Atrial Arrhythmias, Digitalis and Potassium. New York: Landberger Medical Books, 1958. Vikhert AM, Lown B: ... Ballantine Books, 1996), 201 Atrial Arrhythmias, Digitalis and Potassium, B Lown, HD Levine (Landsberger Medical Books Inc., ...
Premature ventricular contraction
potassium deficiency: Potassium ion concentrations are a major determinant in the magnitude of the electrochemical potential of ... moricizine increased death rate when used with diuretics and decreased it when used alone. Beta blockers Calcium channel ... In healthy individuals, PVCs can often be resolved by restoring the balance of magnesium, calcium and potassium within the body ... particularly low blood potassium, known as hypokalemia. Reentry occurs when an area of 1-way block in the Purkinje fibers and a ...
As a diuretic (in particular a thiazide), trichlormethiazide encourages water loss from the body. Trichlormethiazide works by ... In addition, trichlormethiazide increases the excretion of potassium. Trichlormethiazide appears to block the active ... This results in excretion of sodium, chloride and water, and thus acts as a diuretic. Although trichlormethiazide is used to ... Trichlormethiazide (INN, currently being sold under the brand names of Achletin, Diu-Hydrin and Triflumen) is a diuretic with ...
Thiazide diuretics are used to treat patients with heart failure. Their goal is to decrease the amount of salt (sodium chloride ... Kaliuresis (/ˌkæljʊərˈiːsɪs/, /ˌkæli-/) or kaluresis (/ˌkæljʊərˈiːsɪs/) is the condition of excreting potassium in the urine. ... "Regulation of Renal Potassium Secretion: Molecular Mechanisms". Seminars in Nephrology. 33 (3): 215-228. doi:10.1016/j. ... and can lead to kaliuresis by increasing sodium-potassium exchange. Natriuresis Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine, ...
Hyperkalemic periodic paralysis
Diuretics such as furosemide may be needed to stop sudden attacks; acetazolamide and thiazide diuretics such as chlorothiazide ... In other cases, attacks are associated with normal blood potassium levels (normokalemia). Ingesting potassium can trigger ... In time, potassium ions will leave the muscle cells, repolarising the cells and causing the pumping of calcium away from the ... Intravenous glucose and insulin stimulates potassium uptake into the cell by the Na-K ATPase and may reduce weakness without a ...
Diuretic resistance: Diuretic resistance can be predicted by giving 80 mg intravenous furosemide after 3 days without diuretics ... 40 reduces risks of potassium imbalance. Serum potassium level and renal function should be monitored closely while on ... Diuretics. Since salt restriction is the basic concept in treatment, and aldosterone is one of the hormones that acts to ... This choice has been confirmed in a randomized controlled trial. Diuretics for ascites should be dosed once per day. ...
Proximal renal tubular acidosis
Administration of bicarbonate prior to potassium supplementation might lead to worsened hypokalemia, as potassium shifts ... Thiazide diuretics can also be used as treatment by making use of contraction alkalosis caused by them. Renal tubular acidosis ... Patients with type 2 RTA are also typically hypokalemic due to a combination of secondary hyperaldosteronism, and potassium ... Correction with oral bicarbonate may exacerbate urinary potassium losses and precipitate hypokalemia. As with dRTA, reversal of ...
Sodium zirconium cyclosilicate
Hyperkalemia can arise from impaired renal function, potassium-sparing diuretics and renin-angiotensin system blockers (e.g., ... Patiromer, another potassium binder "ZS-9. A selective potassium binder". ZS-Pharma. Elliott, M. J.; Ronksley, P. E.; Clase, C ... ZS-9 selectively captures potassium ions, presumably by mimicking the actions of physiologic potassium channels. ZS-9 is an ... serum potassium concentrations greater than 6.5 to 7.0 mmol/L in the absence of ECG changes are managed aggressively. ...
Apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome
Alternatively, one could differentiate between the two syndromes by administering a potassium-sparing diuretic. Patients with ... abnormally low levels of potassium). It was found by Dr Maria L. New at Weil Cornell Hospital in New York City. It results from ... whereas those with AME will respond to a diuretic that binds to ENaC or the mineralcorticoid receptor. The treatment for AME is ... Liddle's syndrome will only respond to a diuretic that binds the ENaC channel, ...
... either with potassium itself (e.g. Lasix-K and Diumide-K Continus) or with the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride (Co- ... As with many diuretics, it can cause dehydration and electrolyte imbalance, including loss of potassium, calcium, sodium, and ... The tendency, as for all loop diuretics, to cause low serum potassium concentration (hypokalemia) has given rise to combination ... The diuretic effects are put to use most commonly in horses to prevent bleeding during a race. Sometime in the early 1970s, ...
Treatment includes spironolactone, a potassium-sparing diuretic that works by acting as an aldosterone antagonist. ... It has the potential for causing problems with sodium and potassium in the body. It also interferes with the enzyme in the ... which can lead to lowered levels of potassium in the blood (hypokalemia) and increased hydrogen ion excretion (alkalosis). This ...
Furosemide is a diuretic that lowers arterial tension but favours the loss of K+. This could lead to hypokalemia (low levels of ... The former acts on cardiac fibres and its effect is increased if there are low levels of potassium (K) in blood plasma. ... potassium in the blood), which could increase the toxicity of digoxin. Modifications in the effect of a drug are caused by ...
Potassium-sparing diureticsEdit. These are diuretics which do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine; thus, ... Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, potassium canrenoate. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ... Low ceiling diureticsEdit. The term "low ceiling diuretic" is used to indicate a diuretic has a rapidly flattening dose effect ... The thiazides and potassium-sparing diuretics are considered to be calcium-sparing diuretics. ...
... potassium, and chloride. Human and animal trials of indicate that E. bogotense has "high" efficacy as a diuretic. It is used ... The plant has a history as a traditional herbal remedy, and a study of its diuretic effects on humans showed significant ... Wright, CI; Van-Buren, L; Kroner, CI; Koning, MM (October 2007). "Herbal medicines as diuretics: a review of the scientific ...
Severe deficits of potassium and magnesium require intravenous replacement. If low blood potassium levels are not sufficiently ... Symptomatic individuals present with symptoms identical to those of patients who are on thiazide diuretics, given that the ... Potassium and magnesium supplementation to normalize low blood levels of potassium and magnesium is the mainstay of treatment.[ ... Gitelman syndrome is an autosomal recessive kidney disorder characterized by low blood levels of potassium and magnesium, ...
اسپیرونولاکتون - ویکیپدیا
Comes in potassium and free acid forms; degrades upon contact with light. Propionic acid derivative.. As per diclofenac.. PO.. ... Comes in sodium, potassium and diethylamine (topically used as a gel) salt forms; sparingly soluble in water but soluble in ... Potassium channel (Kv7) opener.. PO, rectal.. Bioavailability = 90% (oral), 72.5% (rectal); protein binding = 80%; volume ... "Flupirtine shows functional NMDA receptor antagonism by enhancing Mg2+ block via activation of voltage independent potassium ...
Water privation combined with diuretic block does not produce as much risk of CPM as saline administration does; however, it ... These solutions contained a range of concentrations of sodium, chloride, potassium, carbonate, phosphate, and hydroxide. The ... often in conjunction with supplementary diuretics, in the treatment of traumatic brain injury. ...
Potassium deficiency. Due to the role of intracellular potassium in regulation of cellular pressures related to sodium, ... People with neurogenic hypertension respond poorly to treatment with diuretics as the underlying cause of their hypertension is ... and Potassium Bromide in Cases of Arterial Hypertension which are Amenable to Potassium Chloride". Can Med Assoc J. 18 (3): 281 ... establishing potassium balance has been shown to reverse hypertension.  Diagnosis. The ABCDE mnemonic can be used to ...
Following this, high levels of uric acid, potassium and phosphate are found in the blood. High levels of phosphate induce ... This causes kidney damage and the high levels of potassium can cause cardiac arrhythmia. Although prophylaxis is available and ... Diuretics. *Vasodilators. *Beta blockers. *Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors ...
ಟೆಂಪ್ಲೇಟು:Central nervous system navs - ವಿಕಿಪೀಡಿಯ
Idiopathic intracranial hypertension
The fluid retention may be targeted by diuretics; the antihypertensive effect of diuretics is due to its effect on blood volume ... Aldosterone stimulates sodium retention and potassium excretion by the kidneys. Since sodium is the main ion that determines ... This steroid hormone is released from the adrenal cortex in response to angiotensin II or high serum potassium levels. ...
Magnesium in biology
March 2008). "Magnesium, calcium, potassium, and sodium intakes and risk of stroke in male smokers". Arch. Intern. Med. 168 (5 ... such as chronic alcohol or diuretic use) than from low food intake per se, but it can occur in people fed intravenously for ... Berkowitz, G. A.; Wu, W. (1993). "Magnesium, potassium flux and photosynthesis". Magnesium Research. 6 (3): 257-265. PMID ... Heenan, D.P.; Campbell, L.C. (1981). "Influence of potassium and manganese on growth and uptake of magnesium by soybeans ( ...
... a potassium-sparing diuretic often used in conjunction with thiazide or loop diuretics. Clinicians have been aware of lithium ... The diuretic hydrochlorothiazide (a thiazide diuretic) or indomethacin can be used to create mild hypovolemia which encourages ... Thiazide diuretics are sometimes combined with amiloride to prevent hypokalemia. It seems paradoxical to treat an extreme ... However, there is a continuous risk of dehydration and loss of potassium that may lead to hypokalemia. ...
Potassium. By Chris Woodford, pagina 4. *^ SODIUM-RESTRICTED DIETS AND THE USE OF DIURETICS, Rationale, Complications, and ... The relation of serum potassium to erythrocyte potassium in normal subjects and patients with potassium deficiency". Am. J. Med ... Potassium: Uses of Potassium *^ Academic Press dictionary of science and technology, By Christopher G. Morris, Academic Press, ... for a diagram of the potassium pores are viewed, see Miller C (. 2001. ). „See potassium run". Nature. 414 (6859): 23-4. doi: ...
The obtained product is ethynylated by acetylene in the presence of potassium tert-butoxide. After hydrochloride hydrolysis of ... both of which are thought to be due to water retention and can be relieved with diuretics.:253 There has been no ... the formed O-potassium derivative, during which the enol ether is also hydrolyzed, and the remaining double bond is shifted, ...
If arrhythmias prove troublesome, or malignant hyperkalaemia occurs (inexorably rising potassium level due to paralysis of the ... A mild diuretic effect is seen only in heart failure. HistoryEdit. Derivatives of plants of genus Digitalis have a long history ... Plasma potassium levels also need to be closely controlled (see side effects, below). ... Digoxin's primary mechanism of action involves inhibition of the sodium potassium adenosine triphosphatase (Na+/K+ ATPase), ...
Most treatment measures are supportive in nature: Thiazide diuretics (i.e. hydrochlorothiazide) have been used with success in ... potassium in urine) Hyperuricosuria (excessive amounts of uric acid in the urine) Impaired urinary acidification Rickets In a ... In rats with diabetes insipidus, thiazide diuretics inhibit the NaCl cotransporter in the renal distal convoluted tubule, ...
Hypokalemia - Thiazide diuretics reduces potassium concentration in blood through two indirect mechanisms: inhibition of sodium ... These agents are more properly termed thiazide-like diuretics. Thiazide diuretics also increase calcium reabsorption at the ... thiazide-like diuretics) are often considered as thiazide diuretics, although they are not thiazides from a chemical ... Thiazide (/ˈθaɪəzaɪd/) is a type of molecule and a class of diuretics often used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure) ...
WHO Model List of Essential Medicines
It was used as a diuretic and sudorific. According to Chambers's Cyclopedia, the recipe was purchased for five hundred ... Potassium hydrogen sulfate. Potassium sulfite. Potassium bisulfite. Potassium persulfate Except where otherwise noted, data are ... Potassium sulfate (K2SO4) (in British English potassium sulphate, also called sulphate of potash, arcanite, or archaically ... Potassium hydrogen sulfate (also known as potassium bisulfate), KHSO4, is readily produced by reacting K2SO4 with sulfuric acid ...
Potassium-competitive inhibitors such as revaprazan reversibly block the potassium-binding site of the proton pump, acting more ... Proton pump inhibitors act by irreversibly blocking the hydrogen/potassium adenosine triphosphatase enzyme system (the H+/K+ ... Proton-Potassium (H+/K+) ATPases: Properties and Roles in Health and Diseases". In Astrid, Sigel; Helmut, Sigel; Roland K.O., ... Diuretics. *Vasodilators. *Beta blockers. *Calcium channel blockers. *renin-angiotensin system *ACE inhibitors ...
Lasix potassium sparing diuretic - Sulfa bactrim allergies
diuretics and sulfa allergy. Potassium supplements and potassium-sparing diuretics:. Diuretics have a long established role in ... sulfa allergy and diuretics. out or confirm sulfa allergy.The only diuretics that are not are the potassium-sparing. (diuretics ... those potassium-sparing diuretics I mentioned that do not contain sulfa are amiloride, triamterene,.Potassium-sparing diuretics ... Triamterene is classified as a potassium sparing diuretic,.. diuretic, A diuretic is any substance that promotes diuresis, that ...
Potassium-sparing diuretic - Wikipedia
Potassium-sparing diuretics are diuretic drugs that do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine. They are used as ... Potassium-sparing diuretics are generally used in combination with other diuretic drugs (e.g. loop diuretics) that would ... ARBS/POTASSIUM SPARING DIURETICS". Drug-Drug Interaction. JIRDC. Retrieved 17 March 2012. Potassium Sparing Diuretics at the US ... This prevents sodium re-absorption and potassium and hydrogen ion secretion. Potassium-sparing diuretics do not share any ...
Interactions between Spironolactone-Hydrochlorothiazide Oral and potassium-sparing-diuretics-drospirenone
WebMD provides information about interactions between Spironolactone-Hydrochlorothiazide Oral and potassium-sparing-diuretics- ... Drospirenone/Potassium Sparing Diuretics Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical ... Your doctor may check the amount of potassium in your blood after you have been taking these medicines together for one cycle. ... Let your doctor know right away if you have any symptoms of a high potassium level.Your healthcare professionals may already be ...
Interactions between Olmesartan-Amlodipine-Hydrochlorothiazide Oral and potassium-wasting-diuretics-cisapride
WebMD provides information about interactions between Olmesartan-Amlodipine-Hydrochlorothiazide Oral and potassium-wasting- ... Your diuretic (or "water-pill") lowers the amount of potassium in your blood. If your potassium levels are too low, cisapride ... Cisapride/Potassium Wasting Diuretics Interactions. This information is generalized and not intended as specific medical advice ... You may need to have your potassium level checked. Your doctor may want you to take a potassium supplement or your medicine may ...
List of Potassium-sparing diuretics (Potassium sparing diuretics) - Drugs.com
Potassium sparing diuretics). View important safety information, ratings, user reviews, popularity and more... ... Potassium-sparing diuretics. Other names: Potassium sparing diuretics. What are Potassium-sparing diuretics?. Potassium-sparing ... Because potassium-sparing diuretics do not promote the secretion of potassium during diuresis they do not cause hypokalemia ( ... Potassium-sparing diuretics may be used alone or in conjunction with loop or thiazide diuretics. ...
Triamterene Capsule, USP Potassium-Sparing Diuretic
Triamterene Capsules USP may be used alone or with other diuretics, either for its added diuretic effect or its potassium- ... Patients should not be placed on dietary potassium supplements, potassium salts or potassium-containing salt substitutes in ... may contain up to 60 mEq of potassium per liter); potassium-containing medications (such as parenteral penicillin G potassium ... Triamterene tends to conserve potassium rather than to promote the excretion as do many diuretics and, occasionally, can cause ...
Potassium supplements with loop diuretics increase survival rates of heart failure patients
... together with loop diuretics for heart failure have better survival rates than patients taking diuretics without the potassium ... Moreover, the degree of benefit increases with higher diuretic doses. ... from the Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania found that patients taking prescription potassium ... Potassium supplements with loop diuretics increase survival rates of heart failure patients. *Download PDF Copy ...
Loop VS. Potassium Sparing Diuretics - ProgressiveHealth.com
Loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, thiazide diuretics, and osmotic diuretics are of several types. Below is a ... comparison of loop diuretics and potassium-sparing diuretics. ... diuretics are medications that increase urination and help the ... Loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, thiazide diuretics, and osmotic diuretics are of several types. Below is a ... Potassium-sparing Diuretics. Like other diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics increase urination. However, unlike loop ...
Dapagliflozin, potassium-sparing diuretics lower HbA1c in type 2 diabetes
The use of dapagliflozin in combination with potassium-sparing diuretics significantly lowered HbA1c, body weight and systolic ... NEW ORLEANS - The use of dapagliflozin in combination with potassium-sparing diuretics significantly lowered HbA1c, body weight ... in patients treated with potassium-sparing diuretics, using pooled data from 14 phase 2b/3 trials over 24 weeks. ... "These findings are of clinical relevance, since SGLT2 inhibitors and potassium sparing agents are likely to be co-administered ...
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics | Doctors Hospital
Learn more about Potassium-Sparing Diuretics at Doctors Hospital of Augusta Potassium -Likely Harmful Interaction Magnesium ... ... Treatments that combine thiazide diuretics (which cause potassium loss) and potassium-sparing diuretics can affect potassium ... Potassium Potassium-sparing diuretics cause the kidneys to hold potassium in the body. When you are taking these medications ... This family of diuretics was invented to avoid the potassium loss common with loop and thiazide diuretics. ...
One in five patients on commonly prescribed diuretics have abnormal sodium and potassium levels
"Patients taking higher doses of thiazide diuretics are at particular risk of low potassium levels and elderly patients are at a ... "This points to the need for prescribing low doses of thiazide diuretics and monitoring sodium and potassium levels to reduce ... One in five patients on commonly prescribed diuretics have abnormal sodium and potassium levels. 11.01.2006 ... One in five patients taking diuretics commonly prescribed for high blood pressure or heart conditions end up with reduced ...
Potassium-Sparing Diuretics | Sky Ridge Medical Center
Learn more about Potassium-Sparing Diuretics at Sky Ridge Medical Center Potassium -Likely Harmful Interaction Magnesium ... ... Treatments that combine thiazide diuretics (which cause potassium loss) and potassium-sparing diuretics can affect potassium ... Potassium Potassium-sparing diuretics cause the kidneys to hold potassium in the body. When you are taking these medications ... This family of diuretics was invented to avoid the potassium loss common with loop and thiazide diuretics. ...
Why would a person taking a diuretic need to take potassium? | eNotes
Why would a person taking a diuretic need to take potassium? and find homework help for other Science questions at eNotes ... If the particular diuretic being taken is one that makes you lose potassium, then the potassium must be replaced. Potassium has ... If the particular diuretic being taken is one that makes you lose potassium, then the potassium must be replaced. Potassium has ... Diuretics (water pills) can cause the levels of potassium in the blood to decrease so this is why a person taking diuretics may ...
Diuretics - potassium-sparing diuretics | Lima Memorial Health System
Potassium-sparing diuretics and thiazide diuretics may sometimes be used together. Diuretic combinations include:. * ... Depletions from potassium-sparing diuretics are discussed in this article. If you are taking any of these combinations, you may ... Thiazide diuretics depletion article. Thiazide diuretics include:Chlorothiazide (Diuril)Hydrochlorothiazide (Aquazide, Esidrix ... Diuretics. In: Skorecki K, Chertow GM, Marsden PA, Yu ASL, Taal MW, eds. Brenner and Rectors The Kidney. 10th ed. Philadelphia ...
Search of: DROSPIRENONE AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol AND Diuretics, Potassium Sparing - List...
65 Studies found for: DROSPIRENONE AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol AND Diuretics, Potassium ... DROSPIRENONE AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol AND Diuretics, Potassium Sparing (65 records) ... DROSPIRENONE AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol AND Diuretics, Potassium Sparing ...
Search of: DROSPIRENONE AND ETHINYL ESTRADIOL AND Drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol AND Diuretics, Potassium Sparing - Results...
Input of the Use of Indometacin in Gitelman Syndrome as Compared to Potassium Sparing Diuretics - Full Text View -...
Diuretics. Eplerenone. Amiloride. Indomethacin. Sodium Channel Blockers. Diuretics, Potassium Sparing. Natriuretic Agents. ... Input of the Use of Indometacin in Gitelman Syndrome as Compared to Potassium Sparing Diuretics (GITAB). The safety and ... Evaluation of Safety and Efficacity of Indometacin and Two Potassium Sparing Diuretics in Adult Patients Affected by Gitelman ... Gitelman syndrome is a rare renal disease where the kidneys are unable to normally retain some salts (sodium, potassium and ...
Acquired Mitral Stenosis Medication: Diuretics, Potassium-sparing diuretics, Inotropic-antiarrhythmic agents, Class II...
Potassium-sparing diuretics. Class Summary. These agents are used to prevent potassium depletion induced by more potent loop ... Digitalis glycoside that inhibits sodium-potassium ATPase (enzyme that extrudes sodium and brings potassium into myocyte). ... thereby retaining potassium and excreting sodium and water. Serves as a diuretic and antihypertensive agent. ... Diuretics. Class Summary. These agents promote excretion of water and electrolytes by the kidneys. They decrease fluid overload ...
C-17 Hydroxylase Deficiency Medication: Glucocorticoids, Estrogens, Progestogens, Androgens, Antihypertensive agents,...
Potassium-conserving (antikaliuretic) drug that possesses weak (compared with thiazide diuretics) natriuretic, diuretic, and ... Antihypertensives: Potassium-sparing diuretics. Class Summary. One DOC to treat hypertension associated with 17-hydroxylase ... blood pressure management also is important and involves variable combinations of potassium-sparing diuretics, such as ... Antikaliuretic diuretic agent. A pyrazine-carbonyl-guanidine that is chemically unrelated to other known antikaliuretic or ...
Thiazides Diuretics, Loop Diuretics & Potassium-Sparing Diuretics
Diuretic is a water pill works in the kidney by removing excess water and sodium from your body. It is effective for high BP ... Potassium-sparing diuretics. All diuretic except potassium-sparing diuretics cause you to lose potassium; this can lead to ... Types of diuretics. There are three types of diuretic medications, they are thiazide, loop, and potassium-sparing diuretics. ... Potassium-sparing diuretics may prescribe for people at risk of low potassium levels. This diuretic is less effective in ...
Diuretics, Potassium-Sparing | Drug, OTCs & Herbals | Medscape Reference
Diuretic Medications for Hypertension and Potassium
Learn how diuretics influence your bodys potassium levels and which types can deplete this important mineral to the point of ... Do Diuretics Cause Potassium Loss? As a result of increased water and salt removal, most diuretics also cause the body to lose ... Other Causes of Low Potassium Just because you are taking a diuretic, doesnt mean its the sole cause of your low potassium ... Medline Plus: Low Potassium Level (2015). *Sheps, Sheldon G., M.D. Mayo Clinic: Can Diuretics Decrease Your Potassium Level ( ...
Actions of Diuretics on Sodium-Potassium Exchanges in Skeletal and Heart Muscle, in the Presence of Ouabain | Clinical Science ...
Diuretics Can Trigger Down Potassium Concentration in Blood - High Blood Pressure Symptoms | Causes | Diet | Treatment
Loads of diuretics (typically called water pills decrease k++ within the blood. Diuretics decrease blood pressure by serving to ... Diuretics Can Trigger Down Potassium Concentration in Blood, ... Diuretics Can Trigger Down Potassium Concentration in Blood. ... Diuretics Can Trigger Down Potassium Concentration in Blood, Loads of diuretics (typically called water pills decrease k++ ... This will lead to low potassium ranges in your blood (hypokalemia).. There are potassium-sparing diuretics that do not cause ...
Abnormal serum potassium levels and 6-month all-cause mortality in patients co-treated with antipsychotic and diuretic drugs: A...
Eplerenone Survival Benefits in Heart Failure Patients Post-Myocardial Infarction Are Independent From its Diuretic and...
Finally, while eplerenone had both a diuretic and potassium-sparing effect, its early benefits in the post-myocardial ... Are the beneficial effects of eplerenone following myocardial infarction due to its diuretic and potassium-sparing properties? ... and placebo patients were more likely to be on potassium supplements (p < 0.0006). Irrespective of treatment group, a diuretic ... Keywords: Myocardial Infarction, Ventricular Function, Left, Weight Loss, Diuretics, Body Weight, Spironolactone, Heart Failure ...
DISSERTATIONS.SE: Skeletal muscle potassium and magnesium in diuretic treated patients effects of potassium - sparing diuretics...
Dissertation: Skeletal muscle potassium and magnesium in diuretic treated patients effects of potassium - sparing diuretics of ... Skeletal muscle potassium and magnesium in diuretic treated patients effects of potassium - sparing diuretics of magnesium ... Keywords: MEDICIN OCH HÄLSOVETENSKAP; MEDICAL AND HEALTH SCIENCES; Long-term diuretic treatment; arterial hypertension; ...
Diuretic - Wikipedia
Potassium-sparing diuretics. These are diuretics which do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine; thus, ... Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, potassium canrenoate. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ... Low ceiling diuretics. The term "low ceiling diuretic" is used to indicate a diuretic has a rapidly flattening dose ... The thiazides and potassium-sparing diuretics are considered to be calcium-sparing diuretics. ...
Is goldenseal an effective diuretic? | Reference.com
... there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of goldenseal as a diuretic, according to WebMD. Although ... What are potassium supplements used to treat?. * Q: What are some of the uses for CoQ10?. ... As of 2015, there is no scientific evidence to support the effectiveness of goldenseal as a diuretic, according to WebMD. ... In Native American medicine, the Cherokee, Iroquois and other tribes used goldenseal root as a diuretic, a stimulant, an insect ...
Diuretics for High Blood Pressure | Cigna
Potassium-sparing diuretics might be used, along with other diuretics, if you have low potassium levels. footnote 1 ... Potassium-sparing diuretics, unlike most other diuretics, do not cause potassium levels to drop. Rather, they may lead to high ... If you take a loop diuretic or thiazide diuretic, your doctor may suggest you get extra potassium, because these medicines ... lower your potassium levels. But if you take a potassium-sparing diuretic, you do not need to get extra potassium in your diet. ...
Diuretics - Water Pills (Potassium-Sparing, Loop, Thiazide, Osmotic) Diuretics
... all diuretics may cause a loss of potassium. Rarely, potassium-sparing diuretics can cause a build-up of potassium in the body ... Potassium-sparing diuretics are used to protect the body from excess potassium loss, which can occur with loop and thiazide ... Far less potent, potassium-sparing diuretics are commonly used in conjunction with the other forms of diuretics. They are also ... Extra potassium is not necessary for every patient on diuretics and too much potassium can be harmful. In addition, patients ...
KidneysSparingCitrateMedicinesFluidTreatmentTriamtereneLoss of potassiumCongestive heart fMagnesiumType of diureticTake diureticsMedicationsHydrochlorothiazideChlorothiazideOsmotic diureticsSodium and potassiumChlorthalidonePrescribeDrugsAntihypertensiveCommonlyKidneyTorsemideMedicationEdemaNatural diureticsUrinationDecreaseActions of DiureticsDoseHigh blood prSupplementWeak diureticsReabsorptionSide Effects of Loop DiureticsElectrolyteSerumAmount of potassiumPatients receiving loopThiazide and loop diuretics
- Potassium Citrate is a well absorbed and highly bioavailable form of potassium. (totaldiscountvitamins.com)
- Global Potassium Citrate Market size is expected to reach USD 868.9 million by 2025. (millioninsights.com)
- The potassium citrate market is expected to witness a 3.7% CAGR in the years to come. (millioninsights.com)
- Potassium citrate is used in baby products, bath products, make-up, detergents & soaps, hair & skin care products and hair dyes & colors. (millioninsights.com)
- Potassium citrate is used in various industries such as food & beverage, pharmaceutical, personal care and others. (millioninsights.com)
- Functions such as emulsification, acidification, and others could be explored in potassium citrate industry. (millioninsights.com)
- The factors that play an important role in the growth of market include increasing demand, growing population, increasing urbanization & industrialization, increasing buyer demand for non-GMO potassium citrate products, growing demand from end use industries for sodium citrate, increasing awareness about benefits of low sodium levels in food and growing foods & beverages industry. (millioninsights.com)
- Moreover, the increasing demand for potassium citrate due to its superior properties such as high chemical & microbiological stability, high water solubility and outstanding biodegradability is expected to propel market growth in the coming years. (millioninsights.com)
- However, risk and side effects of potassium citrate used in food & other products is negatively impacting the growth of potassium citrate industry. (millioninsights.com)
- Moreover, growing demand for potassium citrate due to its properties such as pH buffering, potassium fortification, enhancement of stability & complexity and ability to act as a systemic alkalizer in pet food and feed are expected to boost the market growth in this region. (millioninsights.com)
- The key players contributing to the robust development of the potassium citrate market include Gadot Biochemical Industries Ltd., Evonik Industries AG, BASF SE, Archer Daniels Midland Company, Baker Hughes Incorporated, FBC Industries Inc., Cargill Incorporated. (millioninsights.com)
- Triamterene Capsules are potassium-sparing diuretics. (nih.gov)
- Triamterene occasionally causes increases in serum potassium which can result in hyperkalemia. (nih.gov)
- Triamterene Capsules USP may be used alone or with other diuretics, either for its added diuretic effect or its potassium-sparing potential. (nih.gov)
- However, the potassium-sparing diuretic triamterene does not seem to cause this problem. (doctors-hospital.net)
- Triamterene, a relatively weak, potassium-sparing distal tubule diuretic and antihypertensive, is used in the management of hypokalemia. (pharmacycode.com)
- triamterene , one of the diuretics in this group, also can lead to hyperglycemia in diabetic patients. (thefreedictionary.com)
- examples of potassium-sparing diuretics are amiloride (Midamor) and triamterene (Dyrenium). (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- The brands Dyazide and Maxzide, for example, contain the thiazide diuretic hydrochlorothiazide with the potassium-sparing diuretic triamterene. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- those potassium-sparing diuretics I mentioned that do not contain sulfa are amiloride, triamterene,.Potassium-sparing diuretics. (linkstagram.me)
Loss of potassium9
- Potassium-sparing diuretics are medicines that increase diuresis (urination) without the loss of potassium. (drugs.com)
- And loss of potassium can make people more susceptible to the side effects of other drugs they are taking for heart conditions. (innovations-report.com)
- If you're on the type of diuretics that promote the loss of potassium, your health care provider will monitor your levels closely. (verywellhealth.com)
- Potassium-sparing diuretics do not reduce blood pressure, but they also prevent a loss of potassium. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Thiazide diuretics cause a constant and significant loss of potassium. (epnet.com)
- Not all diuretics cause a loss of potassium. (epnet.com)
- Thiazide and loop diuretics may cause an excessive loss of potassium from your body. (coliseumhealthsystem.com)
- Warning: Over-the-counter diuretics may claim to offer fast treatment for water retention, but note that they may also lead to a loss of potassium from your system thus triggering side effects like weakness, heart palpitations and raised blood sugar levels. (annecollins.com)
- They cause loss of potassium that can lead to heart rate problems, however if used in low doses, usually prevent hypokalemia. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
Congestive heart f15
- Loop diuretics are used to treat edema in congestive heart failure as well as kidney and liver disease. (verywellhealth.com)
- To evaluate the acute and chronic effects of diuretic monotherapy with 3 mg piretanide bid, 46 patients (pts) with congestive heart failure (NYHA II-III) secondary to coronary artery disease were studied. (springer.com)
- Thus, the diuretic monotherapy of congestive heart failure with piretanide is highly effective and shows a significant improvement in all clinical and hemodynamic parameters in the absence of any remarkable side effects. (springer.com)
- Comparison of the haemodynamic effects of mercurial diuretics and digitalis in congestive heart failure. (springer.com)
- However, the use of diuretics is mandatory in chronic congestive heart failure. (springer.com)
- Oral magnesium suplementation, correction of concomitant factors conducing to magnesium deficit, and the use of appropriate doses of diuretics appear as the best measures to prevent and/or treat diuretic-induced deficit in patients with chronic congestive heart failure and normal renal function. (springer.com)
- 1995) Pathophysiological basis of the use of diuretics in congestive heart failure. (springer.com)
- 1986) Piretanide, a potent diuretic with potassium-sparing properties, for the treatment of congestive heart failure. (springer.com)
- Verho M, Bückert C, Freude J, Laeger S, Pahnke K. (1985) The effects of piretanide, a potassium stable diuretic, on serum electrolytes in patients with congestive heart failure. (springer.com)
- Haerer W, Bauer U, Sultan N, Cernoch K, Fehske KJ, Hetzel M, Stauch M, Hombach V. (1990) Acuteand chronic effects of a diuretic monotherapy with piretanide in congestive heart failure-a placebo controlled trial. (springer.com)
- Loop diuretics are prescribed to treat water imbalances associated with congestive heart failure and kidney failure. (brighthub.com)
- Low potassium levels associated with loop diuretics increase the risk of digitalis toxicity, a medicine prescribed for congestive heart failure. (brighthub.com)
- Diuretics are used to treat the buildup of excess fluid in the body that occurs with some medical conditions such as congestive heart failure, liver disease, and kidney disease. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- When given intravenously, diuretics may have a venodilator effect, with beneficial haemodynamic effects in congestive heart failure. (provet.co.uk)
- Brady JA, Rock CL, and Horneffer MR. Thiamin status, diuretic medications, and the management of congestive heart failure. (portsmouthhospital.com)
- Preliminary evidence from animal studies suggests that the potassium-sparing diuretic amiloride might cause the body to retain magnesium also, along with potassium. (doctors-hospital.net)
- 3-6 weeks before the first period of treatment, a supplementation with potassium and magnesium will be orally given, and maintained at the same dose throughout the study and stoped 6 weeks after the end of the third period of treatment. (clinicaltrials.gov)
- To avoid this, you should take potassium and magnesium rich foods. (healthy-ojas.com)
- Since magnesium deficiency is common anyway, if you take thiazide diuretics it would certainly make sense to take magnesium supplements at the US Dietary Reference Intake dosage. (epnet.com)
- The levels of sodium, potassium and magnesium in the blood decrease and the pH of the blood increase above the normal range. (brighthub.com)
- What Are the Causes of Low Magnesium & Potassium? (livestrong.com)
- The patient was admitted to the intensive care unit for monitoring and received normal saline with thiamine, folate, magnesium and potassium supplementation to cautiously correct electrolyte abnormalities. (aafp.org)
- Long-term use (more than 6 months) of thiazide diuretics might lead to magnesium deficiency. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- 1,2,3 In turn, this loss of magnesium can increase the depletion of potassium. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- Dorup I. Magnesium and potassium deficiency. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- Refractory potassium repletion-a consequence of magnesium deficiency. (medicalcityhospital.com)
- Consider taking this product in combination with NOW Magnesium & Potassium Aspartate, Cranberry and D-Mannose. (vitadigest.com)
Type of diuretic5
- Loop diuretics-one type of diuretic or 'water pill' named after the part of the kidney it acts on-are commonly used in the treatment of heart failure (and associated lower-limb edema or swelling) to help push out extra fluid that can accumulate when the heart is not working properly. (news-medical.net)
- Some pills combine more than one type of diuretic or combine a diuretic with another blood pressure medication. (mayoclinic.org)
- If you are taking any type of diuretic to control high blood pressure, check with your doctor before taking any over-the-counter medications, including those to treat colds, cough, and allergies. (coliseumhealthsystem.com)
- The recommended dosage depends on the type of diuretic and may be different for different patients, but they should check with the physician who prescribed the drug or the pharmacist who filled the prescription for the correct dosage, and take the medicine exactly as directed. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Thiazides are the only type of diuretic that dilates (widens) the blood vessels, which also helps to lower blood pressure. (texasheart.org)
- Also, as a result of potassium is so vital to coronary heart function, it is often ordered (along with other electrolytes) throughout all complete regular evaluations, particularly in those that take diuretics or blood stress or coronary heart drugs. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- People who take diuretics may lose too much water or potassium when they get sick, especially if they have severe vomiting and diarrhea. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- I have to take diuretics for high blood pressure. (zooscape.com)
- It is not recommended for patients who take diuretics (water pills). (herbalremediesinfo.com)
- Sometimes referred to as water pills, diuretics are medications that increase urination and help the body get rid of water. (progressivehealth.com)
- Loop diuretics are powerful medications that are used to treat edema (swelling). (progressivehealth.com)
- Like other diuretics, these medications can be used to treat hypertension (high blood pressure). (progressivehealth.com)
- When you are taking these medications you generally should not take potassium supplements because your potassium levels might rise too high. (doctors-hospital.net)
- If diuretics are not able to lower your blood pressure, then your doctor may recommend additional hypertension medications to lower your blood pressure. (healthy-ojas.com)
- There are three types of diuretic medications, they are thiazide, loop, and potassium-sparing diuretics. (healthy-ojas.com)
- Diuretic medications can be found in both over-the-counter and prescription forms. (verywellhealth.com)
- Not all high blood pressure medications leach potassium from your body. (verywellhealth.com)
- I have high blood pressure and take quite a lot of medications for it, including a diuretic plus an ACE inhibitor. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- One of the most common types of blood pressure medications is known as a diuretic. (verywellhealth.com)
- When you doctor prescribes a diuretic (or any drug), make sure they're aware of any medications-prescription or over-the-counter-that you're taking. (verywellhealth.com)
- The three types of diuretic medications are called thiazide, loop, and potassium-sparing diuretics. (aarp.org)
- Diuretics are generally safe, but there are some risks if you have other medical conditions or take certain medications. (aarp.org)
- Be sure to tell your doctor if you take any medications that might interact with a diuretic. (aarp.org)
- Am I taking any medications that might interact with a diuretic? (aarp.org)
- Many people use diuretic medications that are prescribed by a doctor. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- The most common diuretic medications fall into four major categories: loop, osmotic, potassium-sparing and thiazide (or thiazide-like). (nmihi.com)
- Which medications in the drug class Diuretic Agents are used in the treatment of Budd-Chiari Syndrome? (medscape.com)
- Medications that combine thiazides and potassium-sparing diuretics might produce an unpredictable effect on potassium levels in the body. (epnet.com)
- If diuretics aren't enough to lower your blood pressure, your doctor might recommend adding medications such as calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers or beta blockers to your blood pressure treatment. (mayoclinic.org)
- High blood pressure medications known as renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) inhibitors can sometimes lead to high potassium levels. (healthline.com)
- Loop diuretics can interact negatively with other medications. (brighthub.com)
- Yes, it does work and it can be used for this purpose as long as one doesn't use other diuretic medications or herbs, and doesn't take more than the recommended dose. (wisegeek.com)
- Those who are on diuretic prescription medications need to avoid dandelion as the effects can accumulate. (wisegeek.com)
- Low potassium can come from a number of causes, including side effects of medications, GI losses such as diarrhea, hormonal or genetic disorders according to "Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine" by Anthony S. Fauci M.D. Low potassium effects the nerves and muscles and can cause problems with the heart rhythm. (livestrong.com)
- In addition, foods with potassium may be added to the diet, and medications can be given to raise the potassium. (livestrong.com)
- Buy Diuretics medications from GlobalDiscountDrugs.com, we are an online drug store offering medications at low price. (linkstagram.me)
- Cascara may interact with medications such as digoxin and diuretics. (foodpharmacy.blog)
- Diuretics can be taken as medications, but they also occur naturally in a variety of plant-based products. (livestrong.com)
- Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory so that your response to this drug can be monitored.Before a diuretic is prescribed, tell your doctor if you are taking any other medications that may have been prescribed by another physician or any over-the-counter or herbal remedies. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- Thiazide diuretics include such commonly used diuretics as hydrochlorothiazide (HydroDIURIL, Esidrix), chlorothiazide (Diuril), and chlorthalidone (Hygroton). (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, HCT) is a diuretic (water pill) that is widely prescribed to lower blood pressure. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Despite this, her doctor diagnosed her with mild high blood pressure and put her on a diuretic called hydrochlorothiazide. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Many people can take hydrochlorothiazide without experiencing either dangerously low sodium or potassium levels. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Loop diuretics, potassium-sparing diuretics, thiazide diuretics, and osmotic diuretics are of several types. (progressivehealth.com)
- Osmotic diuretics are the least used form of diuretics. (nmihi.com)
- osmotic diuretics a group of low-molecular-weight substances that can remain in high concentrations in renal tubules, thus contributing to osmolality of glomerular filtrate. (thefreedictionary.com)
- The mechanism, by which the drug accomplishes this, characterizes the drug into one of five classes: thiazides, potassium sparing, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, osmotic diuretics or loop diuretics. (brighthub.com)
- Osmotic diuretics keep water from being reabsorbed in the kidney. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Osmotic diuretics (e.g. mannitol) are substances that increase osmolality but have limited tubular epithelial cell permeability. (wikipedia.org)
- The body does not metabolize osmotic diuretics. (lymphedemapeople.com)
- Thus, the osmotic diuretics indirectly produce a removal of sodium from the body. (lymphedemapeople.com)
Sodium and potassium13
- One in five patients taking diuretics commonly prescribed for high blood pressure or heart conditions end up with reduced sodium and potassium levels, according to a study published in the January issue of the British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. (innovations-report.com)
- They found that just under 12 per cent had received at least one prescription for thiazide diuretics between 1990 and 2002, but only 32 per cent had had their sodium and potassium levels recorded electronically. (innovations-report.com)
- In a small number of patients reduced sodium and potassium levels - often referred to as electrolyte levels - can be severe enough to require hospital admission, especially if they are elderly" says lead author Dr Jennifer Clayton. (innovations-report.com)
- This points to the need for prescribing low doses of thiazide diuretics and monitoring sodium and potassium levels to reduce the risk and increase the detection and treatment of these electrolyte abnormalities. (innovations-report.com)
- In our view, if people are on thiazide diuretics, it would be sensible for them to ask their doctor about routine testing for sodium and potassium levels next time they have an appointment or go to the surgery for a medication review" adds Professor Hall. (innovations-report.com)
- Why are sodium and potassium stored in kerosene? (enotes.com)
- Loop and thiazide diuretics get rid of water, sodium, and potassium from the body. (healthy-ojas.com)
- Loop diuretics-Work in the loop of Henle in the kidney by inhibiting reabsorption of sodium and potassium. (coliseumhealthsystem.com)
- To prevent the loss of too much water, sodium, and potassium, tell your doctor if you become sick, especially with severe or continuing vomiting or diarrhea . (coliseumhealthsystem.com)
- They took her to the hospital and discovered that her sodium and potassium levels were perilously low. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Nonetheless, HCTZ could have led to your mother's low sodium and potassium levels. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- But we encourage people who are following a low-sodium diet and are taking diuretics to 1) have their blood tested periodically for both sodium and potassium and 2) be alert for symptoms of dangerously low sodium or potassium levels. (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Through this process, they remove water, salts (mainly sodium and potassium) and waste products from the blood. (familyhealthonline.ca)
- In Native American medicine, the Cherokee, Iroquois and other tribes used goldenseal root as a diuretic, a stimulant, an insect repellent, and a wash for inflamed or sore eyes, notes Drugs.com. (reference.com)
- This patient was taking three antihypertensive drugs, including a diuretic, which is considered by many as a necessary component for her management, yet remained uncontrolled, with an especially high risk of stroke. (ahajournals.org)
- Many diuretic drugs contain sulfa, so tell your doctor if you have an allergy to sulfa (or any medication). (verywellhealth.com)
- Diuretics can be drugs, but some foods and drinks act as natural diuretics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Another finding of the study was that, overall, most individuals need more than one drug to treat high blood pressure, and one of those drugs should be a diuretic. (nmihi.com)
- potassium levels like some drugs do. (healthline.com)
- While parsley is mainly used as a garnish, it may be more useful to those who are having trouble with diuretic drugs. (healthline.com)
- There are also diuretics that contain a combination of two of the drugs above. (medlineplus.gov)
- Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as aspirin and naproxen reduce the effect of loop diuretics. (brighthub.com)
- The system for controlling body fluids overcomes the limitations of the prior art by automatically infusing diuretic and/or other drugs into a human patient. (freepatentsonline.com)
- 1 On the basis of the available information, the committee suggested an algorithm in which the "first step drugs should usually be a thiazide diuretic. (ahajournals.org)
- 2 From then on, in all the subsequent JNC reports until JNC 7 in 2003, β-blockers and diuretics remained first-line antihypertensive drugs. (ahajournals.org)
- More commonly known as "water pills," diuretics may be prescription or over the counter drugs. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- Now come to loop diuretics like Frusimide Lasix, are poor antihypertensive drugs, as there action is short acting. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- If you are using ACE inhibitor drugs along with these drugs, then you should monitor your potassium level carefully. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- Among these drugs are diuretics, whose low cost and proven effectiveness have made them a valuable treatment. (familyhealthonline.ca)
- Acts as a diuretic and antihypertensive. (medscape.com)
- Serves as a diuretic and antihypertensive agent. (medscape.com)
- The antihypertensive actions of some diuretics ( thiazides and loop diuretics in particular) are independent of their diuretic effect. (wikipedia.org)
- The article on antihypertensive medication use and incident Alzheimer disease (AD) in the Cache County Study 1 discloses that the use of a potassium-retaining diuretic at baseline, but not the use of a thiazidelike or a loop diuretic, was associated with reduced incidence of AD over the following years in subjects aged 65 years or older. (jamanetwork.com)
- Thiazides are the most commonly prescribed diuretics used to treat high blood pressure. (healthy-ojas.com)
- Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers (ARBs) and renin inhibitors are all commonly prescribed to help lower blood pressure and they, in contrast, actually increase potassium levels. (verywellhealth.com)
- Thiazides are the most commonly prescribed diuretics. (aarp.org)
- Prescription diuretics are commonly called water pills, and their first effect is to increase urination. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- By flushing excess fluids from the body, diuretics can relieve the edema (swelling from excess fluids) that commonly occurs with heart failure. (nmihi.com)
- Astringent / diuretic commonly used to support urinary tract infections, gout, blood sugar levels and more. (zooscape.com)
- This effect may cause adverse consequences in one group of individuals who commonly take loop diuretics: people with heart failure. (portsmouthhospital.com)
- Loop diuretics act at the ascending loop of Henle in the kidney and help the body push out extra fluid that could accumulate in the lungs or legs and ankles when the heart is unable to completely pump blood throughout the body. (news-medical.net)
- Potassium is ordered when a doctor is diagnosing and evaluating high blood pressure and kidney illness and when monitoring a affected person receiving dialysis, diuretic treatment, or intravenous treatment. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- Quinazoline diuretics are similar to the thiazide diuretics, but are used only in certain people such as those with kidney problems and when other diuretics have not worked. (cigna.com)
- Loop diuretics are prescribed for people who also have heart failure , kidney problems, or swelling in their legs (edema). (cigna.com)
- While you're on a diuretic, your doctor may want to monitor your blood pressure, electrolyte levels, and kidney function regularly, so be certain to keep all of your appointments as scheduled. (verywellhealth.com)
- People with high blood pressure, heart failure, swollen tissues, and kidney disease often use diuretics to treat these conditions. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Hawthorn berries can also act as diuretics and may help treat kidney problems. (healthline.com)
- Loop diuretics-used in people with kidney problems. (epnet.com)
- High potassium occurs most often in people with chronic kidney disease (CKD). (healthline.com)
- Loop diuretics can be used to treat high blood pressure for certain patients, such as those that have lost greater than 50% of kidney function. (brighthub.com)
- Antibiotics derived from aminoglycoside can increase the risk of hearing loss and kidney damage when taken with loop diuretics. (brighthub.com)
- Diuretics can be taken to help reduce high blood pressure , to treat kidney or liver complaints and to reduce swelling from water retention. (wisegeek.com)
- People with heart failure, kidney problems or swelling in their legs are prescribed loop diuretics. (reference.com)
- Diuretics are also prescribed for certain kinds of kidney or liver diseases. (texasheart.org)
- Role of Diuretics in High Blood Pressure, Diuretics may be used to treat a number of heart-related conditions, including high blood pressure, heart failure, kidney and liver problems, and glaucoma. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- While taking a diuretic, have your blood pressure and kidney function tested regularly, as advised by your doctor. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- Whether you're looking to flush out water weight or keep kidney stones at bay, including a few servings of natural diuretics in your diet may be just what you need. (vitanetonline.com)
- One population-based study found that those taking this diuretic were five times more likely to develop hyponatremia (low sodium) than those not on it ( American Journal of Kidney Diseases , July 2013 ). (peoplespharmacy.com)
- Diuretics may also be prescribed for other conditions such as nephrotic syndrome (a kidney disease that causes swelling), liver disease (causing fluid accumulation in the abdomen), premenstrual syndrome (when hormone changes cause fluid build-up and bloating) and sometimes in glaucoma (when fluid pressure builds up in the eye). (familyhealthonline.ca)
- side effects lasix loop diuretic potassium and lasix buy lasix torsemide to. (linkstagram.me)
- Other examples of high ceiling loop diuretics include ethacrynic acid and torsemide. (wikipedia.org)
- If you are taking such a combination medication, do not take potassium except on the advice of your physician. (doctors-hospital.net)
- Diuretics, also known as 'water pills,' are a common, inexpensive, and effective medication used to treat high blood pressure . (verywellhealth.com)
- Loop diuretics are a type of medication that reduces the amount of water retained by the body. (brighthub.com)
- My diuretic medication increases potassium in the body. (wisegeek.com)
- Diuretics are indicated in pregnancy (however, see PRECAUTIONS below) when edema is due to pathologic causes, just as they are in the absence of pregnancy. (nih.gov)
- Thiazide diuretics are used to treat blood pressure and also to get rid of excess fluid, or edema, in patients with heart failure, liver disease, steroid use, and estrogen-replacement therapy. (verywellhealth.com)
- Diuretics, sometimes called water pills, treat a variety of conditions, such as high blood pressure, glaucoma and edema. (mayoclinic.org)
- It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY. (linkstagram.me)
- The principal diuretics used to treat edema include: loop diuretics (eg. (annecollins.com)
- While diuretics may help to improve many types of edema, they are not univerally appropriate. (annecollins.com)
- The rationale for the efficacious use of diuretic therapy is determined by the clinical pathology producing the edema. (medi-vet.com)
- Diuretic therapy should be discontinued after reduction of the edema, or maintained after determining a carefully programmed dosage schedule to prevent recurrence of edema. (medi-vet.com)
- However, some foods and drinks are also considered natural diuretics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Nigella sativa, also known as black seed, is one of the more effective natural diuretics. (medicalnewstoday.com)
- Below are the seven most common natural diuretics. (healthline.com)
- green teas have shown potential as natural diuretics. (healthline.com)
- Besides these seven natural diuretics, cutting back on sodium and exercising more can also help reduce fluid buildup. (healthline.com)
- Here's a list of the 8 best natural diuretics. (healthline.com)
- You may even be able to use natural diuretics to help normalize blood pressure . (livestrong.com)
- In contrast, chicory and the listed herbs are caffeine-free and are simply natural diuretics. (livestrong.com)
- Many foods and herbs act as natural diuretics such as juniper berries and dandelion. (vitanetonline.com)
- Natural diuretics such as juniper berry and hibiscus can give you the same flushing benefits without the adverse side effects. (vitanetonline.com)
- A diuretic is basically a drug that increases the rate of urination. (enotes.com)
- Diuretics are generally safe, but they do have some side effects, such as increased urination and mineral loss. (mayoclinic.org)
- Dandelion has the added advantage of replenishing minerals that can be depleted by frequent urination, such as potassium. (wisegeek.com)
- Also called water pills, diuretics increase urination frequency. (reference.com)
- Substances that augment "diuresis," or the removal of fluids from the body through urination, are considered diuretics. (highbloodpressuremed.com)
- A diuretic is any drug that elevates the rate of urination and thus provides a means of forced diuresis. (mpkb.org)
- Irrespective of treatment group, a diuretic effect manifested as a decrease in plasma volume was associated with an 11-19% reduction in the tested cardiovascular outcomes, excluding sudden cardiac death and cardiovascular death. (acc.org)
- Other medicines that you may be taking can increase or decrease the effect of diuretics. (texasheart.org)
Actions of Diuretics1
- Prolonged high-dose thiazide diuretic therapy can cause glucose intolerance and may occasionally lead to diabetes mellitus. (healthy-ojas.com)
- They do not apply to a single dose of an osmotic diuretic, which may be given immediately before or during surgery. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- The choice of diuretic, the dose, and the route of administration vary according to the severity of the swelling and the underlying condition that is causing anasarca. (medicalnewstoday.com)
High blood pr11
- This can be problematic because potassium is important for good health, especially if you have high blood pressure. (verywellhealth.com)
- Diuretics often are combined with other high blood pressure medicines. (cigna.com)
- Thiazide diuretics are recommended as the first line of treatment for high blood pressure. (cigna.com)
- The most common condition treated with diuretics is high blood pressure. (aarp.org)
- Prescription diuretics can be helpful in treating serious conditions, such as heart failure, to less pressing conditions, such as mild high blood pressure. (aarp.org)
- Learn how diuretics can help treat high blood pressure. (healthline.com)
- Thiazide diuretics-one of the most common to treat high blood pressure. (epnet.com)
- Diuretics are prescribed for various conditions, including high blood pressure and heart failure. (livestrong.com)
- In patients with certain conditions, such as heart disease , diuretics can help control high blood pressure and fluid retention. (howstuffworks.com)
- Some diuretics are also prescribed to treat high blood pressure. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Thiazide diuretics are used to treat high blood pressure. (reference.com)
- Your doctor may want you to take a potassium supplement or your medicine may need to be changed. (webmd.com)
- In a retrospective study, the researchers examined existing health care data from Medicaid between 1999 and 2007 to study approximately 180,000 new starters of loop diuretics who were prescribed supplemental potassium and an equal number of people who started a loop diuretic without the potassium supplement. (news-medical.net)
- Ask your doctor if you need to take a potassium supplement or if you need to watch the amount of potassium in your diet. (cigna.com)
- In some cases, doctors recommend a daily potassium supplement for their patients on diuretics. (verywellhealth.com)
- Should I take a potassium supplement or avoid foods that contain potassium? (aarp.org)
- Or, they may suggest taking a potassium supplement or taking another medicine that keeps the body from losing too much potassium. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- it inhibits the reabsorption of sodium ions in exchange for potassium and hydrogen ions at that segment of the distal tubule under the control of adrenal mineralocorticoids (especially aldosterone). (nih.gov)
- Specifically, loop diuretics prevent the reabsorption of sodium ions which increases electrolyte concentration in the fluid passing through the nephron. (progressivehealth.com)
Side Effects of Loop Diuretics1
- Over the next year, her blood pressure fell to the range of 135 to 145/85 mm Hg, and serum potassium was consistently normal. (ahajournals.org)
- The serum potassium level remained unchanged. (springer.com)
- Both patients maintained stable serum sodium, potassium, and creatinine over this period and remained out of the hospital for more than 30 days. (hindawi.com)
- Monitor serum potassium and adjust dosages accordingly. (nih.gov)
- The rise in the serum level of the antioxidant uric acid provoked by all diuretics 3 could be 1 such action since oxidative stress appears to participate in the pathogenesis of AD. (jamanetwork.com)
Amount of potassium2
- Your doctor may check the amount of potassium in your blood after you have been taking these medicines together for one cycle. (webmd.com)
- Hypokalaemia, a condition in which the amount of potassium in the body is too low, is a possible serious side effect of thiazide or loop diuretics. (reference.com)
Patients receiving loop1
Thiazide and loop diuretics3
- This is most true with thiazide and loop diuretics. (epnet.com)
- Warnings and cautions apply to the thiazide and loop diuretics, which are given by mouth over a long period of time. (surgeryencyclopedia.com)
- Their diuretic action tends to be milder than the thiazide and loop diuretics. (familyhealthonline.ca)