A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.
Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.
Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.
A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.
Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.
A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)
A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.
The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).
Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.
Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.
A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.
A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.
Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.
The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.
A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.
An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.
A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.
Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.
A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.
The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.
Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.
Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)
The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.
A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)
Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.
The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.
Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.

Polymerization of Acanthamoeba actin. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and co-polymerization with muscle actin. (1/3585)

The kinetics and thermodynamics for the polymerization of purified Acanthamoeba actin were studied and compared to muscle actin. Polymerization was qualitatively similar for the two actins with a rate-limiting nucleation step followed by rapid polymer extension. Polymerization occurred only above a threshold critical concentration which varied with polymerization conditions for each actin. In the presence of 2 mM MgCl2, nucleation of both actins was rapid and their critical concentrations were similarly low and not detectably dependent on temperature. In 0.1 M KCl, the rates of nucleation of both actins were much slower than when Mg2+ was present and were significantly different from each other. Also, under these conditions, the critical concentrations of Acanthamoeba and muscle actin were significantly different and both varied markedly with temperature. These quantitative differences between the two actins could be attributed to differences in both their enthalpies and entropies of polymerization, Acanthamoeba actin having the more positive deltaH and delta S. Co-polymerization of the two actins was also demonstrated. Overall, however, there were no qualitative differences between Acanthamoeba and muscle actin that would suggest a unique role for the monomer-polymer equilibrium of cytoplasmic actin in cell motility.  (+info)

Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound. (2/3585)

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

Electrical and mechanical responses to diltiazem in potassium depolarized myocardium of the guinea pig. (3/3585)

Effects of diltiazem on the electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig papillary muscle were investigated in K-rich Tyrode's solution (Kc1 12.7 mM). The electrical properties of cell membrane in K-rich solution were also examined in the ventricular muscle fibers. It was found that the overshoot as well as the maximum rate of rise (Vmax) of the action potential were highly sensitive to the extracellular concentration of CaC12 in K-rich solution. Vmax was also affected by NaC1. Diltiazem at a lower concentration (1.1 X 10(-7) M) caused a reduction in the contractile force of K-depolarized papillary muscle without producing significant changes in the resting and action potentials. In the presence of a higher concentration of diltiazem (1.1 X 10(-5) M), the contractile force decreased concurrently with the change in the action potential. Addition of CaC12 restored the original strength of contraction in parallel to the recovery of the action potential, especially in its overshoot and Vmax. From these results, it is inferred that diltiazem may decrease the contractile force of guinea pig papillary muscle either by interfering with the intrasmembrane calcium influx or by intracellularly reducing the free calcium ion concentration in the myoplasm.  (+info)

Sodium ion uptake into isolated plasma membrane vesicles: indirect effects of other ions. (4/3585)

Vesicles derived from plasma membrane of corneal endothelium were agitated to their minimum size distribution. When isotonic salt solutions surrounding the vesicles were changed there were alterations to the vesicle size distribution: the modal point of the logarithmic distribution did not change but the log variance did, indicating that substantial fission and fusion of vesicles occurred depending upon the nature of the surrounding solute. Orientation and total membrane area was conserved in the transformed population of vesicles. Although the ions added to the external isotonic salt solutions in the present series of experiments have no direct effect upon sodium membrane transporters in these membranes, kinetics of sodium accumulation into the vesicles were affected in a way that correlated with changes to the vesicle size distribution. Early-saturating (<1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with apparently stable populations. Late-saturating (>1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with significant vesicle distribution shifts and included a few seconds of delay. During the linear accumulation phase, both populations showed similar magnitudes of sodium transport. The significance of these data is discussed.  (+info)

Identification of mechanosensitive ion channels in the cytoplasmic membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum. (5/3585)

Patch-clamp experiments performed on membrane fragments of Corynebacterium glutamicum fused into giant liposomes revealed the presence of two different stretch-activated conductances, 600 to 700 pS and 1,200 to 1,400 pS in 0.1 M KCl, that exhibited the same characteristics in terms of kinetics, ion selectivity, and voltage dependence.  (+info)

Mechanosensitive channel functions to alleviate the cell lysis of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, by osmotic downshock. (6/3585)

The mechanosensitive channel with large conductance of Escherichia coli is the first to be cloned among stretch-activated channels. Although its activity was characterized by a patch clamp method, a physiological role of the channel has not been proved. The marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, is sensitive to osmotic stress and cell lysis occurs under osmotic downshock. We introduced an mscL gene into Vibrio alginolyticus, and the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance functions was found to alleviate cell lysis by osmotic downshock. This is the first report to show a physiological role of the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance.  (+info)

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (7/3585)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Protrusive growth from giant liposomes driven by actin polymerization. (8/3585)

Development of protrusions in the cell is indispensable in the process of cell motility. Membrane protrusion has long been suggested to occur as a result of actin polymerization immediately beneath the cell membrane at the leading edge, but elucidation of the mechanism is insufficient because of the complexity of the cell. To study the mechanism, we prepared giant liposomes containing monomeric actin (100 or 200 microM) and introduced KCl into individual liposomes by an electroporation technique. On the electroporation, the giant liposomes deformed. Most importantly, protrusive structure grew from the liposomes containing 200 microM actin at rates (ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 micrometer/s) similar to those obtained in the cell. The deformation occurred in a time range (30 approximately 100 s) similar to that of actin polymerization monitored in a cuvette (ca. 50 s). Concomitant with deformation, Brownian motion of micron-sized particles entrapped in the liposomes almost ceased. From these observations, we conclude that actin polymerization in the liposomes caused the protrusive formation.  (+info)

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Potassium chloride can be easily obtained in relatively pure form at the grocery store as a salt substitute for people with low-sodium diets. This source is mixed in with potassium bitartrate to improve taste. Some salt substitutes tend to have merely a KCl addition, as still have lots of sodium chloride. Recrystallization is required to further purify the compound. However, salt substitute is deliberately overpriced by the companies that make it; it is many times cheaper to obtain potassium chloride through other means, often through larger industrial quantities, which are usually purer anyway. This includes buying potassium chloride as fertilizer, sometimes referred to as muriate of potash. In some hardware stores, sodium-free water purification tablets made of 99% or higher potassium chloride can be purchased, usually in bags weighing about 40 lbs. These are by far the most economic method of purchasing potassium chloride. ...
Solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric coated preparations of potassium chloride are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40 - 50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained-release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric coated products is not available. Potassium Chloride Extended-release Capsules, USP, 8 mEq and 10 mEq are microencapsulated capsules formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated potassium chloride and thus to minimize the possibility of high local concentration of potassium near the gastrointestinal wall. Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract ...
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And whether potassium chloride salt is free samples, or paid samples. There are 811 potassium chloride salt suppliers, mainly located in Asia. The top supplying country or region is China, which supply of potassium chloride salt respectively. Potassium chloride salt products are most popular in North America, Southeast Asia, and Mid East ...
Solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric-coated preparations of potassium chloride are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40 to 50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained-release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric-coated products is not available. Potassium chloride is a tablet formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated potassium chloride and thus to minimize the possibility of a high local concentration of potassium near the gastrointestinal wall.. Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week ...
Free Shipping. Great Low Price. Potassium Chloride concentrate is used for electrolyte and fluid replenishment. Each 10 ml vial provides 20 mEq Potassium Chloride. Must be diluted before use. Potassium Chloride can help rehydrate animals and restore electrolyte balance.Potassium Chloride for Animal Use Hospira Safe.Pharmacy|Electrolytes Rx | Equine Pharmacy Rx |
Press Release issued Jul 21, 2014: The report firstly introduced Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride basic information included Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride industry policy and plan, Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc.
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Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention. Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present. Injections containing carbohydrates with low electrolyte concentration should not be administered simultaneously with blood through the same administration set because of the possibility of pseudoagglutination or hemolysis. The container label for these injections bears the statement: Do not administer simultaneously with blood. The intravenous administration of Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte ...
药品名称:POTASSIUM CHLORIDE 40MEQ IN DEXTROSE 5% AND SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER,活性成分:DEXTROSE; POTASSIUM CHLORIDE; SODIUM CHLORIDE,剂型:INJECTABLE;INJECTION,规格:5GM/100ML;300MG/100ML;900MG/100ML,药品注册申请号:019308,产品号:007
U.S. Salt does not sell Potassium Chloride.. Much like Calcium Chloride. About the same cost. The difference is, its only slightly damaging to concrete, or not at all. Also nearly harmless to plants and metals. Not as widely used as rock salt or calcium Chloride, at least around here. Potassium Chloride, weighs about 125 pounds, per cubic foot. Thats 3375 pounds, to a cubic yard. Sold in bags only.. Potassium Chloride is a common icemelters that is often perceived as safe products to use around vegetation. It needs to be used at a slightly higher rate of application, melting to 12o F.. Description ...
Nu-Tek Food Science, Minnetonka, Minn., says that it has reached an agreement with Barentz Europe to distribute its Advanced Formula potassium chloride to food manufacturers in Europe. The patented technology for producing Nu-Tek Salt Advanced Formula Potassium Chloride helps make sodium reduction cost-effective with consistent results. The patented technology minimizes the bitter flavor traditionally associated with potassium chloride, without needing to add expensive flavors or maskers-and delivers salt intensity similar to sodium chloride.
Potassium Chloride - Get up-to-date information on Potassium Chloride side effects, uses, dosage, overdose, pregnancy, alcohol and more. Learn more about Potassium Chloride
Visit ChemicalBook To find more Potassium chloride (7447-40-7) information like chemical properties,Structure,melting point,boiling point,density,molecular formula,molecular weight, physical properties,toxicity information,customs codes. You can also browse global suppliers,vendor,prices,Price,manufacturers of Potassium chloride (7447-40-7). At last,Potassium chloride (7447-40-7) safety, risk, hazard and MSDS, CAS,cas number,Use,cas no may also be you need.
Potassium Chloride Markets in China Potassium Chloride Markets in China Chinas demand for Potassium Chloride has grown at a fast pace in the past - Market research report and industry analysis - 14565667
Gangliosides enhance KCl-induced Ca2+ influx and acetylcholine release in brain synaptosomes.: Effects of gangliosides GM1 and GQ1b on cholinergic synaptic func
Sodium Chloride vs Potassium Chloride Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are ionic compounds. Both are solids, where cations and anions are in a
Generic POTASSIUM CHLORIDE 0.037% IN DEXTROSE 10% AND SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER availability. Has a generic version of POTASSIUM CHLORIDE 0.037% IN DEXTROSE 10% AND SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER been approved? Find suppliers, manufacturers, and packagers
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This paper describes and discusses new experimental investigations of the excitation, absorption and emission spectra, phosphorescent decay curve characteristics, thermoluminescence and photoconductivity of potassium chloride phosphors activated by thallium and of the thermoluminescence of potassium chloride phosphors activated by barium, by strontium or by thermal or mechanical strains. It is concluded that for concentrations of more than about 0·001 mol. Tl the KCl:TlCl phosphors contain a number of different centres. Reasons are given for suggesting that some of these may be: (1) Tl+ ions at substitutional sites and not near to other Tl+ ions at neighbouring positive ion sites, (2) TlCln complexes at special sites near defects or along dislocations, (3) lattice distortions produced by the incorporation of Tl+ or other foreign ions. Since the main emission peaks appearing in the thermoluminescence of KCl: Tl at 200 and 300 °K also occur in the KCl phosphors activated by barium, by strontium ...
Potassium Chloride, CAS# 7447-40-7, is a metal halide salt manufactured through chemical synthesis, available as White Crystalline Powder. Potassium Chloride is…
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Potassium chloride is a non-glass, inorganic optical material. It has the lowest density among the non-glass optical ceramics in the database. The graph bars on the material properties cards below compare potassium chloride to other non-glass optical ceramics (top) and the entire database (bottom). A full bar means this is the highest value in the relevant set. A half-full bar means its 50% of the highest, and so on. ...
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sample_1: RNA (22-MER) 0.9-1.3 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 100%. sample_2: RNA (22-MER) 0.9-1.3 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; H2O 90%; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 10%. sample_3: RNA (22-MER), [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 1.0 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 100%. sample_4: RNA (22-MER), [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 1.0 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; H2O 90%; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 10%. sample_conditions_1: ionic strength: 10 mM; pD: 6.45; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 293 K. sample_conditions_5: ionic strength: 10 mM; pD: 6.45; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 303 K. sample_conditions_2: ionic strength: 10 mM; pH: 6.2; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 278 K. sample_conditions_6: ionic strength: 10 mM; pH: 6.2; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 293 K. sample_conditions_3: ionic strength: 10 mM; pD: 6.8; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 303 K. sample_conditions_4: ionic strength: 10 mM; pH: 6.4; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 278 K ...
Jan 19, 2019· Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.. Potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia).. Potassium levels can be low as a result of a disease or from taking certain medicines, or after a prolonged illness with diarrhea or vomiting ...
Buy Ringera lactat (sodium chloride, potassium chloride) solution for infusions 200 ml. - Always available - Best terms of delivery - Price [[PRODUCT_PRICE]]
Replacement Preparation Potassium Chloride / Sodium Chloride 0.9% 40 mEq / 1000 mL Intravenous Injection Flexible Plastic Bag 1,000 mL, 12/Case , Hospira 711609 , 00409-7116-09
Providing proper hydration for your horse. This Salt and Potassium Chloride Blend is an electrolyte to help horses recover following exercise. Guaranteed Analysis Salt (Min) 49% Salt (Max) 51% Potassium (Min) 24% Feeding Directions: For use as a supplemental source of salt and potassium for equine. Feed free choice o
Manufacturer of Chloride Chemicals - Potassium Chloride, Poly Aluminum Chloride offered by Shreekala Intermediate Private Limited, Vadodara, Gujarat.
Potassium chloride - Not listed as a carcinogen by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65. Hydrogen chloride - IARC: Group 3 (not classifiable) Water - Not listed as a carcinogen by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65. Silver chloride - Not listed as a carcinogen by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65. Other: See actual entry in RTECS for complete information ...
Learn about the medication potassium chloride (K-Dur, K-Lor, K-Tab, Kaon CL, Klorvess, Slow-K, Ten-K, Klotrix, K-Lyte CL), a drug used to treat low potassium conditions (hypokalemia) or prevent them from occurring.
Potassium Chloride most important salt that consumes more potassium salts. It (KCl) is a soluble salt that is an extremely efficient shale stabilizer
Potassium Chloride 7.46% - 10% - 11.2% - 15% Injection ampoule is a hypertonic, sterile, non pyrogenic solution of Potassium in water for injection.. ...
Slow-K modified-release tablets contain the active ingredient potassium chloride. Slow-K is a type of medicine called a potassium supplement.
1. Which salt is LEAST soluble at 0 ºC? 2. How many grams of sodium nitrate, NaNO3, are soluble in 100 g of water at 10 ºC? 3. When 50 grams of potassium chloride, KCl, is dissolved in 100 grams of water at 50 ºC, the solution asked by zagros on November 24, 2014 ...
Bathe in silky smooth pool water with a unique blend of magnesium and potassium chloride minerals. View our magnapool minerals for a superior swimming experience.
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Formula: KCL. Molecular Weight: 74.55. Melting Point: 7720C. Boiling Point: 15000C. State at room tempeture?: Away from moisture and heat. Is it molecular or ionic compound: Ionic Compound. Molecular Geometry: linear. Bond Discription: Potassium chloride. What we use it for: It is use for medidine, food processing and in judicial exerution through lethal injuctions and scientific applications.It alos helps treat low blood pressure.It a drug.. Any other useful information: It is a metal halide. When its in its pure state it is odorless.. ...
admin One of the most common questions people ask about their water softener is whether or not potassium chloride can be used in a system thats been using sodium chloride, and vice versa. The fact of the matter is that the answer is almost always yes, but there are subtle differences between the two chemicals with respect to water softening. Here are some key differences between the two. Cost. For many customers, the decision on whether to buy potassium chloride or sodium chloride comes down to cost. Potassium chloride will almost always cost more than sodium chloride, in fact, the average price of a bag of sodium chloride was $6 while the price of a bag of potassium chloride was around $27. This cost gap widens even further when you consider that a water softener system will require more potassium to run properly than if it were using sodium. When switching from sodium to potassium for your water softener, its often recommended to bump up the salt dosage by 10%. The advantage here, then, ...
Looking for gold potassium chloride? Find out information about gold potassium chloride. potassium gold chloride McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific & Technical Terms, 6E, Copyright © 2003 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc Explanation of gold potassium chloride
A composition comprising the compound glucosamine sulfate potassium chloride having a purity level of at least about 97% and water present in a maximum amount of about 10 wt. %, based on the weight of the composition. The compound is prepared by contacting glucosamine hydrochloride with potassium sulfate in the presence of water to form an aqueous solution of glucosamine sulfate potassium chloride and thereafter freeze-drying the solution at a temperature and at a reduced pressure for such period of time that at least about 90 wt. % of the water is removed and decomposition of the compound glucosamine sulfate potassium chloride is limited to a maximum of about 3%.
Manufacturer of Potassium Chemical Products - Potassium Chloride Crystals, Potassium Hypochlorite, Potassium Chloride and Potasium Acetate offered by Aarsha Chemicals Private Limited, Navi Mumbai, Maharashtra
Request sample of market research report on Global Potassium Chloride Fertilizers Market Report History And Forecast 2014 2025 Breakdown Data By Manufacturers Key Regions Types And Application. Explore detailed TOC, tables and figures of Global Potassium Chloride Fertilizers Market Report History And Forecast 2014 2025 Breakdown Data By Manufacturers Key Regions Types And Application.
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We are manufacturer, supplier and exporter of Potassium Chloride from Vadodara, Gujarat (India), We Mainly Deals in Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Indonesia, Thailand, Vietnam, Singapore, Malaysia, Philippines, USA, UK & South Africa.
Know answer of objective question : Sodium Chloride, Potassium Chloride and Magnesium Oxide are examples of molecules with..... Answer this multiple choice objective question and get explanation and result.It is provided by OnlineTyari in English
Updated 9/26/19 Some people prefer sodium chloride, while others prefer potassium chloride. Even though these two products compete for sales in the softening
Potassium chloride is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless for pets and plants though these are inferior in melting quality to calcium chloride lowest usable temperature 12 F −11 C v. It is a by-product of the production of nitric acid from potassium nitrate and hydrochloric acid.. ...
Potassium Chloride Powder 8 oz Sodium Free Salt Substitute - Our powder can be used as a substitute for table salt or in baking, although the taste is not identical. Diabetics, persons with kidney disease, or those taking diuretics or prescription potassium supplements should consult their physician regarding the use of potassium supplements in their diet. NOW® Foods has been selling powdered supplements since 1972. The powdered form is 100% pure and free of filler, is much lower in cost, easy to digest, and can be taken in desired potencies. Suggested Serving Size: 1/4 teaspoonNumber of Servings: 162Suggested Use: As a dietary supplement, take one quarter teaspoon daily, preferably added to friut or vegetable juice.Free of: sugar, salt, starch, yeast, gluten, wheat, corn, soy, milk, additivesIngredients: NoneWarnings: NoneDisclaimer: *This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure or prevent any disease.
View drug interactions between potassium chloride and potassium gluconate. These medicines may also interact with certain foods or diseases.
Potassium Chloride in Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injections USP are sterile, nonpyrogenic and contain no bacteriostatic or antimicrobial agents. These products are intended for intravenous administration. These intravenous solutions are indicated for use in adults and pediatric patients as sources of electrolytes, calories and water for hydration. Not manufactured with latex, PVC or DEHP. Available in 250 mL and 1000 mL EXCEL IV Containers ...
A Moderate Drug Interaction exists between choline salicylate and magnesium sulfate / potassium chloride / sodium sulfate. View detailed information regarding this drug interaction.
Lupin has received approval for its Potassium Chloride for Oral Solution USP, 20 mEq from the United States Food and Drug Administration (USFDA) to market a
A purified grade of granular potassium chloride refined to meet United States Pharmacopeia and Food Chemicals Codex Standards. The crystals are cubical in form, white to translucent in appearance and odorless. Used for various food applications and production of dietary suppliments, and pharmaceuticals. It has no additives and it is annually certified as Kosher.Caution: For manufacturing, processing, repackaging, or laboratory research. ...
Baxter International initiated a US voluntary recall of one lot of potassium chloride injection due to mislabeled shipping carton.
Manufacturer, Exporter of Vitamin Supplements, Vitamin Capsules, Glucosamine 250 mg Capsules, Glucosamine Sulfate Potassium Chloride Capsules, details: Dosages: 250mg, Generic Name: Glucosamine Sulfate Potassium Chloride 250 mg, Indication: Osteoporosis, Medicine Type: Allopathic, Packing Material: Strip etc.
Drug Information on Cena K, Ed K+10, EPIKLOR (potassium chloride) includes side effects, uses, drug interactions, dosage, drug pictures, overdose symptoms, and what to avoid.
Shop a large selection of products and learn more about Potassium chloride, 99+%, for analysis, ACROS Organics. 1kg; Plastic bottle.
A fatal med error will put more focus on avoiding mishaps with oral potassium chloride (Klor-Con, K-TAB, Slow-K, etc) Rxs.... Learn more with Pharmacy Technicians Letter.
This market research report examines the foreign trade of Uruguay and its perspectives on the global market for potassium chloride. The report
In 2017, Potassium Chloride (MOP) Fertilizer Used in Agriculture in Italy was 50721 Metric Tons. Discover more data with NationMaster!
Effects of pH and KCl on the conformations of creatine kinase from rabbit muscle. Infrared, circular dichroic and fluorescence studies.: The activity loss of cr
The effects of potassium (K) salts loading on CaO on the H2 production from pyrolysis-gasification of wheat straw were investigated. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl could significantly enhance the CO2 absorption capability of CaO. The CO2 concentration in the product gas decreased sharply from 20.83 to 11.70 vol%, and the H2 concentration increased from 48.2 to 55.5 vol%. While the loading of 0.25 wt% K2CO3/K2SO4 inhibited the enhancing effect of CaO. Further increasing the loading of KCl on CaO, the CO2 absorption of CaO declined, but the catalytic effect of KCl on the gasification process was promoted. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl on CaO significantly improved the cyclic performance of CaO during the pyrolysis-gasification process. Higher H2 concentration and more CO2 absorbed by CaO were obtained with the loading of 0.25 wt% KCl even after 5 cycles compared with those of pure CaO in the first cycle ...
In the present study, two chemical stimuli, KCl andd-amphetamine, were used to compare DA release in the striatum and SN. We report several findings that highlight differences in somatodendritic release versus axonal release of DA. First, the magnitude of the response to KCl is, on average, 11× higher in the striatum than in the SN. Second, although KCl-evoked release of DA is both TTX and Ca2+ sensitive in the striatum, it appears to be TTX sensitive but Ca2+ insensitive in the SN. Third, although DA release in the striatum can be enhanced by application of the D2 antagonist sulpiride, similar modulation is not observed in the SN. Finally, we report that although d-amphetamine and KCl produce DA-like electrochemical responses of similar magnitude in the SN, KCl-evoked responses are consistently larger in the striatum, relative to those produced by d-amphetamine.. Several techniques have been used to study the properties of somatodendritic DA release, including in vivo microdialysis, slice ...
Glucosamin information about active ingredients, pharmaceutical forms and doses by Robinson Pharma, Glucosamin indications, usages and related health products lists
The authors examined the mechanisms of KCC2 down-regulation in axotomized spinal motor neurons with and without reinnervation of muscle. They first established a system to measure KCC2 expression throughout somatodendritic membranes. Next, they used genetic approaches to demonstrate that microglia, BDNF, and TrKB are not responsible for the KCC2 down-regulation caused by sciatic transection; instead, KCC2 is dependent on neuromuscular innervation. Overall, the reviewers felt that the study is well done and includes a comprehensive set of experiments addressing fundamental questions related to factors contributing to the downregulation of KCC2 expression in motor neurons. However, reviewers and the reviewing editor agreed that there are a few issues to be addressed before further considering this work for publication. Major considerations are on the interpretation of the results for KCC2 regulation mechanism, neuron types expressing KCC2 (and not expressing), and KCC2 internalization vs. protein ...
To Patient: Present this card to your pharmacy along with a valid prescription for SUTAB®. Commercially insured and cash-paying patients will receive savings up to the program maximum after paying the first $40. Any additional amounts due are your responsibility. This offer is limited to one use and is not transferable. By using this card, you acknowledge that you meet the eligibility criteria and will comply with the terms and conditions. If you have any questions, call 1-844-926-4140.. Pharmacist Instructions for Commercially Insured Patient with Product Coverage: Submit the claim to the primary Third Party Payer first, then submit the balance due to Change Healthcare as a Secondary Payer COB with patient responsibility amount and a valid Other Coverage Code (OCC 8). The patient is responsible for the first $40.00 and reimbursement for the balance, up to the program maximum, will be received from Change Healthcare.. Pharmacist Instructions for Commercially Insured Patient without Product ...
GLUCOSAMINE IS NATURALLY PRODUCED BY THE BODY TO SUPPORT THE GROWTH OF HEALTHY JOINT TISSUE, As We Age, Our Bodies Ability To Produce And Store Glucosamine Reduces. To Ensure That EACH TABLET IS CONSISTENTLY OF THE HIGHEST QUALITY, Glucosamine Is Combined With Low Levels Of Potassium Chloride (2KCL) This Acts To Stabilize The Glucosamine, We Choose To Use Potassium Chloride As This Is Proven In Clinical Trials To Be The Most Effective Type Of Glucosamine In Supplement Form. ...
The reagents and biochemicals are extensively tested and are of very high quality, suitable for use in numerous biotechnology applications. These reagents meet stringent requirements, such as adherence to compendial references where applicable and extremely low levels of trace element contamination.
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Read Differential response of two almond rootstocks to chloride salt mixtures in the growing medium, Russian Journal of Plant Physiology on DeepDyve, the largest online rental service for scholarly research with thousands of academic publications available at your fingertips.
Solubility and hydrolysis of Tc(IV) in dilute to concentrated KCl solutions: An extended thermodynamic model for Tc4+-H+-K+-Na+-Mg2+-Ca2+-OH-Cl-H2O(l) mixed ...
KCI offers a wide range of clinically proven and economically advantageous products and therapies used to treat or prevent hard-to-heal wounds.
DESCRIPTION BSS® Sterile Irrigating Solution is a sterile physiological balanced salt solution, each mL containing Sodium Chloride (NaCl) 0.64%, Potassium Chloride (KCl) 0.075%, Calcium Chloride Dihydrate (CaCl2 2H20) 0.048%, Magnesium C...
Mini glucose polacrilex lozenges help reduce withdrawal symptoms including glucose craving associated with our quitting smoking. Potassium platinum chloride falls twice into category c. Acid concentrate a1266 and lactation. The potassium chloride in Acid concentrate d12247 may also suddenly bring about symptoms of opioid withdrawal effects when the drug is often altered by concrete crus
KCl atau kalium klorida meupakan garam kalium yang juga banyak di gunakan di berbagai kebutuhan. KCl terdiri dari unsur Kalium dan Klorida. KCl ini memiliki banyak fungsi di berbagai bidang, oleh karena itu kita Jual KCl atau Potassium Chloride .. ...
sample_1: heme oxygenase, [U-13C; U-15N; U-2H], 1 2 mM; H2O 95%; D2O 5%; potassium phosphate 50 mM; potassium chloride 100 mM; DSS 0.5 mM. sample_conditions_1: ionic strength: 100 mM; pH: 7.4; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 298 K ...
Ringers infusions is a sterile, pyrogen-free mixture of potassium chloride, calcium chloride and sodium chloride dissolved in water.
Main article: Potassium chloride (medical use). Potassium is vital in the human body, and potassium chloride by mouth is the ... For the use of potassium chloride as a medication, see Potassium chloride (medical use). For the use of potassium in biology, ... Potassium chloride (also known as Sylvite, KCl, or potassium salt) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas welding of aluminium. ...
ACK (Ammonium-Chloride-Potassium) lysing buffer[edit]. ACK is used for lysis of red blood cells in biological samples where ...
potassium chloride or dioxides... But we won't be able to tell without doing an autopsy. / Solid Snake: Damn! KCE Japan. Metal ...
... potassium chloride from Solikamsk; oil from Volga region. There are also many passenger routes to Moscow, Astrakhan, Rostov, ...
The Na-K-Cl cotransporter (NKCC) is a protein that aids in the secondary active transport of sodium, potassium, and chloride ... NKCC2 is found specifically in the kidney, where it serves to extract sodium, potassium, and chloride from the urine so that ... Sodium-Potassium-Chloride+Symporters at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH). ... Its basolateral location gives NKCC1 the ability to transport sodium, potassium, and chloride from the blood into the cell. ...
Potassium chloride stopped Marco's heart. At 8:29 p.m. EST, Marco's skin color had changed noticeably, which indicated that his ... The three drugs are sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Sodium thiopental rendered Marco ...
... but potassium chloride and bicarbonate are common). Rapidly absorbed boluses of liquid potassium are generally needed to abort ... Walker MB (1935). "Potassium chloride in myasthenia gravis". Lancet. 2 (5836): 47. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)09382-5. ... IV potassium is seldom justified unless the patient is unable to swallow. Daily potassium dosage may need to be much higher ... Some patients also take potassium-sparing diuretics such as spironolactone to help maintain potassium levels. Paralysis attacks ...
29.1 ppm sodium chloride NaCl ; 30.8 ppm potassium chloride KCl ; 9.1 ppm magnesium chloride MgCl2 ; 8.5 ppm *These compounds ...
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)94294-6. Walker MB (1935). "Potassium chloride in myasthenia gravis". Lancet. 2 (5836): 47. doi: ... She was also the first to recognise the association between familial periodic paralysis and low blood potassium levels. Mary ... low blood potassium levels). She also described the glucose challenge test used in diagnosing hypokalaemic periodic paralysis ... and the use of intravenous potassium in its treatment. During 1935, her research on myasthenia was incorporated into her MD ...
... rocuronium bromide and potassium chloride. He was pronounced dead at 10:44 a.m. EST. Van Hook's execution continued to attract ...
Examples: potassium chloride and sodium chloride may be considered congeners; also potassium chloride and potassium fluoride. ... For example, titanium(II) chloride (titanium dichloride), titanium(III) chloride (titanium trichloride), and titanium(IV) ... chloride (titanium tetrachloride) may be considered congeners. Congeners can refer to other elements in the same group in the ...
Iron(II) sulfate, developed by sodium carbonate or potassium ferricyanate. Cobalt(II) chloride, developed by potassium ... Lemon juice, developed by iodine solution (ink turns white, paper turns light blue). Sodium chloride (common table salt), ... Soap water (carboxylic partially oxidizes) Wine, or vinegar Cobalt chloride, which turns blue when heated and becomes invisible ... Copper sulfate, developed by sodium iodide, sodium carbonate, ammonium hydroxide or potassium ferricyanide. Lead(II) nitrate, ...
... solution of the aryl chloride in dimethylsulfoxide and anhydrous potassium fluoride. Potassium chloride is generated in the ... In chemistry, the Halex process is used to convert aromatic chlorides to the corresponding aromatic fluorides. The process ... The reaction is mainly applied to nitro-substituted aryl chlorides. The following reactions are practiced commercially in this ...
... and potassium chloride to stop the heart. The 50th convicted killer executed in Georgia since 1973 was Roy Willard Blankenship ...
Potassium chloride and dextrose should be included. The amount of maintenance IV fluid required in 24 hours is based on the ... Physiologic saline solution, or 0.9% sodium chloride solution, is often used because it is isotonic, and therefore will not ...
ISBN 1-877058-03-3 Findlay, G.P. and Pallaghy, C.K. (1978). Potassium chloride in the motor tissue of Stylidium. Australian ...
... potassium chloride is widely used for this purpose. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends daily potassium intake of ... Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/10925. ISBN 978-0-309- ... "Sodium Chloride". Eat Well, Be Well. UK Government Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 16 May 2010. "Health Canada, Healthy Living ... High sodium consumption (5 g or more of salt per day) and insufficient potassium intake (less than 3.5 grams (0.12 oz) per day ...
... "ferric chloride" (instead calling it "iron(III) chloride"), but names like "potassium permanganate" (instead of "potassium ... Example: sodium chloride, potassium oxide, or calcium carbonate. When the metal has more than one possible ionic charge or ... Monatomic anions: Cl− chloride S2− sulfide P3− phosphide Polyatomic ions: NH+ 4 ammonium H 3O+ hydronium NO− 3 nitrate NO− 2 ... For example, NaCl is sodium chloride, and CaF2 is calcium fluoride. Cations which have taken on more than one positive charge ...
For example, "she recommended magnesium as a treatment for epilepsy, potassium chloride for certain patients with kidney ... Fatal hyperkalemia from accidental overdose of potassium chloride. JAMA 240:1339, 1978. Schlesinger B, Payne B, Black J. ... Potassium metabolism in gastroenteritis. Quarterly Journal of Medicine 24:33-49, 1955. Potassium metabolism in gastroenteritis ...
Potassium chloride[7][8]. 塩化カリウム. - N2. Molecular nitrogen[23]. 窒素(二窒素). - ...
"Entrez Gene: solute carrier family 12 (potassium/chloride transporters)". Hewett D, Samuelsson L, Polding J, Enlund F, Smart D ... Solute carrier family 12 member 8 (SLC12A8), also known as cation-chloride cotransporter 9 (CCC9), is a protein that in humans ...
These signals are generated and propagated by charge-carrying ions including sodium (Na+), potassium (K+), chloride (Cl−), and ... The ion materials include sodium, potassium, chloride, and calcium. The interactions between ion channels and ion pumps produce ...
The salt consists of chloride, potassium and sodium salts. The volcanic cone has a lake as well, which is 108 metres (354 ft) ...
The reaction products are potassium chloride, water, and oxygen. Traces of chlorine and iodine are removed from the exhaust ... The aqueous peroxide solution undergoes chemical reaction with chlorine, producing heat, potassium chloride, and oxygen in ... The laser is fed with gaseous chlorine, molecular iodine, and an aqueous mixture of hydrogen peroxide and potassium hydroxide. ...
Note: Table 11-1 seems to clarify that 500mg refers to sodium, not sodium chloride] "Sodium and Potassium Quick Health Facts". ... "Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate". Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, ... and sodium-potassium channels. Sodium channels are known to be less selective in comparison to potassium channels. Sodium is ... Sodium chloride is the principal source of sodium in the diet, and is used as seasoning and preservative, such as for pickling ...
"Entrez Gene: solute carrier family 12 (potassium/chloride transporters)". Caron L; Rousseau F; Gagnon E; Isenring P (October ... Solute carrier family 12 member 9 (SLC12A9), also known as cation-chloride cotransporter 6 (CCC6) or cation-chloride ...
Potassium chloride (KCl) represents the most widely source of K used in agriculture, accounting for 90% of all potassium ... "Potassium chloride: impacts on soil microbial activity and nitrogen mineralization". Ciência Rural. 49 (5). doi:10.1590/0103- ... Potassium is a macronutrient very important for plant development and is commonly sought in fertilizers. This nutrient is ... The use of KCl leads to high concentrations of chloride (Clˉ) in soil harming its health due to the increase in soil salinity, ...
Potassium chloride causes severe pain if used without an anesthetic. Pharmacology professor, Craig Stevens of Oklahoma State ... After Lockett was declared unconscious at 6:33 p.m, the next two drugs, vecuronium bromide (paralytic) and potassium chloride ( ... and potassium chloride (used to stop the heart) for Lockett's execution. While Florida had previously used the same three drugs ... which is used to numb the pain of potassium chloride stopping the heart. Some states bartered supplies of execution drugs, ...
Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate , The National Academies Press. p. 85. doi:10.17226/10925. ISBN 978-0-309-09169-5. " ...
"The Reaction of Ferric Chloride with Sodium and Potassium Chlorides". The Journal of Physical Chemistry. 65 (9): 1505-1511. doi ... Alumina from alkali metal-aluminum chloride complexes. US Patent number: 4331645 Filing date: Apr 20, 1981 Inventor: Wendell E ... 1989 4,390,400 Aluminum chloride addition to electrolytic cells Filed: May 26, 1981 4,389,391 Process for beneficiating ... 1971 3,376,112 Production of chlorine through oxidation of film of ferric chloride salt complex Filed Aug 3, 1965 3,153,572 ...
Oxidation of amines with iron(III) chloride.[19]. *Hydrolysis of unsaturated secondary amides,[20] β-Keto acid esters,[11] or β ... Typical strong oxidants (source of "O" in the above reaction) include potassium permanganate or a Cr(VI) compound. Milder ... By the reaction of an acid chloride with organocadmium compounds or organocopper compounds. ...
... chloride with potassium to form metallic yttrium and potassium chloride.[6][7] ... Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic ... Some Elements Isolated with the Aid of Potassium and Sodium:Zirconium, Titanium, Cerium and Thorium". The Journal of Chemical ... and scandium chlorides.[12]. In 1751, the Swedish mineralogist Axel Fredrik Cronstedt discovered a heavy mineral from the mine ...
Other potassium channels like large conductance calcium-dependent potassium channels and sodium chloride dependent potassium ... Although the exact role of potassium currents is still being investigated, it appears that potassium and sodium leak currents ... Transient A-type potassium currents are more common in neurons that are involved in the inspiration process. When A-type ... Moreover, ATP-dependent potassium channels help neurons detect changes in energy or oxygen levels to modify breathing patterns ...
chloride channel complex. • cell junction. • plasma membrane. • GABA-ergic synapse. • integral component of postsynaptic ... Bromide compounds (e.g., potassium bromide). *Carbamates (e.g., meprobamate). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ... chloride transmembrane transport. • ion transport. • regulation of response to drug. • central nervous system development. • ... which are ligand-gated chloride channels. Chloride conductance of these channels can be modulated by agents such as ...
E.g. potassium perchlorate code S. W. Special hazard W: Reacts with water in an unusual or dangerous manner. E.g. sodium, ... E.g. sodium chloride code H 1. Health code 1: Exposure would cause irritation but only minor residual injury. E.g. turpentine ...
Potassium ferrocyanide Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], ... Sodium ferrocyanide is produced industrially from hydrogen cyanide, ferrous chloride, and calcium hydroxide, the combination of ...
... potassium chloride).[30] Previously, potassium was generally made from the electrolysis of potassium chloride or potassium ... which is comparable to the LD50 values of potassium chloride and sodium chloride.[244] Caesium chloride has been promoted as an ... As a result, pure potassium metal is now produced by reducing molten potassium chloride with sodium metal at 850 °C.[10]:74 ... The metal is produced electrolytically from a mixture of fused lithium chloride and potassium chloride.[183] ...
Basic blood tests can be used to check the concentration of hemoglobin, platelets, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, ...
... calcium chloride 25%, and zinc chloride 25% ). The carbon is then subjected to lower temperatures (250-600 °C). It is believed ... The chemical is typically an acid, strong base,[1][2] or a salt[20] (phosphoric acid 25%, potassium hydroxide 5%, sodium ... Youssef A.M.; Abdelbary E.M.; Samra S.E.; Dowidar A.M. (1991). "Surface-properties of carbons obtained from polyvinyl-chloride ... production of hydrogen chloride and many other applications. ...
Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ...
Potassium calcium chloride - KCaCl3. *Potassium chlorate - KClO3. *Potassium chloride - KCl ... Antimony potassium tartrate - K2Sb2(C4H2O6)2 ... Aluminium potassium sulfate - AlK(SO4)2 potassium alum. NH3/4[ ...
Upon binding, it triggers the GABAA receptor to open its chloride channel to allow chloride ions into the neuron, making the ... Bromide compounds (e.g., lithium bromide, potassium bromide, sodium bromide). *Carbamazepine. *Chloralose ... Additionally, in the absence of GABA the presence of benzodiazepines alone does not open the chloride channel.[2] ... the chloride (Cl-) ion channel pore, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces, and the benzodiazepine (BZD ...
Gold(I) chloride has been used as co-catalyst combined with palladium(II) chloride in the coupling of arenediazonium salts with ... Other bases such as potassium carbonate or cesium carbonate are occasionally used. In addition, deaerated conditions are ... chloride are used. Copper(I) salts, such as copper iodide, react with the terminal alkyne and produce a copper(I) acetylide, ... and of aryl chlorides, but in very low yields. The dendrimeric catalysts could usually be recovered by simple precipitation and ...
... probably iodine chloride) is formed in situ from mercuric chloride and iodine. ... Unreacted iodine monobromide (or monochloride) is then allowed to react with potassium iodide, converting it to iodine, whose ... Introduced the iodine value was Hübl which titrated fats in the presence of mercuric chloride with iodine, but with the actual ... Addition of iodine chloride and back-titration with sodium thiosulphate by DIN 53241-1:1995-05. ...
A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with potassium Table salt (sodium chloride, the main source), sea ... Potassium 04700.0004700 NE; NE Quantity A systemic electrolyte and is essential in coregulating ATP with sodium Sweet potato, ... Table salt (sodium chloride) is the main dietary source. hypochloremia hyperchloremia Sodium 01500.0001500 2300; NE Quantity ... "Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2005: Appendix B-1. Food Sources of Potassium". United States Department of Agriculture. 2005. ...
It can be synthesized by reacting barium hydroxide or barium chloride with potassium chromate. ... Alternatively, it can be created by the interaction of barium chloride with sodium chromate. The precipitate is then washed, ...
... glycyl chloride in the presence of aluminum chloride. The resulting N-(trifluoroacetyl)-α-aminoacetophenone was then N- ... methylated with methyl iodide and potassium carbonate, and the product finally converted to racemic N-methylphenylethanolamine ... α-amino acid chlorides. Application to the preparation of β-arylalkylamines and 3-substituted 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinolines ...
Phenacyl chloride. *Polygodial (Dorrigo pepper). *Shogaols (ginger, Sichuan and melegueta peppers). *Tear gases ...
Cl−: Chloride channel. *Calcium-activated chloride channels *Anoctamin *ANO1. *Bestrophin *1. *2 ...
... along with small quantities of sodium chloride and sodium sulfate. Natron is white to colourless when pure, varying to gray or ...
Potassium chloride. *Unslaked lime. Flux recovery[edit]. During the submerged arc welding process, not all flux turns into slag ... Another possibility is an inorganic flux composed of zinc chloride or tin(II) chloride,[16] ammonium chloride, and a fluoride ( ... The compounds used include metal halides (most often zinc chloride or ammonium chloride), hydrochloric acid, phosphoric acid, ... Acid flux types (not used in electronics) may contain hydrochloric acid, zinc chloride or ammonium chloride, which are harmful ...
calcium chloride, ammonium chloride 1. Arginine vasopressin. receptor 2 antagonists amphotericin B, lithium[13][14]. Inhibits ... Potassium-sparing diuretics amiloride, spironolactone, eplerenone, triamterene, potassium canrenoate. Inhibition of Na+/K+ ... Potassium-sparing diureticsEdit. These are diuretics which do not promote the secretion of potassium into the urine; thus, ... potassium is retained and not lost as much as with other diuretics. The term "potassium-sparing" refers to an effect rather ...
... potassium, and chloride. Human and animal trials of indicate that E. bogotense has "high" efficacy as a diuretic.[1] It is used ...
Reagent: potassium phthalimide Staudinger reduction Azide This reaction also takes place with a reducing agent such as lithium ... Acyl chlorides and acid anhydrides react with primary and secondary amines to form amides (the "Schotten-Baumann reaction"). ... Similarly, with sulfonyl chlorides, one obtains sulfonamides. This transformation, known as the Hinsberg reaction, is a ... "β-Naphthylmercuric chloride". Organic Syntheses.. ; Collective Volume, 2, p. 432. *^ Hunger, Klaus; Mischke, Peter; Rieper, ...
The most commonly used catalysts for this process are metal halides, particularly aluminium chloride. This is referred to as a ... First, silicon is treated with hydrogen chloride at about 300 °C to produce trichlorosilane, HSiCl3, along with hydrogen gas, ... Silane can be produced by several routes.[6] Typically, it arises from the reaction of hydrogen chloride with magnesium ... under Al and H2 gas in a mixture of NaCl and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) at high pressures:[7] ...
Compounds containing the Sn2+ ion, such as tin(II) chloride. *Sulfur dioxide (sometimes also used as an oxidizing agent), ... Common reducing agents include metals potassium, calcium, barium, sodium and magnesium, and also compounds that contain the H− ... the oxidizer chlorine is reduced to chloride. ...
The most common method is to inject potassium chloride into the fetus's heart; the heart stops and the fetus dies as a result. ...
Plastics: High-density polyethylene (HDPE) is compatible but polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is slowly degraded.[5] Polystyrene is ... it was found that though the presence of sodium and potassium carbonates aided in the catalytic conversion of ash, as the ... catalysts such as potassium hydroxide. However, the super-critical methanol production methodology, whereby the ...
The crystal lattice structure of potassium chloride (KCl), a salt which is formed due to the attraction of K+ cations and Cl− ... Cations and anions can form a crystalline lattice of neutral salts, such as the Na+ and Cl− ions forming sodium chloride, or ... An animation of the process of ionic bonding between sodium (Na) and chlorine (Cl) to form sodium chloride, or common table ... The ions are held together due to electrostatic attraction, and that compound sodium chloride (NaCl), or common table salt, is ...
Ji, Jianguo; Bunnelle, William H.; Anderson, David J.; Faltynek, Connie; Dyhring, Tino; Ahring, Philip K.; Rueter, Lynne E.; Curzon, Peter; Buckley, Michael J.; Marsh, Kennan C.; Kempf-Grote, Anita; Meyer, Michael D. (2007). "A-366833: A novel nicotinonitrile-substituted 3,6-diazabicyclo[3.2.0]-heptane α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor selective agonist: Synthesis, analgesic efficacy and tolerability profile in animal models". Biochemical Pharmacology. 74 (8): 1253-1262. doi:10.1016/j.bcp.2007.08.010. PMID 17854775 ...
Main article: Potassium chloride (medical use). Potassium is vital in the human body, and potassium chloride by mouth is the ... For the use of potassium chloride as a medication, see Potassium chloride (medical use). For the use of potassium in biology, ... Potassium chloride (also known as Sylvite, KCl, or potassium salt) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. ... Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas welding of aluminium. ...
Main article: Potassium chloride (medical use). Potassium is vital in the human body, and potassium chloride by mouth is the ... Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas welding of aluminium. ... potassium chloride is toxic. The LD50 of orally ingested potassium chloride is approximately 2.5 g/kg, or 190 grams (6.7 oz) ... Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless ...
... sodium chloride). It is soluble in water, alcohol, and alkalies. Potassium chloride occurs pure in nature as the mineral ... potassium chloride. potassium chloride, chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely ... It is produced from sylvinite, a sodium chloride-potassium chloride mineral that is mined extensively near Carlsbad, N.Mex., ... the concentration of potassium oxide that there would be if the potassium were present as its oxide instead of as its chloride ...
... sodium chloride [1]). It is soluble in water, alcohol, and alkalies. ... potassium chloride, chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely resembles common ... Potassium Chloride. OVERVIEW. Potassium chloride (poe-TAS-ee-yum KLOR-ide) occurs as a white or colorless crystalline solid or ... potassium chloride n. a salt of potassium administered by mouth to prevent and treat potassium deficiency, especially during ...
All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsPotassium CompoundsPotassium Chloride ... Potassium Chloride. A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsChlorine CompoundsHydrochloric AcidChloridesPotassium ...
... are connected electrically by a potassium chloride salt bridge. (A salt bridge is a conductor with ions as charge carriers.) In ... Other articles where Potassium chloride is discussed: electricity: Electromotive force: … ... Potassium chloride, KCl, is a naturally occurring potassium salt that, aside from its use as fertilizer, is also a raw material ... as sodium chloride (NaCl), rubidium-doped potassium chloride (KCl), calcium fluoride (CaF), and strontium fluoride (SrF2) have ...
SOURCE CITED :: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Potassium_chloride ... Is potassium chloride a mixture?. No, potassium chloride is a ... Potassium chloride is react with AgNO3 , the chloride ion subtract from potassium chloride to form silver chloride precipitate ... How much potassium in potassium chloride?. by weight KCL (potassium chloride) is 52.445% potassium. ... How do you obtain potassium chloride from potassium chloride solution?. Evaporate the solvent, the potassium chloride will form ...
Find information about which conditions Potassium Chloride Oral is commonly used to treat. ... Drugs & MedicationsPotassium Chloride Tablet, Extended Release Particles/Crystals. What Conditions does Potassium Chloride ...
Slow-K is a type of medicine called a potassium supplement. ... potassium salts, eg potassium citrate for cystitis. *potassium- ... Slow-K modified-release tablets contain the active ingredient potassium chloride. ... Slow-K (potassium chloride). Slow-K modified-release tablets contain the active ingredient potassium chloride. Slow-K is a type ... Slow-K tablets are a modified-release form of potassium chloride that are designed to release the potassium slowly as they ...
... a drug used to treat low potassium conditions (hypokalemia) or prevent them from occurring. ... Learn about the medication potassium chloride (K-Dur, K-Lor, K-Tab, Kaon CL, Klorvess, Slow-K, Ten-K, Klotrix, K-Lyte CL), ... potassium chloride (K-Dur, K-Lor, K-Tab, Kaon CL). *What is potassium chloride, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? ... Potassium chloride (K-Dur, KLor Con, K-Tab) is a preparation used to treat low potassium (hypokylemia) in the blood. Side ...
About POTASSIUM CHLORIDE: Potassium Chloride is an inorganic salt.. Function(s): Viscosity Increasing Agent - Aqueous; ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (KCL) ; CHLORID DRASELNY (CZECH) ; CHLOROPOTASSURIL; DIPOTASSIUM DICHLORIDE; EMPLETS POTASSIUM CHLORIDE; ...
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POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 660YQ98I10) (POTASSIUM CATION - UNII:295O53K152, CHLORIDE ION - UNII:Q32ZN48698) POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 660YQ98I10) (POTASSIUM CATION - UNII:295O53K152, CHLORIDE ION - UNII:Q32ZN48698) POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 660YQ98I10) (POTASSIUM CATION - UNII:295O53K152, CHLORIDE ION - UNII:Q32ZN48698) POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 660YQ98I10) (POTASSIUM CATION - UNII:295O53K152, CHLORIDE ION - UNII:Q32ZN48698) POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Potassium Chloride Fresenius Kabi is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Potassium Chloride Fresenius Kabi is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Ingredient matches for Potassium Chloride Fresenius Kabi. Potassium Chloride. Potassium Chloride is reported as an ingredient ... Potassium Chloride Fresenius Kabi. Potassium Chloride Fresenius Kabi may be available in the countries listed below. ...
425 medications are known to interact with potassium chloride. Includes Advair Diskus (fluticasone/salmeterol), Aspirin Low ... potassium chloride disease Interactions. There are 7 disease interactions with potassium chloride which include:. *Dehydration/ ... Prevention of Hypokalemia Klor-Con, potassium gluconate, KCl, K-Dur, Micro-K, K-Tab, Effervescent Potassium, Kal Potassium 99, ... A total of 425 drugs (2854 brand and generic names) are known to interact with potassium chloride. ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (JECFA Evaluation) Potassium chloride (PIM 430) Potassium chloride ( ...
Prescriber Checkup » POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. Klor-Con (Potassium Chloride) is a supplement that raises potassium ... Blood potassium has to stay in a narrow range, so very small potassium level changes can have significant effects. Source: ... Top prescribers for POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. 1 2 3 4 5 … Next › Last » ... Potassium is essential for heart, nerve, and muscle function, and other important processes in your body. ...
... prescribed to treat low potassium (hypokalemia). Side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, storage and pregnancy ... Consumer information about the medication potassium chloride (K-Dur, KLor Con, K-Tab, Klorvess, K-Lyte CL, Kaon CL, Slow-K, Ten ... increase potassium levels, causing high potassium levels in the blood when combined with potassium supplements. Potassium blood ... potassium chloride. *What is potassium supplements-oral, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? ...
... and as a source of other potassium compounds. See more. ... such as magnesium chloride and potassium chloride.. Fish blood ... Potassium chloride definition, a white or colorless, crystalline, water-soluble solid, KCl, used chiefly in the manufacture of ... Words nearby potassium chloride. potassium bitartrate, potassium bromate, potassium bromide, potassium carbonate, potassium ... potassium chloride, potassium cobaltinitrite, potassium cyanide, potassium dichromate, potassium diphosphate, potassium ...
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. Indication. *the prevention or treatment of potassium depletion, which may occur with severe vomiting, ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE Disclaimer to the On-line Edition. This Manual has been designed for use in the NICU at London Health ... monitor ECG, serum potassium levels and levels of other electrolytes (chloride, sodium, calcium); peaking of T-waves on the ECG ... potassium salts are well absorbed from the GI tract Side Effects. *gastrointestinal - vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, distention ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of saccharose into potassium chloride and water at different concentrations ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of saccharose into potassium chloride and water. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of saccharose into potassium chloride and water at different concentrations ...
Potassium Chloride Extended-release Tablet, USP, 750 mg of potassium chloride (10 mEq of potassium) are available in:. Blisters ... Potassium Chloride Extended-release Tablet, USP, 1500 mg of potassium chloride (20 mEq of potassium) are available in:. ... Each Potassium Chloride Extended-release Tablet provides either 1500 mg of potassium chloride equivalent to 20 mEq of potassium ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 660YQ98I10) (POTASSIUM CATION - UNII:295O53K152) POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. 10 meq. ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Potassium chloride at PatientsLikeMe. 214 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Potassium chloride. ... What are people saying about Potassium chloride?. There is 1 thread in our forum about Potassium chloride. ... Potassium chloride is an electrolyte supplement used for the treatment or prevention of low potassium levels in the blood ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Potassium chloride at PatientsLikeMe. 215 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or mild depression currently take Potassium chloride. ... Showing 3 of 8 patient evaluations for Potassium chloride Previous page 1 2 3 Next page ...
Potassium Chloride KCl bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... About Potassium Chloride. Potassium Chloride is an excellent water soluble crystalline Potassium source for uses compatible ... Potassium Chloride Synonyms. Potassium Chloride; Klotrix; Chlorvescent; Potavescent; Enseal; Kalitabs; Kaochlor; Pfklor; ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Potassium Chloride. Agriculture. Chemical Manufacturing. Chlorides. Defense. ...
WebMD provides information about common drug or vitamin interactions for Sodium-Potassium-Magnesium-Calcium-Chloride-Acet ... POTASSIUM SUPPLEMENTS/EPLERENONE. Moderate Interactions. These medications may cause some risk when taken together. Consult ...
... was 50721 Metric Tons. Discover more data with NationMaster! ... How does Italy rank in Potassium Chloride (MOP) Fertilizer Used in Agriculture?. #. 52 Countries. Metric Tons. Last. YoY. 5‑ ... Since 2012, Italy Potassium Chloride (MOP) Fertilizer Used in Agriculture was down by 1.3% year on year. With 50,721 Metric ... Italy - Potassium Chloride (MOP) Fertilizer Used in Agriculture Metric Tons - 2008 to 2017 ...
... Learn about the reported side effects, related class ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (poe TASS i um KLOOR ide) is a potassium supplement used to prevent and to treat low potassium. Potassium is ... Foods high in potassium and Potassium(Potassium Chloride). Do not take Potassium Salts together with dietary salt substitutes ... Foods high in potassium and Potassium Chloride USP 10% Oral Solution(Potassium Chloride) ...
... is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia). Potassium levels can be low as a ... Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of ... Potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia). Potassium levels can be low as a ... What should I discuss with my healthcare provider before taking potassium chloride?. You should not use potassium chloride if ...
Find the latest Potassium Chloride statistics and market data by country & year. The best datasets from the best open data ... Top Potassium Chloride Statistics. * Import of Potassium Chloride to Bermuda. * Annual * 2013 to 2017 ...
  • Muriate of Potash - Potassium Chloride, is the most commonly used potassium fertiliser worldwide. (gardngro.co.nz)
  • The chloride content of Muriate of Potash aids disease resistance and increases the yield of flower and fruit plants. (gardngro.co.nz)
  • Many can be applied directly such as anhydrous ammonia, urea, urea-ammonium nitrate solutions, triple superphosphate, ammonium phosphates, and muriate of potash (potassium chloride). (msstate.edu)
  • 38- These corrosive primers leave a residue of potassium chloride salt in the bore after a cartridge is fired. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • Kosher.Creating great tasting, healthier food Too much salt (sodium chloride) in the diet can increase the risk of high blood pressure, a major risk factor for heart disease and stroke. (waitrose.com)
  • A. Yes, Potassium Chloride can be used in place of water softener salt. (mortonsalt.com)
  • In low salt formulations utilizing potassium chloride, it masks unwanted bitterness. (nutraceuticalsworld.com)
  • The state's usual injection protocol calls for three drugs: pentobarbital, pancuronium bromide and potassium chloride. (wmur.com)
  • There are two major salts containing potassium sold for fertilization. (triferto.eu)
  • 34- Inorganic salts such as sodium chloride, potassium chloride and potassium iodide form eutectic mixtures with water. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 7- Sodium and potassium chlorides are slightly soluble in ethanol. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • Because plain water does not contain sugar, sodium, or potassium (which also is lost from diarrhea) it is important to drink plenty of fluids that contain these substances. (modernsurvivalblog.com)
  • It is a simple chemical, Sodium Chloride, and one of the most plentiful on earth. (accesseric.org)
  • 35- In fact potash fertilizers are usually potassium chloride , potassium sulfate, potassium carbonate, or potassium nitrate. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 17- Calculate the number of equivalents per liter of potassium chloride , molecular weight 74. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 13- The most commonly used catalyst is a mixture of potassium chloride and aluminum chloride. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • There were sacks of explosive precursors, including potassium chloride, red iron oxide and potassium nitrate. (propublica.org)
  • Fertilizer is labeled as nitrogen (N), phosphate (P2O5), and potash (K2O), respectively N-P-K, which are the oxide forms for elemental phosphorus (P) and potassium (K). In some cases, nutrients may be expressed either way. (msstate.edu)
  • 14- potassium chloride is used in the United States for executions via lethal injection. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 6- Made from potassium chloride and water by electrolysis. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • in an experiment 8.50g of potassium chloride was dissolved in water to give a total volume of 200.0 mL of solution. (chemhomeworkhelp.com)
  • Q. Can I use Potassium Chloride in my water softener? (mortonsalt.com)
  • Composition of buffer: 250 mL 0.1 mol/L potassium dihydrogenphosphate (Merck, Lot. (europa.eu)
  • They usually contain potassium chloride and are not suitable for everyone. (accesseric.org)
  • Ample supply of potassium is, therefore, required with crops that have a high potassium requirement. (triferto.eu)
  • It contains a high concentration of quick-release potassium which encourages vigorous plant growth and increases resistance against disease. (gardngro.co.nz)
  • Certain drugs will also interact with the commercial preparations, increasing potassium to a dangerously high level, which may cause a heart attack. (accesseric.org)
  • The addition of extra chloride can on rare occasions cause toxicity in very dry environments, however, this is unlikely to be a problem as chloride is readily removed from the soil by leaching. (gardngro.co.nz)
  • A great source of potassium. (waitrose.com)
  • Nebraska says it lawfully obtained the potassium chloride but still will not disclose the source of its drugs. (motherjones.com)
  • 11- Grüneberg developed a new chemical process to produce potassium chloride from carnallite. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 33- The refining process used electricity from Fushun coal, hydrochloric acid, potassium chloride and iron silica. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 8] examined missense and protein-truncating mutations of the human potassium-chloride co-transporter 3 gene ( KCC3 ) cause hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy with ACC, which is a severe neurodegenerative disease characterized by axonal dysfunction and neurodevelopmental defects. (thefreedictionary.com)
  • The extra potassium intake can damage your kidneys, particularly in diabetes or existing renal failure. (accesseric.org)
  • That is why potassium has a positive effect on the yield and the quality of crops. (triferto.eu)
  • 24- Depending on the type of airbag system, potassium chloride may also be present. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 15- potassium chloride stopped Marco's heart. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • 30- Injecting potassium chloride into the heart muscle disrupts the signal that tells the heart to beat. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • On August 14, Nebraska is planning to put 60-year-old Carey Dean Moore to death using an untried three-drug cocktail that includes fentanyl, a muscle paralyzer, and potassium chloride, which will stop the inmate's heart. (motherjones.com)
  • and potassium chloride, which stops the heart. (findadeath.com)
  • 32- This unit is the single manufacturer of potassium chloride (KCl) in activity in Brazil. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • Empowering the production capabilities of clients, we are a manufacturer, supplier and exporter of Potassium Chloride . (nikechemicalindia.com)
  • Abstract The paper presents experimental data indicating interesting new phenomena related to overcharging of a hydrophobic surface in concentrated potassium chloride solutions. (ac.ru)
  • 19- potassium chloride is the last of the three drugs administered and actually causes death. (use-in-a-sentence.com)
  • Potassium is not part of the plant organic matter. (triferto.eu)