Potassium Chloride: A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.Potassium: An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.Chlorides: Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.Potassium Citrate: A powder that dissolves in water, which is administered orally, and is used as a diuretic, expectorant, systemic alkalizer, and electrolyte replenisher.Potassium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.Hypokalemia: Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)Potassium Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.Sodium Chloride: A ubiquitous sodium salt that is commonly used to season food.Chloride Channels: Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.Sodium Potassium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM-POTASSIUM-CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS which are concentrated in the thick ascending limb at the junction of the LOOP OF HENLE and KIDNEY TUBULES, DISTAL. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA and HYPERGLYCEMIA.Sodium Chloride Symporter Inhibitors: Agents that inhibit SODIUM CHLORIDE SYMPORTERS. They act as DIURETICS. Excess use is associated with HYPOKALEMIA.Magnesium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain magnesium as an integral part of the molecule.Sodium: A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.Pregnancy Reduction, Multifetal: Selective abortion of one or more embryos or fetuses in a multiple gestation pregnancy. The usual goal is to improve the outcome for the remaining embryos or fetuses.Triamterene: A pteridinetriamine compound that inhibits SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS.Symporters: Membrane transporters that co-transport two or more dissimilar molecules in the same direction across a membrane. Usually the transport of one ion or molecule is against its electrochemical gradient and is "powered" by the movement of another ion or molecule with its electrochemical gradient.Bendroflumethiazide: A thiazide diuretic with actions and uses similar to those of HYDROCHLOROTHIAZIDE. It has been used in the treatment of familial hyperkalemia, hypertension, edema, and urinary tract disorders. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p810)Calcium Chloride: A salt used to replenish calcium levels, as an acid-producing diuretic, and as an antidote for magnesium poisoning.Euthanasia, Animal: The killing of animals for reasons of mercy, to control disease transmission or maintain the health of animal populations, or for experimental purposes (ANIMAL EXPERIMENTATION).Condiments: Aromatic substances added to food before or after cooking to enhance its flavor. These are usually of vegetable origin.CitratesPotassium Channel Blockers: A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.Osmolar Concentration: The concentration of osmotically active particles in solution expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per liter of solution. Osmolality is expressed in terms of osmoles of solute per kilogram of solvent.Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying: Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.Vinyl Chloride: A gas that has been used as an aerosol propellant and is the starting material for polyvinyl resins. Toxicity studies have shown various adverse effects, particularly the occurrence of liver neoplasms.Potassium, Dietary: Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.Bicarbonates: Inorganic salts that contain the -HCO3 radical. They are an important factor in determining the pH of the blood and the concentration of bicarbonate ions is regulated by the kidney. Levels in the blood are an index of the alkali reserve or buffering capacity.Potassium Deficiency: A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated: Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.Magnesium: A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.Calcium: A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.Membrane Potentials: The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).Acetylcholine: A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.Hydrogen-Ion Concentration: The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)Spironolactone: A potassium sparing diuretic that acts by antagonism of aldosterone in the distal renal tubules. It is used mainly in the treatment of refractory edema in patients with congestive heart failure, nephrotic syndrome, or hepatic cirrhosis. Its effects on the endocrine system are utilized in the treatments of hirsutism and acne but they can lead to adverse effects. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p827)Muscle Contraction: A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.Potassium Isotopes: Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.Diuretics: Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.Diet, Sodium-Restricted: A diet which contains very little sodium chloride. It is prescribed by some for hypertension and for edematous states. (Dorland, 27th ed)Muscle, Smooth, Vascular: The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.Acidosis: A pathologic condition of acid accumulation or depletion of base in the body. The two main types are RESPIRATORY ACIDOSIS and metabolic acidosis, due to metabolic acid build up.Norepinephrine: Precursor of epinephrine that is secreted by the adrenal medulla and is a widespread central and autonomic neurotransmitter. Norepinephrine is the principal transmitter of most postganglionic sympathetic fibers and of the diffuse projection system in the brain arising from the locus ceruleus. It is also found in plants and is used pharmacologically as a sympathomimetic.Polyvinyl Chloride: A polyvinyl resin used extensively in the manufacture of plastics, including medical devices, tubing, and other packaging. It is also used as a rubber substitute.Hydrochlorothiazide: A thiazide diuretic often considered the prototypical member of this class. It reduces the reabsorption of electrolytes from the renal tubules. This results in increased excretion of water and electrolytes, including sodium, potassium, chloride, and magnesium. It is used in the treatment of several disorders including edema, hypertension, diabetes insipidus, and hypoparathyroidism.Mesenteric Arteries: Arteries which arise from the abdominal aorta and distribute to most of the intestines.Vasoconstriction: The physiological narrowing of BLOOD VESSELS by contraction of the VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Pregnancy, Ectopic: A potentially life-threatening condition in which EMBRYO IMPLANTATION occurs outside the cavity of the UTERUS. Most ectopic pregnancies (>96%) occur in the FALLOPIAN TUBES, known as TUBAL PREGNANCY. They can be in other locations, such as UTERINE CERVIX; OVARY; and abdominal cavity (PREGNANCY, ABDOMINAL).Dose-Response Relationship, Drug: The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.Furosemide: A benzoic-sulfonamide-furan. It is a diuretic with fast onset and short duration that is used for EDEMA and chronic RENAL INSUFFICIENCY.Muscle Relaxation: That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.Rats, Sprague-Dawley: A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.Blood Pressure: PRESSURE of the BLOOD on the ARTERIES and other BLOOD VESSELS.Hypertension: Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.Kinetics: The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.Vasoconstrictor Agents: Drugs used to cause constriction of the blood vessels.Vasodilation: The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.Shaker Superfamily of Potassium Channels: Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.Rabbits: The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.Kv1.3 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.Mercuric Chloride: Mercury chloride (HgCl2). A highly toxic compound that volatizes slightly at ordinary temperature and appreciably at 100 degrees C. It is corrosive to mucous membranes and used as a topical antiseptic and disinfectant.Rats, Wistar: A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.Time Factors: Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.Kidney Calculi: Stones in the KIDNEY, usually formed in the urine-collecting area of the kidney (KIDNEY PELVIS). Their sizes vary and most contains CALCIUM OXALATE.Guinea Pigs: A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.Nitroprusside: A powerful vasodilator used in emergencies to lower blood pressure or to improve cardiac function. It is also an indicator for free sulfhydryl groups in proteins.Potassium Iodide: An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)Muscle, Smooth: Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)Phosphates: Inorganic salts of phosphoric acid.Carbachol: A slowly hydrolyzed CHOLINERGIC AGONIST that acts at both MUSCARINIC RECEPTORS and NICOTINIC RECEPTORS.Adenosine Triphosphate: An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.Vasodilator Agents: Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.Potassium Radioisotopes: Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.Dogs: The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)Stimulation, Chemical: The increase in a measurable parameter of a PHYSIOLOGICAL PROCESS, including cellular, microbial, and plant; immunological, cardiovascular, respiratory, reproductive, urinary, digestive, neural, musculoskeletal, ocular, and skin physiological processes; or METABOLIC PROCESS, including enzymatic and other pharmacological processes, by a drug or other chemical.Ammonium Chloride: An acidifying agent that has expectorant and diuretic effects. Also used in etching and batteries and as a flux in electroplating.Methylene Chloride: A chlorinated hydrocarbon that has been used as an inhalation anesthetic and acts as a narcotic in high concentrations. Its primary use is as a solvent in manufacturing and food technology.Kv1.2 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.Shaw Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.Indomethacin: A non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agent (NSAID) that inhibits the enzyme cyclooxygenase necessary for the formation of prostaglandins and other autacoids. It also inhibits the motility of polymorphonuclear leukocytes.Rats, Inbred Strains: Genetically identical individuals developed from brother and sister matings which have been carried out for twenty or more generations or by parent x offspring matings carried out with certain restrictions. This also includes animals with a long history of closed colony breeding.Water: A clear, odorless, tasteless liquid that is essential for most animal and plant life and is an excellent solvent for many substances. The chemical formula is hydrogen oxide (H2O). (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Potassium Channels, Calcium-Activated: Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.Lithium Chloride: A salt of lithium that has been used experimentally as an immunomodulator.Electric Stimulation: Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.Neurons: The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.KCNQ1 Potassium Channel: A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.Endothelium, Vascular: Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.Aorta, Thoracic: The portion of the descending aorta proceeding from the arch of the aorta and extending to the DIAPHRAGM, eventually connecting to the ABDOMINAL AORTA.Ether-A-Go-Go Potassium Channels: A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.Potassium Channels, Tandem Pore Domain: Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.Serotonin: A biochemical messenger and regulator, synthesized from the essential amino acid L-TRYPTOPHAN. In humans it is found primarily in the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, and blood platelets. Serotonin mediates several important physiological functions including neurotransmission, gastrointestinal motility, hemostasis, and cardiovascular integrity. Multiple receptor families (RECEPTORS, SEROTONIN) explain the broad physiological actions and distribution of this biochemical mediator.Electric Conductivity: The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.Tetraethylammonium: A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)Ion Channel Gating: The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.Benzalkonium Compounds: A mixture of alkylbenzyldimethylammonium compounds. It is a bactericidal quaternary ammonium detergent used topically in medicaments, deodorants, mouthwashes, as a surgical antiseptic, and as a as preservative and emulsifier in drugs and cosmetics.Temperature: The property of objects that determines the direction of heat flow when they are placed in direct thermal contact. The temperature is the energy of microscopic motions (vibrational and translational) of the particles of atoms.Hyperkalemia: Abnormally high potassium concentration in the blood, most often due to defective renal excretion. It is characterized clinically by electrocardiographic abnormalities (elevated T waves and depressed P waves, and eventually by atrial asystole). In severe cases, weakness and flaccid paralysis may occur. (Dorland, 27th ed)KCNQ Potassium Channels: A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.Potassium Permanganate: Permanganic acid (HMnO4), potassium salt. A highly oxidative, water-soluble compound with purple crystals, and a sweet taste. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Information, 4th ed)Delayed Rectifier Potassium Channels: A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.Kv1.5 Potassium Channel: A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.Electrophysiology: The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.Double-Blind Method: A method of studying a drug or procedure in which both the subjects and investigators are kept unaware of who is actually getting which specific treatment.Kv1.4 Potassium Channel: A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.Cells, Cultured: Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.Carbon Isotopes: Stable carbon atoms that have the same atomic number as the element carbon, but differ in atomic weight. C-13 is a stable carbon isotope.Cattle: Domesticated bovine animals of the genus Bos, usually kept on a farm or ranch and used for the production of meat or dairy products or for heavy labor.Shab Potassium Channels: A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.Shal Potassium Channels: A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.Nitric Oxide: A free radical gas produced endogenously by a variety of mammalian cells, synthesized from ARGININE by NITRIC OXIDE SYNTHASE. Nitric oxide is one of the ENDOTHELIUM-DEPENDENT RELAXING FACTORS released by the vascular endothelium and mediates VASODILATION. It also inhibits platelet aggregation, induces disaggregation of aggregated platelets, and inhibits platelet adhesion to the vascular endothelium. Nitric oxide activates cytosolic GUANYLATE CYCLASE and thus elevates intracellular levels of CYCLIC GMP.KCNQ2 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Glucose: A primary source of energy for living organisms. It is naturally occurring and is found in fruits and other parts of plants in its free state. It is used therapeutically in fluid and nutrient replacement.Patch-Clamp Techniques: An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.Large-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.KCNQ3 Potassium Channel: A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.Tetraethylammonium CompoundsCadmium Chloride: A cadmium halide in the form of colorless crystals, soluble in water, methanol, and ethanol. It is used in photography, in dyeing, and calico printing, and as a solution to precipitate sulfides. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 5th ed)Cerebral Cortex: The thin layer of GRAY MATTER on the surface of the CEREBRAL HEMISPHERES that develops from the TELENCEPHALON and folds into gyri and sulchi. It reaches its highest development in humans and is responsible for intellectual faculties and higher mental functions.Ouabain: A cardioactive glycoside consisting of rhamnose and ouabagenin, obtained from the seeds of Strophanthus gratus and other plants of the Apocynaceae; used like DIGITALIS. It is commonly used in cell biological studies as an inhibitor of the NA(+)-K(+)-EXCHANGING ATPASE.Rubidium: An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.4-Aminopyridine: One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.Electrolytes: Substances that dissociate into two or more ions, to some extent, in water. Solutions of electrolytes thus conduct an electric current and can be decomposed by it (ELECTROLYSIS). (Grant & Hackh's Chemical Dictionary, 5th ed)Potassium Dichromate: Chromic acid (H2Cr2O7), dipotassium salt. A compound having bright orange-red crystals and used in dyeing, staining, tanning leather, as bleach, oxidizer, depolarizer for dry cells, etc. Medically it has been used externally as an astringent, antiseptic, and caustic. When taken internally, it is a corrosive poison.Action Potentials: Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.Pregnancy: The status during which female mammals carry their developing young (EMBRYOS or FETUSES) in utero before birth, beginning from FERTILIZATION to BIRTH.Biological Transport, Active: The movement of materials across cell membranes and epithelial layers against an electrochemical gradient, requiring the expenditure of metabolic energy.Bromides: Salts of hydrobromic acid, HBr, with the bromine atom in the 1- oxidation state. (From McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 4th ed)Glyburide: An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.Barium Compounds: Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.Cesium: A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.Ion Transport: The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.G Protein-Coupled Inwardly-Rectifying Potassium Channels: A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels: A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.Ion Channels: Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.Cell Membrane Permeability: A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.

Polymerization of Acanthamoeba actin. Kinetics, thermodynamics, and co-polymerization with muscle actin. (1/3585)

The kinetics and thermodynamics for the polymerization of purified Acanthamoeba actin were studied and compared to muscle actin. Polymerization was qualitatively similar for the two actins with a rate-limiting nucleation step followed by rapid polymer extension. Polymerization occurred only above a threshold critical concentration which varied with polymerization conditions for each actin. In the presence of 2 mM MgCl2, nucleation of both actins was rapid and their critical concentrations were similarly low and not detectably dependent on temperature. In 0.1 M KCl, the rates of nucleation of both actins were much slower than when Mg2+ was present and were significantly different from each other. Also, under these conditions, the critical concentrations of Acanthamoeba and muscle actin were significantly different and both varied markedly with temperature. These quantitative differences between the two actins could be attributed to differences in both their enthalpies and entropies of polymerization, Acanthamoeba actin having the more positive deltaH and delta S. Co-polymerization of the two actins was also demonstrated. Overall, however, there were no qualitative differences between Acanthamoeba and muscle actin that would suggest a unique role for the monomer-polymer equilibrium of cytoplasmic actin in cell motility.  (+info)

Biochemical and electrophysiological studies on the mechanism of action of PNU-151774E, a novel antiepileptic compound. (2/3585)

PNU-151774E [(S)-(+)-2-(4-(3-fluorobenzyloxy)benzylamino)propanamide methanesulfonate], a new anticonvulsant that displays a wide therapeutic window, has a potency comparable or superior to that of most classic anticonvulsants. PNU-151774E is chemically unrelated to current antiepileptics. In animal seizure models it possesses a broad spectrum of action. In the present study, the action mechanism of PNU-151774E has been investigated using electrophysiological and biochemical assays. Binding studies performed with rat brain membranes show that PNU-151774E has high affinity for binding site 2 of the sodium channel receptor, which is greater than that of phenytoin or lamotrigine (IC50, 8 microM versus 47 and 185 microM, respectively). PNU-151774E reduces sustained repetitive firing in a use-dependent manner without modifying the first action potential in hippocampal cultured neurons. In the same preparation PNU-151774E inhibits tetrodotoxin-sensitive fast sodium currents and high voltage-activated calcium currents under voltage-clamp conditions. These electrophysiological activities of PNU-151774E correlate with its ability to inhibit veratrine and KCl-induced glutamate release in rat hippocampal slices (IC50, 56.4 and 185.5 microM, respectively) and calcium inward currents in mouse cortical neurons. On the other hand, PNU-151774E does not affect whole-cell gamma-aminobutryic acid- and glutamate-induced currents in cultured mouse cortical neurons. These results suggest that PNU-151774E exerts its anticonvulsant activity, at least in part, through inhibition of sodium and calcium channels, stabilizing neuronal membrane excitability and inhibiting transmitter release. The possible relevance of these pharmacological properties to its antiepileptic potential is discussed.  (+info)

Electrical and mechanical responses to diltiazem in potassium depolarized myocardium of the guinea pig. (3/3585)

Effects of diltiazem on the electrical and mechanical activities of guinea pig papillary muscle were investigated in K-rich Tyrode's solution (Kc1 12.7 mM). The electrical properties of cell membrane in K-rich solution were also examined in the ventricular muscle fibers. It was found that the overshoot as well as the maximum rate of rise (Vmax) of the action potential were highly sensitive to the extracellular concentration of CaC12 in K-rich solution. Vmax was also affected by NaC1. Diltiazem at a lower concentration (1.1 X 10(-7) M) caused a reduction in the contractile force of K-depolarized papillary muscle without producing significant changes in the resting and action potentials. In the presence of a higher concentration of diltiazem (1.1 X 10(-5) M), the contractile force decreased concurrently with the change in the action potential. Addition of CaC12 restored the original strength of contraction in parallel to the recovery of the action potential, especially in its overshoot and Vmax. From these results, it is inferred that diltiazem may decrease the contractile force of guinea pig papillary muscle either by interfering with the intrasmembrane calcium influx or by intracellularly reducing the free calcium ion concentration in the myoplasm.  (+info)

Sodium ion uptake into isolated plasma membrane vesicles: indirect effects of other ions. (4/3585)

Vesicles derived from plasma membrane of corneal endothelium were agitated to their minimum size distribution. When isotonic salt solutions surrounding the vesicles were changed there were alterations to the vesicle size distribution: the modal point of the logarithmic distribution did not change but the log variance did, indicating that substantial fission and fusion of vesicles occurred depending upon the nature of the surrounding solute. Orientation and total membrane area was conserved in the transformed population of vesicles. Although the ions added to the external isotonic salt solutions in the present series of experiments have no direct effect upon sodium membrane transporters in these membranes, kinetics of sodium accumulation into the vesicles were affected in a way that correlated with changes to the vesicle size distribution. Early-saturating (<1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with apparently stable populations. Late-saturating (>1 min) intravesicular concentrations of sodium corresponded with significant vesicle distribution shifts and included a few seconds of delay. During the linear accumulation phase, both populations showed similar magnitudes of sodium transport. The significance of these data is discussed.  (+info)

Identification of mechanosensitive ion channels in the cytoplasmic membrane of Corynebacterium glutamicum. (5/3585)

Patch-clamp experiments performed on membrane fragments of Corynebacterium glutamicum fused into giant liposomes revealed the presence of two different stretch-activated conductances, 600 to 700 pS and 1,200 to 1,400 pS in 0.1 M KCl, that exhibited the same characteristics in terms of kinetics, ion selectivity, and voltage dependence.  (+info)

Mechanosensitive channel functions to alleviate the cell lysis of marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, by osmotic downshock. (6/3585)

The mechanosensitive channel with large conductance of Escherichia coli is the first to be cloned among stretch-activated channels. Although its activity was characterized by a patch clamp method, a physiological role of the channel has not been proved. The marine bacterium, Vibrio alginolyticus, is sensitive to osmotic stress and cell lysis occurs under osmotic downshock. We introduced an mscL gene into Vibrio alginolyticus, and the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance functions was found to alleviate cell lysis by osmotic downshock. This is the first report to show a physiological role of the mechanosensitive channel with large conductance.  (+info)

Studies of the role of endothelium-dependent nitric oxide release in the sustained vasodilator effects of corticotrophin releasing factor and sauvagine. (7/3585)

1. The mechanisms of the sustained vasodilator actions of corticotrophin-releasing factor (CRF) and sauvagine (SVG) were studied using rings of endothelium de-nuded rat thoracic aorta (RTA) and the isolated perfused rat superior mesenteric arterial vasculature (SMA). 2. SVG was approximately 50 fold more potent than CRF on RTA (EC40: 0.9 +/- 0.2 and 44 +/- 9 nM respectively, P < 0.05), and approximately 10 fold more active in the perfused SMA (ED40: 0.05 +/- 0.02 and 0.6 +/- 0.1 nmol respectively, P < 0.05). Single bolus injections of CRF (100 pmol) or SVG (15 pmol) in the perfused SMA caused reductions in perfusion pressure of 23 +/- 1 and 24 +/- 2% that lasted more than 20 min. 3. Removal of the endothelium in the perfused SMA with deoxycholic acid attenuated the vasodilatation and revealed two phases to the response; a short lasting direct action, and a sustained phase which was fully inhibited. 4. Inhibition of nitric oxide synthase with L-NAME (100 microM) L-NMMA (100 microM) or 2-ethyl-2-thiopseudourea (ETPU, 100 microM) had similar effects on the vasodilator responses to CRF as removal of the endothelium, suggesting a pivotal role for nitric oxide. However the selective guanylate cyclase inhibitor 1H-[l,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-alpha]quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ, 10 microM) did not affect the response to CRF. 5. High potassium (60 mM) completely inhibited the vasodilator response to CRF in the perfused SMA, indicating a role for K channels in this response. 6. Compared to other vasodilator agents acting via the release of NO, the actions of CRF and SVG are strikingly long-lasting, suggesting a novel mechanism of prolonged activation of nitric oxide synthase.  (+info)

Protrusive growth from giant liposomes driven by actin polymerization. (8/3585)

Development of protrusions in the cell is indispensable in the process of cell motility. Membrane protrusion has long been suggested to occur as a result of actin polymerization immediately beneath the cell membrane at the leading edge, but elucidation of the mechanism is insufficient because of the complexity of the cell. To study the mechanism, we prepared giant liposomes containing monomeric actin (100 or 200 microM) and introduced KCl into individual liposomes by an electroporation technique. On the electroporation, the giant liposomes deformed. Most importantly, protrusive structure grew from the liposomes containing 200 microM actin at rates (ranging from 0.3 to 0.7 micrometer/s) similar to those obtained in the cell. The deformation occurred in a time range (30 approximately 100 s) similar to that of actin polymerization monitored in a cuvette (ca. 50 s). Concomitant with deformation, Brownian motion of micron-sized particles entrapped in the liposomes almost ceased. From these observations, we conclude that actin polymerization in the liposomes caused the protrusive formation.  (+info)

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Potassium chloride can be easily obtained in relatively pure form at the grocery store as a salt substitute for people with low-sodium diets. This source is mixed in with potassium bitartrate to improve taste. Some salt substitutes tend to have merely a KCl addition, as still have lots of sodium chloride. Recrystallization is required to further purify the compound. However, salt substitute is deliberately overpriced by the companies that make it; it is many times cheaper to obtain potassium chloride through other means, often through larger industrial quantities, which are usually purer anyway. This includes buying potassium chloride as fertilizer, sometimes referred to as muriate of potash. In some hardware stores, sodium-free water purification tablets made of 99% or higher potassium chloride can be purchased, usually in bags weighing about 40 lbs. These are by far the most economic method of purchasing potassium chloride. ...
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And whether potassium chloride salt is free samples, or paid samples. There are 811 potassium chloride salt suppliers, mainly located in Asia. The top supplying country or region is China, which supply of potassium chloride salt respectively. Potassium chloride salt products are most popular in North America, Southeast Asia, and Mid East ...
Solid oral dosage forms of potassium chloride can produce ulcerative and/or stenotic lesions of the gastrointestinal tract. Based on spontaneous adverse reaction reports, enteric-coated preparations of potassium chloride are associated with an increased frequency of small bowel lesions (40 to 50 per 100,000 patient years) compared to sustained-release wax matrix formulations (less than one per 100,000 patient years). Because of the lack of extensive marketing experience with microencapsulated products, a comparison between such products and wax matrix or enteric-coated products is not available. Potassium chloride is a tablet formulated to provide a controlled rate of release of microencapsulated potassium chloride and thus to minimize the possibility of a high local concentration of potassium near the gastrointestinal wall.. Prospective trials have been conducted in normal human volunteers in which the upper gastrointestinal tract was evaluated by endoscopic inspection before and after 1 week ...
Free Shipping. Great Low Price. Potassium Chloride concentrate is used for electrolyte and fluid replenishment. Each 10 ml vial provides 20 mEq Potassium Chloride. Must be diluted before use. Potassium Chloride can help rehydrate animals and restore electrolyte balance.Potassium Chloride for Animal Use Hospira Safe.Pharmacy|Electrolytes Rx | Equine Pharmacy Rx |
Press Release issued Jul 21, 2014: The report firstly introduced Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride basic information included Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride definition classification application industry chain structure industry overview; international market analysis, China domestic market analysis, Macroeconomic environment and economic situation analysis and influence, Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride industry policy and plan, Nitrogen And Potassium Chloride product specification, manufacturing process, product cost structure etc.
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Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with congestive heart failure, severe renal insufficiency, and in clinical states in which there exists edema with sodium retention. Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP should be used with great care, if at all, in patients with hyperkalemia, severe renal failure, and in conditions in which potassium retention is present. Injections containing carbohydrates with low electrolyte concentration should not be administered simultaneously with blood through the same administration set because of the possibility of pseudoagglutination or hemolysis. The container label for these injections bears the statement: Do not administer simultaneously with blood. The intravenous administration of Potassium Chloride in 5% Dextrose and Sodium Chloride Injection, USP can cause fluid and/or solute overloading resulting in dilution of serum electrolyte ...
药品名称:POTASSIUM CHLORIDE 40MEQ IN DEXTROSE 5% AND SODIUM CHLORIDE 0.9% IN PLASTIC CONTAINER,活性成分:DEXTROSE; POTASSIUM CHLORIDE; SODIUM CHLORIDE,剂型:INJECTABLE;INJECTION,规格:5GM/100ML;300MG/100ML;900MG/100ML,药品注册申请号:019308,产品号:007
U.S. Salt does not sell Potassium Chloride.. Much like Calcium Chloride. About the same cost. The difference is, its only slightly damaging to concrete, or not at all. Also nearly harmless to plants and metals. Not as widely used as rock salt or calcium Chloride, at least around here. Potassium Chloride, weighs about 125 pounds, per cubic foot. Thats 3375 pounds, to a cubic yard. Sold in bags only.. Potassium Chloride is a common icemelters that is often perceived as safe products to use around vegetation. It needs to be used at a slightly higher rate of application, melting to 12o F.. Description ...
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Gangliosides enhance KCl-induced Ca2+ influx and acetylcholine release in brain synaptosomes.: Effects of gangliosides GM1 and GQ1b on cholinergic synaptic func
Sodium Chloride vs Potassium Chloride Sodium chloride and potassium chloride are ionic compounds. Both are solids, where cations and anions are in a
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This paper describes and discusses new experimental investigations of the excitation, absorption and emission spectra, phosphorescent decay curve characteristics, thermoluminescence and photoconductivity of potassium chloride phosphors activated by thallium and of the thermoluminescence of potassium chloride phosphors activated by barium, by strontium or by thermal or mechanical strains. It is concluded that for concentrations of more than about 0·001 mol. Tl the KCl:TlCl phosphors contain a number of different centres. Reasons are given for suggesting that some of these may be: (1) Tl+ ions at substitutional sites and not near to other Tl+ ions at neighbouring positive ion sites, (2) TlCln complexes at special sites near defects or along dislocations, (3) lattice distortions produced by the incorporation of Tl+ or other foreign ions. Since the main emission peaks appearing in the thermoluminescence of KCl: Tl at 200 and 300 °K also occur in the KCl phosphors activated by barium, by strontium ...
Potassium Chloride, CAS# 7447-40-7, is a metal halide salt manufactured through chemical synthesis, available as White Crystalline Powder. Potassium Chloride is…
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sample_1: RNA (22-MER) 0.9-1.3 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 100%. sample_2: RNA (22-MER) 0.9-1.3 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; H2O 90%; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 10%. sample_3: RNA (22-MER), [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 1.0 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 100%. sample_4: RNA (22-MER), [U-100% 13C; U-100% 15N], 1.0 mM; potassium chloride 10 mM; EDTA 10 uM; H2O 90%; D2O, [U-100% 2H], 10%. sample_conditions_1: ionic strength: 10 mM; pD: 6.45; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 293 K. sample_conditions_5: ionic strength: 10 mM; pD: 6.45; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 303 K. sample_conditions_2: ionic strength: 10 mM; pH: 6.2; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 278 K. sample_conditions_6: ionic strength: 10 mM; pH: 6.2; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 293 K. sample_conditions_3: ionic strength: 10 mM; pD: 6.8; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 303 K. sample_conditions_4: ionic strength: 10 mM; pH: 6.4; pressure: 1 atm; temperature: 278 K ...
Jan 19, 2019· Potassium is a mineral that is found in many foods and is needed for several functions of your body, especially the beating of your heart.. Potassium chloride is used to prevent or to treat low blood levels of potassium (hypokalemia).. Potassium levels can be low as a result of a disease or from taking certain medicines, or after a prolonged illness with diarrhea or vomiting ...
Providing proper hydration for your horse. This Salt and Potassium Chloride Blend is an electrolyte to help horses recover following exercise. Guaranteed Analysis Salt (Min) 49% Salt (Max) 51% Potassium (Min) 24% Feeding Directions: For use as a supplemental source of salt and potassium for equine. Feed free choice o
Manufacturer of Chloride Chemicals - Potassium Chloride, Poly Aluminum Chloride offered by Shreekala Intermediate Private Limited, Vadodara, Gujarat.
Potassium chloride - Not listed as a carcinogen by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65. Hydrogen chloride - IARC: Group 3 (not classifiable) Water - Not listed as a carcinogen by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65. Silver chloride - Not listed as a carcinogen by ACGIH, IARC, NTP, or CA Prop 65. Other: See actual entry in RTECS for complete information ...
... most important salt that consumes more potassium salts. It (KCl) is a soluble salt that is an extremely efficient shale stabilizer
Potassium Chloride 7.46% - 10% - 11.2% - 15% Injection ampoule is a hypertonic, sterile, non pyrogenic solution of Potassium in water for injection.. ...
1. Which salt is LEAST soluble at 0 ºC? 2. How many grams of sodium nitrate, NaNO3, are soluble in 100 g of water at 10 ºC? 3. When 50 grams of potassium chloride, KCl, is dissolved in 100 grams of water at 50 ºC, the solution asked by zagros on November 24, 2014 ...
Bathe in silky smooth pool water with a unique blend of magnesium and potassium chloride minerals. View our magnapool minerals for a superior swimming experience.
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Formula: KCL. Molecular Weight: 74.55. Melting Point: 7720C. Boiling Point: 15000C. State at room tempeture?: Away from moisture and heat. Is it molecular or ionic compound: Ionic Compound. Molecular Geometry: linear. Bond Discription: Potassium chloride. What we use it for: It is use for medidine, food processing and in judicial exerution through lethal injuctions and scientific applications.It alos helps treat low blood pressure.It a drug.. Any other useful information: It is a metal halide. When its in its pure state it is odorless.. ...
425 medications are known to interact with potassium chloride. Includes Advair Diskus (fluticasone/salmeterol), Aspirin Low Strength (aspirin), Calcium 600 D (calcium/vitamin d).
Clinical studies of potassium chloride did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.. This drug is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of toxic reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function.. ...
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Lush Gro Potassium Chloride is minimum 98 % pure FERTILIZER GRADE soluble nutrients that can be used to prepare or adjust nutrient solution - strictly for use as plant food only. Its ideal to soften your water and gives resistance for your plants to battle infection and pest attack from within.
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Produce granular potassium chloride is the same as THAT 2184-002- 26595427- 2016.. Guaranteed shelf life: 12 months from the date of manufacture.. Shelf life: not limited.. Storage: in closed warehouses, excluding the ingress of precipitation, groundwater, direct exposure to sunlight ...
Materion Advanced Chemicals Potassium chloride; Purity: 99.999 , CAS 7447-40-7, Materion Item Number P-1050. Call 419-289-9800 to order.
K-TAB (Potassium chloride) drug information & product resources from MPR including dosage information, educational materials, & patient assistance.
Hospira Inc. has issued a nationwide recall of its potassium chloride injection because some containers were found to be mislabeled with the bar code for another drug.
Find the latest Potassium Chloride statistics and market data by country & year. The best datasets from the best open data sources are on ReportLinker Data.
Potassium Chloride Manufacturers. KCl IP. KCl BP. KCl USP. KCl ACS. KCl Oil Drilling Grade. KCl FCC Food Grade. Global or International Suppliers, Exporters, Importers, Manufacturers. Exporters to USA Canada UAE Europe South Africa Tanzania Kenya Uganda Egypt Nigeria Turkey Mexico Brazil Argentina Chile Dubai etc. I shall pass through this world, but once ...
Easy to read patient leaflet for Potassium Chloride Extended-Release Tablets. Includes indications, proper use, special instructions, precautions, and possible side effects.
ACK (Ammonium-Chloride-Potassium) lysing buffer[edit]. ACK is used for lysis of red blood cells in biological samples where ...
... potassium chloride from Solikamsk; oil from Volga region. There are also many passenger routes to Moscow, Astrakhan, Rostov, ...
Potassium chloride stopped Marco's heart. At 8:29 p.m. EST, Marco's skin color had changed noticeably, which indicated that his ... The three drugs are sodium thiopental, pancuronium bromide, and potassium chloride. Sodium thiopental rendered Marco ...
... but potassium chloride and bicarbonate are common). Rapidly absorbed boluses of liquid potassium are generally needed to abort ... Walker MB (1935). "Potassium chloride in myasthenia gravis". Lancet. 2 (5836): 47. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(01)09382-5. ... IV potassium is seldom justified unless the patient is unable to swallow. Daily potassium dosage may need to be much higher ... Some patients also take potassium-sparing diuretics such as spironolactone (Aldactone®) to help maintain potassium levels. ...
doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)94294-6. Walker MB (1935). "Potassium chloride in myasthenia gravis". Lancet. 2 (5836): 47. doi: ... She was also the first to recognise the association between familial periodic paralysis and low blood potassium levels. Mary ... low blood potassium levels). She also described the glucose challenge test used in diagnosing hypokalaemic periodic paralysis ... and the use of intravenous potassium in its treatment. During 1935 her research on myasthenia was incorporated into her MD ...
Examples: potassium chloride and sodium chloride may be considered congeners; also potassium chloride and potassium fluoride. ... For example, titanium(II) chloride (titanium dichloride), titanium(III) chloride (titanium trichloride), and titanium(IV) ... chloride (titanium tetrachloride) may be considered congeners. Congeners can refer to other elements in the same group in the ...
Iron(II) sulfate, developed by sodium carbonate or potassium ferricyanate. Cobalt(II) chloride, developed by potassium ... Lemon juice, developed by iodine solution (ink turns white, paper turns light blue). Sodium chloride (common table salt), ... Soap water (carboxylate partially oxidises) Wine, or vinegar Cobalt chloride, which turns blue when heated and becomes ... Copper sulfate, developed by sodium iodide, sodium carbonate, ammonium hydroxide or potassium ferricyanide. Lead(II) nitrate, ...
... and potassium chloride to stop the heart. The 50th convicted killer executed in Georgia since 1973 was Roy Willard Blankenship ...
Intravenous administration of mis-selected concentrated potassium chloride. NHS England produced a report on 148 reported never ...
ISBN 1-877058-03-3 Findlay, G.P. and Pallaghy, C.K. (1978). Potassium chloride in the motor tissue of Stylidium. Australian ...
However, the potassium chloride was not diluted properly and it burned her son's veins, causing Justin terrible pain but not ... The plan involved giving the children undiluted potassium chloride just after giving them amitriptyline to sedate them. ... She then attempted suicide by taking twenty-eight amitriptyline pills and injecting herself with undiluted potassium chloride. ... Riggs was executed with a potassium chloride injection. Arkansas portal Biography portal Criminal justice portal Capital ...
Excessive potassium intake may be detrimental to health, and it is advised that potassium chloride not be used by those taking ... potassium chloride is widely used for this purpose. The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends daily potassium intake of ... Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. ISBN 978-0-309-09158-9. Lay summary - ... "Sodium Chloride". Eat Well, Be Well. UK Government Food Standards Agency. Retrieved 16 May 2010. "Health Canada, Healthy Living ...
... "ferric chloride" (instead calling it "iron(III) chloride"), but names like "potassium permanganate" (instead of "potassium ... Example: sodium chloride, potassium oxide, or calcium carbonate. When the metal has more than one possible ionic charge or ... Monatomic anions: Cl− chloride S2− sulfide P3− phosphide Polyatomic ions: NH+ 4 ammonium H 3O+ hydronium NO− 3 nitrate NO− 2 ... For example, NaCl is sodium chloride, and CaF2 is calcium fluoride. Cations which have taken on more than one positive charge ...
... potassium/chloride transporters)". Hewett D, Samuelsson L, Polding J, Enlund F, Smart D, Cantone K, See CG, Chadha S, Inerot A ... Solute carrier family 12 member 8 (SLC12A8), also known as cation-chloride cotransporter 9 (CCC9), is a protein that in humans ...
... iom.nationalacademies.org/Reports/2004/Dietary-Reference-Intakes-Water-Potassium-Sodium-Chloride-and-Sulfate.aspx "Nutrition ... doi:10.1111/j.1471-0528.1964.tb04317.x. Institute of Medicine (IOM). Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, ... Dietary References Intakes:Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate. Released February 11, 2014. https:// ... Chloride, and Sulfate. Washington, DC: National Academies Press, 2004. Beall MH; van den Wijngaard JPHM; van Gemert MJC; Ross ...
Note: Table 11-1 seems to clarify that 500mg refers to sodium, not sodium chloride] "Sodium and Potassium Quick Health Facts". ... "Dietary Reference Intakes: Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate". Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, ... and sodium-potassium channels. Sodium channels are known to be less selective in comparison to potassium channels. Remarkably, ... Sodium chloride is the principal source of sodium in the diet, and is used as seasoning and preservative, such as for pickling ...
... potassium/chloride transporters)". Caron L; Rousseau F; Gagnon E; Isenring P (October 2000). "Cloning and functional ... Solute carrier family 12 member 9 (SLC12A9), also known as cation-chloride cotransporter 6 (CCC6) or cation-chloride ...
... nucleotides are sometimes added to potassium chloride to improve the flavour of salt substitutes. Potassium chloride may have a ... They usually contain mostly potassium chloride, whose toxicity is approximately equal to that of table salt in a healthy person ... The recommended daily allowance of potassium is higher than that for sodium, yet a typical person consumes less potassium than ... Caggiula, AW; RR Wing; MP Nowalk; NC Milas; S Lee; H Langford (1985). "The measurement of sodium and potassium intake". ...
Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate , The National Academies Press. p. 85. doi:10.17226/10925. "Archived copy". Archived ...
These include calcium, phosphorus, sodium, potassium, and chloride, and are commonly found in most good-quality feeds. Horses ... Hard work increases the need for minerals; sweating depletes sodium, potassium, and chloride from the horse's system. Therefore ... potassium, and magnesium. Horses drink less water in cool weather or when on lush pasture, which has a higher water content. ... with the exception of sodium chloride (salt), which needs to be provided, preferably free choice. Some pastures are deficient ...
Satellite image of a potassium chloride factory in Lop Nur. Lop Desert Tarim Basin Tarim mummies Silk Road transmission of ... The railway is used to transport potassium-rich salt mined at the lake to the Lanzhou-Xinjiang Railway. Given the extreme ...
... sodium chloride (NaCl) 6.4 mg, potassium chloride (KCl) 0.75 mg, calcium chloride dihydrate (CaCl2•2H2O) 0.48 mg, magnesium ... sodium chloride 7.14 mg (122.17 mmol), potassium chloride 0.38 mg (5.097 mmol), calcium chloride dihydrate 0.154 mg (1.04754 ... Solutions most commonly include sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and chloride. Balanced salt solutions are used for ... chloride hexahydrate (MgCl2•6H2O) 0.3 mg, sodium acetate trihydrate (C2H3NaO2•3H2O) 3.9 mg, sodium citrate dihydrate (C6H5Na3O7 ...
4 Water , Dietary Reference Intakes for Water, Potassium, Sodium, Chloride, and Sulfate , The National Academies Press. p. 124 ...
The town is famous for its production of salt; in particular, potassium chloride, which is used as a fertilizer. More than ...
Potassium (K+) and chloride (Cl−) ions diffuse into the canaliculi. Hydrogen ions are pumped out of the cell into the ... The enzyme hydrogen potassium ATPase (H+/K+ ATPase) is unique to the parietal cells and transports the H+ against a ... The bicarbonate ion (HCO3−) is exchanged for a chloride ion (Cl−) on the basal side of the cell and the bicarbonate diffuses ... canaliculi in exchange for potassium ions, via the H+/K+ ATPase. These receptors are increased in number on luminal side by ...
Oxidation of amines with iron(III) chloride.[19]. *Hydrolysis of unsaturated secondary amides,[20] β-Keto acid esters,[11] or β ... Typical strong oxidants (source of "O" in the above reaction) include potassium permanganate or a Cr(VI) compound. Milder ... By the reaction of an acid chloride with organocadmium compounds or organocopper compounds. ...
... contrasted potassium citrate with potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate. Citrate clearance and citrate excretion rose ... Potassium chloride had no effect. I know that the importance of neutralizing diet acid loads is now taken for granted, but it ... The Potassium is as Important as the Alkali. Potassium and sodium citrate salts both provide alkali, but in this work with ... I Found 65 Research Papers by Him on Potassium Citrate. If you search PubMed under potassium citrate and his name, you will ...
if you are dehydrated; have low blood volume; have low blood sodium, chloride, potassium, or magnesium levels; or have high ... Do not start taking additional potassium on your own or change your diet to include more potassium without first checking with ... Diazoxide, digoxin, lithium, nondepolarizing muscle relaxants (eg, tubocurarine), potassium, or potassium-sparing diuretics (eg ... Check with your doctor before you use a salt substitute or a product that has potassium in it. ...
Nutricost Potassium Citrate Powder. Fast-acting powder. Support bone health and optimal blood pressure. Best price on Nutricost ... Effects of potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate on endothelial function, cardiovascular risk factors, and bone turnover ... For example, potassium can help prevent muscle mass depletion.[3] Also potassium citrate has been found to aid in the fight ... Potassium Citrate Powder - Potassium Citrate is an important mineral that your body needs in order to strengthen your bones and ...
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Formulary Potassium Iodide (1 lb) 10-1040 1LB, Photographers, Formulary, Potassium, Iodide, 1, lb, 10-1040, 1LB, ... Formulary Potassium Iodide (1 lb) 10-1040 1LB User manual, User manual Photographers ... In preparation of mercuric chloride intensifier. Has the property of reducing emulsion fog, dissolving iodine ... Formulary Potassium Iodide (1 lb) 10-1040 1LB, Photographers, Formulary, Potassium, Iodide, 1, lb, ...
Main article: Potassium chloride (medical use). Potassium is vital in the human body, and potassium chloride by mouth is the ... Along with sodium chloride and lithium chloride, potassium chloride is used as a flux for the gas welding of aluminium. ... potassium chloride is toxic. The LD50 of orally ingested potassium chloride is approximately 2.5 g/kg, or 190 grams (6.7 oz) ... Potassium chloride (KCl) is a metal halide salt composed of potassium and chlorine. It is odorless and has a white or colorless ...
... sodium chloride). It is soluble in water, alcohol, and alkalies. Potassium chloride occurs pure in nature as the mineral ... potassium chloride. potassium chloride, chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely ... It is produced from sylvinite, a sodium chloride-potassium chloride mineral that is mined extensively near Carlsbad, N.Mex., ... the concentration of potassium oxide that there would be if the potassium were present as its oxide instead of as its chloride ...
... sodium chloride [1]). It is soluble in water, alcohol, and alkalies. ... potassium chloride, chemical compound, KCl, a colorless or white, cubic, crystalline compound that closely resembles common ... Potassium Chloride. OVERVIEW. Potassium chloride (poe-TAS-ee-yum KLOR-ide) occurs as a white or colorless crystalline solid or ... potassium chloride n. a salt of potassium administered by mouth to prevent and treat potassium deficiency, especially during ...
All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsPotassium CompoundsPotassium Chloride ... Potassium Chloride. A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to ... All MeSH CategoriesChemicals and Drugs CategoryInorganic ChemicalsChlorine CompoundsHydrochloric AcidChloridesPotassium ...
... are connected electrically by a potassium chloride salt bridge. (A salt bridge is a conductor with ions as charge carriers.) In ... Other articles where Potassium chloride is discussed: electricity: Electromotive force: … ... Potassium chloride, KCl, is a naturally occurring potassium salt that, aside from its use as fertilizer, is also a raw material ... as sodium chloride (NaCl), rubidium-doped potassium chloride (KCl), calcium fluoride (CaF), and strontium fluoride (SrF2) have ...
Find information about which conditions Potassium Chloride Oral is commonly used to treat. ... Drugs & MedicationsPotassium Chloride Tablet, Extended Release Particles/Crystals. What Conditions does Potassium Chloride ...
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About POTASSIUM CHLORIDE: Potassium Chloride is an inorganic salt.. Function(s): Viscosity Increasing Agent - Aqueous; ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (KCL) ; CHLORID DRASELNY (CZECH) ; CHLOROPOTASSURIL; DIPOTASSIUM DICHLORIDE; EMPLETS POTASSIUM CHLORIDE; ...
A list of US medications equivalent to Elin Potassium Chloride is available on the Drugs.com website. ... Elin Potassium Chloride is a medicine available in a number of countries worldwide. ... Potassium Chloride. Potassium Chloride is reported as an ingredient of Elin Potassium Chloride in the following countries:. * ... Elin Potassium Chloride may be available in the countries listed below.. Ingredient matches for Elin Potassium Chloride. ...
... potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate. Sando-K is a type of medicine called a potassium supplement. ... potassium chloride). Sando-K effervescent tablets contain two active ingredients, potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate ... potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate. Sando-K is a type of medicine called a potassium supplement. ... There are currently no other medicines available in the UK that contain both potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate as ...
See Also: Toxicological Abbreviations POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (JECFA Evaluation) Potassium chloride (PIM 430) Potassium chloride ( ...
Prescriber Checkup » POTASSIUM CHLORIDE POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. Klor-Con (Potassium Chloride) is a supplement that raises potassium ... Blood potassium has to stay in a narrow range, so very small potassium level changes can have significant effects. Source: ... Top prescribers for POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. 1 2 3 4 5 … Next › Last » ... Potassium is essential for heart, nerve, and muscle function, and other important processes in your body. ...
... prescribed to treat low potassium (hypokalemia). Side effects, drug interactions, recommended dosages, storage and pregnancy ... Consumer information about the medication potassium chloride (K-Dur, KLor Con, K-Tab, Klorvess, K-Lyte CL, Kaon CL, Slow-K, Ten ... increase potassium levels, causing high potassium levels in the blood when combined with potassium supplements. Potassium blood ... potassium chloride. *What is potassium supplements-oral, and how does it work (mechanism of action)? ...
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. Indication. *the prevention or treatment of potassium depletion, which may occur with severe vomiting, ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE Disclaimer to the On-line Edition. This Manual has been designed for use in the NICU at London Health ... monitor ECG, serum potassium levels and levels of other electrolytes (chloride, sodium, calcium); peaking of T-waves on the ECG ... potassium salts are well absorbed from the GI tract Side Effects. *gastrointestinal - vomiting, diarrhea, bleeding, distention ...
This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of saccharose into potassium chloride and water at different concentrations ... Winkelmann J. (2018) Diffusion coefficient of saccharose into potassium chloride and water. In: Lechner M.D. (eds) Diffusion in ... This chapter provides the diffusion coefficient of saccharose into potassium chloride and water at different concentrations ...
Potassium Chloride Extended-release Tablet, USP, 750 mg of potassium chloride (10 mEq of potassium) are available in:. Blisters ... Potassium Chloride Extended-release Tablet, USP, 1500 mg of potassium chloride (20 mEq of potassium) are available in:. ... Each Potassium Chloride Extended-release Tablet provides either 1500 mg of potassium chloride equivalent to 20 mEq of potassium ... POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 660YQ98I10) (POTASSIUM CATION - UNII:295O53K152) POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. 10 meq. ...
POTASSIUM CHLORIDE (UNII: 660YQ98I10) (POTASSIUM CATION - UNII:295O53K152) POTASSIUM CHLORIDE. 750 mg. ... supplemental potassium in the form of high potassium food or potassium chloride may be able to restore normal potassium levels. ... potassium chloride 10 MEQ Extended Release Oral Capsule. PSN. 2. 312504. potassium chloride 10 MEQ Extended Release Oral ... In such patients potassium replacement should be accomplished with potassium salts other than the chloride, such as potassium ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Potassium chloride at PatientsLikeMe. 214 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or psoriasis currently take Potassium chloride. ... What are people saying about Potassium chloride?. There is 1 thread in our forum about Potassium chloride. ... Potassium chloride is an electrolyte supplement used for the treatment or prevention of low potassium levels in the blood ...
Find the most comprehensive real-world treatment information on Potassium chloride at PatientsLikeMe. 215 patients with ... bipolar I disorder or mild depression currently take Potassium chloride. ... Showing 3 of 8 patient evaluations for Potassium chloride Previous page 1 2 3 Next page ...
Potassium Chloride KCl bulk & research qty manufacturer. Properties, SDS, Applications, Price. Free samples program. Term ... About Potassium Chloride. Potassium Chloride is an excellent water soluble crystalline Potassium source for uses compatible ... Potassium Chloride Synonyms. Potassium Chloride; Klotrix; Chlorvescent; Potavescent; Enseal; Kalitabs; Kaochlor; Pfklor; ... Related Applications, Forms & Industries for Potassium Chloride. Agriculture. Chemical Manufacturing. Chlorides. Defense. ...
  • as sodium chloride (NaCl), rubidium-doped potassium chloride (KCl), calcium fluoride (CaF), and strontium fluoride (SrF 2 ) have been used for erosion-resistant infrared radomes, windows for infrared detectors, and infrared laser windows. (britannica.com)
  • Although potassium is more electropositive than sodium, KCl can be reduced to the metal by reaction with metallic sodium at 850 °C because the more volatile potassium can be removed by distillation (see Le Chatelier's principle): KCl(l) + Na(l) ⇌ NaCl(l) + K(g) This method is the main method for producing metallic potassium. (wikipedia.org)
  • As previous studies used extreme dietary manipulations, we sought to determine whether the relationship between potassium and NaCl cotransporter (NCC) is physiologically relevant and clarify the mechanisms involved. (nih.gov)
  • All minerals except Sodium Chloride (Nacl) are usually present in sufficient amounts in a well - balanced diet. (webindia123.com)
  • It's possible that replacing the sodium (NaCl) with potassium (KCl) may be beneficial for those of us with hypertension on diuretics. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Complaints of bitterness or a chemical or metallic taste are also reported with potassium chloride used in food. (wikipedia.org)
  • The chief use of potassium chloride is in the production of fertilizers it is also used in chemical manufacture. (infoplease.com)
  • The chemical name of the active ingredient is potassium chloride, and the structural formula is KCl (molecular weight: 74.55). (nih.gov)
  • This agent fell out of favor with the introduction of potassium bicarbonate (Purple-K) dry chemical in the late 1960s, which was much less corrosive and more effective. (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium chloride has also been used to produce heat packs which employ exothermic chemical reactions, but these have mostly been discontinued with the advent of cheaper and more efficient methods, such as the oxidation of metals ('Hot Hands' one-time-use products) or the crystallization of sodium acetate (multiple-use products). (wikipedia.org)
  • Potassium chloride forms colorless chunks and to geologists, forms the mineral sylvite (or sylvine), a major source of potash for fertilizers and the chemical industry. (fsu.edu)
  • To the best of our knowledge the physical, chemical and toxicological properties of potassium chloride have not been thoroughly investigated and recorded. (espimetals.com)
  • The presence of potassium in soil promotes plant growth so this chemical is widely used in agriculture as a fertiliser. (sciencephoto.com)
  • What are the side effects of potassium supplements-oral? (medicinenet.com)
  • Serious side effects of potassium include uneven heartbeat, muscle weakness or limp feeling, severe stomach pain, and numbness or tingling in your hands, feet, or mouth. (rexhealth.com)
  • What are the possible side effects of potassium chloride? (emedicinehealth.com)
  • Disruption of the potassium/chloride cotransporter 3 (KCC3), encoded by the SLC12A6 gene, causes hereditary motor and sensory neuropathy associated with agenesis of the corpus callosum (HMSN/ACC), a neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disorder affecting both the peripheral nervous system and CNS. (jneurosci.org)
  • Lee, Walker, Williams, Goodier, Payne, Moss: Direct protein kinase C-dependent phosphorylation regulates the cell surface stability and activity of the potassium chloride cotransporter KCC2. (antikoerper-online.de)
  • Sando-K effervescent tablets contain two active ingredients, potassium chloride and potassium bicarbonate. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Drugs that slow transit of food through the intestine, for example, atropine and loperamide ( Imodium ), may delay passage of potassium tablets through the digestive system and result in ulceration or narrowing of the small intestine. (medicinenet.com)
  • In simulated gastric fluid at 37°C and in the absence of outside agitation, Potassium Chloride Extended-release Tablets, USP begins disintegrating into microencapsulated crystals within seconds and completely disintegrates within one minute. (nih.gov)
  • In some hardware stores, sodium-free water purification tablets made of 99% or higher potassium chloride can be purchased, usually in bags weighing about 40 lbs. (sciencemadness.org)
  • This medicine is not known to be harmful if used to correct low blood potassium levels during pregnancy, provided the mother's potassium level does not rise too high. (netdoctor.co.uk)
  • Consult physician if pregnant/nursing, taking any medications (especially those that may affect kidney function or blood potassium levels), or have a medical condition (especially heart/kidney condition or diabetes). (bestpricenutrition.com)
  • The microencapsulated crystals are formulated to provide an extended release of potassium chloride. (nih.gov)
  • Visually, potassium nitrate (KNO3) and potassium chloride (KCl) may be difficult to differentiate because they both appear as colorless or white crystals. (reference.com)
  • Under the microscope, potassium chloride appears as elongated or prismatic crystals, while potassium nitrate have more of a rhombic or trigonal structure. (reference.com)
  • Potassium chloride is used in some de-icing products that are designed to be safer for pets and plants, though these are inferior in melting quality to calcium chloride [lowest usable temperature 12 °F (−11 °C) v. −25 °F (−32 °C)]. It is also used in various brands of bottled water, as well as in bulk quantities for fossil fuel drilling purposes. (wikipedia.org)
  • The functions of potassium are : Regulation of pH of cell contents, Regulation of the osmotic pressure of cell contents and Potassium ion increases the relaxation of heart muscle which is antagonized by calcium ion. (webindia123.com)
  • You should not use this medication if you have kidney failure, Addison's disease, severe burns or other tissue injury, if you are dehydrated, if you take certain diuretics (water pills), or if you have high levels of potassium in your blood (hyperkalemia). (rexhealth.com)
  • This labeling error can result in medication error or delay in therapy for patients that require Potassium Chloride. (empr.com)
  • Potassium chloride is the most abundant compound of the element potassium and has the greatest number of applications of any salt of potassium. (encyclopedia.com)
  • A flotation agent is a material that coats the desired compound, such as potassium chloride, and allows it to float to the surface of the reaction chamber, like the soap suds that float on top of a washing machine. (encyclopedia.com)
  • The compound provides the potassium plants need to stay healthy and grow normally. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Global Drilling Fluids and Chemicals Limited at its manufacturing Facility in Gujarat, India manufactures one of the most Popular Work Over and Completion Fluids for the Oilfield Industry chemically Known as Potassium Chloride. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Anmol Chemicals is the pioneer manufacturers of Potassium Chloride, Pharmaceutical Excipients Fragrance & Flavor chemicals in India.We offer Halal and Kosher Potassium Chloride made in an ISO9001, ISO22000 (FSSC22000) and cGMP certified facility. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • Looking for affordable potassium chloride price in india? (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • 148 low price potassium chloride india products from 49 trustworthy potassium chloride india suppliers on Alibaba. (steunmijnclub.nl)
  • The majority of potassium chloride in the United States is now extracted by a lengthy process that also begins with the crushing of natural ores, such as sylvite and carnalite. (encyclopedia.com)
  • Although options 1, 2, and 3 are appropriate assessments for the child with dehydration, these assessments are not related specifically to the intravenous (IV) administration of potassium chloride. (coursehero.com)