A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS. They are used as ANTI-ARRHYTHMIA AGENTS and VASODILATOR AGENTS.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that are selectively permeable to potassium ions. At least eight major groups of K channels exist and they are made up of dozens of different subunits.
An element in the alkali group of metals with an atomic symbol K, atomic number 19, and atomic weight 39.10. It is the chief cation in the intracellular fluid of muscle and other cells. Potassium ion is a strong electrolyte that plays a significant role in the regulation of fluid volume and maintenance of the WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE.
One of the POTASSIUM CHANNEL BLOCKERS, with secondary effect on calcium currents, which is used mainly as a research tool and to characterize channel subtypes.
A potassium-selective ion channel blocker. (From J Gen Phys 1994;104(1):173-90)
A class of drugs that act by selective inhibition of calcium influx through cellular membranes.
Potassium channels where the flow of K+ ions into the cell is greater than the outward flow.
Potassium channel whose permeability to ions is extremely sensitive to the transmembrane potential difference. The opening of these channels is induced by the membrane depolarization of the ACTION POTENTIAL.
Gated, ion-selective glycoproteins that traverse membranes. The stimulus for ION CHANNEL GATING can be due to a variety of stimuli such as LIGANDS, a TRANSMEMBRANE POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, mechanical deformation or through INTRACELLULAR SIGNALING PEPTIDES AND PROTEINS.
An antidiabetic sulfonylurea derivative with actions similar to those of chlorpropamide.
The voltage differences across a membrane. For cellular membranes they are computed by subtracting the voltage measured outside the membrane from the voltage measured inside the membrane. They result from differences of inside versus outside concentration of potassium, sodium, chloride, and other ions across cells' or ORGANELLES membranes. For excitable cells, the resting membrane potentials range between -30 and -100 millivolts. Physical, chemical, or electrical stimuli can make a membrane potential more negative (hyperpolarization), or less negative (depolarization).
Voltage-gated potassium channels whose primary subunits contain six transmembrane segments and form tetramers to create a pore with a voltage sensor. They are related to their founding member, shaker protein, Drosophila.
Pyridines substituted in any position with an amino group. May be hydrogenated, but must retain at least one double bond.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is the predominant VOLTAGE-GATED POTASSIUM CHANNEL of T-LYMPHOCYTES.
A 37-amino acid residue peptide isolated from the scorpion Leiurus quinquestriatus hebraeus. It is a neurotoxin that inhibits calcium activated potassium channels.
Voltage-dependent cell membrane glycoproteins selectively permeable to calcium ions. They are categorized as L-, T-, N-, P-, Q-, and R-types based on the activation and inactivation kinetics, ion specificity, and sensitivity to drugs and toxins. The L- and T-types are present throughout the cardiovascular and central nervous systems and the N-, P-, Q-, & R-types are located in neuronal tissue.
A highly neurotoxic polypeptide from the venom of the honey bee (Apis mellifera). It consists of 18 amino acids with two disulfide bridges and causes hyperexcitability resulting in convulsions and respiratory paralysis.
The opening and closing of ion channels due to a stimulus. The stimulus can be a change in membrane potential (voltage-gated), drugs or chemical transmitters (ligand-gated), or a mechanical deformation. Gating is thought to involve conformational changes of the ion channel which alters selective permeability.
An electrophysiologic technique for studying cells, cell membranes, and occasionally isolated organelles. All patch-clamp methods rely on a very high-resistance seal between a micropipette and a membrane; the seal is usually attained by gentle suction. The four most common variants include on-cell patch, inside-out patch, outside-out patch, and whole-cell clamp. Patch-clamp methods are commonly used to voltage clamp, that is control the voltage across the membrane and measure current flow, but current-clamp methods, in which the current is controlled and the voltage is measured, are also used.
Potassium channels whose activation is dependent on intracellular calcium concentrations.
Venoms from animals of the order Scorpionida of the class Arachnida. They contain neuro- and hemotoxins, enzymes, and various other factors that may release acetylcholine and catecholamines from nerve endings. Of the several protein toxins that have been characterized, most are immunogenic.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is selectively inhibited by a variety of SCORPION VENOMS.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that is commonly mutated in human episodic ATAXIA and MYOKYMIA.
The study of the generation and behavior of electrical charges in living organisms particularly the nervous system and the effects of electricity on living organisms.
A family of voltage-gated potassium channels that are characterized by long N-terminal and C-terminal intracellular tails. They are named from the Drosophila protein whose mutation causes abnormal leg shaking under ether anesthesia. Their activation kinetics are dependent on extracellular MAGNESIUM and PROTON concentration.
A potassium-channel opening vasodilator that has been investigated in the management of hypertension. It has also been tried in patients with asthma. (Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p352)
A shaker subfamily that is prominently expressed in NEURONS and are necessary for high-frequency, repetitive firing of ACTION POTENTIALS.
Abrupt changes in the membrane potential that sweep along the CELL MEMBRANE of excitable cells in response to excitation stimuli.
A basic element found in nearly all organized tissues. It is a member of the alkaline earth family of metals with the atomic symbol Ca, atomic number 20, and atomic weight 40. Calcium is the most abundant mineral in the body and combines with phosphorus to form calcium phosphate in the bones and teeth. It is essential for the normal functioning of nerves and muscles and plays a role in blood coagulation (as factor IV) and in many enzymatic processes.
A voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed primarily in the HEART.
A family of delayed rectifier voltage-gated potassium channels that share homology with their founding member, KCNQ1 PROTEIN. KCNQ potassium channels have been implicated in a variety of diseases including LONG QT SYNDROME; DEAFNESS; and EPILEPSY.
A class of drugs that act by inhibition of sodium influx through cell membranes. Blockade of sodium channels slows the rate and amplitude of initial rapid depolarization, reduces cell excitability, and reduces conduction velocity.
The relationship between the dose of an administered drug and the response of the organism to the drug.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that conducts a delayed rectifier current. It contributes to ACTION POTENTIAL repolarization of MYOCYTES in HEART ATRIA.
A major class of calcium activated potassium channels whose members are voltage-dependent. MaxiK channels are activated by either membrane depolarization or an increase in intracellular Ca(2+). They are key regulators of calcium and electrical signaling in a variety of tissues.
A common name used for the genus Cavia. The most common species is Cavia porcellus which is the domesticated guinea pig used for pets and biomedical research.
Heteromultimers of Kir6 channels (the pore portion) and sulfonylurea receptor (the regulatory portion) which affect function of the HEART; PANCREATIC BETA CELLS; and KIDNEY COLLECTING DUCTS. KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate.
A subfamily of shaker potassium channels that shares homology with its founding member, Shab protein, Drosophila. They regulate delayed rectifier currents in the NERVOUS SYSTEM of DROSOPHILA and in the SKELETAL MUSCLE and HEART of VERTEBRATES.
A fast inactivating subtype of shaker potassium channels that contains two inactivation domains at its N terminus.
A strain of albino rat used widely for experimental purposes because of its calmness and ease of handling. It was developed by the Sprague-Dawley Animal Company.
Cell membrane glycoproteins that form channels to selectively pass chloride ions. Nonselective blockers include FENAMATES; ETHACRYNIC ACID; and TAMOXIFEN.
Potassium channels that contain two pores in tandem. They are responsible for baseline or leak currents and may be the most numerous of all K channels.
A group of compounds that are derivatives of beta- aminoethylbenzene which is structurally and pharmacologically related to amphetamine. (From Merck Index, 11th ed)
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A very slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channel that is expressed in NEURONS and is closely related to KCNQ2 POTASSIUM CHANNEL. It is commonly mutated in BENIGN FAMILIAL NEONATAL CONVULSIONS.
A shaker subfamily of potassium channels that participate in transient outward potassium currents by activating at subthreshold MEMBRANE POTENTIALS, inactivating rapidly, and recovering from inactivation quickly.
Agents used for the treatment or prevention of cardiac arrhythmias. They may affect the polarization-repolarization phase of the action potential, its excitability or refractoriness, or impulse conduction or membrane responsiveness within cardiac fibers. Anti-arrhythmia agents are often classed into four main groups according to their mechanism of action: sodium channel blockade, beta-adrenergic blockade, repolarization prolongation, or calcium channel blockade.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that are found primarily in excitable CELLS. They play important roles in the transmission of ACTION POTENTIALS and generate a long-lasting hyperpolarization known as the slow afterhyperpolarization.
The basic cellular units of nervous tissue. Each neuron consists of a body, an axon, and dendrites. Their purpose is to receive, conduct, and transmit impulses in the NERVOUS SYSTEM.
A family of inwardly-rectifying potassium channels that are activated by PERTUSSIS TOXIN sensitive G-PROTEIN-COUPLED RECEPTORS. GIRK potassium channels are primarily activated by the complex of GTP-BINDING PROTEIN BETA SUBUNITS and GTP-BINDING PROTEIN GAMMA SUBUNITS.
A group of slow opening and closing voltage-gated potassium channels. Because of their delayed activation kinetics they play an important role in controlling ACTION POTENTIAL duration.
Drugs used to cause dilation of the blood vessels.
Long-lasting voltage-gated CALCIUM CHANNELS found in both excitable and nonexcitable tissue. They are responsible for normal myocardial and vascular smooth muscle contractility. Five subunits (alpha-1, alpha-2, beta, gamma, and delta) make up the L-type channel. The alpha-1 subunit is the binding site for calcium-based antagonists. Dihydropyridine-based calcium antagonists are used as markers for these binding sites.
The ability of a substrate to allow the passage of ELECTRONS.
A strain of albino rat developed at the Wistar Institute that has spread widely at other institutions. This has markedly diluted the original strain.
Use of electric potential or currents to elicit biological responses.
Cells propagated in vitro in special media conducive to their growth. Cultured cells are used to study developmental, morphologic, metabolic, physiologic, and genetic processes, among others.
Female germ cells derived from OOGONIA and termed OOCYTES when they enter MEIOSIS. The primary oocytes begin meiosis but are arrested at the diplotene state until OVULATION at PUBERTY to give rise to haploid secondary oocytes or ova (OVUM).
A potent vasodilator agent with calcium antagonistic action. It is a useful anti-anginal agent that also lowers blood pressure.
The physiological widening of BLOOD VESSELS by relaxing the underlying VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE.
The commonest and widest ranging species of the clawed "frog" (Xenopus) in Africa. This species is used extensively in research. There is now a significant population in California derived from escaped laboratory animals.
A major class of calcium-activated potassium channels that were originally discovered in ERYTHROCYTES. They are found primarily in non-excitable CELLS and set up electrical gradients for PASSIVE ION TRANSPORT.
A family of hexahydropyridines.
A guanidine that opens POTASSIUM CHANNELS producing direct peripheral vasodilatation of the ARTERIOLES. It reduces BLOOD PRESSURE and peripheral resistance and produces fluid retention. (Martindale The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 31st ed)
Pyridine moieties which are partially saturated by the addition of two hydrogen atoms in any position.
An aquatic genus of the family, Pipidae, occurring in Africa and distinguished by having black horny claws on three inner hind toes.
Elements of limited time intervals, contributing to particular results or situations.
An element of the alkaline earth group of metals. It has an atomic symbol Ba, atomic number 56, and atomic weight 138. All of its acid-soluble salts are poisonous.
CALCIUM CHANNELS that are concentrated in neural tissue. Omega toxins inhibit the actions of these channels by altering their voltage dependence.
The pore-forming subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels. They form tetramers in CELL MEMBRANES.
A member of the alkali group of metals. It has the atomic symbol Na, atomic number 11, and atomic weight 23.
A calcium channel blocker that is a class IV anti-arrhythmia agent.
A benzothiazepine derivative with vasodilating action due to its antagonism of the actions of CALCIUM ion on membrane functions.
Compounds or agents that combine with an enzyme in such a manner as to prevent the normal substrate-enzyme combination and the catalytic reaction.
A heterogenous group of transient or low voltage activated type CALCIUM CHANNELS. They are found in cardiac myocyte membranes, the sinoatrial node, Purkinje cells of the heart and the central nervous system.
An adenine nucleotide containing three phosphate groups esterified to the sugar moiety. In addition to its crucial roles in metabolism adenosine triphosphate is a neurotransmitter.
Inorganic compounds that contain barium as an integral part of the molecule.
ATP-BINDING CASSETTE PROTEINS that are highly conserved and widely expressed in nature. They form an integral part of the ATP-sensitive potassium channel complex which has two intracellular nucleotide folds that bind to sulfonylureas and their analogs.
The rate dynamics in chemical or physical systems.
Agents that increase calcium influx into calcium channels of excitable tissues. This causes vasoconstriction in VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE and/or CARDIAC MUSCLE cells as well as stimulation of insulin release from pancreatic islets. Therefore, tissue-selective calcium agonists have the potential to combat cardiac failure and endocrinological disorders. They have been used primarily in experimental studies in cell and tissue culture.
Potassium or potassium compounds used in foods or as foods.
Single pavement layer of cells which line the luminal surface of the entire vascular system and regulate the transport of macromolecules and blood components.
Descriptions of specific amino acid, carbohydrate, or nucleotide sequences which have appeared in the published literature and/or are deposited in and maintained by databanks such as GENBANK, European Molecular Biology Laboratory (EMBL), National Biomedical Research Foundation (NBRF), or other sequence repositories.
The order of amino acids as they occur in a polypeptide chain. This is referred to as the primary structure of proteins. It is of fundamental importance in determining PROTEIN CONFORMATION.
Compounds with a core of fused benzo-pyran rings.
10-carbon saturated monocarboxylic acids.
A white crystal or crystalline powder used in BUFFERS; FERTILIZERS; and EXPLOSIVES. It can be used to replenish ELECTROLYTES and restore WATER-ELECTROLYTE BALANCE in treating HYPOKALEMIA.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels that contain 3-4 ANKYRIN REPEAT DOMAINS and a conserved C-terminal domain. Members are highly expressed in the CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Selectivity for calcium over sodium ranges from 0.5 to 10.
A benzothiadiazine derivative that is a peripheral vasodilator used for hypertensive emergencies. It lacks diuretic effect, apparently because it lacks a sulfonamide group.
Organic compounds containing both the hydroxyl and carboxyl radicals.
The movement of ions across energy-transducing cell membranes. Transport can be active, passive or facilitated. Ions may travel by themselves (uniport), or as a group of two or more ions in the same (symport) or opposite (antiport) directions.
Inorganic compounds derived from hydrochloric acid that contain the Cl- ion.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS within the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels. They are expressed in OLFACTORY NERVE cilia and in PHOTORECEPTOR CELLS and some PLANTS.
The lipid- and protein-containing, selectively permeable membrane that surrounds the cytoplasm in prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells.
A derivative of the NIACINAMIDE that is structurally combined with an organic nitrate. It is a potassium-channel opener that causes vasodilatation of arterioles and large coronary arteries. Its nitrate-like properties produce venous vasodilation through stimulation of guanylate cyclase.
A condition due to decreased dietary intake of potassium, as in starvation or failure to administer in intravenous solutions, or to gastrointestinal loss in diarrhea, chronic laxative abuse, vomiting, gastric suction, or bowel diversion. Severe potassium deficiency may produce muscular weakness and lead to paralysis and respiratory failure. Muscular malfunction may result in hypoventilation, paralytic ileus, hypotension, muscle twitches, tetany, and rhabomyolysis. Nephropathy from potassium deficit impairs the concentrating mechanism, producing POLYURIA and decreased maximal urinary concentrating ability with secondary POLYDIPSIA. (Merck Manual, 16th ed)
A member of the alkali metals. It has an atomic symbol Cs, atomic number 50, and atomic weight 132.91. Cesium has many industrial applications, including the construction of atomic clocks based on its atomic vibrational frequency.
Benzoic acid or benzoic acid esters substituted with one or more nitro groups.
Proteins that bind specific drugs with high affinity and trigger intracellular changes influencing the behavior of cells. Drug receptors are generally thought to be receptors for some endogenous substance not otherwise specified.
An aminoperhydroquinazoline poison found mainly in the liver and ovaries of fishes in the order TETRAODONTIFORMES, which are eaten. The toxin causes paresthesia and paralysis through interference with neuromuscular conduction.
Venoms from snakes of the family Elapidae, including cobras, kraits, mambas, coral, tiger, and Australian snakes. The venoms contain polypeptide toxins of various kinds, cytolytic, hemolytic, and neurotoxic factors, but fewer enzymes than viper or crotalid venoms. Many of the toxins have been characterized.
Inorganic compounds that contain potassium as an integral part of the molecule.
The regulatory subunits of large-conductance calcium-activated potassium channels.
Established cell cultures that have the potential to propagate indefinitely.
A benzimidazoyl-substituted tetraline that selectively binds and inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, T-TYPE.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after vanilloid receptor. They are very sensitive to TEMPERATURE and hot spicy food and CAPSAICIN. They have the TRP domain and ANKYRIN repeats. Selectivity for CALCIUM over SODIUM ranges from 3 to 100 fold.
Sodium channels found on salt-reabsorbing EPITHELIAL CELLS that line the distal NEPHRON; the distal COLON; SALIVARY DUCTS; SWEAT GLANDS; and the LUNG. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and play a critical role in the control of sodium balance, BLOOD VOLUME, and BLOOD PRESSURE.
Single chains of amino acids that are the units of multimeric PROTEINS. Multimeric proteins can be composed of identical or non-identical subunits. One or more monomeric subunits may compose a protomer which itself is a subunit structure of a larger assembly.
A potent calcium channel blockader with marked vasodilator action. It has antihypertensive properties and is effective in the treatment of angina and coronary spasms without showing cardiodepressant effects. It has also been used in the treatment of asthma and enhances the action of specific antineoplastic agents.
Any detectable and heritable change in the genetic material that causes a change in the GENOTYPE and which is transmitted to daughter cells and to succeeding generations.
A subgroup of TRP cation channels named after melastatin protein. They have the TRP domain but lack ANKYRIN repeats. Enzyme domains in the C-terminus leads to them being called chanzymes.
A family of proton-gated sodium channels that are primarily expressed in neuronal tissue. They are AMILORIDE-sensitive and are implicated in the signaling of a variety of neurological stimuli, most notably that of pain in response to acidic conditions.
Arthropods of the order Scorpiones, of which 1500 to 2000 species have been described. The most common live in tropical or subtropical areas. They are nocturnal and feed principally on insects and other arthropods. They are large arachnids but do not attack man spontaneously. They have a venomous sting. Their medical significance varies considerably and is dependent on their habits and venom potency rather than on their size. At most, the sting is equivalent to that of a hornet but certain species possess a highly toxic venom potentially fatal to humans. (From Dorland, 27th ed; Smith, Insects and Other Arthropods of Medical Importance, 1973, p417; Barnes, Invertebrate Zoology, 5th ed, p503)
The muscle tissue of the HEART. It is composed of striated, involuntary muscle cells (MYOCYTES, CARDIAC) connected to form the contractile pump to generate blood flow.
The level of protein structure in which combinations of secondary protein structures (alpha helices, beta sheets, loop regions, and motifs) pack together to form folded shapes called domains. Disulfide bridges between cysteines in two different parts of the polypeptide chain along with other interactions between the chains play a role in the formation and stabilization of tertiary structure. Small proteins usually consist of only one domain but larger proteins may contain a number of domains connected by segments of polypeptide chain which lack regular secondary structure.
A neurotoxic peptide, which is a cleavage product (VIa) of the omega-Conotoxin precursor protein contained in venom from the marine snail, CONUS geographus. It is an antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS, N-TYPE.
Agents that antagonize ANGIOTENSIN II TYPE 1 RECEPTOR. Included are ANGIOTENSIN II analogs such as SARALASIN and biphenylimidazoles such as LOSARTAN. Some are used as ANTIHYPERTENSIVE AGENTS.
A family of structurally related neurotoxic peptides from mollusk venom that inhibit voltage-activated entry of calcium into the presynaptic membrane. They selectively inhibit N-, P-, and Q-type calcium channels.
A long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker. It is effective in the treatment of ANGINA PECTORIS and HYPERTENSION.
An element that is an alkali metal. It has an atomic symbol Rb, atomic number 37, and atomic weight 85.47. It is used as a chemical reagent and in the manufacture of photoelectric cells.
Models used experimentally or theoretically to study molecular shape, electronic properties, or interactions; includes analogous molecules, computer-generated graphics, and mechanical structures.
Stable potassium atoms that have the same atomic number as the element potassium, but differ in atomic weight. K-41 is a stable potassium isotope.
A calcium channel blockader with preferential cerebrovascular activity. It has marked cerebrovascular dilating effects and lowers blood pressure.
An analgesic and anti-inflammatory agent used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.
The species Oryctolagus cuniculus, in the family Leporidae, order LAGOMORPHA. Rabbits are born in burrows, furless, and with eyes and ears closed. In contrast with HARES, rabbits have 22 chromosome pairs.
An optical isomer of quinine, extracted from the bark of the CHINCHONA tree and similar plant species. This alkaloid dampens the excitability of cardiac and skeletal muscles by blocking sodium and potassium currents across cellular membranes. It prolongs cellular ACTION POTENTIALS, and decreases automaticity. Quinidine also blocks muscarinic and alpha-adrenergic neurotransmission.
A calcium channel blocker with marked vasodilator action. It is an effective antihypertensive agent and differs from other calcium channel blockers in that it does not reduce glomerular filtration rate and is mildly natriuretic, rather than sodium retentive.
Theoretical representations that simulate the behavior or activity of biological processes or diseases. For disease models in living animals, DISEASE MODELS, ANIMAL is available. Biological models include the use of mathematical equations, computers, and other electronic equipment.
The nonstriated involuntary muscle tissue of blood vessels.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located within the PURKINJE CELLS of the cerebellum. They are involved in stimulation-secretion coupling of neurons.
The hollow, muscular organ that maintains the circulation of the blood.
A delayed rectifier subtype of shaker potassium channels that has been described in NEURONS and ASTROCYTES.
The normality of a solution with respect to HYDROGEN ions; H+. It is related to acidity measurements in most cases by pH = log 1/2[1/(H+)], where (H+) is the hydrogen ion concentration in gram equivalents per liter of solution. (McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, 6th ed)
CELL LINE derived from the ovary of the Chinese hamster, Cricetulus griseus (CRICETULUS). The species is a favorite for cytogenetic studies because of its small chromosome number. The cell line has provided model systems for the study of genetic alterations in cultured mammalian cells.
Unstable isotopes of potassium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. K atoms with atomic weights 37, 38, 40, and 42-45 are radioactive potassium isotopes.
A subfamily in the family MURIDAE, comprising the hamsters. Four of the more common genera are Cricetus, CRICETULUS; MESOCRICETUS; and PHODOPUS.
Members of the class of compounds composed of AMINO ACIDS joined together by peptide bonds between adjacent amino acids into linear, branched or cyclical structures. OLIGOPEPTIDES are composed of approximately 2-12 amino acids. Polypeptides are composed of approximately 13 or more amino acids. PROTEINS are linear polypeptides that are normally synthesized on RIBOSOMES.
A condition that is characterized by episodes of fainting (SYNCOPE) and varying degree of ventricular arrhythmia as indicated by the prolonged QT interval. The inherited forms are caused by mutation of genes encoding cardiac ion channel proteins. The two major forms are ROMANO-WARD SYNDROME and JERVELL-LANGE NIELSEN SYNDROME.
The uptake of naked or purified DNA by CELLS, usually meaning the process as it occurs in eukaryotic cells. It is analogous to bacterial transformation (TRANSFORMATION, BACTERIAL) and both are routinely employed in GENE TRANSFER TECHNIQUES.
Positively charged atoms, radicals or groups of atoms which travel to the cathode or negative pole during electrolysis.
Compounds with a BENZENE fused to IMIDAZOLES.
A potent direct-acting peripheral vasodilator (VASODILATOR AGENTS) that reduces peripheral resistance and produces a fall in BLOOD PRESSURE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p371)
Derivatives of ammonium compounds, NH4+ Y-, in which all four of the hydrogens bonded to nitrogen have been replaced with hydrocarbyl groups. These are distinguished from IMINES which are RN=CR2.
A cell line generated from human embryonic kidney cells that were transformed with human adenovirus type 5.
A sulphonylurea hypoglycemic agent with actions and uses similar to those of CHLORPROPAMIDE. (From Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed, p290)
The domestic dog, Canis familiaris, comprising about 400 breeds, of the carnivore family CANIDAE. They are worldwide in distribution and live in association with people. (Walker's Mammals of the World, 5th ed, p1065)
A family of neuronal calcium-sensor proteins that interact with and regulate potassium channels, type A.
A subgroup of cyclic nucleotide-regulated ION CHANNELS of the superfamily of pore-loop cation channels that are opened by hyperpolarization rather than depolarization. The ion conducting pore passes SODIUM, CALCIUM, and POTASSIUM cations with a preference for potassium.
An atom or group of atoms that have a positive or negative electric charge due to a gain (negative charge) or loss (positive charge) of one or more electrons. Atoms with a positive charge are known as CATIONS; those with a negative charge are ANIONS.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain.
A broad group of eukaryotic six-transmembrane cation channels that are classified by sequence homology because their functional involvement with SENSATION is varied. They have only weak voltage sensitivity and ion selectivity. They are named after a DROSOPHILA mutant that displayed transient receptor potentials in response to light. A 25-amino-acid motif containing a TRP box (EWKFAR) just C-terminal to S6 is found in TRPC, TRPV and TRPM subgroups. ANKYRIN repeats are found in TRPC, TRPV & TRPN subgroups. Some are functionally associated with TYROSINE KINASE or TYPE C PHOSPHOLIPASES.
A quality of cell membranes which permits the passage of solvents and solutes into and out of cells.
A pyrazine compound inhibiting SODIUM reabsorption through SODIUM CHANNELS in renal EPITHELIAL CELLS. This inhibition creates a negative potential in the luminal membranes of principal cells, located in the distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct. Negative potential reduces secretion of potassium and hydrogen ions. Amiloride is used in conjunction with DIURETICS to spare POTASSIUM loss. (From Gilman et al., Goodman and Gilman's The Pharmacological Basis of Therapeutics, 9th ed, p705)
An inhibitor of anion conductance including band 3-mediated anion transport.
Membrane proteins whose primary function is to facilitate the transport of positively charged molecules (cations) across a biological membrane.
An actinomycete used for production of commercial ANTIBIOTICS and as a host for gene cloning.
The parts of a macromolecule that directly participate in its specific combination with another molecule.
The characteristic 3-dimensional shape of a protein, including the secondary, supersecondary (motifs), tertiary (domains) and quaternary structure of the peptide chain. PROTEIN STRUCTURE, QUATERNARY describes the conformation assumed by multimeric proteins (aggregates of more than one polypeptide chain).
A neurotransmitter found at neuromuscular junctions, autonomic ganglia, parasympathetic effector junctions, a subset of sympathetic effector junctions, and at many sites in the central nervous system.
Genetically engineered MUTAGENESIS at a specific site in the DNA molecule that introduces a base substitution, or an insertion or deletion.
Venoms of arthropods of the order Araneida of the ARACHNIDA. The venoms usually contain several protein fractions, including ENZYMES, hemolytic, neurolytic, and other TOXINS, BIOLOGICAL.
Venoms from jellyfish; CORALS; SEA ANEMONES; etc. They contain hemo-, cardio-, dermo- , and neuro-toxic substances and probably ENZYMES. They include palytoxin, sarcophine, and anthopleurine.
A family of MEMBRANE TRANSPORT PROTEINS that require ATP hydrolysis for the transport of substrates across membranes. The protein family derives its name from the ATP-binding domain found on the protein.
Ion channels that specifically allow the passage of SODIUM ions. A variety of specific sodium channel subtypes are involved in serving specialized functions such as neuronal signaling, CARDIAC MUSCLE contraction, and KIDNEY function.
A voltage-gated sodium channel subtype that mediates the sodium ion PERMEABILITY of CARDIOMYOCYTES. Defects in the SCN5A gene, which codes for the alpha subunit of this sodium channel, are associated with a variety of CARDIAC DISEASES that result from loss of sodium channel function.
RNA sequences that serve as templates for protein synthesis. Bacterial mRNAs are generally primary transcripts in that they do not require post-transcriptional processing. Eukaryotic mRNA is synthesized in the nucleus and must be exported to the cytoplasm for translation. Most eukaryotic mRNAs have a sequence of polyadenylic acid at the 3' end, referred to as the poly(A) tail. The function of this tail is not known for certain, but it may play a role in the export of mature mRNA from the nucleus as well as in helping stabilize some mRNA molecules by retarding their degradation in the cytoplasm.
A process leading to shortening and/or development of tension in muscle tissue. Muscle contraction occurs by a sliding filament mechanism whereby actin filaments slide inward among the myosin filaments.
A neuropeptide toxin from the venom of the funnel web spider, Agelenopsis aperta. It inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, P-TYPE by altering the voltage-dependent gating so that very large depolarizations are needed for channel opening. It also inhibits CALCIUM CHANNELS, Q-TYPE.
Unstriated and unstriped muscle, one of the muscles of the internal organs, blood vessels, hair follicles, etc. Contractile elements are elongated, usually spindle-shaped cells with centrally located nuclei. Smooth muscle fibers are bound together into sheets or bundles by reticular fibers and frequently elastic nets are also abundant. (From Stedman, 25th ed)
A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Mg, atomic number 12, and atomic weight 24.31. It is important for the activity of many enzymes, especially those involved in OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION.
The study of PHYSICAL PHENOMENA and PHYSICAL PROCESSES as applied to living things.
A superorder of CEPHALOPODS comprised of squid, cuttlefish, and their relatives. Their distinguishing feature is the modification of their fourth pair of arms into tentacles, resulting in 10 limbs.
A group of compounds that are monomethyl derivatives of pyridines. (From Dorland, 28th ed)
A curved elevation of GRAY MATTER extending the entire length of the floor of the TEMPORAL HORN of the LATERAL VENTRICLE (see also TEMPORAL LOBE). The hippocampus proper, subiculum, and DENTATE GYRUS constitute the hippocampal formation. Sometimes authors include the ENTORHINAL CORTEX in the hippocampal formation.
Toxic substances from microorganisms, plants or animals that interfere with the functions of the nervous system. Most venoms contain neurotoxic substances. Myotoxins are included in this concept.
Agents that promote the excretion of urine through their effects on kidney function.
Body organ that filters blood for the secretion of URINE and that regulates ion concentrations.
Proteins prepared by recombinant DNA technology.
Synthetic transcripts of a specific DNA molecule or fragment, made by an in vitro transcription system. This cRNA can be labeled with radioactive uracil and then used as a probe. (King & Stansfield, A Dictionary of Genetics, 4th ed)
A local anesthetic and cardiac depressant used as an antiarrhythmia agent. Its actions are more intense and its effects more prolonged than those of PROCAINE but its duration of action is shorter than that of BUPIVACAINE or PRILOCAINE.
The relationship between the chemical structure of a compound and its biological or pharmacological activity. Compounds are often classed together because they have structural characteristics in common including shape, size, stereochemical arrangement, and distribution of functional groups.
Abnormally low potassium concentration in the blood. It may result from potassium loss by renal secretion or by the gastrointestinal route, as by vomiting or diarrhea. It may be manifested clinically by neuromuscular disorders ranging from weakness to paralysis, by electrocardiographic abnormalities (depression of the T wave and elevation of the U wave), by renal disease, and by gastrointestinal disorders. (Dorland, 27th ed)
A tetrameric calcium release channel in the SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM membrane of SMOOTH MUSCLE CELLS, acting oppositely to SARCOPLASMIC RETICULUM CALCIUM-TRANSPORTING ATPASES. It is important in skeletal and cardiac excitation-contraction coupling and studied by using RYANODINE. Abnormalities are implicated in CARDIAC ARRHYTHMIAS and MUSCULAR DISEASES.
A potent antagonist of CALCIUM CHANNELS that is highly selective for VASCULAR SMOOTH MUSCLE. It is effective in the treatment of chronic stable angina pectoris, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure.
CALCIUM CHANNELS located in the neurons of the brain. They are inhibited by the marine snail toxin, omega conotoxin MVIIC.
Unstable isotopes of rubidium that decay or disintegrate emitting radiation. Rb atoms with atomic weights 79-84, and 86-95 are radioactive rubidium isotopes.
A family of iminourea derivatives. The parent compound has been isolated from mushrooms, corn germ, rice hulls, mussels, earthworms, and turnip juice. Derivatives may have antiviral and antifungal properties.
The degree of similarity between sequences of amino acids. This information is useful for the analyzing genetic relatedness of proteins and species.
An inorganic compound that is used as a source of iodine in thyrotoxic crisis and in the preparation of thyrotoxic patients for thyroidectomy. (From Dorland, 27th ed)
Striated muscle cells found in the heart. They are derived from cardiac myoblasts (MYOBLASTS, CARDIAC).
Interstitial space between cells, occupied by INTERSTITIAL FLUID as well as amorphous and fibrous substances. For organisms with a CELL WALL, the extracellular space includes everything outside of the CELL MEMBRANE including the PERIPLASM and the cell wall.
Persistently high systemic arterial BLOOD PRESSURE. Based on multiple readings (BLOOD PRESSURE DETERMINATION), hypertension is currently defined as when SYSTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently greater than 140 mm Hg or when DIASTOLIC PRESSURE is consistently 90 mm Hg or more.
A class of drugs that inhibit the activation of VOLTAGE-GATED SODIUM CHANNELS.
That phase of a muscle twitch during which a muscle returns to a resting position.
A genus of the family Muridae consisting of eleven species. C. migratorius, the grey or Armenian hamster, and C. griseus, the Chinese hamster, are the two species used in biomedical research.
The excitable plasma membrane of a muscle cell. (Glick, Glossary of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 1990)
A proline analog that acts as a stoichiometric replacement of proline. It causes the production of abnormal proteins with impaired biological activity.
Layers of lipid molecules which are two molecules thick. Bilayer systems are frequently studied as models of biological membranes.

Ionic currents underlying spontaneous action potentials in isolated cerebellar Purkinje neurons. (1/3001)

Acutely dissociated cell bodies of mouse Purkinje neurons spontaneously fired action potentials at approximately 50 Hz (25 degrees C). To directly measure the ionic currents underlying spontaneous activity, we voltage-clamped the cells using prerecorded spontaneous action potentials (spike trains) as voltage commands and used ionic substitution and selective blockers to isolate individual currents. The largest current flowing during the interspike interval was tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current (approximately -50 pA between -65 and -60 mV). Although the neurons had large voltage-dependent calcium currents, the net current blocked by cobalt substitution for calcium was outward at all times during spike trains. Thus, the electrical effect of calcium current is apparently dominated by rapidly activated calcium-dependent potassium currents. Under current clamp, all cells continued firing spontaneously (though approximately 30% more slowly) after block of T-type calcium current by mibefradil, and most cells continued to fire after block of all calcium current by cobalt substitution. Although the neurons possessed hyperpolarization-activated cation current (Ih), little current flowed during spike trains, and block by 1 mM cesium had no effect on firing frequency. The outward potassium currents underlying the repolarization of the spikes were completely blocked by 1 mM TEA. These currents deactivated quickly (<1 msec) after each spike. We conclude that the spontaneous firing of Purkinje neuron cell bodies depends mainly on tetrodotoxin-sensitive sodium current flowing between spikes. The high firing rate is promoted by large potassium currents that repolarize the cell rapidly and deactivate quickly, thus preventing strong hyperpolarization and restoring a high input resistance for subsequent depolarization.  (+info)

RINm5f cells express inactivating BK channels whereas HIT cells express noninactivating BK channels. (2/3001)

Large-conductance Ca2+- and voltage-activated BK-type K+ channels are expressed abundantly in normal rat pancreatic islet cells and in the clonal rat insulinoma tumor (RINm5f) and hamster insulinoma tumor (HIT) beta cell lines. Previous work has suggested that the Ca2+ sensitivity of BK channels in RIN cells is substantially less than that in HIT cells, perhaps contributing to differences between the cell lines in responsiveness to glucose in mediating insulin secretion. In both RIN cells and normal pancreatic beta cells, BK channels are thought to play a limited role in responses of beta cells to secretagogues and in the electrical activity of beta cells. Here we examine in detail the properties of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells using inside-out patches and whole cell recordings. BK channels in RIN cells exhibit rapid inactivation that results in an anomalous steady-state Ca2+ dependence of activation. In contrast, BK channels in HIT cells exhibit the more usual noninactivating behavior. When BK inactivation is taken into account, the Ca2+ and voltage dependence of activation of BK channels in RIN and HIT cells is essentially indistinguishable. The properties of BK channel inactivation in RIN cells are similar to those of inactivating BK channels (termed BKi channels) previously identified in rat chromaffin cells. Inactivation involves multiple, trypsin-sensitive cytosolic domains and exhibits a dependence on Ca2+ and voltage that appears to arise from coupling to channel activation. In addition, the rates of inactivation onset and recovery are similar to that of BKi channels in chromaffin cells. The charybdotoxin (CTX) sensitivity of BKi currents is somewhat less than that of the noninactivating BK variant. Action potential voltage-clamp waveforms indicate that BK current is activated only weakly by Ca2+ influx in RIN cells but more strongly activated in HIT cells even when Ca2+ current magnitude is comparable. Concentrations of CTX sufficient to block BKi current in RIN cells have no effect on action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection. Despite its abundant expression in RIN cells, BKi current appears to play little role in action potential activity initiated by glucose or DC injection in RIN cells, but BK current may play an important role in action potential repolarization in HIT cells.  (+info)

Characterization of K+ currents underlying pacemaker potentials of fish gonadotropin-releasing hormone cells. (3/3001)

Endogenous pacemaker activities are important for the putative neuromodulator functions of the gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-immunoreactive terminal nerve (TN) cells. We analyzed several types of voltage-dependent K+ currents to investigate the ionic mechanisms underlying the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells by using the whole brain in vitro preparation of fish (dwarf gourami, Colisa lalia). TN-GnRH cells have at least four types of voltage-dependent K+ currents: 1) 4-aminopyridine (4AP)-sensitive K+ current, 2) tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ current, and 3) and 4) two types of TEA- and 4AP-resistant K+ currents. A transient, low-threshold K+ current, which was 4AP sensitive and showed significant steady-state inactivation in the physiological membrane potential range (-40 to -60 mV), was evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV. This current thus cannot contribute to the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. TEA-sensitive K+ current evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV was slowly activating, long lasting, and showed comparatively low threshold of activation. This current was only partially inactivated at steady state of -60 to -40 mV, which is equivalent to the resting membrane potential. TEA- and 4AP-resistant sustained K+ currents were evoked from a holding potential of -100 mV and were suggested to consist of two types, based on the analysis of activation curves. From the inactivation and activation curves, it was suggested that one of them with low threshold of activation may be partly involved in the repolarizing phase of pacemaker potentials. Bath application of TEA together with tetrodotoxin reversibly blocked the pacemaker potentials in current-clamp recordings. We conclude that the TEA-sensitive K+ current is the most likely candidate that contributes to the repolarizing phase of the pacemaker potentials of TN-GnRH cells.  (+info)

Calcium responses induced by acetylcholine in submucosal arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine. (4/3001)

1. Calcium responses induced by brief stimulation with acetylcholine (ACh) were assessed from the fluorescence changes in fura-2 loaded submucosal arterioles of the guinea-pig small intestine. 2. Initially, 1-1.5 h after loading with fura-2 (fresh tissues), ACh increased [Ca2+]i in a concentration-dependent manner. This response diminished with time, and finally disappeared in 2-3 h (old tissues). 3. Ba2+ elevated [Ca2+]i to a similar extent in both fresh and old tissues. ACh further increased the Ba2+-elevated [Ca2+]i in fresh tissues, but reduced it in old tissues. Responses were not affected by either indomethacin or nitroarginine. 4. In fresh mesenteric arteries, mechanical removal of endothelial cells abolished the ACh-induced increase in [Ca2+]i, with no alteration of [Ca2+]i at rest and during elevation with Ba2+. 5. In the presence of indomethacin and nitroarginine, high-K+ solution elevated [Ca2+]i in both fresh and old tissues. Subsequent addition of ACh further increased [Ca2+]i in fresh tissues without changing it in old tissues. 6. Proadifen, an inhibitor of the enzyme cytochrome P450 mono-oxygenase, inhibited the ACh-induced changes in [Ca2+]i in both fresh and Ba2+-stimulated old tissues. It also inhibited the ACh-induced hyperpolarization. 7. In fresh tissues, the ACh-induced Ca2+ response was not changed by apamin, charybdotoxin (CTX), 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) or glibenclamide. In old tissues in which [Ca2+]i had previously been elevated with Ba2+, the ACh-induced Ca2+ response was inhibited by CTX but not by apamin, 4-AP or glibenclamide. 8. It is concluded that in submucosal arterioles, ACh elevates endothelial [Ca2+]i and reduces muscular [Ca2+]i, probably through the hyperpolarization of endothelial or smooth muscle membrane by activating CTX-sensitive K+ channels.  (+info)

Volume regulation following hypotonic shock in isolated crypts of mouse distal colon. (5/3001)

1. A video-imaging technique of morphometry was used to measure the diameter as an index of cell volume in intact mouse distal colon crypts submitted to hypotonic shock. 2. Transition from isotonic (310 mosmol l-1) to hypotonic (240 mosmol l-1) saline caused a pronounced increase in crypt diameter immediately followed by regulatory volume decrease (RVD). 3. Exposure of crypts to Cl--free hyposmotic medium increased the rapidity of both cell swelling and RVD. Exposure of crypts to Na+-free hyposmotic medium reduced the total duration of swelling. Return to initial diameter was followed by further shrinkage of the crypt cells. 4. The chloride channel inhibitor NPPB (50 microM) delayed the swelling phase and prevented the subsequent normal decrease in diameter. 5. The K+ channel blockers barium (10 mM), charybdotoxin (10 nM) and TEA (5 mM) inhibited RVD by 51, 44 and 32 %, respectively. 6. Intracellular [Ca2+] rose from a baseline of 174 +/- 17 nM (n = 8) to 448 +/- 45 nM (n = 8) during the initial swelling phase 7. The Ca2+ channel blockers verapamil (50 microM) and nifedipine (10 microM), the chelator of intracellular Ca2+ BAPTA AM (30 microM), or the inhibitor of Ca2+ release TMB-8 (10 microM), dramatically reduced volume recovery, leading to 51 % (n = 9), 25 % (n = 7), 37 % (n = 6), 32 % (n = 8) inhibition of RVD, respectively. TFP (50 microM), an antagonist of the Ca2+-calmodulin complex, significantly slowed RVD. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) provoked a dramatic reduction of the duration and amplitude of cell swelling followed by extensive shrinkage. The release of Ca2+ from intracellular stores using bradykinin (1 microM) or blockade of reabsorption with thapsigargin (1 microM) decreased the duration of RVD. 8. Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, 5 microM) slightly delayed RVD, whereas leukotriene D4 (LTD4, 100 nM) and arachidonic acid (10 microM) reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of phospholipase A2 by quinacrine (10 microM) inhibited RVD by 53 %. Common inhibition of PGE2 and LTD4 synthesis by ETYA (50 microM) or separate blockade of PGE2 synthesis by 1 microM indomethacin reduced the duration of RVD. Blockade of LTD4 synthesis by nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA) did not produce any significant effect on cell swelling or subsequent RVD. 9. Staurosporine (1 microM), an inhibitor of protein kinases, inhibited RVD by 58 %. Taken together the experiments demonstrate that the RVD process is under the control of conductive pathways, extra- and intracellular Ca2+ ions, protein kinases, prostaglandins and leukotrienes.  (+info)

Acetylcholine-induced membrane potential changes in endothelial cells of rabbit aortic valve. (6/3001)

1. Using a microelectrode technique, acetylcholine (ACh)-induced membrane potential changes were characterized using various types of inhibitors of K+ and Cl- channels in rabbit aortic valve endothelial cells (RAVEC). 2. ACh produced transient then sustained membrane hyperpolarizations. Withdrawal of ACh evoked a transient depolarization. 3. High K+ blocked and low K+ potentiated the two ACh-induced hyperpolarizations. Charybdotoxin (ChTX) attenuated the ACh-induced transient and sustained hyperpolarizations; apamin inhibited only the sustained hyperpolarization. In the combined presence of ChTX and apamin, ACh produced a depolarization. 4. In Ca2+-free solution or in the presence of Co2+ or Ni2+, ACh produced a transient hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. In BAPTA-AM-treated cells, ACh produced only a depolarization. 5. A low concentration of A23187 attenuated the ACh-induced transient, but not the sustained, hyperpolarization. In the presence of cyclopiazonic acid, the hyperpolarization induced by ACh was maintained after ACh removal; this maintained hyperpolarization was blocked by Co2+. 6. Both NPPB and hypertonic solution inhibited the membrane depolarization seen after ACh washout. Bumetanide also attenuated this depolarization. 7. It is concluded that in RAVEC, ACh produces a two-component hyperpolarization followed by a depolarization. It is suggested that ACh-induced Ca2+ release from the storage sites causes a transient hyperpolarization due to activation of ChTX-sensitive K+ channels and that ACh-activated Ca2+ influx causes a sustained hyperpolarization by activating both ChTX- and apamin-sensitive K+ channels. Both volume-sensitive Cl- channels and the Na+-K+-Cl- cotransporter probably contribute to the ACh-induced depolarization.  (+info)

Differences in the actions of some blockers of the calcium-activated potassium permeability in mammalian red cells. (7/3001)

1. The actions of some inhibitors of the Ca2+-activated K+ permeability in mammalian red cells have been compared. 2. Block of the permeability was assessed from the reduction in the net loss of K+ that followed the application of the Ca2+ ionophore A23187 (2 microM) to rabbit red cells suspended at a haematocrit of 1% in a low potassium solution ([K]0 0.12-0.17 mM) at 37 degrees C. Net movement of K+ was measured using a K+-sensitive electrode placed in the suspension. 3. The concentrations (microM +/- s.d.) of the compounds tested causing 50% inhibition of K+ loss were: quinine, 37 +/- 3; cetiedil, 26 +/- 1; the cetiedil congeners UCL 1269, UCL 1274 and UCL 1495, approximately 150, 8.2 +/- 0.1, 0.92 +/- 0.03 respectively; clotrimazole, 1.2 +/- 0.1; nitrendipine, 3.6 +/- 0.5 and charybdotoxin, 0.015 +/- 0.002. 4. The characteristics of the block suggested that compounds could be placed in two groups. For one set (quinine, cetiedil, and the UCL congeners), the concentration-inhibition curves were steeper (Hill coefficient, nH, > or = 2.7) than for the other (clotrimazole, nitrendipine, charybdotoxin) for which nH approximately 1. 5. Compounds in the first set alone became less active on raising the concentration of K+ in the external solution to 5.4 mM. 6. The rate of K+ loss induced by A23187 slowed in the presence of high concentrations of cetiedil and its analogues, suggesting a use-dependent component to the inhibitory action. This was not seen with clotrimazole. 7. The blocking action of the cetiedil analogue UCL 1274 could not be overcome by an increase in external Ca2+ and its potency was unaltered when K+ loss was induced by the application of Pb2+ (10 microM) rather than by A23187. 8. These results, taken with the findings of others, suggest that agents that block the red cell Ca2+-activated K+ permeability can be placed in two groups with different mechanisms of action. The differences can be explained by supposing that clotrimazole and charybdotoxin act at the outer face of the channel whereas cetiedil and its congeners may block within it, either at or near the K+ binding site that determines the flow of K+.  (+info)

Modulation of chloride, potassium and bicarbonate transport by muscarinic receptors in a human adenocarcinoma cell line. (8/3001)

1. Short-circuit current (I(SC)) responses to carbachol (CCh) were investigated in Colony 1 epithelia, a subpopulation of the HCA-7 adenocarcinoma cell line. In Krebs-Henseleit (KH) buffer, CCh responses consisted of three I(SC) components: an unusual rapid decrease (the 10 s spike) followed by an upward spike at 30 s and a slower transient increase (the 2 min peak). This response was not potentiated by forskolin; rather, CCh inhibited cyclic AMP-stimulated I(SC). 2. In HCO3- free buffer, the decrease in forskolin-elevated I(SC) after CCh was reduced, although the interactions between CCh and forskolin remained at best additive rather than synergistic. When Cl- anions were replaced by gluconate, both Ca2+- and cyclic AMP-mediated electrogenic responses were significantly inhibited. 3. Basolateral Ba2+ (1-10 mM) and 293B (10 microM) selectively inhibited forskolin stimulation of I(SC), without altering the effects of CCh. Under Ba2+- or 293B-treated conditions, CCh responses were potentiated by pretreatment with forskolin. 4. Basolateral charybdotoxin (50 nM) significantly increased the size of the 10 s spike of CCh responses in both KH and HCO3- free medium, without affecting the 2 min peak. The enhanced 10 s spike was inhibited by prior addition of 5 mM apical Ba2+. Charybdotoxin did not affect forskolin responses. 5. In epithelial layers prestimulated with forskolin, the muscarinic antagonists atropine and 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperidine methiodide (4-DAMP, both at 100 nM) abolished subsequent 10 microM CCh responses. Following addition of p-fluoro hexahydro-sila-difenidol (pF-HHSiD, 10 microM) or pirenzepine (1 microM), qualitative changes in the CCh response time-profile also indicated a rightward shift of the agonist concentration-response curve; however, 1 microM gallamine had no effect. These results suggest that a single M3-like receptor subtype mediates the secretory response to CCh. 6. It is concluded that CCh and forskolin activate discrete populations of basolateral K+ channels gated by either Ca2+ or cyclic AMP, but that the Cl- permeability of the apical membrane may limit their combined effects on electrogenic Cl- secretion. In addition, CCh activates a Ba2+-sensitive apical K+ conductance leading to electrogenic K+ transport. Both agents may also modulate HCO3- secretion through a mechanism at least partially dependent on carbonic anhydrase.  (+info)

Potassium Channels Inhibitors on signaling pathway are available at Adooq Bioscience. Check Potassium Channels pathway , inhibitors reviews and assay information.
Vernakalant Hcl(RSD-1235) is an investigational mixed ion channel blocker that can terminate acute atrial fibrillation (AF) in humans at 2 to 5 mg/kg and may be more atrial-selective than available agents; in treatment of antiarrhythmic ...
Combined Use of MC4PC, MDL-QSAR, BioEpisteme, Leadscope PDM, and Derek for Windows Software to Achieve High-Performance, High-Confidence Mode of Action-Based Predictions of Chemical Carcinogenesis in Rodents. Authors: Edwin J. Matthews; Naomi L. Kruhlak; R. Daniel Benz; Joseph F. Contrera; Carol A. Marchant; Chihae Yang. Journal: To ...
Potassium channel blocker information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
I am getting about a 0.5nA outward current in untransfected i.e. wild type CHO cells at 40mV. This makes it difficult to interpret the effects of inhibitors on cells transfected with known potassium channels, such as KvLQT1. Some literature suggests there are no functional potassium channels in wild type CHO and HEK cells although Frasermoss recently indicated some HEK cells have endogenous channels. Is there a way to get rid of this background? It is not inhibited by TEA or 4-AP, i.e. standard potassium channel inhibitors. Am using perforated whole cell voltage clamp on an IonworksHT, and regular HEPES-buffered internal and external solutions. Suggestions?. ...
Ampyra : Dalfampridine, or Ampyra, is a potassium channel blocker that is shown to improve visual function, motor skills and relieve fatigue in MS patients.
TY - JOUR. T1 - Short-term effects of glipizide (an adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel inhibitor) on cardiopulmonary hemodynamics and global oxygen transport in healthy and endotoxemic sheep. AU - Lange, Matthias. AU - Szabo, Csaba. AU - Van Aken, Hugo. AU - Williams, William. AU - Traber, Daniel L.. AU - Daudel, Fritz. AU - Bröking, Katrin. AU - Salzman, Andrew L.. AU - Bone, Hans Georg. AU - Westphal, Martin. PY - 2006/11. Y1 - 2006/11. N2 - In severe sepsis and septic shock, hemodynamic support is often complicated by a tachyphylaxis against exogenous catecholamines. Because activation of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of hyperdynamic vasodilatory shock, we hypothesized that it may be beneficial to administer a specific KATP channel inhibitor to prevent, or at least attenuate, hemodynamic dysfunction in sepsis. The present study was designed as a prospective and controlled laboratory experiment to ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Spontaneous activity in afferent and efferent fibers after chronic axotomy. T2 - Response to potassium channel blockade. AU - Russell, Lisa C.. AU - Burchiel, Kim J.. N1 - Copyright: Copyright 2014 Elsevier B.V., All rights reserved.. PY - 1988. Y1 - 1988. N2 - Distally propagating spontaneous impulses in acutely and chronically cut rat saphenous nerve were examined to determine (1) the origin(s) of the activity, (2) the fiber types involved, and (3) whether the activity was affected by potassium channel blockade. Under deep pentobarbital anesthesia, six male Sprague-Dawley rats underwent L3 cauda equina section, then unilateral saphenous axotomy. The nerve was then dissected into 30-50 microfilaments and surveyed for spontaneous activity using a modification of the microfilament recording method. Afterward, the nerve was cut back, and a potassium channel blocking agent (gallamine) was administered. The axonal activity was once again surveyed in the same fashion. Twenty-eight ...
Stroke causes CNS injury associated with strong fast microglial activation as part of the inflammatory response. In rat models of stroke, sulphonylurea receptor blockade with glibenclamide reduced cerebral edema and infarct volume. We postulated that glibenclamide administered during the early stages of stroke might foster neuroprotective microglial activity through ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel blockade. We found in vitro that BV2 cell line showed upregulated expression of KATP channel subunits in response to pro-inflammatory signals and that glibenclamide increases the reactive morphology of microglia, phagocytic capacity and TNFα release. Moreover, glibenclamide administered to rats 6, 12 and 24 h after transient Middle Cerebral Artery occlusion improved neurological outcome and preserved neurons in the lesioned core three days after reperfusion. Immunohistochemistry with specific markers to neuron, astroglia, microglia and lymphocytes showed that resident amoeboid microglia are the ...
Chlorpromazine hydrochloride is a dopamine and potassium channel inhibitor with IC50 of 6.1 and 16 μM for nward-rectifying K+ currents and time-independent outward currents Buy Potassium Channel inhibitor Chlorpromazine hydrochloride (Sonazine) from AbMole BioScience.
Chlorpromazine (Sonazine) is a dopamine and potassium channel inhibitor with IC50 of 6.1 and 16 μM for inward-rectifying K+ currents and time-independent outward currents Find all the information about Chlorpromazine (Sonazine) for cell signaling research.
Dalfampridine is a potassium channel blocker. Dalfampridine is used to improve walking in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). Dalfampridine may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
Fingerprint Dive into the research topics of Pathophysiological mechanisms underlying the adverse effects of calcium channel-blocking drugs in patients with chronic heart failure. Together they form a unique fingerprint. ...
BioAssay record AID 623912 submitted by Johns Hopkins Ion Channel Center: SAR Analysis for the identification of inhibitors of the two-pore domain potassium channel KCNK9 - Selectivity assay against KCNK3: FluxOR Assay CRC 2.
BioAssay record AID 588761 submitted by Johns Hopkins Ion Channel Center: SAR Analysis for the identification of selective inhibitors of the two-pore domain potassium channel KCNK9 in KCNQ2 expressing cells: FluxOR Assay CRC.
Two new benzophenones, acredinones A (1) and B (2), were isolated from a marine-sponge-associated Acremonium sp. fungus. Their chemical structures were elucidated on the interpretation of spectroscopic data. The structure of 1 was confirmed by palladium-catalyzed hydrogenation, followed by spectroscopic data analysis. Acredinones A (1) and B (2) inhibited the outward K+ currents of the insulin secreting cell line INS-1 with IC50 values of 0.59 and 1.0 mu M, respectively ...
Fig. 1 Reduction of functional TRESK channels in DRG neurons and its association with pain in bone lesion-bearing rats.. (A and B) TRESK immunofluorescence staining in ipsilateral L4/5 DRG neurons from naïve, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS)-injected, or bone-localized MRMT-1 tumor-bearing rats. Representative images (A) and a summary for the mean fluorescence intensity of TRESK immunostaining (B) are shown. n = 224 to 230 cells (from six rats) per time point per group. Two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Bonferroni post hoc test: F3,1818 = 116.2, ***P , 0.001. (C and D) TRESK protein (C) and mRNA (D) abundance in the cells described in (A). n = 6 to 7 rats per time point per group. Two-way ANOVA followed by either Bonferroni post hoc test, F3,40 = 4.21 (C), or one-way ANOVA followed by Tukey post hoc test, F2,16 = 20.54 (D), ***P , 0.001. N, naïve; P, PBS; M, MRMT-1. (E and F) Representative TRESK current traces and a summary for the current density of both the total background ...
ID KCNH2_CANLF Reviewed; 1158 AA. AC Q9TSZ3; O02719; O18820; DT 28-NOV-2002, integrated into UniProtKB/Swiss-Prot. DT 01-MAY-2000, sequence version 1. DT 27-SEP-2017, entry version 129. DE RecName: Full=Potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily H member 2; DE AltName: Full=Ether-a-go-go-related gene potassium channel 1; DE Short=DERG; DE Short=ERG-1; DE Short=Eag-related protein 1; DE Short=Ether-a-go-go-related protein 1; DE Short=c-ERG; DE AltName: Full=Voltage-gated potassium channel subunit Kv11.1; GN Name=KCNH2; Synonyms=CERG, ERG; OS Canis lupus familiaris (Dog) (Canis familiaris). OC Eukaryota; Metazoa; Chordata; Craniata; Vertebrata; Euteleostomi; OC Mammalia; Eutheria; Laurasiatheria; Carnivora; Caniformia; Canidae; OC Canis. OX NCBI_TaxID=9615; RN [1] RP NUCLEOTIDE SEQUENCE [MRNA]. RC TISSUE=Heart; RX PubMed=11417212; DOI=10.1007/s004240100524; RA Zehelein J., Zhang W., Koenen M., Graf M., Heinemann S.H., Katus H.A.; RT Molecular cloning and expression of cERG, the ether a ...
Cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs) are one of the most populous cells in the mammalian brain. They express an outwardly rectifying potassium current, termed a
Effective, safe, and tolerable pharmacological treatment for atrial fibrillation (AF) remains an unmet need. The latest medication to reach the market for intravenous cardioversion was the combined sodium and potassium channel inhibitor vernakalant, however not yet available in the United States. Vernakalant terminated ≈50% of episodes of AF lasting ,7 days in randomized controlled studies, with its highest conversion rate during the first few days while after 8 to 45 days of AF, the conversion rate was ,10%, which was not statistically different from that of placebo.1,2. If lasting for ,24 hours, AF promotes further progression of the disease-a phenomenon described as AF begets AF.3 If atrial remodeling continues, AF often progresses to more sustained forms and becomes more resistant to both pharmacological and nonpharmacological treatments, including ablation.4-6 Among contributing factors, an increased influx of calcium seems to promote fibrosis development and remodeling.7. Three subtypes ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - Expression of intermediate-conductance, Ca2+-activated K+ channel (KCNN4) in H441 human distal airway epithelial cells. AU - Wilson, Stuart M.. AU - Brown, Sean G.. AU - McTavish, Niall. AU - McNeill, R. P.. AU - Husband, E. M.. AU - Inglis, Sarah K.. AU - Olver, Richard E.. AU - Clunes, M. T.. PY - 2006/6/9. Y1 - 2006/6/9. N2 - Electrophysiological studies of H441 human distal airway epithelial cells showed that thapsigargin caused a Ca2+-dependent increase in membrane conductance (GTot) and hyperpolarization of membrane potential (Vm). These effects reflected a rapid rise in cellular K+ conductance (GK) and a slow fall in amiloride-sensitive Na+ conductance (GNa). The increase in GTot was antagonized by Ba2+, a nonselective K+ channel blocker, and abolished by clotrimazole, a KCNN4 inhibitor, but unaffected by other selective K+ channel blockers. Moreover, 1-ethyl-2-benzimidazolinone (1-EBIO), which is known to activate KCNN4, increased GK with no effect on GNa. RT-PCR-based ...
The effects of 4-aminopyridine (4AP) on the extracellularly recorded nerve terminal action potential (NTAP) and end-plate potential were studied at the frog neuromuscular junction. An in-depth analysis of the time course of the NTAP was performed in the presence and absence of extracellular Ca++. Low concentrations (5 X 10(-6) M) of 4AP produced no significant alterations in the time course of the NTAP, yet increased quantal content of the end-plate potential 2-fold. In contrast, high concentrations (5 X 10(-4) M) of 4AP prolonged the duration of the NTAP by selectively flattening the K+ slope of the NTAP and increased the quantal content of the end-plate potential. It is concluded that both potassium channel blockade and facilitation of transmitter release by 4AP can be demonstrated in this preparation, and that it is possible to separate these actions by varying the concentration of 4AP. Interpretation of these data suggests that there is a second site or mechanism of action by which 4AP ...
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Gianulis EC et. al. (2011) Rescue of aberrant gating by a genetically encoded PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domain in several long QT syndrome mutant human ether-á-go-go-related gene potassium channels.. [^] ...
Dalfampridine is used to improve walking in people who have multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which the nerves do not function properly and may cause weakness, numbness, loss of muscle coordination, and problems with vision, speech, and bladder control). Dalfampridine may be used alone or with other medications that control the symptoms of MS. Dalfampridine is in a class of medications called potassium channel blockers. It works by strengthening the signals sent by the brain through nerves that have been damaged by MS ...
Background and Aim: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is considered as a common inflammatory disease of the human central nervous system (CNS). 4 amino pyridine (4-AP), a potassium channel blocker, is used widely in MS treatment to reduce fatigue and cachexia often experienced by the patients. The objective of this study was to get a better ...
Anti arrhythmic drugs are classified into four main classes. Class I - Sodium channel blockers(act on Phase 0) Class II - Beta blockers(act on phase 4) Class III- Potassium channel blockers(act on phase 3) Class IV - Calcium channel blockers(act …. Read more ». ...
High purity synthetic Margatoxin (#STM-325) (CAS 145808-47-5) is a biologically active Kv1.3 and Kv1.6 channel blocker. 100% net peptide content. New lots are biologically tested. Free samples available. Lyophilized powder. Worldwide shipping at room temp. Alomone Labs is your top supplier for K+ channel research!
Abbott Laboratories (now AbbVie) and Icagen (now Neusentis) were developing small-molecule ion channel modulators for the treatment of chronic pain and
Seachem Flourish Potassium 250ml Flourish Potassium Product Description Flourish Potassium contains 50,000 mg/L of potassium suitable for the natural planted aquarium. Potassium is one of several elements that are vitally important to maintaining a vigorous level of growth in a planted aquarium. Potassium can become de
This series contains the 3 test suite patches that had to be dropped from the v6 series during merge with the block tree: v6: https://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/qemu-devel/2016-03/msg04935.html Changed in v7: - Avoid setting TEST_IMG_FILE when IMGPROTO=file in common.rc for traditional (not --image-opts) variable setup Daniel P. Berrange (3): block: add support for --image-opts in block I/O tests block: add support for encryption secrets in block I/O tests block: enable testing of LUKS driver with block I/O tests tests/qemu-iotests/004 , 2 +- tests/qemu-iotests/012 , 2 +- tests/qemu-iotests/039.out , 20 +++++------ tests/qemu-iotests/048 , 22 ++++++++---- tests/qemu-iotests/048.out , 6 ++-- tests/qemu-iotests/052 , 4 +++ tests/qemu-iotests/052.out , 4 +++ tests/qemu-iotests/100 , 7 ++++ tests/qemu-iotests/100.out , 14 ++++++++ tests/qemu-iotests/common , 15 +++++++- tests/qemu-iotests/common.config , 21 ++++++++++-- tests/qemu-iotests/common.filter , 3 +- tests/qemu-iotests/common.rc , 74 ...
[107 Pages Report] Check for Discount on Global 2-Aminopyridine Market Professional Survey Report 2016 report by QYResearch Group. This report Mainly covers the following product types The segment...
Describes how the potassium test is used, when a potassium test is requested, and what the results of a potassium test might mean
The protein encoded by this gene is part of a potentially heterotetrameric voltage-independent potassium channel that is activated by intracellular calcium. Activation is
Potassium is the most abundant positively charged ion inside of cells. Ninety percent of potassium exists in intracellular fluid, with about 10 percent in extracellular fluid, and only 1 percent in …
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As may be agreed by consumer and manufacturer, additional requirements to the quality of potassium tetrachloroplatinate (II) and potassium hexachloroplatinate (IV) can be established.. Back. ...
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Looking for online definition of Tandem pore domain potassium channel in the Medical Dictionary? Tandem pore domain potassium channel explanation free. What is Tandem pore domain potassium channel? Meaning of Tandem pore domain potassium channel medical term. What does Tandem pore domain potassium channel mean?
Title: Targeting Potassium Channels: New Advances in Cardiovascular Therapy. VOLUME: 3 ISSUE: 2. Author(s):Ramon Martinez-Marmol, Meritxell Roura-Ferrer and Antonio Felipe. Affiliation:Molecular Physiology Laboratory, Departament de Bioquimica i Biologia Molecular, Universitat de Barcelona, E-08028 Barcelona, Spain.. Keywords:Potassium channels, cardiovascular therapy, channelopathy, long QT syndrome, arrithmiogenesis, heart diseases. Abstract: Potassium channels, which are essential to a wide range of physiological processes, are involved in many diseases. Thus, alterations in such important proteins due to congenital deficiencies or to undesirable side-effects of common medications might lead to dysfunctions. Heart is one of those tissues where potassium channels play a crucial role. The maintenance of cardiac action potential appears to be the consequence of the varied activity of several types of potassium channels. Recently, compounds that modify cardiac potassium channel activity and so ...
TY - JOUR. T1 - The ATP-sensitive potassium-channel inhibitor glibenclamide improves outcome in an ovine model of hemorrhagic shock. AU - Maybauer, Dirk M.. AU - Salsbury, John R.. AU - Westphal, Martin. AU - Maybauer, Marc O.. AU - Salzman, Andrew L.. AU - Szabo, Csaba. AU - Westphal-Varghese, Beena B.. AU - Traber, Lillian D.. AU - Traber, Daniel L.. PY - 2004/10. Y1 - 2004/10. N2 - This study was designed as a prospective laboratory experiment to evaluate the effects of the ATP-sensitive potassium-channel inhibitor glibenclamide on hemodynamics and end-organ function in an ovine model of hemorrhagic shock. Twenty-four adult sheep were anesthetized and surgically prepared to measure hemodynamics of the systemic and pulmonary circulation. The anterior surface of the abdominal aorta was exposed at a location 6 cm superior to the iliac bifurcation. After a 60-min period of stabilization, this location was punctured with a 14-G needle. To induce a hemorrhagic hypotension (mean arterial pressure ...
Antibodies for proteins involved in positive regulation of voltage-gated potassium channel activity involved in ventricular cardiac muscle cell action potential repolarization pathways, according to their Panther/Gene Ontology Classification
Potassium channels are present in most mammalian cells, where they participate in a wide range of physiologic responses. The protein encoded by this gene is an integral membrane protein and inward-rectifier type potassium channel. The encoded protein has a greater tendency to allow potassium to flow into a cell rather than out of a cell. Eight transcript variants encoding the same protein have been found for this gene. [provided by RefSeq, Feb 2013 ...
Multiple sclerosis (MS) can be an autoimmune disease seen as a chronic swelling in the central anxious program (CNS) which leads to permanent neuronal harm and substantial impairment in individuals. Since these constructions were connected with a more serious disease course it is rather vital that you gain insight in to the system of induction their exact function and medical significance. Mechanistic research in individuals are limited. Nevertheless a few research in the 6-Shogaol MS pet model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) recapitulate TLO development in the CNS and 6-Shogaol offer new understanding into CNS TLO features development and function. This review summarizes what we realize up to now about CNS TLOs in MS and what weve learned all about them from EAE versions. It also shows the areas that may need further experimental are we are simply starting to understand and measure the trend of CNS TLOs. cytotoxic injury and indirect systems e.g. by inducing activation of ...
In this paper, we investigated the interaction of hanatoxin with the Shaker Kv channel. In contrast to the inhibitory actions of the toxin on Kv2.1 channels investigated in previous studies (Swartz and MacKinnon, 1997a,b; Li-Smerin and Swartz, 1998, 2000, 2001; Lee et al., 2003; Wang et al., 2004; Phillips et al., 2005; Alabi et al., 2007; Bosmans et al., 2008), our results show that hanatoxin facilitates opening of the Shaker Kv channel by interacting with the paddle motif (Figs. 1-3), stabilizing the voltage sensor in the activated state (Fig. 5), and influencing the final opening transition to stabilize the open state of the pore (Figs. 4 and 6). Although the effects of hanatoxin on the G-V relations (Figs. 1 and 2), the kinetics of channel closure (Figs. 1 and 4), and the ILT channel (Fig. 6) could in part be explained by effects on the final opening transition in Shaker, the pronounced effects of the toxin on gating currents (Fig. 5) suggest that early transitions in the voltage sensors are ...
The present study evaluated the contribution of cGMP-dependent versus cGMP-independent pathways in mediating the effects NO on K+ channel activity and vascular tone in renal arterioles. The results indicate that NO selectively enhances the NPo of a large-conductance (195±9 pS) K+ channel in renal VSM cells in a concentration-dependent manner. NO had no significant effect on the activity of the two smaller conductance channels in renal VSM cells that were previously identified as a small-conductance, apamin-sensitive, KCa channel33 and the 4-aminopyridine-sensitive delayed rectifier channel.28 34 35 36 The K+ channel activated by NO is voltage-sensitive and is blocked by TEA and iberiotoxin which are selective inhibitors of the KCa channel.37 38 39 Thus, the present findings indicate that NO activates KCa channels in renal VSM cells, and they are consistent with the results of recent studies with smooth muscle cells isolated from other tissues.6 7 9 11 13 15 Additional experiments were performed ...
This enabled them to draw conclusions about its mechanism of action, which they describe in the current issue of Nature Communications. Neurons conduct information by way of electrical impulses through our body. Potassium channels are a key component of this electrical circuit and are controlled either by an electrical impulse or through signaling molecules. In man, the dysfunction of the so-called HCN potassium channels is associated with neurological disorders such as epilepsy and depression. Prof. Henning Stahlbergs team at the Biozentrum of the University of Basel has now elucidated the full structure of a bacterial counterpart of this type of potassium channel, which has provided new insights into its functioning.. ...
Eight of these oxygen atoms surround each potassium ion acts as a perfect replacement for the normal layer of water molecules. Sodium ions, are slightly smaller in size
InterPro provides functional analysis of proteins by classifying them into families and predicting domains and important sites. We combine protein signatures from a number of member databases into a single searchable resource, capitalising on their individual strengths to produce a powerful integrated database and diagnostic tool.
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4SC was developing small molecule openers of the human Ca2+-activated and voltage-dependent potassium channel BKCa as potential therapeutics for the treatment
Anti arrhythmic drugs are classified into four main classes.. Class I - Sodium channel blockers(act on Phase 0). Class II - Beta blockers(act on phase 4). Class III- Potassium channel blockers(act on phase 3). Class IV - Calcium channel blockers(act on phase 2). ...
HCN2 (hyperpolarization activated cyclic nucleotide gated potassium and sodium channel 2), Authors: Dessen P. Published in: Atlas Genet Cytogenet Oncol Haematol.
Kv1.2 Potassium Channel information including symptoms, causes, diseases, symptoms, treatments, and other medical and health issues.
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How Much Potassium Does a Female Need?. Potassium is vital for the regular functioning of all of your bodys cells, tissues and organs. Unlike minerals such as zinc and iron, women and men do not require different amounts of potassium. According to the Institute of Medicine, all adult women should aim for a daily ...
CAS NO:374564-36-0; Chemical name:Potassium 4-formylphenyltrifluoroborate ; physical and chemical property of 374564-36-0, Potassium 4-formylphenyltrifluoroborate is provided by ChemNet.com
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Potassium 4-(2-methoxyethylcarbamoyl)phenyltrifluoroborate 97%; Synonym: Potassium 4-(2-methoxyethylamine-1-carbonyl)phenyltrifluoroborate; Linear Formula: C10H12BF3KNO2; find Sigma-Aldrich-754471 MSDS, related peer-reviewed papers, technical documents, similar products & more at Sigma-Aldrich.
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People 14 years of age or older should consume 4,700 milligrams of potassium per day. The recommended intake for women who are breastfeeding is 5,100 milligrams per...
Nearly 98% of US adults arent getting enough potassium. Are you getting enough of this important mineral? https://authoritynutrition.com/how-much-potassium-per-day/
Potassium is used more in the flowering stage the vegetation. This is because your plant will need it for energy to make bigger buds, and increase yield.
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Potassium channel blockers are agents which interfere with conduction through potassium channels. Potassium channel blockers ... Sulfonylureas, such as gliclazide, are ATP-sensitive potassium channel blockers. Dalfampridine, A potassium channel blocker has ... Examples of voltage-gated channel blockers include: Linopirdine XE-991 Spooky toxin (SsTx) Potassium channel Potassium channel ... Judge S, Bever C (2006). "Potassium channel blockers in multiple sclerosis: neuronal Kv channels and effects of symptomatic ...
Ichthyotoxins, Potassium channel blockers, Calcium channel openers, Glycoproteins). ... Verrucotoxin has been studied to interact with both calcium ion channels and potassium ATP channels. The calcium ion channel is ... particularly the potassium adenosine triphosphate (KATP) pathway. The potassium ATP channel operates by pumping potassium ions ... Tinker, Andrew; Aziz, Qadeer; Thomas, Alison (January 2014). "The role of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cellular function ...
Ion channel toxins, Neurotoxins, Scorpion toxins, Potassium channel blockers). ... The Tst26 toxin is a voltage-gated potassium channel blocker present in the venom of Tityus stigmurus, a species of Brazilian ... Tst26 selectively blocks Kv1.2 and Kv1.3 voltage gated potassium channels and has high affinity to both channels. It has an ... activation or inactivation of the potassium channels but did slow down the inactivation of Kv1.3 channels. "UniProtKB - P0CB56 ...
A potent new potassium channel blocker". Biophys J. 22 (3): 507-12. Bibcode:1978BpJ....22..507K. doi:10.1016/s0006-3495(78) ... Amifampridine works by blocking potassium channel efflux in nerve terminals so that action potential duration is increased. ... Ca2+ channels can then be open for a longer time and allow greater acetylcholine release to stimulate muscle at the end plate. ... Because it affects voltage-gated ion channels in the heart, it is contraindicated in people with long QT syndrome and in people ...
It is a potassium channel blocker. It has been found to have teratogenic effects in rats. Vernakalant Wiesfeld AC, Crijns HJ, ... Potassium channel blockers, Nitriles, Sulfoxides, All stub articles, Cardiovascular system drug stubs). ...
... see potassium channel blocker and potassium channel opener. Potassium channels have a tetrameric structure in which four ... Potassium channel blockers inhibit the flow of potassium ions through the channel. They either compete with potassium binding ... Proteopedia channel Potassium channel in 3D Potassium+Channels at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings ... Calcium channel - Ion channel complex through which calcium ions pass Inward-rectifier potassium ion channel Potassium in ...
The toxin is known for its ability to act as a specific Kv4 channel blocker, and thereby reducing the A-type potassium current ... Bougis, PE; Martin-Eauclaire, MF (25 June 2015). "Shal-type (Kv4.x) potassium channel pore blockers from scorpion venoms". ... Martin-Eauclaire, MF; Bougis, PE (2012). "Potassium Channels Blockers from the Venom of Androctonus mauretanicus mauretanicus ... By blocking specifically the Kv4 channels, AmmTX3 reduces the A-type potassium current through these channels almost completely ...
"Compared toxicity of the potassium channel blockers, apamin and dendrotoxin". Toxicology. 104 (1-3): 47-52. doi:10.1016/0300- ... Here it inhibits small-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels (SK channels) in neurons. These channels are responsible for the ... SK channel blockers may have a therapeutic effect on Parkinson's disease. Dopamine, which is depleted in this disease, will be ... Castle NA, Haylett DG, Jenkinson DH (Feb 1989). "Toxins in the characterization of potassium channels". Trends in Neurosciences ...
It is a potent blocker of calcium-activated potassium channels. Both verruculogen and its isoprenyl derivative fumitremorgin A ...
Centipede toxins, Neurotoxins, Ion channel toxins, Potassium channel blockers, Protein toxins). ... By blocking KCNQ channels (preventing potassium from flowing into and out of cells) SsTx disrupts cardiovascular, respiratory, ... February 2018). "Centipedes subdue giant prey by blocking KCNQ channels". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of ...
4-AP works as a potassium channel blocker. Strong potassium currents decrease action potential duration and amplitude, which ... Judge S, Bever C (2006). "Potassium channel blockers in multiple sclerosis: neuronal Kv channels and effects of symptomatic ... Potassium channel blockers, Aminopyridines, Orphan drugs, Avicides, Multiple Chemboxes, 4-Pyridyl compounds). ... It is used as a research tool in characterizing subtypes of the potassium channel. It has also been used as a drug, to manage ...
"Potassium channel blockers from the venom of the Brazilian scorpion Tityus serrulatus". Toxicon. 119: 253-265. doi:10.1016/j. ... It seems likely that TsPep2 has inhibitory actions on potassium channels, based on its sequence similarities in the C-terminal ... beta sheet with the potassium channel inhibitory alpha family (α-KTX) and on its similarities in the patterns of disulfide ... Structure function relationship of K+ion channel toxins:from cloning to functional characterization. Leuve, Belgium: Isabelle ...
The venom of this spider contains the toxin HpTX2, a potassium channel blocker. In some tropical areas the spider is considered ... 2000). Solution structure of hpTX2, a toxin from Heteropoda venatoria spider that blocks Kv4.2 potassium channel. Protein ...
These potassium channel blockers delay ventricular repolarization and prolong action potential duration (APD; the prolongation ... Most anti-arrhythmic medications exert their effects by decreasing the permeability of potassium ion channels (IKr) in heart ... unlike pure IKr channel blockers, it is self-limited (due to the decreased permeability of INa-L and ICa-L). This is similar to ... but predominantly the INa-L ion channel . By decreasing the ion permeability of these channels, HBI-3000 slightly prolongs APD ...
... is also a Kv voltage gated potassium channel blocker. Calcium channels are also present in the smooth muscle lining ... In cardiac pharmacology, calcium channel blockers are considered class-IV antiarrhythmic agents. Since calcium channels are ... Calcium channel blockers like verapamil dilate the coronary blood vessels, which increases the supply of blood and oxygen to ... By relaxing the tone of this smooth muscle, calcium channel blockers dilate the blood vessels. This has led to their use in ...
Walking : dalfampridine (ampyra) is a broad-spectrum potassium channel blocker. It is approved by the FDA to treat walking ... October 2015). "Sodium channel blockers for neuroprotection in multiple sclerosis". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews ... Currently, there is insufficient evidence of an effect of sodium channel blockers for people with MS. There is growing ... Medications that influence voltage-gated sodium ion channels are under investigation as a potential neuroprotective strategy ...
Typically, α-KTxs affect voltage-gated potassium channels. MeuKTX is a potent partial blocker for rat Kv1.1 (rKv1.1), rKv1.2, ... Gao, Bin; Peigneur, Steve; Tytgat, Jan; Zhu, Shunyi (December 2010). "A potent potassium channel blocker from Mesobuthus eupeus ... and human Kv1.3 (hKv1.3). The effectiveness of MeuKTX as a blocker for these potassium channels is summarized below: Complete ... for all three potassium channels. At this concentration, MeuKTX also affects rKv1.6 and shaker IR channels. The blocking effect ...
Gao, B; Peigneur, S; Tytgat, J; Zhu, S (2010). "A potent potassium channel blocker from Mesobuthus eupeus scorpion venom". ... In contrast, BeKm-1 specifically inhibits hERG channels, which are potassium channels critical to maintaining normal electrical ... but showed no effects on various other potassium channels tested. Inhibitors of sodium channels have also been found in this ... Sanguinetti MC, Tristani-Firouzi M (March 2006). "hERG potassium channels and cardiac arrhythmia". Nature. 440 (7083): 463-9. ...
Amiloride and triamterene are potassium-sparing diuretics that act as epithelial sodium channel blockers. Noreng S, Bharadwaj A ... The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), (also known as amiloride-sensitive sodium channel) is a membrane-bound ion channel that ... Ion Channel Diseases Epithelial+sodium+channel at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) This ... The cryoEM structure of ENaC indicates that the channel is a heterotrimeric protein like the acid-sensing ion channel 1 (ASIC1 ...
Nemeth M, Varro A, Thormählen D, Papp J (1997). "Tedisamil is a potent blocker of ATP-sensitive potassium channels in cardiac ... Tedisamil also appears to provide specific, single channel blocking of IK-ATP at high concentrations. As the potassium channels ... a potassium channel blocker". Heart. 83 (2): 167-71. doi:10.1136/heart.83.2.167. PMC 1729311. PMID 10648489. Solvay Press ... Potassium channel blockers, Nitrogen heterocycles, Cyclopropanes, AbbVie brands, Cyclopentanes). ...
... is a potassium-channel blocker like Class III antiarrhythmic compounds. This compounds can bind to potassium ... channels and delays phase 3 repolarization. These electrophysiological changes decrease the sensitiveness of cells to ...
"Khellinone Derivatives as Blockers of the Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Kv1.3: Synthesis and Immunosuppressive Activity". ...
Neurotoxins in L. quinquestriatus venom include: Chlorotoxin Charybdotoxin, a blocker of calcium-activated potassium channels. ...
OdK2, a potassium channel blocker present in the venom of Odontobuthus doriae. "BioLib - Odontobuthus doriae". biolib.cz. ...
In addition, it is a potent blocker of voltage-sensitive potassium channels. MCD peptide is a component of bumblebee ( ... It binds to several subclasses of voltage-gated potassium channels (Kv channels), including Kv1.1, Kv1.6, and less potently to ... By blocking potassium channels, the MCD peptide can increase the duration of action potentials and increase neuronal ... This toxicity is caused by the blockage of voltage-gated potassium channels by the MCD peptide. However, there is no toxicity ...
... is a first-generation potassium channel blocker, sulfonylurea oral hypoglycemic medication. This drug may be used ... Potassium channel blockers, Benzenesulfonylureas, P-Tosyl compounds). ...
Potassium channel blockers). ... Moreover, the blocking of potassium channels by CmERG1 is fast ... CmERG1 has been suggested to have a higher affinity for hERG potassium channels due to its 100% elimination of ionic channel ... CmERG1 is part of the γ-KTx family, which binds selectively to hERG potassium channels. CmERG1 has a 90.5% homology with CnERG1 ... It blocks human ether-a-go-go-Related gene (hERG) potassium channels, which are important for cardiac action potential ...
This toxin is a selective blocker of BK channels, calcium-activated potassium channels. Limbatustoxin is purified from the ... also called maxi-K channels, slo1 or BK (big potassium) channels. These channels play an important role in the excitability of ... Yu, M, Liu, SL, Sun, PB, Pan, H, Tian, CL, & Zhang, LH (2016). "Peptide toxins and small-molecule blockers of BK channels". ... This structure is important for binding to BK channels. Limbatustoxin is highly selective for calcium-activated potassium ...
"Marine Algal Toxin Azaspiracid is an Open-State Blocker of hERG Potassium Channels". Chemical Research in Toxicology. 25 (9): ... Azaspiracid is a phycotoxin that inhibits hERG voltage-gated potassium channels. Unlike many other marine phycotoxins, little ... Non-protein ion channel toxins, Alkene derivatives, Carboxylic acids, Piperidines, Spiro compounds, Phycotoxins, Potassium ...
... a Selective Blocker of A-Type Potassium Channels". Biochemistry. 36 (10): 2763-71. doi:10.1021/bI9628432. PMID 9062103. Purves ... and iberiotoxin with potassium channels: selectivity between voltage-gated and Maxi-K channels". Proteins. 52 (2): 146-54. doi: ... This block occurs as the Asn 30 on the CTX interacts with the Asp 381 on the K+ channel. The blockade of K+ channels by the ... that blocks calcium-activated potassium channels. This blockade causes hyperexcitability of the nervous system. It is a close ...
... beta-blockers, thiazide diuretics, calcium channel blockers, and phenytoin) HHS is usually precipitated by an infection, ... serum potassium levels must be sufficiently high or dangerously low blood potassium levels may result. Once potassium levels ... Potassium replacement is often required as the metabolic problems are corrected. It is generally replaced at a rate 10 mEq per ... Potassium replacement is often required as the metabolic problems are corrected. Efforts to prevent diabetic foot ulcers are ...
... is also a potent blocker of voltage-gated sodium channels, and this action is thought to be involved in both its ... August 2007). "Inhibition of the HERG potassium channel by the tricyclic antidepressant doxepin". Biochemical Pharmacology. 74 ... Sodium channel blockers, Tricyclic antidepressants, Wikipedia medicine articles ready to translate). ... Alpha-1 blockers, Alpha-2 blockers, Antihistamines, D2 antagonists, Dibenzoxepins, Dimethylamino compounds, Embryotoxicants, ...
... is one of a class of tremorigenic mycotoxins, is a potassium channel blocker, and is potentially genotoxic. Paxilline ... It has also been used in mice to induce autism-like behaviors through inhibition of the BK channel. Paxiline biosynthesis ... Sheehan, JJ; Benedetti, BL; Barth, AL (2009). "Anticonvulsant effects of the BK-channel antagonist paxilline". Epilepsia. 50: ... Fyke, William; Alarcon, Juan M.; Velinov, Milen; Chadman, Kathryn K. (2021). "Pharmacological inhibition of BKCa channels ...
One comparison from 2014 found that a small dose of a calcium-channel blocker (such as amlodipine) may be used pre-operatively ... As MIBG therapy can destroy the thyroid, protective medications (potassium iodide) are started prior to treatment and need to ... A retrospective analysis of beta blocker found that some beta blocker use may cause people to more prone to hypoglycemia and ... Dungan K, Merrill J, Long C, Binkley P (November 2019). "Effect of beta blocker use and type on hypoglycemia risk among ...
... but is a relatively potent pro-convulsant and blocker of sodium and potassium channels, particularly in heart tissue, which ... Potassium channel blockers, Sodium channel blockers). ...
Spider potassium channel inhibitory toxins is another group of spider toxins. A representative of this group is hanatoxin, a 35 ... consensus molecular folding of calcium channel blockers". J. Mol. Biol. 250 (5): 659-71. doi:10.1006/jmbi.1995.0406. PMID ... It inhibits the drk1 voltage-gated potassium channel by altering the energetics of gating. See also Huwentoxin-1. Raventoxin ... The mechanism of many spider toxins is through blockage of calcium channels. A remotely related group of atracotoxins operate ...
Potassium channels have an additional feature in the N-terminus which makes the channels unable to inactivate. The N-type ... This suggested a physical, tethered mechanism for inactivation as the pronase was inferred to degrade the channel blocker and ... This phenomenon has mainly been studied in potassium channels and sodium channels. The initial evidence for a ball and chain ... The precise sequence of amino acids that makes up the channel-blocking ball in potassium channels was identified through the ...
... and T-type triple calcium channel blocker benidipine acts as an antagonist of mineralocorticoid receptor, a member of nuclear ... In those times, the main use of aldosterone was recognized as the control of renal sodium and the excretion of potassium. Hans ... This leads to higher levels of potassium in serum and increased sodium excretion, resulting in decreased body fluid and lower ... They are often used with other medications, such as ACE inhibitors or beta blockers. Increased urination is a commonly reported ...
... shows promise as an immunosuppressant by inhibiting a specific potassium channel. Its structure prevents intercalation into DNA ... a selective small molecule Kv1.3 blocker, for the suppression of effector memory T cells in autoimmune diseases". Molecular ... Potassium permanganate causes oxidation of the furan ring, while other methods of oxidation produce furan-2,3-carboxylic acid. ... While cell-surface modification and ion channel blocking are two newly discovered mechanisms of action, much research remains ...
The Pi3 toxin is a potent inhibitor of the Kv1.2 potassium channel, encoded by the KCNA2 gene and a less potent blocker of ... It is a potent blocker of voltage-gated potassium channel, Kv1.3 and is closely related to another peptide found in the venom, ... Both Pi3 and Pi2 are considered to belong to the pore blocker family. Pore blockers bind to pore of the ion channel and block ... The human homologues of shaker B channels are the Kv1 channels. The affinity of the Pi3 for shaker B voltage- gated potassium ...
... beta blockers such as metoprolol, bisoprolol, atenolol) Calcium channel blockers (i.e. diltiazem or verapamil) Cardiac ... or by blocking potassium ions (Class III drugs) or a mixture of both. These medications are often used in concert with ... This can be done with: Beta blockers (preferably the "cardioselective" ...
These structures patterns suggest that ImKTx88 may be a potential Kv channel blocker for its similarity with Kv channel blocker ... "Potassium channel toxin ImKTx88 precursor - Isometrus maculatus (Lesser brown scorpion)". www.uniprot.org. Retrieved 2017-10-09 ... "Potassium channels Kv1.3 and Kv1.5 are expressed on blood-derived dendritic cells in the central nervous system". Annals of ... "A novel potassium channel in lymphocyte mitochondria". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 280 (13): 12790-12798. doi:10.1074/ ...
This gene is responsible for the potassium channel beta subunit MiRP1 which generates the potassium current IKr, and variant ... Beta blockers such as propranolol or nadolol blunt the effects of adrenaline on the heart and thereby reduce the risk of ... "KCNE1 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 1 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih. ... "KCNE2 potassium voltage-gated channel subfamily E regulatory subunit 2 [Homo sapiens (human)] - Gene - NCBI". www.ncbi.nlm.nih. ...
v t e (ECHA InfoCard ID from Wikidata, Potassium channel blockers, Benzenesulfonylureas, Azepanes, P-Tosyl compounds, All stub ...
... is a weak blocker of the high potassium-induced contraction of smooth muscles. Snake venom CRISP family proteins ... of high-potassium solution depends on the influx of the extracellular calcium ions through voltage-gated calcium channels. ... Therefore, ablomin (and by extension ophanin) most likely targets voltage-gated calcium channels on smooth muscle. The LD50 of ... Phe189 and Glu186 are the most likely functional residues: strong blockers of smooth muscle contraction (ablomin, triflin, and ...
G protein-coupled inwardly-rectifying potassium channel Inward-rectifier potassium ion channel GRCh38: Ensembl release 89: ... Blocker H, Ramser J, Beck A, Klages S, Hennig S, Riesselmann L, Dagand E, Haaf T, Wehrmeyer S, Borzym K, Gardiner K, Nizetic D ... G protein-activated inward rectifier potassium channel 2 is a protein that in humans is encoded by the KCNJ6 gene. Mutation in ... "Entrez Gene: KCNJ6 potassium inwardly-rectifying channel, subfamily J, member 6". Masotti, Andrea; Uva, Paolo; Davis-Keppen, ...
Potassium channel blockers). ... are potent blockers of cardiac membrane sodium channels, and ...
Potassium channel blockers, Prolactin releasers, Ureas). ... the voltage-gated potassium channel KCNH2 gene (hERG/Kv11.1), ... The cause is thought to be blockade of hERG voltage-gated potassium channels. The risks are dose-dependent, and appear to be ...
The normal range of potassium is 3.5 to 5 mEq per liter. High blood potassium does not generally result in adverse effects ... Suxamethonium is in the neuromuscular blocker family of medications and is of the depolarizing type. It works by blocking the ... Binding of suxamethonium to the nicotinic acetylcholine receptor results in opening of the receptor's monovalent cation channel ... allowing continued flow of potassium ions into the extracellular fluid. A typical increase of potassium ion serum concentration ...
... which had been found previously and which is also a potassium channel blocker. Lq2 is a component of the venom of the scorpion ... Since all potassium channels share the same ion conducting outer pore structure, Lq2 binds to all three potassium channel types ... It blocks various potassium channels, among others the inward-rectifier potassium ion channel ROMK1. Lq2 is also known as ... especially the Renal Outer Medullary Potassium channel ROMK1. This ion channel contributes to the regulation of the resting ...
Gandhi S, Fleet JL, Bailey DG, McArthur E, Wald R, Rehman F, Garg AX (December 2013). "Calcium-channel blocker-clarithromycin ... Clarithromycin should not be used in the setting of hypokalaemia (low blood potassium)[citation needed] Use of clarithromycin ...
An example of this is potassium sodium tartrate, which is a piezoelectric crystal that works as a transducer, both as a ... Some such microphones have an adjustable angle of coverage between the two channels. A noise-canceling microphone is a highly ... for sound within the earth Hydrophone-transducer for sound in water Ionophone-plasma-based microphone Microphone blocker- ... instead of carrying the signal for a second channel, carries power via a resistor from (normally) a 5 V supply in the computer ...
Subsequently, beta blockers, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, angiotensin receptor ... should not take potassium supplements or potassium-enriched salts due to the risk of high levels of potassium. Physical ... a calcium channel blocker, and a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system. People with refractory hypertension typically have ... calcium channel blockers, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE inhibitors), and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs). ...
Some potassium channels: Inward-rectifier potassium channels: These channels allow potassium ions to flow into the cell in an " ... A variety of ion channel blockers (inorganic and organic molecules) can modulate ion channel activity and conductance. Some ... Potassium channels Voltage-gated potassium channels e.g., Kvs, Kirs etc. Calcium-activated potassium channels e.g., BKCa or ... Sodium channels Voltage-gated sodium channels (NaVs) Epithelial sodium channels (ENaCs) Calcium channels (CaVs) Proton channels ...
Blocker, Jr., Jack S. (Spring 2006). "Race, Sex and Riot: The Springfield, Ohio Race Riots of 1904 and 1906 and the Sources of ... "RENEWED ATTEMPT BY THE JAPANESE TO BLOCK THE PORT ARTHUR CHANNEL ENDS IN DISASTER". San Francisco Call. Vol. 95, no. 119. 28 ... and 12-year-old sons and himself with potassium cyanide. The Norwegian cargo ship Siberia sank after a collision with the ... Japanese forces failed to block the channel at Port Arthur by sinking merchant steamships when Russian forces disabled four ...
Inwardly rectifying potassium channels have been shown to require docking of PIP2 for channel activity. PtdIns(4,5)P2 has been ... Studies utilizing PHPLCδ1 domain over-expression (acting as PI(4,5)P2 buffer or blocker) , PIPKIγ knockout in chromaffin cell ... PIP2 regulates the function of many membrane proteins and ion channels, such as the M-channel. The products of the PLC ... P2 binding sites in Kir2.1 inwardly rectifying potassium channels". FEBS Letters. 490 (1-2): 49-53. doi:10.1016/S0014-5793(01) ...
Potassium Channel Blockers. Class Summary. By delaying repolarization and prolonging duration of action potential, agents in ... Dalfampridine, a broad-spectrum potassium blocker is approved as a treatment to improve walking in patients with MS. The ... Carbamazepine is a sodium channel blocker that typically provides substantial or complete relief of pain in 80% of individuals ... Neuromuscular Blockers, Botulinum Toxins. Class Summary. The FDA has approved the use of botulinum toxin (Botox) for the ...
Artificial pore blocker acts specifically on voltage-gated potassium channel isoform KV1.6. Journal of Biological Chemistry ... Among voltage-gated potassium channel (KV) isoforms, KV1.6 is one of the most widespread in the nervous system. However, there ... Activity-dependent modulation of neuronal KV channels by retinoic acid enhances CaV channel activity. Journal of Biological ... channels. However, how retinoids might regulate the activity of these channels has not been determined. Here, we show that RA ...
We investigated whether or not lidoflazine inhibits current through the rapid delayed rectifier K(+) channel alpha subunit ( ... Lidoflazine is an antianginal calcium channel blocker that carries a significant risk of QT interval prolongation and ... Potassium Channel Blockers / metabolism* * Potassium Channel Blockers / pharmacology* * Potassium Channels, Voltage-Gated / ... Lidoflazine is a high affinity blocker of the HERG K(+)channel J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2004 May;36(5):701-5. doi: 10.1016/j.yjmcc. ...
The patient required intravenous fluid replacement, potassium supplementation, and an intravenous calcium channel blocker for ... Laboratory serum values included potassium, 2.9 mmol/L, and blood glucose, 157 mg/dL. The patient was admitted to the intensive ... Of the seven patients for whom potassium and glucose measurements were available, seven (100%) were hypokalemic, and five (71 ... potassium, 2.2 mmol/L (reference range: 3.5--5.3 mmol/L); glucose, 243 mg/dL (reference range: 65--115 mg/dL); CO2, 13 mmol/L ( ...
Blocks voltage-dependent potassium channels, thereby prolonging presynaptic cell membrane depolarization, which enhances ...
... a potassium channel blocker, inhibited pheromone production. These results indicate that the receptor-activated Ca2 channel in ... To determine the type of Ca2 channel, isolated glands were incubated with PBAN and organic Ca2 channel blockers. L-type voltage ... This indicates that the Sf9 cells have a Ca2 channel that is coupled to the receptor in a similar way as in the pheromone gland ... These results indicate that activation of the PBAN-receptor maintains the activation of a Ca2 channel for a period of time. ...
Generic for Prograf* can interact with calcium channel blockers, potassium supplements, antifungal medicines, and HIV medicines ...
They include sodium channel blockers, such as flecainide (Tambocor), and potassium channel blockers, such as amiodarone ( ... beta-blockers, such as metoprolol (Lopressor) and atenolol (Tenormin). *calcium channel blockers, such as diltiazem (Cardizem) ...
At these high levels, terfenadine is a blocker of potassium channels in the heart.2 Potassium channels are important for ... a calcium channel blocker, and a beta-blocker. Both slow the heart rate by different mechanisms, and the combination is ... However, fexofenadine is more than 50 times less active in blocking potassium channels in the heart and therefore, unlike ... many textbooks and computer pro-grams warn against concomitant use of any beta-blocker and any calcium channel blocker. This ...
Ampyra is a potassium channel blocker that is shown to improve visual function, motor skills and relieve fatigue in MS patients ...
Potassium channel blocker. Sotalol. Dog, cat. PO, 1-3 mg/kg. twice daily ...
Dalfampridine is in a class of medications called potassium channel blockers. It works by strengthening the signals sent by the ...
... potassium channel openers and blockers have been developed for pharmaceutical purposes. Likewise, CaCC blockers may reduce ... In order to study potassium channels, we have chosen to isolate individual potassium channel genes so that the channels they ... Thus our channel studies were initiated by positional cloning of the Shaker voltage-gated potassium (Kv) channel gene in the ... channels - founding members of two large, distantly related families of potassium channels - as well as expression cloning of ...
The effects of pure potassium channel blocker nifekalant and sodium channel blocker mexiletine on malignant ventricular ... Plasma sodium and potassium annually. Repeat blood and urine sodium and potassium level measurement if abnormal Referral to ... Increased sodium channel use-dependent inhibition by a new potent analogue of tocainide greatly enhances in vivo antimyotonic ... 11 Mexiletine and other antiarrhythmic drugs should be administered with caution due to their ability to block sodium channels ...
Neuronal Potassium Channel Openers. Ezogabine (Potiga), known as retigabine internationally, has a novel mechanism of action as ... Calcium channel blockers. Calcium channels exist in 3 known forms in the human brain: L, N, and T. These channels are small and ... Sodium channel blockers. The firing of an action potential by an axon is accomplished through sodium channels. Each sodium ... Sodium Channel Blockers. Sodium channel blockade is the most common and best-characterized mechanism of currently available ...
It has been shown that zinc acts as an intestinal epithelial cell basolateral potassium channel blocker of cyclic AMP-mediated ... Therefore, we are studying the role of calcium-activated Cl channels in intestinal chloride secretion under physiological ... The discovery that calcium-activated chloride channels are involved in intestinal chloride secretion provides additional ... is also involved in intestinal chloride secretion in addition to the well characterized CFTR channel. Increased understanding ...
... including sodium-channel blockers, beta-blockers, potassium-channel blockers, and calcium-channel blockers. Amiodarone is the ... Physicians can intervene by prescribing such medications as beta-blockers, calcium-channel blockers, digoxin, and ...
Calcium Channel Blockers. Class Summary. Calcium channel blockers are smooth-muscle relaxants. In combination with prednisolone ... Potassium citrate is absorbed and metabolized to potassium bicarbonate, thus acting as a systemic alkalizer. Its effects are ... Alpha Blockers, Antihypertensives. Class Summary. Alpha-blockers are smooth-muscle relaxants. They have been shown to ... Alpha blockers for treatment of ureteric stones: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2016 Dec 1. 355:i6112. [QxMD MEDLINE ...
Glibenclamide potassium salt KATP channel blocker; inhibits SUR1 €50.00 3503 Glipizide KATP channel blocker; inhibits SUR1 € ... Kv1.3 Channel blocker 42 Kv1.3 potassium channel blocker €110.00 3032 LUF7244 Potent negative allosteric modulator (NAM) of the ... Selective inhibitor of the TRESK potassium channel €105.00 3060 A2793 Inhibitor of the TRESK and TASK-1 potassium channel € ... Potassium channel opener; Less active enantiomer of Axon 1112 €145.00 1308 (±)-BMS 204352 Potassium channel opener; racemate of ...
The role of K ATP channels in cerebral ischemic stroke and diabetes ... Keywords: potassium channels; KATP channels; KATP channel blockers; sulfonylurea; stroke; diabetes ... ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels are ubiquitously expressed on the plasma membrane of cells in multiple organs, ... In this review, we discussed the potential effects of KATP channel blockers when used under pathological conditions related to ...
... therapy but introduces a new paradigm known as potassium-competitive channel blockers. This is a new drug that has now become ... The second paper, "Double-Blind Randomized Trial of the Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker Vonoprazan vs. the Proton Pump ... This was a double-blinded, randomized trial of the potassium-competitive acid blocker vonoprazan in comparison with ...
Potassium Channel Blockers. Class Summary. By delaying repolarization and prolonging duration of action potential, agents in ... Dalfampridine, a broad-spectrum potassium blocker is approved as a treatment to improve walking in patients with MS. The ... Carbamazepine is a sodium channel blocker that typically provides substantial or complete relief of pain in 80% of individuals ... Neuromuscular Blockers, Botulinum Toxins. Class Summary. The FDA has approved the use of botulinum toxin (Botox) for the ...
... blocker. AM-92016 hydrochloride delays rectifier potassium channel (IK).. ... blocker. AM-92016 hydrochloride delays rectifier potassium channel (IK). ... Calcium Channel Blocker LibraryNew Cambridge Cancer Compound Library Carbohydrate Metabolism Compound LibraryNew Cell Cycle ... Ion Channel Ligand Library JAK/STAT compound library Lipid Metabolism Compound LibraryNew Macrocyclic Compound Library MAPK ...
blood pressure pills potassium Also, the first calcium channel blockers are always calcium channel blockers, and decreasing the ... blood pressure pills potassium We are always not only take it when you are sure to get it or a clean. ... blood pressure pills potassium Although there are clear generally used a change in the body to lower blood pressure, it is ... blood pressure pills potassium Engliquitment of the body, but in the renin and air, it may exert an important side effect. ...
... sodium channel blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, potassium channel blockers) including those that prolong PR ... including sodium channel blockers, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, potassium channel blockers, and medications that ... interval (including sodium channel blocking AEDs), because of a risk of AV block, bradycardia, or ventricular tachyarrhythmia. ... electrophysiological studies have shown that lacosamide selectively enhances slow inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels ...
HN - 2008 BX - ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels FX - Potassium Channel Blockers MH - Retinol-Binding Proteins, Cellular UI - ... KATP channel blockers include GLIBENCLAMIDE and mitiglinide whereas openers include CROMAKALIM and minoxidil sulfate. ... HN - 2008(1987) BX - Cyclic-Nucleotide Gated Ion Channels MH - KATP Channels UI - D054086 MN - D12.776.157.530.400.600.450.550 ... They form channels or pores in target organisms. The term is a contraction of peptide-Aib-alcohol. HN - 2008; for EMERIMICINS ...
The potassium channel blockers 4-aminopyridine (AP) and 3,4-diaminopyridine (DAP) increase nerve conduction in demyelinated ... Potassium blocking drugs (4-aminopyridine AP, and 3,4-daminopyridine DAP) may be able to improve nerve function in nerves ... It is caused by damage to the myelin sheaths (fibres that wrap around and protect the nerves and spinal cord). Potassium (a ...
Caryophylene, given in high amounts, is a calcium and potassium ion channel blocker. As a result, it impedes the pressure ... Caryophylene, given in high amounts, is a calcium and potassium ion channel blocker. As a result, it impedes the pressure ...
  • The main groups include sodium channel blockers, calcium current inhibitors, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) enhancers, glutamate blockers, carbonic anhydrase inhibitors, hormones, and drugs with unknown mechanisms of action (see the image below). (medscape.com)
  • [ 12 ] Inhibitors of sodium channels have also been found in this venom. (en-academic.com)
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  • if your health care provider has told you that you have high or low levels of electrolytes such as potassium or magnesium in your blood. (who.int)
  • Much acid, in potassium channel blockers inhibit clot formation of antidiabetic agents by reducing contractions. (manguerascartagenasas.com)
  • The data are discussed in terms of a model in which Ba2+ binds to a site at the external mouth of the channel to inhibit the KATP channel. (ox.ac.uk)
  • Thus, drugs acting as channel blockers inhibit cell proliferation. (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • additionally, itraconazole can inhibit the metabolism of calcium channel blockers. (medscape.com)
  • list of drugs for pulmonary hypertension, but a calcium channel blocker is taken in the heart, which can cause angiotensin in the body. (cnrs.fr)
  • in the body, but those who are taking a calorie consumption of alcohol or triggering activities and pulmonary arteries angiotensin receptor blocker arb antihypertensive drugs . (kedirikota.go.id)
  • supplements to take for high blood pressure taurine to reduce blood pressure, including various foods, vitamins, potassium, which can lead to angiotensin II. (gordanaj.com)
  • Potassium chloride-induced contractions were completely inhibited by the calcium channel blockers diltiazem and nifedipine or by excluding Ca2+ from the medium. (semanticscholar.org)
  • The image below illustrates the chemical structure of the calcium channel blocker diltiazem. (medscape.com)
  • La réduction des cellules irréversiblement falciformées en utilisant le diltiazem était importante, par contre, il n'y a eu aucune réduction significative avec la morphine. (who.int)
  • We have recently extended our studies to the cloning and characterization of calcium-activated chloride channels with wide distribution and diverse physiological functions. (ucsf.edu)
  • We are currently taking a range of experimental approaches - electrophysiological, cell biological, biochemical and genetic - to examine the physiological functions of potassium channels and calcium-activated chloride channels. (ucsf.edu)
  • This observation suggests that both CFTR and calcium-activated chloride channels are targets of elevated intracellular cAMP signaling molecule. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • We are also determining whether the recently identified transmembrane protein 16 family of proteins, which are calcium-activated chloride channels, is also involved in intestinal chloride secretion in addition to the well characterized CFTR channel. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The discovery that calcium-activated chloride channels are involved in intestinal chloride secretion provides additional targets for anti- diarrhea drug development. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • 1988. Role of potassium and chloride channels in volume regulation by T lymphocytes. (uci.edu)
  • Likewise, CaCC blockers may reduce hypertension whereas CaCC enhancement has been considered as potential treatment for cystic fibrosis and other pulmonary diseases including asthma. (ucsf.edu)
  • blood pressure pills potassium pulmonary hypertension decreases blood pressure at barrier pills. (atime.org)
  • KATP channels play important roles in controlling and regulating cellular functions in response to metabolic state, which are inhibited by ATP and activated by Mg-ADP, allowing the cell to couple cellular metabolic state (ATP/ADP ratio) to electrical activity of the cell membrane. (chinaphar.com)
  • Being a highly selective potassium ionophore, salinomycin may interfere with potassium channels function in cancer stem cells (CSCs). (sigmaaldrich.com)
  • We conclude: first, that lidoflazine produces high affinity blockade of the alpha subunit of the HERG channel by binding to aromatic amino acid residues within the channel pore and, second, that this is likely to represent the molecular mechanism of QT interval prolongation by this drug. (nih.gov)
  • Blockade of potassium channels prolongs the duration of ACTION POTENTIALS . (bvsalud.org)
  • The mechanisms of benefit involve alkalinization to override the TCA s myocardial sodium channel blockade and boost protein binding so the drug doesn t cause additional problems, along with an increase in the extracellular sodium channel concentration to improve the cross-channel gradient. (crashingpatient.com)
  • 1. An R-wave in lead aVR greater than 3 mm, or an R/S ratio greater than 0.7, is highly suspicious for sodium channel blockade, which is the most important of the many toxicities of TCA overdose. (crashingpatient.com)
  • Blockade of cardiac fast sodium channels (leads to wide QRS, R-wave in aVR, R' wave in V1, Brugada pattern ECG, ventricular dysrhythmias. (crashingpatient.com)
  • Sodium channel blockade in the CNS leads to seizures. (crashingpatient.com)
  • Blockade of potassium channels (leads to long QT and torsade) c. (crashingpatient.com)
  • The isolation and structure elucidation of two novel nor-triterpenoid KV1.3 potassium channel blockers correolide and dehydrocorreolide from the Costa Rican tree Spachea correae are reported. (ucr.ac.cr)
  • The vasodilating properties are mediated, in part, by release of endothelium-derived nitric oxide, and by activation of ATP-gated potassium channels. (elsevier.com)
  • take potassium to lower blood pressure and water in the how to use nitric oxide to lower blood pressure body. (mudaison.fr)
  • See also Beta-Blocker Toxicity and Calcium Channel Blocker Toxicity , as those topics are not covered in this article. (medscape.com)
  • 2011, Design, synthesis and biological activity of pyrazolo[1,5-a]pyrimidin-7(4H)-ones as novel Kv7/KCNQ potassium channel activators. (dgidb.org)
  • Screening technologies for inward rectifier potassium channels: discovery of new blockers and activators. (bvsalud.org)
  • These are already recommended for reducing the blood pressure control and cholesterol levels of oxidase and burn serum potassium or a way to reduce blood pressure. (centrumlucina.cz)
  • We investigated whether or not lidoflazine inhibits current through the rapid delayed rectifier K(+) channel alpha subunit (encoded by HERG - human ether-a-go-go-related gene), since this channel has been widely linked to drug-induced QT-prolongation. (nih.gov)
  • The patient required intravenous fluid replacement, potassium supplementation, and an intravenous calcium channel blocker for persistent tachycardia. (cdc.gov)
  • ole blood pressure drug meds least side effects a learning for potassium supplementation dosage and blood pressure the morning of common medications that lower blood pressure pad the biometer is the first time of the movement. (atime.org)
  • It is a potent and extremely selective sodium-channel blocker , having no effect on potassium or calcium channels, or the flux of chloride ions, or indeed on acetylcholine release (whereas other marine toxins have similarly selective effects on these aspects of nerve function). (bris.ac.uk)
  • Many structures and processes are involved in the development of a seizure, including neurons, ion channels, receptors, glia, and inhibitory and excitatory synapses. (medscape.com)
  • On membrane depolarization, I(HERG) inhibition developed gradually, ruling out closed-channel state dependent inhibition. (nih.gov)
  • The effect of command voltage on the drug's action suggested that lidoflazine preferentially inhibits activated/open HERG channels. (nih.gov)
  • For instance, MeuKTX, structurally related to BmKTX (α-KTx3.6) from M. martensii , potently inhibits rKv1.1, rKv1.2 and hKv1.3 channels but does not affect rKv1.4, rKv1.5, hKv3.1, rKv4.3, and hERG channels even at high concentrations. (en-academic.com)
  • The calcium dependence of potassium chloride-, prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha)-, and histamine-induced contractions of human chorionic vasculature segments was investigated. (semanticscholar.org)
  • calcium channel blocker prescription drugs for hypertension an antihypertensive drug, but not at least 25 hours after II or DBP monitoring against a varilot. (georgescouling.com)
  • AM-92016 hydrochloride is a specific rectifier potassium current (IK) blocker. (selleckchem.com)
  • AM-92016 hydrochloride delays rectifier potassium channel (IK). (selleckchem.com)
  • The firing of an action potential by an axon is accomplished through sodium channels. (medscape.com)
  • In this review, we discussed the potential effects of K ATP channel blockers when used under pathological conditions related to diabetics and cerebral ischemic stroke. (chinaphar.com)
  • Mechanistically, cholera toxin increases intracellular cyclic AMP, which subsequently activates protein kinase A and the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator chloride channel (CFTR). (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Therefore, we are studying the role of calcium-activated Cl channels in intestinal chloride secretion under physiological conditions and during diarrhea . (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • Potassium channels regulate neuronal signaling, control the flow of salt across epithelia, heart rate, vascular tone, and the release of hormones such as insulin, and protect neurons and muscles under metabolic stress. (ucsf.edu)
  • 2009, Voltage-gated potassium channels as therapeutic targets. (dgidb.org)
  • 1984. Voltage-gated potassium channels are required for human T lymphocyte activation. (uci.edu)
  • Dalfampridine may be used alone or with other medications that control the symptoms of MS. Dalfampridine is in a class of medications called potassium channel blockers. (medlineplus.gov)
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  • Beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, sodium and potassium channel blockers, and digitalis may slow or suppress tachycardia. (houstonmethodist.org)
  • Sulfonylurea class of antidiabetic drugs blocks K ATP channels, which are neuroprotective in stroke, can be one of the high stoke risk factors for diabetic patients. (chinaphar.com)
  • Some antiepileptic drugs work by acting on combination of channels or through some unknown mechanism of action. (medscape.com)
  • Potassium blocking drugs (4-aminopyridine AP, and 3,4-daminopyridine DAP) may be able to improve nerve function in nerves without enough myelin. (cochrane.org)
  • A class of drugs that act by inhibition of potassium efflux through cell membranes. (bvsalud.org)
  • how does potassium help lower blood pressure hypertension natural herbs for high blood pressure and cholesterol drugs FDAs in a day, and they are not associated with an increase in blood pressure. (atime.org)
  • taking statins how do diuretic drugs reduce blood pressure for high cholesterol and potassium in the body. (leagueofbetting.com)
  • Mutations of potassium channels in the Kv and Kir families cause diseases of the brain (epilepsy, episodic ataxia), ear (deafness), kidney (hypertension), pancreas (hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia of infancy), heart (arrhythmia), skeletal muscle (periodic paralysis), as well as developmental abnormalities of neural crest-derived tissues (Andersen's syndrome). (ucsf.edu)
  • These rare diseases are often the underlying cause of sudden cardiac death in young individuals and result from mutations in several genes encoding ion channels or proteins involved in their regulation. (cdc.gov)
  • By affecting the stress of a heart attack or stroke, it blood pressure pills potassium is important to be more download. (atime.org)
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  • Experimental NMDA - GLU receptor blockers such as MK-801 (dizocilpine) have also demonstrated the ability to reduce or eliminate brain damage from acute conditions such as stroke, ischaemia/hypoxia/anoxia, severe hypoglycaemia, spinal cord injury and head trauma (1-3). (antiaging-nutrition.com)
  • K ATP channel is a hetero-octameric complex, consisting of four pore-forming Kir6.x and four regulatory sulfonylurea receptor SURx subunits. (chinaphar.com)
  • Ion channels in the immune system: functional network, therapeutic targets. (uci.edu)
  • Your body's blood vessels can also contribute blood pressure pills potassium to the blood vessels and relax. (atime.org)
  • These includes calcium supplements, potassium, and eitherructed in the body's blood. (sc-celje.si)
  • K ATP channels mediate insulin secretion in pancreatic islet beta cells, and controlling vascular tone. (chinaphar.com)
  • However, this theory was significantly weakened by a prospective study showing that the only statistically significant correlation between a patient's core temperature, potassium levels, calcium levels, arterial blood-gas tensions, serum pH, hemodynamic parameters, or PRS was a decrease in systemic vascular resistance (SVR). (medsci.org)
  • 3 ] Give the chronological proximity of the syndrome to reperfusion, initial theories about the etiology of PRS centered on the hypothesis that a sudden relative hyperkalemia, acidosis, and/or hypothermia develops at reperfusion due to a sudden shift of cold preservation solution, potassium, lactate, or calcium into systemic circulation from the transplanted organ. (medsci.org)
  • Our research group discovered the biophysical characteristics and molecular properties of a functional network of ion channels in T lymphocytes. (uci.edu)
  • In order to study potassium channels, we have chosen to isolate individual potassium channel genes so that the channels they give rise to can be studied one at a time, and then compared with potassium channels in native tissues. (ucsf.edu)
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  • In order to overcome the β1-drawback, the properties of a high specific β2-adrenergic receptor blocker named ICI-118,551 have been studied. (nature.com)
  • GV-58 works by holding voltage-gated calcium channels open longer than normal, increasing calcium ion entry and subsequently increasing neurotransmitter release from motor nerve terminals, where the motor neuron connects to the muscle. (curesma.org)
  • It has been shown that zinc acts as an intestinal epithelial cell basolateral potassium channel blocker of cyclic AMP-mediated chloride secretion. (hopkinsmedicine.org)
  • The second paper, "Double-Blind Randomized Trial of the Potassium-Competitive Acid Blocker Vonoprazan vs. the Proton Pump Inhibitor Lansoprazole in U.S. and European Patients with Erosive Esophagitis," is also related to GERD [gastroesophageal reflux disease] therapy but introduces a new paradigm known as potassium-competitive channel blockers. (medscape.com)
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  • Q.87 Which of the following beta blockers has been shown clinically to reduce mortality in patients of symptomatic heart failure? (pharmatutor.org)
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  • As in other scorpions, the venom of M. eupeus contains various neurotoxic proteins that interact specifically with ion channels. (en-academic.com)
  • Tumor cells express elevated levels of various types of K + channels, which enhances cell proliferation. (sigmaaldrich.com)